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Malay States

States and Territories Johore - Kedah - Kelantan - Kuala Lumpur - Labuan - Malacca (Melaka) - Negeri Sembilan [Inas - Jelebu - Jempol - Johol - Ulu Muar - Rembau - Gunung Pasir - Sungai Ujong - Teraci - Tampin]- Pahang - Penang - Perak - Perlis - Putrajaya - Sabah - Sarawak - Selangor - Terengganu -

Party abbreviations: BN = Barisan Nasional (National Front, conservative, islamic democratic, electoral bloc, led by UMNO, other members incl. Gerakan, LDP from 1989, MCA, MIC, PBB, PBDS 1983-2004, PBRS from 1994, PBS from 1985, PPP, SAPP 1994-2008, BERJAYA 1975-91, SPDP from 2002, SNAP to 2004, UPKO, SUPP, est.1973); Berjasa = Barisan Jamaah Islamiah Se-Malaysia (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front, split from PAS, est.1977) DAP = Parti Tindakan Demokratik (Democratic Action Party, social-democratic, mainly Chinese, est.1966); Gerakan = Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia (Malaysian People's Movement Party, centrist, liberal, est.1968); LDP = Parti Liberal Demokratik (Liberal Democratic Party, mainly Chinese, Sabah regionalist, est.1989); MCA = Persatuan Chna Malaysia (Malaysian Chinese Association, Chinese minority, conservative, est.1949); MIC = Kongres India Se-Malaysia (Malaysian Indian Congress, Indian minority, conservative, est.1946); PAS = Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, islamist, islamic democracy, est.1951); PBB = Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (United Traditional Bumiputera Party, Sarawak regionalist, nationalist, est.1973); PBRS = Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (United Sabah People's Party, Sabah non-muslim indigenous, split from PBS, est.1994); PBS = Parti Bersatu Sabah (United Sabah Party, Sabah regionalist, est.1985); PKR = Parti Keadilan Rakyat (People's Justice Party, centrist, social liberal, est.1999); PPP = Parti Progresif Penduduk Malaysia (People's Progressive Party Malaysia, centrist, nationalist, est.1953); PR = Pakatan Rakyat (People's Alliance, social-democratic, anti-UMNO alliance of PKR, PAS and DAP, est.2008); SAPP = Parti Majuh Sabah (Sabah Progressive Party, multiracial, est.1994); SCA = Sabah Chinese Association (formerly named Sabah National Party -SANAP); SPDP = Parti Demokratik Progresif Sarawak (Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party, est.2002); SUPP = Parti Rakyat Bersatu Sarawak (Sarawak United People's Party, Sarawak Chinese minority, leftist-centrist, nationalist, est.1959); UMNO = Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu (United Malays National Organization, mainly ethnic Malay, nationalist, social conservative, islamist, est.1946);
- Former parties: Berjaya = Parti Bersatu Rakyat Jelata Sabah (Sabah People's United Front, 1975-1991); PBDS = Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak (Sarawak Native People's Party, Sarawak Dayak minority, 1983-2004); PKP = Parti Kebangsaan Perak (Perak National Party, renamed Parti Demokratik Kebangsaan Perak); PKN = Parti Keadilan Nasional (National Justice Party, centrist, 1999-2003, merged into PKR); PP = Parti Perikatan (Alliance Party, coalition of UMNO, MCA and MIC, 1952-1973, succeeded by BN); SNAP = Sarawak National Party (Sarawak Dayak minority, 1961-2013); UPKO = United Kadazan National Organisation (Sabah indigenous non-Muslim party, 1961-1975); USNO = Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Sabah Bersatu (United Sabah National Organization, 1961-1991)



Johor (Johore)
 
Johore Flag to
                          1855
                        to 1855 
 
[Johore
                          1855-1865]
                        1855 - 1865
 
Johor flag
                          1865-1871
                        1865 - 1871
 
[Johore
                          (Malaysia)]
                       Adopted 1871
 
Capital: Johor Bahru
(Riau Bintan 1699-1721, 
1787-1819;
Kuala Pahang 1721-1787;
Johor Lama  1526-1699)
Hear State Anthem
"Lagu Bangsa Johor" 
Text of State Anthem
Adopted 1897
Population: 3,348,283 (2010)

1400                       Sultanate of Melaka (Malacca).
10 Aug 1511                Melaka annexed by Portugal; last sultan moves to Kampar.
1528/1564                  Successor establishes Sultanate of Johor-Riau.
 6 Feb 1819                Johor and Riau separate; Negeri Johor Darul Takzim established.
11 Dec 1885                British protectorate (an unfederated Malay state); with 
                             a British adviser from 1910.
23/31 Jan 1942-12 Sep 1945 Occupied by Japan.
 1 Apr 1946                Joins Malay Union (from 16 Sep 1963, Malaysia).

