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Slovakia (Slovak Republic)
 
[Slovakian flag, 1848,
                                    1938-1945]
       1848, 14 Mar 1939 - 3 Apr 1945

[Slovakian
                                    Flag]
                Adopted 1 Jan 1993

Map of Slovakia
Hear National Anthem
"Nad Tatrou sa blyská"
(Lightning over the Tatras)
Text of National Anthem
1920-1945, re-adopted 1 Jan 1993
Constitution
  (1 Jan 1993)
Capital: Bratislava
Currency: Euro (EUR)
from 1 Jan 2009; Slovak Koruna
(SKK)(8 Feb 1993-31 Dec 2008,
and 1939-1945)

National Holiday: 1 Sep (1992)
Constitution Day
Population: 5,488,339 (2013)
GDP: $133.4 billion (2013)
Exports: $82.7 billion (2013)
Imports: $77.9 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Slovak 80.7%, Hungarian 8.5%, Roma 2%,
other and unspecified 8.8% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 16,531 (2010)
Merchant marine: 11 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 8.2%, Greek Catholic
 3.8%, other or unspecified 12.5%, none 13.4% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: AG, ANT, APM, BIS, BSEC (observer), BTWC, CBSS (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, CFE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESCR, ESA (cooperating state), EU, Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Slovakia Index
Chronology

8.. - 907                   Part of Moravia.
 4 Jul 907                  Part of Hungary (part of Feldivék [Upper 
                              Hungary]).
19 Sep 1848 - 28 Sep 1848   Slovak National council holds executive power in
                              parts of Slovakia occupied by Austrian-Slovak
                              forces in their fight against the Hungarians.
21 Dec 1867                 Part of the "Hungarian half" of the
                              Austro-Hungarian monarchy.
28 Oct 1918                 Union with Czechoslovakia declared.
 5 Nov 1918                 Czech and Slovak troops begin take control. 
 6 Dec 1918                 Allied intervention, Slovakia becomes 
                              temporarily divided into two zones: western
                              Slovakia to Czechs, eastern Slovakia remained
                              Hungarian.
11 Dec 1918                 Eastern Slovak Republic declared in Hungarian 
                              zone. 
30 Dec 1918                 Czechoslovakia occupies east Slovakia.
31 Dec 1918                 Hungarians in west Slovakia declare the 
                            ("First") Slovak Soviet Republic in rebellion.
 1 Jan 1919                 Western Slovakia reoccupied by Czechs; remaining
                              Hungarian rule in eastern Slovakia terminated.
 1 May 1919 - 23 Jun 1919   Hungarian occupation of two thirds of Slovakia.
16 Jun 1919 -  7 Jul 1919   ("Second") Slovak Soviet Republic (in rebellion
                              at Presov; with Hungarian assistance).
 4 Jun 1920                 By Treaty of Trianon Hungary formally cedes the
                              majority Slovak areas to Czechoslovakia.
 1 Jan 1927                 Province of Slovakia within Czechoslovakia.
22 Nov 1938                 Autonomy within Czechoslovakia (Slovak Land).
14 Mar 1939                 Independence (Slovak State); under German 
                              protectorate.
21 Jul 1939                 Slovak Republic (under German protectorate). 
28 Aug 1944 -  4 Apr 1945   German occupation.
 4 Apr 1945                 Re-incorporation into Czechoslovakia declared.
 4 Apr 1945 - Jul 1945      Soviet occupation.
 1 Jan 1969                 Slovak Socialist Republic within Czechoslovakia.
29 Mar 1990                 Slovak Republic within Czechoslovakia.
17 Jul 1992                 Declaration of sovereignty.
 1 Jan 1993                 Independence (Slovak Republic).

