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Shan and Karenni States of Burma


Note: "Burma" before 1948 consisted of the British colonial territory (covering the extinct kingdoms of "Burma," Talaing (Pegu), and Arakan, as well as some minor lands), together with two groups of states, whose status was similar to that of the Indian states: the Shan states and the Karen states. "Shan" is a Burmese word, cognate with "Siam"; the Shan states are
ethnically Tai, closely related to the majority population of Thailand; for a time they formed the "Shan State" in independent Burma. The Karenni states formed for a time the "Kayah State" in independent Burma (see Map of Shan States c.1910). On 29 Apr 1959 the Shan and Kayah rulers formally surrendered their ruling powers to the Burmese government.

Shan (Tai) states

Note: In the interest of comprehensiveness, a number of states are listed for which no record of rulers is available. The ruler of a major Shan (Tai) state is styled saohpa (Burmese: sawbwa); in minor states the ruler may be styled myoza or ngwegunhmu. Burmese names of the
states are given in parentheses.

1887                       British protectorate over the Shan States.
 1 Oct 1922                Federated Shan States formed by U.K.
                             (34 northern and southern Shan states; not 
                             including the Wa states).
10 Oct 1922                Karenni (Kayah) states placed under the administration of the
                             Shan states.
 1 Apr 1937                By the Burma Act, the Shan State is administratively 
                             separated from Burma proper and put under a second
                             administrative circle.
25 Nov 1942 - 25 Sep 1943  Japanese occupation (de facto to 3 May 1945).
Dec 1942 - 1945            Thailand occupies parts of Shan States (Kengtung [Kyaington]
                             and Möngpan) which are annexed by Thailand 1 Aug 1943.
25 Sep 1943 -  3 May 1945  Part of Republic of Burma.
 4 Jan 1948                Part of independent Union of Burma.

British Superintendents for Northern Shan States (at Lashio)
May 1888 - 1891            Hugh Daly                          (b. 1860 - d. 1939)
Jul 1892 - 1893            James George Scott                 (b. 1851 - d. 1935)
Sep 1893 - May 1894        Leslie Harry Saunders (acting)     (b. 1868 - d. 1926)
c.1896                     L.E. Elliot
Jun 1900 - 1905?           George Claudius Beresford Stirling (b. 1861 - d. 1929)
1905? - 1920?              Hugh Aylmer Thornton               (b. 1872 - d. 19..)
1920 - 1922?               Edward Butterfield                 (b. 1880 - d. 19..)
1922 - c.1930              Godfrey E. Harvey                  (b. 1880 - d. 19..)
c.1932 - c.1936            Frank Samuel Grose                 (b. 1881 - d. 1941)
c.1936 - c.1940            John Shaw
British Superintendents for Southern Shan States
(at Ft. Stedman to 1894, then Taunggyi)
Jan 1888 - Mar 1902        Arthur Hedding Hildebrand          (b. 1843 - d. 1918)
1902 - 1910                Sir James George Scott             (s.a.)
1910 - 1921?               George Claudius Beresford Stirling (s.a.)
1921? - 1922               ....
British Resident Commissioners for the Federated Shan States

and Chairmen of the Shan Federated States Council
1922 - 1931?               J.L. McCallum
c.1929                     Godfrey E. Harvey                  (s.a.)
                             (acting for MacCallum)
c.1931                     Idwal Geoffrey Lloyd (acting)      (b. 1878 - d. 1946) 
1931 - Dec 1935            John Clague                        (b. 1882 - d. 1958)
c.1936                     H.L. Nichols 
1935? - 10 Sep 1937        Frank Samuel Grose                 (s.a.)
11 Sep 1937 - 25 May 1938  Philip Christopher Fogarty         (b. 1885 - d. 1942)
                             (1st time)
26 May 1938 -  9 Jun 1938  Craw (acting)
 9 Jun 1938 - 1942         Philip Christopher Fogarty         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Japanese High Commissioners for the Shan States
25 Nov 1942 -  6 Feb 1943  Nakada Saichiro
 7 Feb 1943 - 30 Jun 1943  Tanifuji Nagahide 
 1 Jul 1943 - 23 Dec 1943  Takuma Nishimura                   (b. 1889 - d. 1951)
Thai Military governor in Kengtung (Kyaington) and Möngpan
Dec 1942 - 1945            Phin Choonhavan                    (b. 1891 - d. 1973) 
Directors of Frontier Areas Administration (in Rangoon)
1945 - 1946                Henry Noel Cochran Stevenson       (b. 1903 - d. ....)
1946 - 1948                John L. Leyden                     (b. 1904 - d. ....) 
British Resident in the Northern Shan States
1945 - 1948?               John Walter Leedham                (b. 1905 - d. 1992)
British Residents in the Southern Shan States
1945? - 1948               A.W.H. Breakey


Hopong (Hopon)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
1783 - 1818                Hkun Kya
1818 - 1833                Hkun Sin
1833 - 184                 Hkun Nun
1845                       Hkun La
1845 - 1851                Hkun Lin
1851 - 1885                Hkun Ti
Rulers (title Myoza)
1885 - 1893                Hkun Wara
1893 - 1900                Hkun Tse

1900 - 1952                Hkun Law                           (b. 1896 - d. 19..)



Hsahtung (Thaton)

Rulers (title Myoza)
1781 - c.1838              Hkun Samu
1839 - c.1896              Hkun Kyaw Le
c.1896  - 1905             Hkun Law
                           (b. 1874 - d. 19..)
1905 - 1930                ....
1930 - 1946                Sao Hkun Kyi
                       (b. .... - d. 1946)
1946 - 1959                Sao Aung Myint



Hsamönghkam (Thamaingkan)

bf.1700                    Hsamönghkam state founded.