Sultans¹
 3 Sep 1699 - Nov 1721     Abdul Jalil IV Riayat Shah         (b. 16.. - d. 1721)
1719 - 1723                Raja Kechil (usurper)
1721 - 20 Aug 1760         Sulaiman Badr ul-Alam Shah ibni

                             al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Jalil
                             Riayat Shah                      (b. 1699 - d. 1760)
20 Aug 1760 - 29 Jan 1761  Abdul Jalil V Muadzam Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Sulaiman Shah   (b. 1738 - d. 1761)
29 Jan 1761 - 1761         Ahmad ibni al-Marhum Sultan Abdul
                             Jalil                            (b. 1752 - d. 1777)
1761 - 12 Jan 1811         Mahmud III Shah Alam ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah          (b. 1756 - d. 1811)
1761 - 1770                Daeng Kemboja -Regent              (b. 1745 - d. 1770)
1770 -  7 Feb 1787         Regency Council

1811 -  6 Feb 1819         Abdul Rahman Muadzam Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Shah
 6 Feb 1819 -  5 Sep 1835  Husain Muadzam Shah ibni al-Marhum (b. 1776 - d. 1835)
                             Sultan Mahmud Shah 
 5 Sep 1835 - 10 Mar 1855  Ali Iskandar Shah ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Husain Muadzam Shah       (b. 1820 - d. 1877)
                             (not recognized; rules at Muar to 20 Jun 1877)
Rulers, with the title Datuk Temeggong Seri Maharaja
 5 Sep 1835 - 31 Jan 1862  Tun Daeng Ibrahim bin Tun Abdul    (b. 1811 - d. 1862)
                             Rahman 
 1 Feb 1862 - 1868         Tun Abubakar Seri Maharaja bin Tun
                             Ibrahim (from 17 Sep 1866,       (b. 1833 - d. 1895)
                             Tun Sir Abubakar Seri Maharaja bin
                             Tun
Ibrahim)
Maharaja

1868 - 13 Feb 1886         Sir Abubakar bin Tun Ibrahim       (s.a.)
Sultans¹
13 Feb 1886 -  4 Jun 1895  Tuanku Sir Abubakar bin Tun Ibrahim(s.a.)
 4 Jun 1895 -  8 May 1959  Tuanku Ibrahim ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Abubakar                  (b. 1873 - d. 1959)
                            (from 22 Jun 1897, Tuanku Sir Ibrahim
                             ibni al-Marhum
Sultan
Abubakar)
 8 May 1959 - 10 May 1981  Tuanku Sir Ismail ibni al-Marhum

                             Sultan Ibrahim                   (b. 1894 - d. 1981)
11 May 1981 - 22 Jan 2010  Tuanku Mahmud Iskandar ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Ismail          (b. 1932 - d. 2010)
26 Apr 1984 - 25 Apr 1989  Tunku Ibrahim Ismail -Regent       (b. 1958)
22 Jan 2010 -              Tuanku Ibrahim Ismail ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Iskandar        (s.a.)
                             (regent to 23 Jan 2010)