Regions
Slovakia within
Czechoslovakia

(1918-39, 1945-92)
Slovak National Council in Exile
(1939-1940)
Slovak Resistance
(1944-1945)
Orthodox Church
of Czechia and
Slovakia
Historical Maps
of Slovakia
 
 
 
 

19 Sep 1848 - 28 Sep 1848  Slovak National Council
                           - Ludovít Stúr                     (b. 1815 - d. 1856)
                           - Jozef Miloslav Hurban            (b. 1817 - d. 1888)
                           - Michal Miloslav Hodza            (b. 1811 - d. 1870)
Presidents 

11 Dec 1918 - 30 Dec 1918  Viktor Dvorcák                     (b. 1878 - d. 1943)
                            (Eastern Slovak Republic)
31 Dec 1918 -  1 Jan 1919  Gabor Mészáros 
                            (Leader of the [West] Slovak Soviet Republic)
16 Jun 1919 - 20 Jun 1919  Revolutionary Executive Committee
                           - Ján Vavrica                      (b. 1891 - d. 1938)
                           - Jozef Varecha                    (b. 1885 - d. af.1945)
                           - Antonín Janousek                 (b. 1877 - d. 1941)
                           - Stefan Stehlík
                           - Samuel Capó                      (b. 1883 - d. 1947)
                           - Ludovít Jakab                    (b. 1887 - d. 1957)
                           - Ernest Pór                       (b. 1889 - d. 1943)
                           - Frantisek Fehér                  (b. 1885 - d. 19..)
                           - Stefan Mokrán                    (b. 1887 - d. 1971)
                           - Gustáv Fleischer                 (b. 1871 - d. 1956)
                           - Jozef Cápai (or Czápai)
20 Jun 1919 -  7 Jul 1919  Antonín Janousek                   (s.a.)               KSS
                            (chairman Revolutionary Governing Council,
                             also styled Council of People's Commissioners)
14 Mar 1939 -  3 Apr 1945  Jozef Tiso                         (b. 1887 - d. 1947)  HSLS-SSNJ
                            (acting to 26 Oct 1939)(from 1942 
                             self-styled Vodca [Leader])
 1 Jan 1993 -  2 Mar 1993  Vladimír Meciar (1st time)(acting) (b. 1942)            HZDS
 2 Mar 1993 -  2 Mar 1998  Michal Kovác                       (b. 1930)            Non-party
 2 Mar 1998 - 30 Oct 1998  Vladimír Meciar (2nd time)(acting) (s.a.)               HZDS
30 Oct 1998 - 15 Jun 1999  Mikulás Dzurinda (acting)          (b. 1955)            KDH
15 Jun 1999 - 15 Jun 2004  Rudolf Schuster                    (b. 1934)            SOP
15 Jun 2004 - 15 Jun 2014  Ivan Gasparovic                    (b. 1941)            HZD
15 Jun 2014 -              Andrej Kiska                       (b. 1963)            Non-party

Prime ministers (chairmen of the government)
 7 Oct 1938 -  9 Mar 1939  Jozef Tiso (1st time)              (s.a.)               HSLS-SSNJ
 9 Mar 1939 - 11 Mar 1938  Jozef Sivák                        (b. 1886 - d. 1959)  HSLS-SSNJ 
11 Mar 1939   (hours)      Jozef Tiso (2nd time)              (s.a.)               HSLS-SSNJ
11 Mar 1939 - 14 Mar 1939  Karol Sidor                        (b. 1901 - d. 1953)  HSLS-SSNJ
14 Mar 1939 - 29 Oct 1939  Jozef Tiso (3rd time)              (s.a.)               HSLS-SSNJ
29 Oct 1939 -  5 Sep 1944  Vojtech Tuka                       (b. 1880 - d. 1946)  HSLS-SSNJ
 5 Sep 1944 -  3 Apr 1945  Stefan Tiso                        (b. 1897 - d. 1959)  HSLS-SSNJ
 1 Jan 1993 - 16 Mar 1994  Vladimír Meciar (1st time)         (s.a.)               HZDS 
16 Mar 1994 - 13 Dec 1994  Jozef Moravcík                     (b. 1945)            DU 
13 Dec 1994 - 30 Oct 1998  Vladimír Meciar (2nd time)         (s.a.)               HZDS 
30 Oct 1998 -  4 Jul 2006  Mikulás Dzurinda                   (s.a.)             KDH;2000 SDKU
 4 Jul 2006 -  8 Jul 2010  Robert Fico (1st time)             (b. 1964)            SMER-SD
 8 Jul 2010 -  4 Apr 2012  Iveta Radicová (f)                 (b. 1956)            SDKU-DS
 4 Apr 2012 -              Robert Fico (2nd time)             (s.a.)               SMER-SD