Rulers (title Myoza; 6 Nov 1848-1899? Ngwegunhmu)
1759 - c.1807              Maung Pon
1807 - 1825                Maung Shwe Pon

1825 - 1834                Maung Shwe E (1st time)
1834 - 1842                Maung Me (1st time)
1842 - 1847                Maung Shwe E (2nd time)
1847 - 1848                Maung Me (2nd time)
 6 Nov 1848 - 1867         Maung Shwe Min (1st time)            (d. 1886)
1867                       Maung Lin (1st time)
1867 - c.1874              Maung Tha U
c.1875 - 1876              Maung Kyi
c.1875 - 1876              Maung Shwe Ni -Regent
1876 - 18..                Maung Lin (2nd time)

18.. - 1885                Maung Su Ka
1885 - 1886                Maung Shwe Min (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1886 - c.1946              Maung Hpo                            (b. 1854 - d. c.1946)
c.1947                     Sao Htun E 
19.. - 1959                Sao Htun Aye (Aungban)


Hsawnghsup (Thaungdut)

Rulers (title Saohpa)
.... -  ....               Sao Sa
.... -  ....               Sao Pon
.... -  ....               Sao Ti Kyaing
.... -  ....               Sao Haw Nga
.... -  ....               Sao Leik Kan
.... -  ....               Sao Aung Ba
1858? - 22 Oct 1880        Sao Shwe Maung
1880 - 1893                Sao Kan Mun                        (d. 1893)



Hsenwi (Theinni)

bf.650                     Legendary foundation of Hsenwi (ritual name: Sivirattha).
Mar 1888                   State split into North Hsenwi and South Hsenwi.

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1686 - 1721                Hso Hung Hpa  
1721                       Se U III -Regent (2nd time)
1721 - 1724                Han Hpa Hko Hkam Hung
-Regent
1724 - 1730                Hpawng Mong Long Hsung Wat   
1730                       Mong Hkam
-Regent
1730                       Hkam Hong -Regent (1st time) 
1730 - 1746                Sao Hkam Hsawng Hpa
1746                       Hkam Hong 
-Regent (2nd time)
1746 - c.1747              Sao Hkun Hseng Hong
c.1747 - 1750              Mahadevi Wing Hsup Pang
-Regent
1750                       Hkam Hong -Regent (3rd time)
1750 - 1751                Sao Mang Te
1751 - 1752                Hkam Hong
-Regent (4th time)
1752 - 1761                Vacant
1761 - 1767                Hkun Hseng Awng Tun
1767 - 1770                Myauk Win Hmu
-Regent
1770 - 1772                Sayawadi Wun
1772 - 1773                Sety-taw Wun
1773 - 1775                U Teng Pong Nya
1775 - 1775                Vacant
1778 - 1800                Sao Hswe Cheng (Kon)
1800                       Hsup Pang -Regent
1800 - 1815                Sao Hsö Kaw
1815 - 1819                Mogaung Wun -Regent
1819 - 1821                Sao Naw Möng
1821 - 1824                Hkun Hkam Hkawt
1824 - 1827                Sao Hkam Pak
1827 - 1831                Sao Hkam Nan
1831 - 1838                Sao Hkun Maung Lek
1838 - 1845                Sao Hkam Leng (Hsö Hkan Hpa)      (d. 1847)
1845 - 1848                Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (1st time)      (d. 1864)
1848 - 1853                Vacant
1853 - 1855                Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (2nd time)
1855 - 1858                Vacant
1858 - 1860                Sao Hpa Mawng Hpa (1st time)      (d. 1879)
1860 - 1863                Vacant
1863 - 1864                Sao Hpa Mawng Hpa (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1864 - 1866                Shwe Pyi Bo
1866 - 1867                U Ma Nga
1867 - 1869                Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (3rd time)      (s.a.)
1869 - 1873                Vacant
1873 - 1874                Win Hmu
1874 - 1875                Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (4th time)      (s.a.)
1875 - 1876                Natsu Letya
1876 - 1879                Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (5th time)      (s.a.)
1879 - Mar 1888            Hkun Hsang Tone Hung              (b. 1856 - d. 1915)


North Hsenwi

Rulers (title Saohpa)
Mar 1888 - Dec 1915        Hkun Hsang Tone Hung               (s.a.)
Jul 1927 - 1952            Sao Hom Hpa                        (b. 1906 - d. ....)


South Hsenwi

Rulers (title Saohpa)
Mar 1888 - 1913            Sao Naw Möng                       (b. 1855 - d. 1913)
1913 - 1946                Sao Song                           (d. 1946)
1946 - 29 May 1959         Sao Hsu Hom



Hsihkip (Thigyit)

c.1600                     Hsihkip state founded.
1886                       State incorporated into Yawnghwe.

Rulers (title Myoza)
.... - ....                Hkun Kaw Tha
c.1782                     Hkun Hla Baw
1800?                      Hkun Chok
18.. - 18..                Hkun Hpe
18.. - 18..                Hkun Daw
18.. - 18..                Maung Paw
18.. - 18..                Maung Paik
18.. - 18..                Hkun Hmom
18.. - 18..                Hkam Lin -Regent
184. - 184.                Hkun Nyun
184. - 1848                Twet Kye -Regent
1848 - 1851                Hkun Ywe
1851 - 1862                Hkun Ton
1863 - 1870                Son Hkun Hpon
1870 - 1886                Maung Hnya



Hsipaw (Thibaw)

58 BC                      Legendary foundation of Hsipaw (ritual name: Dutavadi).
1887                       British protectorate.
1938 - 1947                Administered by Burma.