Chief ministers (title Menteri Besar)
1886 - Jul 1890            Datuk Jaafar bin Mohamed           (b. 1838 - d. 1919)
Jul 1920 - 1922            Datuk Mohamed bin Mahbob           (b. 1852 - d. 1926)
Sep 1923 - 1928            Abdullah bin Jaafar                (b. 1875 - d. 1934)
16 Sep 1928 - 23 Nov 1931  Mustapha bin Jaafar
23 Nov 1931 - 28 Dec 1934  Datuk Abdul Hamid bin Yusof        (b. 1876 - d. 1934)
Apr 1935 -  1 Jun 1947     Ungku Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Majid   (b. 1887 - d. 1951)
 1 Jun 1947 - 18 May 1950  Onn Jaafar                         (b. 1895 - d. 1962)
18 May 1950 - 20 Feb 1952  Vacant
20 Feb 1952 -  5 Jun 1955  Datuk Syed Abdul Kadir bin Mohamed (b. 1900 - d. ....)
 1 Oct 1955 - 16 Jun 1959  Datuk Wan Idris bin Ibrahim        (b. 1888 - d. 1973)
27 Jun 1959 - 31 Jan 1967  Tan Sri Hassan Yunos               (b. 1907 - d. 1968)  UMNO
Feb 1967 - Apr 1982        Dato' (from 4 Jun 1975, Tan Sri)   (b. 1927 - d. 2007)  UMNO
                             Othman Saat
29 Apr 1982 - 12 Aug 1986  Datuk Abdul Ajib bin Ahmad         (b. 1947 - d. 2011)  UMNO + BN
12 Aug 1986 -  3 May 1995  Muhyiddin bin Yassin               (b. 1947)            UMNO + BN
                             (from 1988, Tan Sri Muhyiddin bin Yassin) 
 3 May 1995 - 14 May 2013  Abdul Ghani Othman                 (b. 1946)            UMNO + BN
                             (from 13 Apr 1996, Dato' Abdul Ghani Othman)
14 May 2013 -              Datuk Seri Mohamed Khaled Nordin   (b. 1958)            UMNO + BN


British General Advisers
1910 - 1911                Douglas Graham Campbell (1st time) (b. 1867 - d. 1918)
1911 – 1912                John Bowen Elcum (acting)          (b. 1860 - d. 1945)
1912 – 1914                Douglas Graham Campbell (2nd time) (s.a.)
1915 - 1916               
Frederick Joseph Weld (acting)     (b. 1870 - d. 1926)
1916 - 1917                Douglas Graham Campbell (3rd time) (s.a.)
1918 - 1919                Frederick James Hallifax (acting)  (b. 1870 - d. 19..)
1919 - 1920                John Fortescue Owen (acting)       (b. 1869 - d. 1942)
1920 - 1924                Hayes Marriott (1st time)          (b. 1873 - d. 1939)
1924                       George Arthur Hereford (acting)    (b. 1875 - d. 1950)
1924                       George Hemmant (acting)
1924 - 1926                Hayes Marriott (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1926 - 1928                Charles Walter Hamilton Cochrane   (b. 1876 - d. 1932)

1928 - 1931                George Ernest Shaw                 (b. 1877 - d. 1958)
1931 - 1935                Richard Olaf Winstedt              (b. 1878 - d. 1966)
1935 - 1940                Walter Evelyn Pepys                (b. 1885 - d. 1966)
1940 - 1941                William Douglas Barron             (b. 1887 - d. 1970)
Japanese Governors
31 Jan 1942 -  1 Jul 1942  Tomoyuki Yamashita                 (b. 1885 - d. 1946)
 1 Jul 1942 - 1943         Yaheita Saito                      (b. 1885 - d. 1953)       
1943 - 1945                Kenji Dohihara                     (b. 1883 - d. 1948)
1945 - 12 Sep 1945         Seishiro Itagaki                   (b. 1885 - d. 1948)
British Resident Commissioners
1945 - 1946                ....
 1 Apr 1946 - 1946         Arthur Sleep (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1894 - d. 1959) 
1946 - Feb 1948            Eric Ernest Falk Pretty            (b. 1891 - d. 1967)
Jan 1947 - Aug 1947        Wilfred Charles Steuart Corry      (b. 1900 - d. 1974)
                             (acting for Pretty)                    
Feb 1948 - Feb 1949        Arthur Sleep (2nd time)            (s.a.) 
Mar 1949 - Jul 1952        John Falconer                      (b. 1898 - d. 19..)
Jul 1952 - 26 Feb 1954     John Douglas Hodgkinson (acting)   (b. 1907 - d. 1954)
Sep 1953 - Nov 1953        John Kelly Creer                   (b. 1908 - d. 1997)
                             (acting for
Hodgkinson)
Mar 1954                   Arthur Glencross (acting)          (b. 1908 - d. 1993) 
Mar 1954 - Jan 1957        David Alford Somerville            (b. 1908 - d. 1974) 
Jan 1955 - Jul 1955        Richard Laing Peel                 (b. 1914 - d. 2001)
                             (acting for Somerville)
 

 ¹Full style of the ruler: 
(a) to 1855: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Sri Sultan ("Sultan of Malacca [1819 Johor]");
(b) from 1885: "By the grace of God Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of the State and Territory of Johor Darul Takzim."