 
Commanders of the Czechoslovak Troops
25 Dec 1918 - 27 May 1919  Luigi Giuseppe Piccione            (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
                            (Commander of troops operating East
                             of the Morava river)
 1 Jun 1919 - 1920         Eugčne Desiré Antoine Mittelhauser (b. 1873 - d. 1949)
                            (Commander of the Western Army Group)
Commanders of Hungarian Troops
 1 May 1919 - Jun 1919     Aurél Stromfeld                    (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
Jun 1919 - 23 Jun 1919     Jenö Landler                       (b. 1875 - d. 1928)
German Envoys and Ministers Plenipotentiary
30 Jun 1939 - 29 Jul 1940  Hans Bernard                       (b. 1892 - d. 1960)  NSDAP
29 Jul 1940 - 19 Jan 1941  Manfred Freiherr von Killinger     (b. 1886 - d. 1944)  NSDAP
19 Jan 1941 -  4 Apr 1945  Hans Elard Ludin                   (b. 1905 - d. 1947)  NSDAP
Commanders of German Occupation Forces
29 Aug 1944 - 20 Sep 1944  Gottlob Berger                     (b. 1896 - d. 1975)
20 Sep 1944 -  3 Apr 1945  Hermann Höfle                      (b. 1911 - d. 1962)
Commanders of Soviet Occupation Forces
(Operating in Slovakia and Subcarpathia [Eastern Czechoslovakia])
 6 Aug 1944 - 24 Mar 1945  Ivan Yefimovich Petrow             (b. 1896 - d. 1958)
25 Apr 1945 - Jul 1945     Andrey Anreyevich Yeremenko        (b. 1892 - d. 1970)

Slovak National Council in Exile

Chairman of the Slovak National Council
22 Nov 1939 - Jan/Feb 1940 Milan Hodza                        (b. 1878 - d. 1944)  SNS
                            (in Paris exile; from Jan/Feb 1940, 
                             joined exiled Czecho-Slovak National Council)

Territorial Disputes: Bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued in 2006 between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules

Party abbreviations: HZD = Hnutie za Demokraciu (Movement for Democracy, split from HZDS, est.2002); KDH = Krestanskodemokratické Hnutie (Christian Democratic Movement, christian-democratic, est.1990); SDKU-DS = Slovenská Demokratická a Krestanská Únia–Demokratická Strana (Slovak Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic Party, christian-democratic, formerly SDKU, est.2006); SDS = Stranu Demokratického Slovenska (Democratic Party of Slovakia, former LS-HZDS, est.11 Jan 2014); SMER-SD = Smer-Sociálna Demokracia (Direction-Social Democracy, social democratic, to 2005 known as Smer [Tretia Cesta] or Direction [Third Way], est.1999);
- Former parties: DU = Demokratická Únia Slovenska (Democratic Union of Slovakia, liberal, 1994-2000); HZDS = Hnutie za Demokratické Slovensko (Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, conservative, nationalist, 1991-2003, then LS-HZDS); HSLS = Hlinkova Slovenská L'udová Strana (Hlinka's Slovak People's Party, as Slovak People's Party [Slovenská L'udová Strana] 1913-1925, pro-autonomy within Czechoslovakia 1918-Nov 1938, then HSLS-SSNJ); HSLS-SSNJ = Hlinkova Slovenská L'udová Strana - Strana Slovenskej Národnej Jednoty (Hlinka's Slovak People's Party - Party of Slovak National Unity, fascist, authoritarian, 1938-45, only legal party 31 Jan 1939 - Apr 1945); KSC = Komunistická Strana Československa (Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, 1921-1992); KSS = Komunistická Strana Slovenska (Communist Party of Slovakia 1919, 1944-1989); LS-HZDS = Ludová Strana–Hnutie za Demokratické Slovensko (People's Party-Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, conservative, nationalist, former HZDS, 2003-11 Jan 2014, then SDS); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi fascist, authoritarian, German nationalist, xenophobic, 1920-1945); SDK = Slovenská Demokratická Koalícia (Slovak Democratic coalition, comprising Democratic Party, SDSS, Slovak Green Party, DU, and KDH, 1998-2001); SDKUSlovenská Demokratická a Krestanská Únia (Slovak Democratic and Christian Union, christian-democratic, 2000-2006); SNS = Slovenská Národná Strana (Slovak National Party, nationalist, 1871-1938); SOP = Strana Obcianskeho Porozumenia (Party of Civic Understanding, centrist, 1998-2003); VPN = Verejnost Proti Násiliu (Public Against Violence, former communist dissidents, conservative, to 1991 Slovak partner of the Czech-based Civic Forum, 1989-1992)



Slovakia within Czechoslovakia
 
[Slovakian
                          Tricolor]
        1938 - 1939, 1990 - 31 Dec 1992

28 Oct 1918                Union with Czechoslovakia declared.
 1 Jan 1927                Land (province) of Slovakia.
22 Nov 1938                Autonomy within Czechoslovakia (Slovak Land).
14 Mar 1939                Independence (Slovak State)(see above).
 5 Sep 1944                Autonomous Slovak Republic declared (within Czechoslovakia).
 1 Jan 1969                Slovak Socialist Republic (within Czechoslovakia).
 1 Mar 1990                Slovak Republic (within Czechoslovakia).
17 Jul 1992                Declaration of sovereignty.
 1 Jan 1993                Independence.

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Communist Party of Slovakia (KSS)
17 Sep 1944 - 12 Aug 1945  Karol Smidke                       (b. 1897 - d. 1952)
12 Aug 1945 - 19 Oct 1951  Viliam Siroký                      (b. 1902 - d. 1971)
First Secretaries of the Communist Party of Slovakia (KSS)
19 Oct 1951 - 15 Jun 1953  Viliam Siroký                      (s.a.)
15 Jun 1953 -  4 Apr 1963  Karol Joszef Bacílek               (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
 4 Apr 1963 - Jan 1968     Alexander Dubcek                   (b. 1921 - d. 1992)
22 Jan 1968 - Aug 1968     Vasil Bilak                        (b. 1917 - d. 2014)
28 Aug 1968 -  4 May 1969  Gustáv Husák                       (b. 1913 - d. 1991)
 4 May 1969-26/28 Jan 1970 Stefan Sádovský                    (b. 1928 - d. 1984) 
26/28 Jan 1970-14 Apr 1988 Jozef Lenárt                       (b. 1923 - d. 2004)
14 Apr 1988 - 29 Nov 1989  Ignác Janák                        (b. 1930) 