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1675 - 1702                Hso Wai Hpa
1702 - 1714                Sao Okka Wara
1714 - 1718                Sao Okka Seya
1718 - 1722                Sao Sam Myo
1722 - 1752                Sao Hkun Neng
1752 - 1767                Sao Sawra Tawta
1767 - 1788                Sao Myat San Te
1788 - 1809                Sao Hswe Kya
1809 - 1843                Sao Hkun Hkwi
1843 - 1853                Sao Hkun Paw
1853 - 1858                Sao Kya Htun                       (d. 1866)
1858 - 1866                Hkun Myat Thade
1866 -  8 May 1902         Sao Kya Hkeng (deposed 1882-86)    (d. 1902)
                             (from Mar 1886, Sao Hkun Hseng)
1902 - May 1928            Sir Sao Hke                        (b. 1872 - d. 1928)
1928 - Jul 1938            I Sao Ohn Kya                      (d. 1938)
1938 - 1947                administered by Burma
1947 - 1962                Sao Kya Seng                       (b. 1925 - d. 1962) 



Hsumhsai (Hsum Hsai)

af.1897                    Incorporated into Hsipaw.

Rulers (title Saohpa)
.... - 1846                ....
Rulers (title Hseng)
1846 - 18..                ....
18.. - 1886                Maung Pwe
Rulers (title Myoza)
1886 - 1887                Soi Kong Kyawk Teng
30 Nov 1887 - 1894         Khun Meik  
1894 - Jan 1897            Vacant
Jan 1897 - ....            Kun Hmon



Kehsi Mangam (Kyithi Bansan)

Rulers (title Myoza)
1860 - 1881                Hkun Yawt
1881 - ....                Hkun Yawt Hseng                    (b. 1844 - d. ....)



Kengcheng (Kyaingchaing)

1892                       State incorporated into Kengtung.
1896                       Given to Siam by British.

Ruler (title Ngwegunhmu; by c.1880 Myoza)
18.. - 1881                Sao Kawng Tai                      (d. 1885)
1881 - 1882                Sao Hsiri
1882 - 1892                Hkun Hsang                         (b. 1862 - d. 19..)



Kenghkam (Kyaingkan)

1811                       Kenghkam state founded.
1870 - 1874                State incorporated into Möngnai.
1878 - 1882                State incorporated into Möngnai.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1811 - 1854                Bodaw Sao Hkam Yi
1855 - 1864                Sao Hkun Mwe
1864 - 1870                Naw Hkam Leng
1870 - 1870                incorporated into Möngnai
1874 - 1878                Sao Hkun Long
1878 - 1882                incorporated into Möngnai
1882 - c.1889              Sao Naw Süng
c.1889 - 19..              Hkun Un



Kenglön (Kyainglon)

1926                       State incorporated into Kehsi Mangam.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1857 - 1873                Maung Pwin                         (d. 1873)
1873 - 1874                Naw Hkam U
1874 - 1885                Hkun Tawa
1885 - 1888                Hkun Tawn
1888 - ....                Hkun Mong                          (b. 1844 - d. 19..)



Kengtawng

Rulers
.... - ....                ....



Kengtung (Kyaington)

....                       Kengtung state (ritual name: Khemarattha) founded in
                             legendary antiquity
.
1802 - 18..                Occupied by Lan Na (Chhiangmay)(now in Thailand).
18.. - 1813                Occupied by Burma.
 1 Aug 1943 - 1945         Annexed to Thailand.
1958                       Incorporated into Thailand.

Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja)
.... - ....                Sao Awk
.... - 1730                Sao 
Möng Lek                       (b. 1646 - d. 1730)
1730 - c.1735              Sao Maung Hkawn (1st time)         (b. 1706 - d.17..)
c.1735 - 1739              Vacant
1739 - 1742                Sao Maung Hkawn (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1742 - 1786
               Sao Möng Hsam                      (b. 1744 - d. 1786)
1787 - 1802                Sao Kawng Tai I (1st time)         (b. 1769 - d. 1813)
1814 - 1815                Sao Kawng Tai I (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1815 - 1857                Sao Maha Hkanan                    (b. 1781 - d. 1857)
1857 - 1876                Sao Maha Pawn                      (b. 1814 - d. 1876)
1877 - 1881                Sao Hseng                          (b. 1818 - d. 1881)
1881 - 1885                Sao Kawng Tai II                   (b. 1829 - d. 1885)
1886 - 1895                Sao Kawn Kham Hpu                  (b. 1874 - d. 1895)
 7 May 1895 - 21 Jul 1935  Sao Kawn Kyaw Intaleng             (b. 1874 - d. 1935)
                             (administrator to 9 Feb 1897)
21 Jul 1935 - Aug 1935     Sao Kaung Tai
                     (b. 1899 - d. 1935)
1935 - 1945                British administration

1945 - 1962                Sao Sai Long                       (b. 1927 - d. 1997)



Kokang

1739                       Kho Kan Shan state established in area with capital at Satishu.
                             The area became a district within the state of Hsenwi (from  
                             1888 North Hsenwi), but remained, in effect, an 
                             autonomous sub-state under the Chinese Yang dynasty.
1795                       Renamed Ko Kang.
1840                       Accepted the sovereignty of Hsenwi.
 4 Feb 1897                Under British protection after China relinquishes jurisdiction.
12 Aug 1947                Recognized as a separate Shan state. 

Rulers 
1739 - 1758                Yang Shien Tsai (Cai)              (b. 1685 - d. 1758)
1758 - 1795                Yang Wei Shin (Xing)               (d. 1795)
Rulers (title Heng)
1795 - 1840                Yang Yon Gen                       (b. 1770 - d. 1840)
1840 - 1874                Yang Guo Hwa                       (b. 1814 - d. 1874)
1874 - 1916                Yang Guo Zhen (Hkun Lu Kwan)       (b. 1840 - d. 1919)
Rulers (title Myoza)
1916 - 17 Jan 1927         Yang Chun Yon                      (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
                             (Yang Shwin Yong Tzu Ye)
17 Jan 1927 - 1943         Sao Yang Wen Pi (1st time )        (b. 1897 - d. 1949)
                            (deposed by the Chinese nationalists
                             1943; in exile 1944 - Oct 1945)
Oct 1945 - 25 Aug 1947     Sao Yang Wen Pi (2nd time)         (s.a.)
Rulers (title of Saopha)
25 Aug 1947 - 1949         Sao Yang Wen Pi                    (s.a.)
1949 - 17 May 1959         Sao Edward Yang Kyein Tsai         (b. 1918 - d. 1971)



Kyawkku Hsiwan (Kyaukku)

c.1600                     Kyawkku Hsiwan state founded.
1922                       State incorporated into Polia.


Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
.... - ....                Nga San Bon
.... - ....                Nga San Mya
.... - 1783                Nga San Ma
1783 - 1820                Nga Kaw Tha
1820 - 1821                Nga Thi Ri
1821 - 1843                Nga Chit Win
1844 - 1852                Nga Shwe Maung I (1st time)
1852 - 1856                Nga Shwe Yit -Regent
1856 - 1863                Nga Shwe Maung I (2nd time)
1863 - 1865                Nga Yan Kon -Regent
1865 - 1873                Nga San
1873 - 1874                Nga Shwe Maung II -Regent
1874 - 1876                Nga Tha U -Regent
1876 - 1877                Nga Tun -Regent
1877 - 1881                Nga Pai Su (Nga Pyan)
1881 - 1922                Nga Thaing                         (b. 1873 - d. 1922?)



Kyong (Kyon)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
1867 - ....                Maung Po                           (b. 1841 - d. ....)



Laihka (Legya)

1505                       Laihka state (ritual name: Hansavadi) founded.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1734 - 1794                Khun Lek
1794 - 1803                Law Na

1803 - 1807                La Hkam
1807 - 18..                Hkun Lek
Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Mahawunths Thiri Thudamaraza)
18.. - 1854                Hkun Lek
1854 - 1856                Shwe Ok Hka (Shwe Taung Kyaw)
1856 - 1860                Hkun Long
1860 - 1862                Sao Hkam Mawng (1st time)
1862 - 1866                Hkun Hkawt
1866 - 1868                .... (f)
1868 - 1879                Sao Hkam Mawng (2nd time)
1879 - 1882                Vacant
1882 - 1928                Hkun Lai                           (b. 1858 - d. 1928)
1928 - 1952                Sao Num



Lawksawk (Yatsauk)

1630                       Lawksawk state founded (old name Rathawadi).
1881 - 1886                Occupied by Yawnghwe.

Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Maha Thiriwuntha Thudama)
1680 - 1707                Pai Hkam
1707 - 1729                Shwe Gyaw
1729 - 1753                Hkun Shwe Tha
1753 - Jul 1760            Tha Pun Minaung
1760 - 1763                Maung Gyi
1763 - Jul 1790            Shwe Yi
Jul 1790 - 1791            Vacant
1791 - 1792                Maung Kywet                        (d. 1792)
1791 - 1811                Hkun Sam Lik
1811 - 1812                Vacant
May 1812 - 1813            On Gaing                           (d. 1834)
1813 - 1850                Hkun Shwe Ek                       (d. 1850)
1850 - Dec 1854            Vacant
1854 - 1856                Lai Hka                            (d. 1856)
1856 - 1881                Sao Waing (1st time)               (b. 1846 - d. 1896)
1881 - 1886                Sai Pwin -Administrator
1886 - Jan 1887            Sao Waing (2nd time)               (s.a.)
Jan 1887 - Oct 1887        Bo Saing -Regent
 9 Oct 1887 - 1900         Hkun Nu
1900 - 1946                Sao Hkun Nsok                      (b. 1863 - d. 1946)
1946 - 1952                Sao Hkun So



Loi-ai (Lwe-e)

1930                       State incorporated into Hsamönghkam.

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
.... - ....                Maung Baung [1st ruler]
.... - ....                Maung Maing
.... - 1814                Paw Kyi
1814 - 1834                Maung Shwe
1834 - 1864                Kaw Thaw
1864 - 1868                Maung Kaing                        (d. 1870)
1868 - 1869                Nga Meik -Regent
1869 - 1870                Nga Hpo -Regent
1870 - c.1930              Hkun Shwe Kyn                      (d. c.1930)


Loilong (Lwelong)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
c.1779 - c.1783            Laten
c.1783 - c.1812            Latu
c.1812 - 18..              Lanaw
18.. - 18..                Ba Tin -Regent (1st time)
18.. - 18..                Shwe Ni 
18.. - 18..                Ba Tin -Regent (2nd time)
18.. - 18..                Shwe Aung
18.. - 18..                Ba Tin -Regent (3rd time)
18.. - 18..                Nga Po 
.... - 1854                Hkun Na                            (d. 1854)
1854 - 1856                Hkun San Da                        (d. 1856)
1856 - 1880                Hkun Pu (La Mu)                    (d. 1882)
Rulers (title Myoza)
1880 - 1882                Hkun Pu (La Mu)                    (s.a.)
1882 - c.1952              Hkun Hkam Chok                     (b. 1874 - d. 19..)



Loimaw (Lwemaw)

c.1800                     Loimaw state founded.

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
.... - ....                Muang Hpo Sao (1st time)           (d. 1844)
.... - 1834                Maung Hpo Gok                      (d. 1837)
1834 - 1844                Maung Hpo Sao (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1844 - 1847                Maung Lok                          (d. 1847)
1847                       Maung Shwe Daung
1847 - 1874                Maung Shwe Pyi (1st time)          (b. 1830 - d. 1902)
1847 - 1853                Maung Tok Gyi -Regent              (d. 1853)
1853 - 1855                Twet Min
-Regent                   (d. 1855)
1874 - 1876                Vacant
1876 - 1877                Maung Kya
1877 - 1878                Vacant
12 Feb 1878 - 1880         Maung Meik
1880 - 1886                Maung Chit
1886                       Maung At                           (d. 1897)
1886 - 1902                Maung Shwe Pyi (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1902 - c.1952              Hkun Kyaw                          (b. 1861 - d. 19..)



Manglön (Manglun)

1814                       Manglön state founded (ritual name: Jambularattha)
1870 - 1892                Divided into East and West 
Manglön.