Kedah
 
[Kedah flag to
                          1912]
              18th cent - 10 Jan 1912
[Kedah
                          (Malaysia)]
                   Adopted 10 Jan 1912
Capital: Alor Star
(Alor Star 1735-1980,
Alor Setar 1980-Dec 2003)
Hear State Anthem
"Allah Selamatkan 
Sultan Mahkota"
Text of State Anthem
Adopted  22 Mar 1937
Population: 1,890,098 (2010)
 
Late antiquity             Kedah state founded.
1136                       Negeri Kedah Darul Aman established.
Sep 1660 - 1767            Under Thai sovereignty.
1767 - 1769                Under Burmese suzerainty.
1769 -  9 Jul 1909         Under Thai sovereignty.
12 Sep 1821 - 1843         Annexed by Thailand (division into three polities 
                             under Thai sovereignty from 1839).
1897 - 1909                Part of Thai monthon (province) of Saiburi (Kedah, Perlis, 
                             and Setul).
 9 Jul 1909                British protectorate (an unfederated Malay state); Setul (Satun)
                             is awarded to Thailand.
14 Dec 1941 - 20 Aug 1943  Occupied by Japan.
20 Aug 1943 -  4 Sep 1945  Annexed by Thailand.
 1 Apr 1946                Joins Malay Union (from 16 Sep 1963, Malaysia).
Sultans¹
17 Nov 1698 - 22 Sep 1706  Abdullah al-Muadzam Shah II ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Ata Allah
                             Muhammad Shah                    (b. 16.. - d. 1706)
                             (regent from 1682)
22 Sep 1706 - 15 Feb 1710  Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah I

                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Abdullah
                             al-Muadzam Shah                  (d. 1710)
22 Sep 1706 - 15 Feb 1710  Dato Maharaja Sura Tunku Embong
                             Raja Muda -Regent
15 Feb 1710 - 23 Sep 1778  Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Azilin

                             Muadzam Shah II ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Abdullah al-Muadzam Shah  (d. 1778)
23 Sep 1778 -  1 Sep 1797  Abdullah Mukarram Shah III ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad Jiwa
                             Zainal Azilin Muadzam Shah       (b. c.1750 - d. 1797)
 1 Sep 1797 - 19 Sep 1803  Ziyauddin Mukarram Shah II ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad Jiwa
                             Zainal Azilin Muadzam Shah       (b. 1754 - d. 1815)
19 Sep 1803 - 12 Nov 1821  Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah II 
                             ibni al-Marhum Abdullah 
                             al-Mukarram Shah (1st time)      (b. c.1757 - d. 1845)
                             (in Penang then Malacca exile to Jun 1842)
1823 - 1825                Tunku Kudin                        (d. 1831)
                             (in rebellion against Thailand)
18.. - 1839                Tunku Anum

                             (in rebellion against Thailand)
1839 - 1841                Tunku Asan (in Kabangpasu)
1841 - 1843                Tunku Anum (in Kabangpasu)
1839 - 1843                Tunku Setusen (in Polit)
1839 - Jul 1843            Muhammad Akip (in Satun)           (d. 1843)
1843 -  3 Jan 1845         Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah II
                             ibni al-Marhum Abdullah 
                             al-Mukarram Shah (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 3 Jan 1845 - 13 Mar 1854  Tuanku Zainal Rashid Muadzam
                             Shah I ibni al-Marhum Sultan
                             Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah        (b. 1803 - d. 1854)
22 Oct 1847 - 13 Mar 1854  Tunku Muhammad Saat bin Tunku
                             Abdullah -Regent
13 Mar 1854 - 22 Jun 1879  Tuanku Ahmad Tajuddin III Mukarram

                             Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan
                             Zainal Rashid Muadzam Shah       (b. 1835 - d. 1879)
22 Jun 1879 - 22 Sep 1881  Tuanku Zainal Rashid Muadzam
                             Shah II ibni al-Marhum Sultan
                             Ahmad Tajuddin Mukarram Shah     (b. 1857 - d. 1881)
22 Jun 1879 - 22 Sep 1881  Tunku Yakub ibni al-Marhum Sultan  (b. af.1836 - d. 1898)
                             Zain al-Rashid al-Muazzam
                             Shah -Regent
Oct 1881 - 21 Jan 1882     Abdul Jalil ibni al-Marhum Sultan  (b. 1864 - d. 1908)
                             Ahmad Tajuddin Mukarram Shah
                             (in dissidence)
22 Sep 1881 - 13 May 1943  Tuanku Seri Abdul Hamid Halim Shah