Chairman of the Slovak National Council
28 Oct 1918 - Jan 1919     Matús Dula                         (b. 1846 - d. 1926)
                             (from 4 Nov 1918, in Prague) 
Czechoslovak Commissioner
 6 Nov 1918 - 17 Dec 1918  Pavel (Pavol) Blaho                (b. 1867 - d. 1927)
Czechoslovak Ministers of Slovak Affairs  
28 Oct 1918 - 25 May 1920  Vavro Ján Srobár                   (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
25 May 1920 - 25 Sep 1920  Ivan Dérer (acting)                (b. 1884 - d. 1973)
25 Sep 1920 - 26 Sep 1921  Martin Michura                     (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
26 Sep 1921 - 15 Jan 1927  Josef Kállay                       (b. 1881 - d. 1939)
Minister Plenipotentiary and Administrator
15 Jan 1927 - 28 Jun 1928  Josef Kállay                       (s.a.)
Land Presidents
 1 Jul 1928 - 1931         Ján Drobný                         (b. 1881 - d. 1948)  HSLS 
1931 - 1938                Jozef Országh                      (b. 1883 - d. 1949)
1938 - 1939                Julián Simko                       (b. 1886 - d. 1956)
Czechoslovak Ministers for Slovak Affairs

 6 Oct 1938 - 28 Nov 1938  Jozef Tiso                         (b. 1887 - d. 1947)  HSLS-SSNJ 
 1 Dec 1938 - 15 Mar 1939  Karol Sidor                        (b. 1901 - d. 1953)  HSLS-SSNJ 
15 Mar 1939 - 18 Jul 1940  Vacant
18 Jul 1940 - Jan 1945     Rudolf Viest (in exile)            (b. 1890 - d. 1945)  Mil
                             (German prisoner from 3 Nov 1944)
Presidents of the Slovak National Council
 5 Sep 1944 - 27 Oct 1944  Karol Smidke (1st time)            (s.a.)               KSS
 5 Sep 1944 - 27 Oct 1944  Vavro Ján Srobár                   (s.a.)               KSS
27 Oct 1944 - 11 Apr 1945  Vacant
11 Apr 1945 - 26 Feb 1948  Jozef Lettrich                     (b. 1897 - d. 1952)  DS
14 Sep 1945 - 14 Jul 1950  Karol Smidke (2nd time)            (s.a.)               KSC
                             (acting 26 Feb 1948 - 12 Mar 1948)
26 Feb 1948 - 12 Mar 1948  Ivan Horváth (acting)              (b. 1904 - d. 1960)  KSC
                           + Andrej Cvincek (acting)          (b. 1880 - d. 1949)  DS
                             (to 27 Feb 1948)
14 Jul 1950 - 15 Jun 1958  Frantisek Kubac                    (b. 1887 - d. 1958)  KSC
15 Jun 1958 - 23 Jun 1958  Irena Durisová (f)                 (b. 1918 - d. 1999)  KSC
                           + Jozef Mjartan                    (b. 1900 - d. 1983)  SSO
                           + Fratisek Dénes                   (b. 1902 - d. 1979)  KSC
                           + Michal Zákovic                   (b. 1916 - d. 1990)  SSL
                           (acting)
23 Jun 1958 - 14 Jul 1960  Ludovít Benada (1st time)          (b. 1899 - d. 1973)  KSC
14 Jul 1960 - 28 Jul 1962  Rudolf Strechaj                    (b. 1914 - d. 1952)  KSC
28 Jul 1962 - 31 Oct 1962  Ludovít Benada (2nd time)          (s.a.)               KSC
                           + Vasil Bilak                      (s.a.)               KSC
                           + Michal Sabolcík                  (b. 1924 - d. 1995)  KSC
                           (acting)
31 Oct 1962 - 20 Sep 1963  Jozef Lenárt                       (s.a.)               KSC 
20 Sep 1963 - 29 Dec 1968  Michal Chudík                      (b. 1914 - d. 2005)  KSC
14 Mar 1968 - 16 Mar 1975  Ondrej Klokoc                      (b. 1911 - d. 1975)  KSC
                             (acting to 27 Jun 1968)
26 Mar 1975 - 30 Nov 1989  Viliam Salgovic                    (b. 1919 - d. 1990)  KSC
30 Nov 1989 - 26 Jun 1990  Rudolf Schuster                    (b. 1934)          KSC/Non-party
26 Jun 1990 - 23 Jun 1992  Frantisek Miklosko                 (b. 1947)            VPN+KDH
23 Jun 1992 - 31 Dec 1992  Ivan Gasparovic                    (b. 1941)            HZDS