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1814 - 1822                Hsö Hkam (Ta Awng)                 (d. 1822)
1822 - 1852                Sao Hkun Sang (Khun Sing)          (d. 1852)
1852 - 1853                Uyaraza (Upayaza)                  (d. 1854)
1853 - 1860                Naw Hpa (Nawpha)                   (d. 1860)
1860 - 1881                Tön Hsang (Tun Sang)               (b. 1825 - d. 1881)
                             (from 1870, in East Manglön)
1870 - 1877                Hsang Kyaw (in West Mangl
ön)
1877 - 1892                Sao Maha (in West Manglön)

1892 - 1919                Tön Hsang Hang
1919 - 1946                Sao Hka Nan                        (b. 1892 - d. 1946)
1946 - 1952                Sao Man Laik                       (b. 1922)



Maw (Baw)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
.... -  ....               ....



Mawkmai (Maukme)

1767                       Mawkmai state founded (ritual name: Lokavadi).

Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Mahawuntha Thiriraza)
1767 - c.1800              Hsai Khaio
1800 - 1818                Hsai Kyaw

1818 - 1824                Awk Hkun
1824 - 1831                Let To
1831 - 1844                Hkam U
1844 - 1867                Ko Lan (1st time)
1867 - 1868                Hkum Hmôm I
1868 - 1887                Ko Lan (2nd time)
1887 - 1888                Hkun Hmôm II (1st time)
Mar 1888 - 1888            Hkun Noi Kyu
1888 - 18..                Hkun Hmôm II (2nd time)
1899 - ....                Hkun Htun Peng                     (b. 1883 - d. ....)
1915 - 1952                Hkun Hkaing



Mawnang (Bawnin)

Rulers (title Myoza)
.... - ....                Hkam Hon [1st ruler]
.... - ....                Nam Hkam Lin
.... - ....                Maung Ne Dun
.... - ....                Maung Kut
.... - ....                Maung Kye
.... - ....                Maung La
.... - ....                Sao Ta
.... - 1736                Maung Saung
1736 - 1752                Ye Tut
1752 - 1766                Tha Son
1766 - c.1767              Maung Myat (1st time)
c.1767 - 1774              Vacant
1774 - ....                Maung Myat (2nd time)
.... - ....                Naw Hkam Lin
.... - ....                Maung Kaung
.... - ....                Maung Pot
.... - ....                Maung Maung
.... - 1883                Hkun Hkam
1883 - 1886                Hkun Shwe Hkam -Regent
1886 - ....                Sao Hkim                           (b. 1851 - d. ....)



Mawsön (Bawzaing)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
.... - ....                Maung Nwe
1784 - ....                Maung Pwe

.... - ....                Maung Kyaw
.... - ....                Maung Waing
.... - ....                Maung Nyun
1878 - ....                Maung Kya Ywet                     (b. 1851 - d. ....)



Mönghsu (Maingshu) and Möngsang (Maingsin)

1857                       Mönghsu and Möngsang states, in personal union, founded.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1857 - 1876                ....
1876 - ....                Hkun Kyaw                          (b. 1845 - d. ....)



Möngkawng (Mogaung)

58 BC                      Legendary foundation of Möngkawng state
                             (ritual name: Udiri Pale).
1479 - 1483                Occupied by China.
1495 - 1495                Occupied by China.
1651 - 1742                Occupied by Burma.
1771 - 1775                Occupied by Burma.
1796                       Incorporated into Burma.

Ruler (title Saohpa)
1663 - 1673                Sui Yaw
1673 - 1729                Sui Kyek
1729 - 1739                Hum
1739 - 1748
               Haw Seing (1st time)                (d. 1777)
1748 - 1765                Haw Kam
1765 - 1768                Haw Seing (2nd time)                (s.a.)
1768 - 1771
               Maung Kiaw
1771 - 1775                Maung Piu                           (d. 1775)
1775 - 1785                Vacant
1785 - 1796                Yaw Pan Kyung



Möngküng (Maingkaing)

1835                       Möngküng state founded (ritual name: Langkavadi).

Ruler (title Myoza 1835-54, 1863-73; Saohpa 1854-63, from 1873)
1835 - 1860                Hkun Long                          (d. 1860)
1860 - 1863                Hkun Long II
1863 - 1873                Gu Na                              (d. 1873)
1873 - 1879                Hkun San Kwan  

1879 - ....                Hkun Mong                          (b. 1873 - d. ....)



Möngleng (Mohlaing)

Rulers (title Myoza)
1840?                      Kya U
18.. - 1887                Hkam Leng



Mönglong

af.1894                    Incorporated into Hsipaw.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1813? - 1842               Hsö Han Hpa
1842 - 1854                Hsö San Hpa (Hkun Hsa)
1854 - 1866                Hsö Kawn Kyawng
1866 - 18..                Hkun Nyon
18.. - 1880                Hkun Yawt
1880 - 188.                Heng Nga Maung
188. - 1888                Hkun Saing (Hsawng)
1888 - 1894                Hkun Hsa
1894 - ....                Sao Hke



Möngmao

568                        Möngmao state founded.
af.1604                    State extinguished.



Möngmit (Momeik)

bf.1000                    Möngmit state founded (ritual name: Gandalarattha).

Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Gantalarahta Maha Thiriwuntha Raza)
1830?                      Maung Hmaing
1837?                      Maung E Pu (1st time)
1850 - 1851                Maung E Pu (2nd time)
1851 - 1858                Hkun Te
1858 - 1861                Haw Kyin
1861 - 1862                Kaw San -Regent
1862 - 1867                Maung Yo

1867 - 1874                Hkam Mo
1874 - 1883                Kan Ho
1883 - 1936                Sao Kin Maung Gye                  (b. 1883 - d. 1936)
1887 - 1892                Sao Maung -Regent                  (b. 1848 - d. 1929)
Feb 1936 - 1952            Sao Hkun Hkio                      (b. 1912 - d. 1990)



Möngnai (Mone)

bf.1800                    Möngnai state founded (ritual name: Saturambha).