                             II ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad
                             Tajuddin Mukarram Shah           (b. 1864 - d. 1943)
                            (from 19 Jun 1911,
Tuanku Seri Sir 
                            
Abdul Hamid Halim Shah II ibni al-Marhum
                             Ahmad
Tajuddin Mukarram Shah)
- Regents for incapacitated Abdul Hamid -

1914 - 30 Apr 1934         Tunku Ibrahim ibni al-Marhum       (b. 1885 - d. 1934)
1934 -  7 Mar 1935         Tunku Muhammad ibni al-Marhum      (b. 1890 - d. 1935)
1935 -  5 Nov 1937         Tunku Mahmud ibni al-Marhum        (b. 1876 - d. 1937)
 5 Dec 1937 - 13 May 1943  Tunku Badli Shah                   (b. 1894 - d. 1958)
                             (from 12 Jun 1941, Tunku Sir Badli Shah)
Sultans
¹

14 May 1943 - 20 Aug 1943  Sultan Tengku Sir Badli Shah ibni  (s.a.)
                             al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Hamid
                             Halim Shah (1st time) 
20 Aug 1943 -  8 Sep 1945  annexed to Thailand
 8 Sep 1945 - 13 Jul 1958  Sultan Tengku Sir Badli Shah ibni  (s.a.)

                             al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Hamid
                             Halim Shah (2nd time) 
14 Jul 1958 -              Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah    (b. 1927)
                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Badishah
21 Sep 1970 - 20 Sep 1975  Tuanku Abdul Malik -Regent         (b. 1929)
                             (1st time)
13 Dec 2011 -              Tuanku Abdul Malik -Regent         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)


Chief ministers (title Menteri Besar)
  1 Feb 1948 - Jan 1954    Mohamad Sheriff bin Osman          (b. 1890 - d. 1962)  UMNO
1949 - 1951                Tunku Ismail bin Tunku Yahya       (b. 1907 - d. 19..)  UMNO
                             (acting for Sheriff)
Jan 1954 - 24 May 1959     Tunku Ismail bin Tunku Yahya       (s.a.)
24 May 1959 -  7 Dec 1967  Datuk Syed Omar Shahabuddin        (b. 1902 - d. 1967)  UMNO
14 Dec 1967 - 13 Jul 1978  Syed Ahmad Shahabuddin             (b. 1925 - d. 2008)  UMNO
                             (from 1975, Datuk Syed Ahmad Shahabuddin) 
13 Jul 1978 - 28 Jan 1985  Syed Nahar Shahabuddin             (b. 1934 - d. 1998)  UMNO
                             (from 1979, Dato' Seri Syed Nahar Shahabuddin)
28 Jan 1985 - 16 Jun 1996  Dato' Paduka (from 25 Jan 1987,
                             Dato' Seri; from 5 Jun 1991, Tan
                             Sri) Osman Aroff                 (b. 1940)            UMNO
16 Jun 1996 - 11 Dec 1999  Datuk Seri (from 7 Jun 1997, Tan
                             Sri) Sanusi Junid                (b. 1943)            UMNO
11 Dec 1999 - 22 Dec 2005  Syed Razak Syed Zain               (b. 1944)            UMNO
                             (from 4 Jan 2000, Dato' Seri Syed 
                             Razak Syed Zain; from 9 Oct 2004, 
                             Datuk Seri Syed Razak Syed Zain) 
17 Jul 2005 -  9 Mar 2008  Datuk (from 22 Jan 2006, Datuk
                             Seri) Mahdzir Khalid             (b. 1960)            UMNO
                             (acting [for Syed Razak to 22 Dec 2005] to 28 Dec 2005)
 9 Mar 2008 -  6 May 2013  Azizan Abdul Razak                
(b. 1944 - d. 2013)  PAS
                             (from 16 Jul 2008, Datuk Seri
                              Azizan Abdul Razak) 
 6 May 2013 -              Datuk Mukhriz Tun Mahathir         (b. 1964)            BN+UMNO
               


Thai High Commissioner
1897 - 1909                Chao Pbraya Ritsongkhramramphakdi  (s.a.)