Chairman of the Slovak Provisional Government
28 Oct 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  Vavro Ján Srobár                   (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Board of Commissioners
 5 Sep 1944 - 17 Sep 1945  Gustáv Husák (acting) (1st time)   (s.a.)               KSC
17 Sep 1945 - 14 Aug 1946  Karol Smidke                       (s.a.)               KSC
14 Aug 1946 -  4 May 1950  Gustáv Husák (2nd time)            (s.a.)               KSC
 4 May 1950 -  7 Sep 1951  Karol Joszef Bacílek               (s.a.)               KSC
 7 Sep 1951 - 31 Jan 1953  Julius Duris                       (b. 1904 - d. 1986)  KSC
31 Jan 1953 - 10 Jul 1960  Rudolf Strechaj                    (s.a.)               KSC
10 Jul 1960 -  2 Jan 1969  Vacant
Premiers
 2 Jan 1969 -  4 May 1969  Stefan Sádovský                    (s.a.)               KSC
 4 May 1969 - 12 Oct 1988  Peter Colotka                      (b. 1925)            KSC
12 Oct 1988 - 22 Jun 1989  Ivan Knotek                        (b. 1936)            KSC
22 Jun 1989 -  8 Dec 1989  Pavol Hrivnák                      (b. 1931 - d. 1995)  KSC
 8 Dec 1989 - 27 Jun 1990  Milan Cic                          (b. 1932 - d. 2012) KSC;1990 VPN
27 Jun 1990 - 23 Apr 1991  Vladimír Meciar (1st time)         (s.a.)               VPN
23 Apr 1991 - 24 Jun 1992  Ján Carnogurský                    (b. 1944)            KDH
24 Jun 1992 - 31 Dec 1992  Vladimír Meciar (2nd time)         (s.a.)               HZDS

Slovak Resistance

Co-Chairmen of the Board of the Slovak National Council
28 Aug 1944 - 28 Oct 1944  Vavro Ján Srobár                   (s.a.)
                           + Karol Smidke                     (b. 1897 - d. 1952)  KSS
Head of all Partisan Units
Oct 1944 - 1945            Aleksey Nikitich Asmolov           (b. 1906 - d. 1981)  Mil
 

Party abbreviations: DS = Demokratická Strana (Democratic Party, non-communist, 1944-1948, 1989-2006); HSLS = Hlinkova Slovenská L'udová Strana (Hlinka's Slovak People's Party, as Slovak People's Party [Slovenská L'udová Strana] 1913-1925, pro-autonomy within Czechoslovakia 1918-Nov 1938, then HSLS-SSNJ); HSLS-SSNJ = Hlinkova Slovenská L'udová Strana - Strana Slovenskej Národnej Jednoty (Hlinka's Slovak People's Party - Party of Slovak National Unity, fascist, authoritarian, 1938-1945, only legal party 31 Jan 1939 - Apr 1945); HZDS = Hnutie za Demokratické Slovensko (Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, conservative, communist, 1991-2003, then LS-HZDS); KDH = Krestanskodemokratické Hnutie (Christian Democratic Movement, christian-democratic, est.1990); KSC = Komunistická Strana Ceskoslovenska (Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, communist, 1921-1992); KSS = Komunistická Strana Slovenka (Communist Party of Slovakia, communist, 1944-1989); VPN = Verejnost Proti Násiliu (Public Against Violence, former communist dissidents, conservative, 1989-1992); HSLS-SSNJ = Hlinkova Slovenská L'udová Strana - Strana Slovenskej Národnej Jednoty (Hlinka's Slovak People's Party-Party of Slovak National Unity, fascist, authoritarian, only legal party 1939-Apr 1945); Mil = Military







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