Rulers
c.1802 - 1848              Maung Shwe Paw
1848 - 1850                Maung Yit
1850 - 1851                U Po Ka
1852                       U Shwe Kyu
Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Mahawunthiri Pawara Thudamaraza) 
1852 - 1875                Hkun Nu Nom
1875 - 1914                Hkun Kyi                           (b. 1847 - d. 1914)
 6 May 1914 - 1928         Hkun Kyaw Sam
1928 - 1949                Hkun Kyaw Ho                       (b. .... - d. 1949)
1949 - 1958                Sao Pye



Möngnawng (Maingnaung)

Rulers (title Myoza)
1851 - 1866                Heng Awn
1866 - 1868                Hkun Hkang
1868 - 19..                Hkun Tun                           (b. 1858 - d. 19..)



Möngpai (Mobye)

Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Mahawuntha Thiridamaraza)
1763 - c.1800              Hkun Pya (1st time)
c.1800 - 1803              ....

1803 - 1805                Hkun Pya (2nd time)
1805 - 1808                Hkam Maung
1808 - 1820                Hkam Hlaing (1st time)
1820 - 1823                Nga Kyi -Regent
1823 - Jul 1836            Hkam Hlaing (2nd time)
1836 - Feb 1891            Hkun Yon
Feb 1891 - 1908            Hkun Hsvriya                       (b. 1852 - d. 1908)
1908 - 1952                Sao Pin Nya



Möngpan (Maingpan)

1637                       Möngpan state founded (ritual name: Dhannavadi).
 1 Aug 1943 - 1945         Annexed to Thailand.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1637 - ....                Tawk La
.... - ....                Twak Hkam
.... - ....                Twak Twe    
.... - ....                Op La    
.... - ....                Hkun Som 
.... - ....                Shwe Tong 
.... - ....                Sai U
.... - ....                Sai Nyo
.... - 1809                Naw Hkam                           (d. 1809)
1809 - 1823                Mana Ne Myo                        (d. 1823)
1823 - 1858                Maung Shwe Hkam                    (d. 1858)
1858 - 1867                Hkun Tun U                         (d. 1886)
Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Mahawuntha Thirdamaraza)
1867 - 1886                Hkun Tun U                         (s.a.)
1886 - 1918                Hkun Num Leng                      (b. 1869 - d. 1918)
1918 - 1952                Hkun On



Möngpawn (Maingpun)

bf.1800                    Möngpawn state founded (ritual name: Rajjavadi).

Rulers (title Myoza)
1816 - 1860                Hkun Lek
1860 - 1880                Hkun Ti                            (b. 1847 - d. 1928)
Rulers (title Saohpa)
1880 - 1928                Hkun Ti                            (s.a.)
1928 - 19 Jul 1947         Sao Sam Htun                       (b. 1907 - d. 1947)
20 Jul 1947 - 1962         Sao Hso Hom                        (b. 1936)



Möngping (Maingpyin)

af.1842                    State incorporated into Lawksawk.

Rulers
1835 - 1842                Hkam Hlaing
1842 - ....                Hkam Kaw



Möngsit (Maingseik)

Rulers (title Myoza)
1816 - 18..                ....
18.. - 1857                Sao Haw Pik
1857 - 18..                Hkun Kyaw San
18.. - 1873                Hkun Lu
1873 - 1876                ....
1876 - 1880                ....
1880 - 1883                Vacant
1883 - ....                Hkam Pwin                          (b. 1861 - d. ....)



Möngtung (Maington)

1886 - 1888                Occupied by Hsenwi.

Rulers (title Myoza)
.... - ....                Hkun Sang Kang
.... - ....                Hkun Kyaw Htam
.... - 1886                Hkun Hsa
1888 - 1896                Hkun Lun
1896 - 19..                Haw Yawt



Möngyang (Mohnyin)

bf.1400                    Möngyang state established.
1579 - 1584                Occupied by Burma.
af.1604                    Incorporated into Burma.



Möngyawng

17..                       Möngyawng state founded.
... - 1814                 Siamese occupation.
1815                       State incorporated into Kengtung.

Rulers (title Myoza)
c.17.. - 17..              Tao Luk
17.. - 17..                Tao Ngam  
17.. - 17..                Sunabnta
17.. - 17..                Sulang Ka Wutti
17.. - ....                Inta Wasai
.... - ....                ....
.... - ....                Hsai Ya Kuman I
.... - ....                Hsen Sulin (Surin Pumintha)
.... - ....                Hsai Ya Kuman II
.... - ....                Sao Yawt
1814 - 1815                Maha Hkanan
1815                       Buddha Wong



Namhkai (Nanke)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
1808 - 1852                Nga Dammaa                         (d. 1852)
1852 - 1867                Hkun Pe                            (d. 1867)
1867 - 1874                Hkun Pan (1st time)                (d. 1891)
1874 - 1875                Nga Meik -Administrator
1876 - 1876                Nga Po
-Administrator
1876 - 27 Jun 1888         Hkun Hwaing
Jul 1888 - 13 Jan 1891     Hkun Pan (2nd time)                (s.a.)
Jan 1891 - 19..            Hkun Kye                           (b. 1862 - d. 19..)



Namhkok (Nankok)

1744                       Namhkok state founded.

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
1744 -  ....               Hkun Myat I
.... - ....                Hkun Kaw
.... - ....                Hkun Hkam I
.... - ....                Hkun Mawng
.... - ....                Hkun Pok (1st time)
.... - ....                Hkun Awng Hkam
.... - ....                Hkun Pok (2nd time)
.... - ....                Hkun Hkam II
c.1897 - 1900              Hkun Hseng
1900 - c.1952              Hkun Myat II                        (b. 1889 - d. 19..)