                            (= Tuanku Seri Abdul Hamid Halim Shah)

British Advisers
1909                       Meadows Frost (acting)             (b. 1875 - d. 1954)
1909 - 1914                William George Maxwell             (b. 1871 - d. 1959)
1914 - 1916                Littleton Edward Pipe-Wolferstan   (b. 1866 - d. 1957)
                             (acting)
1916 - 1918                Gilbert Amos Hall (acting)         (b. 1867 - d. 1953)
1918 - 1920                Malcolm Stewart Hannibal McArthur  (b. 1872 - d. 1934)
                             (1st time)
1920 - 1921                Frederick James Hallifax (acting)  (b. 1870 - d. 19..)
1921                       Edward Warren Nevile Wyatt (acting)(b. 1879 - d. 1962)
1921 - 1922                Malcolm Stewart Hannibal McArthur  (s.a.)

                             (2nd time)
1922 - 1923                William Peel (1st time)            (b. 1875 - d. 1945)
1923 - 1924                Ernest Charteris Holford Wolff     (b. 1875 - d. 1946)
                             (acting)
1924 - 1925                William Peel (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1925 - 1926                John Lisseter Humphreys            (b. 1881 - d. 1929)
1926 - 1931                Thomas Watts Clayton               (b. 1877 - d. 1972)
1931                       Alan Custance Baker (acting)       (b. 1885 - d. 1969)
Jul 1931 - 1941            Julian Dudley Hall                 (b. 1887 - d. 1961)
                             (acting to Mar 1932)
Japanese Governors

1941 - Mar 1942            Oyama
Mar 1942 - Oct 1943        Sukegawa Seiji (Seichi)
Thai Military Commissioner
Oct 1943 - 1945?           Pramote Chong Charoen
Thai General-commissioners
(administering Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu)
20 Aug 1943 - Oct 1943     Kamol Saraphaisariddhikan Chotikasathion
Oct 1943 - 1945?           Chierlah Kamol Sribhaasairadhikavan
                             Josikasarthien

British Resident Commissioners
 4 Sep 1945 - 31 Mar 1946  P.H. Panton
                             (head of military administration)
Sep 1945 - Nov 1951        Edward Victor Grace Day            (b. 1896 - d. 1968)
                             (civil affairs officer to 1946)
Dec 1946 - Nov 1947       
Oswald Eric Venables               (b. 1891 - d. 1960)
                             (acting for Day)
1948? - 1949?              Arthur Bawtree Cobden Ramsay       (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
                              (acting for Day)

Nov 1951 - Oct 1953       
Arthur Bawtree Cobden Ramsay       (s.a.)
Oct 1953 - 1955            Edwin Cyril Geddes Barrett         (b. 1909 - d. 1986)
Mar 1954 - Nov 1954        George Shirley Rawlings            (b. 1904 - d. 1963)
                            
(acting for Barrett)      

British Adviser
1955 - 31 Aug 1957         Edwin Cyril Geddes Barrett
         (s.a.)
1955                       Frank Marshall Smith               (b. 1912 - d. ....)
                             (acting for Barrett) 

 ¹Full style of the ruler: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Kedah Darul Aman ("Sultan and Head of the State of Kedah").



Kelantan
 
Kelantan flag to 1912
                   18th cent - 1912
 
[Kelantan
                          1912-1923]
                         1912 - 1923
 
[Kelantan
                          (Malaysia)]
                         Adopted 1923
 
Capital: Kota Baharu
Hear State Anthem
"Selamat Sultan"
Text of State Anthem
Adopted  5 Jun 1927
Population: 1,459,994 (2010)

c.1411                     Kelantan established.
1499 - 1511                Conquered by Malacca.
1764                       Independence restored.
1795 - 1800                Under Trengganu rule.
1812 -  9 Jul 1909         Kelantan under Thai sovereignty.
1895 - 1909                Part of Thai monthon (region) of Phuket along with Terengganu and
                             Perlis.
 9 Jul 1909                British protectorate (an unfederated Malay state);
                             with a British resident from 1903.
Jul 1916                   Negeri Kelantan Darul Naim established.
9/22 Dec 1941-20 Aug 1943  Occupied by Japan.
20 Aug 1943 -  8 Sep 1945  Annexed by Thailand.
 1 Apr 1946                Joins Malay Union (from 16 Sep 1963, Malaysia).

Rajas¹
1675 - Oct 1721            Sultan Omar ibni al-Mahrum Raja     (d. 1721)
                             Sakti
Oct 1721 - May 1734        Sultan Long Bahar ibni al-Marhum    (d. 1734)
                             Wam Daim
May 1734 - 1739            Raja Long Sulaiman ibni al-Marhum   (d. 1798)
                             Sultan Long Bahar (1st time)
1739 - 1746                Interregnum?
1746 - 1756                Raja Long Sulaiman ibni al-Marhum   (s.a.)
                             Sultan Long Bahar (2nd time) 
1756 -  4 Sep 1758         Raja Long Pandak ibni al-Marhum     (d. 1758)
                             Tuan Sulong
Sep 1758 - Jul 1763        Raja Long Muhammad ibni al-Marhum   (d. 1763)
                             Tuan Sulong
Jul 1763 - 15 Jul 1795     Sultan Long Yunus ibni al-Marhum    (d. 1795)
                             Raja Long Sulaiman
1795 - 1800                Tengku Muhammad ibni al-Marhum 
                             Sultan Mansur
1800 - 26 Jan 1835         Sultan Muhammad I ibni al-Marhum    (b. 1741 - d. 1835)
                             Long Yunus
26 Jan 1835 - 30 Oct 1886  Sultan Muhammad II ibni al-Marhum   (b. c.1794 - d. 1886)
                             Temenggong Tengku Long Lan 
1835 - 1836                Long Jinal -Regent
30 Oct 1886 - 27 Feb 1890  Sultan Ahmad ibni al-Marhum Sultan  (b. bf.1831 - d. 1890) 
                             Muhammad 
27 Feb 1890 - 11 May 1891  Sultan Muhammad III ibni al-Marhum  (b. 1845 - d. 1891) 
                             Sultan Ahmad 
23 Sep 1890 - 11 May 1891  Long Mansur ibni al-Marhum Sultan   (b. 1870 - d. 1900)
                             Ahmad -Regent
11 May 1891 - 26 Jul 1898  Sultan Mansur ibni al-Marhum Sultan (s.a.) 
                             Ahmad 
Sultan¹
26 Jul 1898 -  9 Feb 1900  Mansur ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad  (s.a.)
Raja¹
 9 Feb 1900 - 22 Jun 1911  Sultan Muhammad IV ibni al-Marhum   (b. 1870 - d. 1920)
                             Sultan Muhammad
Sultans¹
22 Jun 1911 - 20 Dec 1920  Muhammad IV ibni al-Marhum Sultan   (s.a.)
                             Muhammad (from 1 Jan 1913, Sir Muhammad
                             IV ibni al-Marhum Sultan
Muhammad)
20 Dec 1920 - 20 Aug 1943  Ismail ibni al-Marhum Sultan        (b. 1880 - d. 1944)
                             Muhammad (from 2 Jan 1922, Sir Ismail
                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan
Muhammad)
20 Aug 1943 -  8 Sep 1945  annexed to Thailand
 8 Sep 1945 -  9 Jul 1960  Ibrahim ibni al-Marhum Sultan       (b. 1897 - d. 1960)

                             Muhammad (from 10 Jun 1948, Sir Ibrahim
                            
ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad)
 9 Jul 1960 - 29 Mar 1979  Yahya Petra ibni al-Marhum Sultan   (b. 1917 - d. 1979)
                             Ibrahim 
21 Sep 1975 - 29 Mar 1979  Tengku Ismail Petra -Regent         (b. 1949)
29 Mar 1979 - 13 Sep 2010  Ismail Petra ibni al-Marhum Sultan 
                             Yahya Petra                       (s.a.)
24 May 2009 - 13 Sep 2010  Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra -Regent (b. 1969)
13 Sep 2010 -              
Muhammad V ibni Sultan Ismail       (s.a.)
                             Petra  


Chief ministers (title Menteri Besar)