Namhkom (Nankon)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
17.. - 1783                Maung Su Daung                     (d. 1783)
1783 - ....                Maung San
.... - ....                Maung Shwe Tok
.... - 1857                Maung Tun
1857 - ....                Maung Pyan



Namtok (Nantok)

1771                       Namtok state founded.
1821 - 1824                Karenni (Kayah) occupation.
1931                       State incorporated into Loilong.


Rulers

1771 - ....                Maung Shwe Tha
.... - 1816                Tha Zan                            (d. 1816)
1816 - 1821                Maung Yi
Rulers (title Ngegunhmu)

1824 - 18..                Maung Yi
18.. - 18..                Hkun Taw
18.. - 18..                Hkun Pwe
18.. - 18..                Hkun Pwang
18.. - 18..                Hkun Hmam
18.. -  9 Oct 1892         Hkun Pu                            (d. 1892)
1892 - c.1931              Hkun Maung                         (b. 1866 - d. c.1931)



Nawngwawn (Naungwun or Naungmon)

Rulers (title Myoza)
1894 - ....                Sao Htun Ok                        (b. 1882 - d. ....)



Pangmi (Pinhmi)

Rulers (title Ngegunhmu)
.... - ....                Maung Hke
.... - ....                Maung San Myat
.... - ....                Maung U
.... - 1870                Hkun Yeik
1870 - 1901                Hkun Shwe Daung
1901 - c.1952              Maung Nyun                         (b. 1871 - d. 19..)



Pangtara (Pindara)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
.... - ....                Maung Ne Htun [1st ruler]
.... - ....                Maung Aung Kyu
.... - ....                Maung Myit
.... - 1783                Maung Pyi San
1783 - 1796                Maung Shwe Bwiri
1796 - 1802                Maung Than
1802 - 1809                Maung Pe I
1809 - 1819                Maung Khan U
1819 - 1843                Maung Shwe Min
1843 - 184.                Mi Thit (f)
184. - 184.                Mi Sit (f)
184. - 1850                Maung Hpo Eik
1850 - 1851                Maung Shwe Thi -Regent
1851 - 1857                Maung Myat Hpu
1857 - 1859                Maung Pe II
1859 - 1860                Maung Lun Ya (1st time)            (d. 1882?)
1860 - 1861                Maung Hpo -Regent
1862 - 1868                Maung Than (1st time) -Regent
1868 - 1869                Maung Lun Ya (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1869 - 1871                Maung Than (2nd time)
1871 - 1872                Maung Kyaw Hla
-Regent
1872 - 1873                Maung Nyo -Regent
1873 - 1875                Maung Tha U -Regent
1875 - 1876                Maung Htu -Regent
1876 - 1877                U Hlaing -Regent
1877 - 1878                Maung Lun Ya (3rd time)            (s.a.)
1878 - 1880                Maung San Waing -Regent
1880 - 1882                Maung Lun Ya (4th time)            (s.a.)
1882 -  6 Jan 1897         Maung Hpo Hkin                     (d. 1897)
1897 - c.1952              Maung Sun Nyo                      (b. 1889 - d. 19..)
1897 - 1911                O Un -Regent



Poila (Pwehla)

Rulers (title Myoza)
1751 - ....                Baiknaya Bo [1st ruler]
.... - ....                Maung Ywe
.... - ....                Maung U
.... - ....                Maung Wun
.... - 1839                Maung Kaung
1839 - 1855                Maung Kyok
1855 - 1863                Maung Law Ma
1863 - 1875                Maung Po Thein
1875 - 1886                Maung Ywe
1876 - ....                Maung Sao Nyun                     (b. 1858 - d. ....)



Sakoi (Sagwe)

Rulers (title Myoza)
.... - 1877                Hkun ....
1877 - ....                Hkun Htun                          (b. 1848 - d. ....)



Samka (Saga)

1636                       Samka state founded.
1872 - 1873                Occupied by Hsenwi.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1636 - ....                Kun Lu
.... - ...                 Kun Saing
.... - ...                 Naw Maing
.... - ...                 Ne Dun 
c.1774                     Kun Pyu
.... - 1838                Hkun Ye                            (d. 1838)
1838 - 1858                Hkun Sun (1st time)
1858 - 1860                Hkun Noi (1st time)
1860 - 1872                Hkun Sun (2nd time)
1873 - 1876                Sao Sein Bu (1st time)             (b. 1856 - d. 1915)
1876 - 1883                Hkun Noi (2nd time)
1883 - 1885                Hkun Pwin
Dec 1885 - 1897            Sao Sein Bu (2nd time)             (s.a.)
Rulers (title Saohpa)
1897 - 1915                Sao Sein Bu                        (s.a.)
1915 - 1946                Hkun Kyi



Singaling Hkamti (Zingalein Kamti)

1820                       Singaling Hkamti state founded.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1820 - 1844                Sao Nyi Kaung
1844 - 1853                Sao Ai
1853 - 1882                Sao Hi
1882 - 1887                Vacant
1887 - 1892                Sao Ni Taung                     (b. 1861 - d. 1892)
1892 - 1893                Sao E -Regent (1st time)         (d. 1927)
1892 - 1894                Sao Hon (Po Hlaung)              (b. 1887 - d. 1894) 
1894 - 1898                Ma Pu (f)                        (d. c.1898)
1894 - 1898                Sao E -Regent (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1898 - 1927                Sao E                            (s.a.)
1927 - 1952                Maung Ba Thein



Tawnpeng (Taungbaing)

1753                       Tawnpeng state founded (ritual name: Pappatasara).

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1753 - 1760                Ta Dwe Ba                           (b. 1681 - d. 1760)
1760 - 1764                Ba Hkun Mya                         (b. 1690 - d. 1764)
1764 - 1775                Ba Hkun Saing                       (b. 1700 - d. 1775)
1775 - 1781                Ba Dwe Taw                          (b. 1701 - d. 1781)
1781 - 1810                Ba Loi Lio                          (b. 1745 - d. 1810)
1810 - 1819                Ba Hkun Kein Möng                   (d. 1819)
1819 - 1837                Ba Hkun Hso                         (b. 1748 - d. 1837)
1837 - 1846                Ba Hkun Tan Möng                    (b. 1770 - d. 1846)
1847 -  4 Sep 1856         Shwe Ok Hka (Shwe Taung Kyaw)
1856 - 1865                Hkun Hsa (Ba Hkam Hkun Shinye)      (b. 1774 - d. 1865)
1865 - 1879                Hkun Hkan Hkun (Ba Hon Möng)        (b. 1815 - d. 1879)
1879 - 1887                Hkun Hkam Möng                      (b. 1821 - d. ....)
1888 - 1897                Hkam Tan Möng (Hkun Kyan)           (d. 1897)
1897 - 1926                Hkun Hsan Gawn                      (b. 1871 - d. 1926)
Aug 1926 - 1952            Hkun Pan Sing                       (b. 1894 - d. 19..)



Wanmaw (Bhamo)

1470                       Wanmaw state founded.
1669 - 1685                Occupied by Burma.
1767 - 1770                Occupied by Burma.
1772                       Incorporated into Burma. 

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1685 - 1706                Sao Pi Hpa
1706 - 1719                Sao Tun Hpa
1719 - 1720                Hpo U
1720 - 1727                Sao Mong Hpa
1727 - 1734                Sao Tung Ngai  I                    (d. 1734)
1734 - 1735                Vacant
1735 - 1742                KitHaw
1742 - 1770                Sao Tung Ngai II
1770 - c.1772              Sao Myut Aung                       (b. 1690 - d. c.1772) 



Wanyin (Banyin)

1862 - 1865                Incorporated into Nawngwawn.

Ruler
1825 - 1862                ....
1865 - 1874                Hkun Sao                            (d. 1893)

Rulers (title Myoza)
1874 - 1893                Hkun Sao                            (s.a.)
1893 - Jul 1897            Hkun Long                           (d. 1897)
1897 - 1959?               Hkun Han                            (b. 1887 - d. 19..)
1897 - 1905                Hkun Yon -Regent



Wuntho

bf.1200                    Wuntho state founded.
 7 Feb 1891                State incorporated into Möngpai.

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1698 - 1703                Maung Sun
1703 - 1714                Kyaung Pyn
1714 - 1736                Myat Kaung
1736 - 1753                Vacant
1751 - 1756                Talaings
1756 - 1778                Aung Nyo
1778 - 1796                Maung Tin                          (d. 1796)
1796 - 1798                Maung Taw Zan                      (d. 1798)
1798 - 1827                Maung Tha Ywe
                             (administrator to 1802)
1827 - 1830                Maung Shwe
1830 - 1833                Maung Pe Nge
1833 - 1849                Shwe Thi
1849 - 1851                San Tit
1852 - 1878                Mama Shwe Tha                      (d. af.1891)
                             (from 1866, Mahawuntho Thohonbwa)
1878 -  7 Feb 1891         Maung Aung Myat                    (b. 1857 - d. af.1909)



Yawnghwe (Nyaungywe)

1359                       Yawnghwe state founded (ritual name: Kambosarattha).

Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsarahta Thiri Pawaramahawuntha Thudamaraza) 
1695 - 1733                Hkam Leng
1733 - 1737                Htawk Sha Sa
1737 - 1746                Hsi Ton Sa
1746 - 1758                Hke Hsa Wa
1758                       Naw Mong I
1758 - 1761                Yawt Hkam
1761 - 1762                Hpong Hpa Ka-sa
1762 - 1815                Sao Yun
1815 - 1818                Sao Se U I
1818 - 1821                Naw Mong II
1821 - 1852                Sao Se U II
1852 - 1858                Sao Se Hom                         (d. 1858)
1858 - 1864                Sao Naw Hpa
23 Oct 1864 - 1885         Sao Maung (1st time)               (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
1886 - 1897                Sao Ohn
1897 - Dec 1926            Sao Maung (2nd time)               (s.a.)
                             (from 19.., Sir Sao Maung)
Sep 1927 - 1952            Sao Shwe Thaike                    (b. 1896 - d. 1962)



Yengan (Ywangan)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
1886 - ....                Maung Thu Daw                      (b. 1878 - d. ....)



Karenni (Kayah) states

Bawlake

Rulers
1810?                      Po Bya
1850?                      La Kye
1872 - 23 Jan 1892         Paban                              (b. 1857 - d. 1916)
Rulers (title Myoza)
23 Jan 1892 - 1916         Paban                              (s.a.)
1916 - 1948                Hkun Nge                           (b. 1894 - d. .....)



Kantarawadi

Rulers
1837?                      Maung Pon (Pe Baw)
1845?                      Papaw Kyi
1850?                      Sao Lasa
18.. - 1866                Sao Pyatin
1866 - 1868                Sao Law Paw                        (d. 1891)
Rulers (title Myoza)
1868 - 1889                Sao Law Paw                        (s.a.)
28 Jan 1889 - 1901         Sao Lawi                           (b. 1852 - d. 1930)
Rulers (title Sawbwa)
1901 - 1930                Sao Lawi                           (s.a.)
1930 - 1948                Vacant



Kyebogyi

Ruler
1890 - 23 Jan 1892         Hkun U                             (b. 1857 - d. 1933)
Rulers (title Myoza)
23 Jan 1892 - 1933         Hkun U                             (s.a.)
1933 - 1948                Vacant



Nammekon

Rulers
.... - 23 Jan 1892         ....
Rulers (title Myoza)
23 Jan 1892 - 1899         ....
1899 - 19..                Hkun Baw                           (b. 1870 - d. 19..)



Naungpale

Rulers
.... - 23 Jan 1892         ....
Rulers (title Myoza)
23 Jan 1892 - 1897         ....
1897 - 19..                Hkun Che                           (b. 1857 - d. 19..)






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