1775 - 1794                Engku Sri Maharaja Perdana Mentri
                             Long Abdul Ghafar
1800 - 1835                Wan Mahmud bin Ibrahim
1835 - 1839                Tuan Besar bin Tuan Ismail
1839 - 1851                Engku Sri bin Long Abdul Ghafar
1851 - 1885                Nik Abdul Majid bin Nik Yusoff
1886 - 1890                Nik Yusoff bin Nik Abdul Majid
                             (1st time)
1890 - 1894                Said bin Ngah
1894 - 1900                Nik Yusoff bin Nik Abdul Majid
                             (2nd time)
1900 - 1920                Hassan bin Mohamed Salleh
1921 - 1944                Nik Mahmud bin Ismail
1944 - 1953                Nik Ahmed Kamil bin Nik Mahmud     (b. 1909 - d. 1977)  BN
1953 - 1959                Mohamed Hamzah bin Zainal Abidin                        BN
1959 - 1964                Datuk Ishak bin Lotfi Omar                              PAS
1964 - 1974                Datuk Mohd Asri Muda               (b. 1923 - d. 1992)  PAS 
1974 - Mar 1978            Datuk Mohamad Nasir                (b. 1916 - d. 1997)  BN
Mar 1978 - 22 Oct 1990     Datuk (from 1982, Datuk Amar; from
                             1988, Tan Sri) Mohamed Yaacob    (b. 1926)            BN
22 Oct 1990 -  6 May 2013  Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat             (b. 1931)            PAS
                            (from 28 Mar 1995, Dato' Nik Abdul 
                             Aziz Nik Mat)
 6 May 2013 -              Datuk Ahmad Yakob                  (b. 1950)            PAS+PR


Thai Advisor
1903 - 1909                Walter Armstrong Graham            (b. 1868 - d. 1949)
British Advisers
1910 - Oct 1911            James Scott Mason                  (b. 1853 - d. 1912)
Oct 1911 - 1913            James E. Bishop (acting)           (b. 1875 - d. 19..)
1913                      
Thomas Watts Clayton (acting)      (b. 1877 - d. 1972)
1913 - 1914                William Langham-Carter             (b. 1869 - d. 1940)

1915 - 1919                Roland John Farrer (acting)        (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
1919                       John Whitehouse Ward Hughes        (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
1919 - 1923                Henry Wagstaffe Thomson            (b. 1874 - d. 1941)

1920                       Arthur Furley Worthington          (b. 1874 - d. 1964)
                             (acting for Thomson)
1923 - 1926                Arthur Furley Worthington          (s.a.)

1924 - 1925                Henry Charles Eckhardt             (b. 1877 - d. 19..) 
                             (acting for Worthington)
1926 - 1928                George Ernest Shaw                 (b. 1877 - d. 1958)
1928 - 1930                Reginald John Byard Clayton        (b. 1875 - d. 1962)
1930 - 1933                Alwyn Sidney Haynes                (b. 1878 - d. 1963)
1931 - 1932                T.P. Coe (acting for Haynes)
Feb 1934 - Jul 1934        William Douglas Barron (acting)    (b. 1887 - d. 1970)
Jul 1934 - 1940            Alan Custance Baker                (b. 1885 - d. 1969)

1940 - 1941                Eric Tredgear Williams             (b. 1890 – d. 1971)
Japanese Governors
1941 - 1943                Yasushi Sunakawan
1943 - 20 Aug 1943         Kikura Fujisawa
Thai Military Commissioners
1943 - 1944                Charu Chaichan
1944 - 1945                Tharin Rawang Phu
British Resident Commissioners
1945 - 1946                ....
 1 Apr 1946 - 1946         William Alexander Gordon-Hall      (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
                             (acting)
1946 - 1952                William Foster Norton Churchill    (b. 1898 - d. 1963)    
May 1948? - 1948           Richard John Froude Curtis         (b. 1897 - d. 1987)
                            
(acting for Churchill)
Sep 1950 - Apr 1951        
Mervyn Cecil Sheppard              (b. 1905 - d. 1994)
                             (acting for Churchill)
Oct 1952 - Jun 1953        Alexander Noel Ross                (b. 1905 - d. 1972)
Jun 1953 - Mar 1955        Sir Derek Headly                   (b. 1908 - d. 1998)
British Adviser
Mar 1955 - 1957            George Shirley Rawlings            (b. 1904 - d. 1963)      
      

 ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a) to 1898, 1900-1911: Raja and Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Kelantan;
(b) 1898-1900 and from 1911: Ke Bawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia al-Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Bagi Negara Kelantan Darul Naim ("Sultan and Head of the State of Kelantan").



Kuala Lumpur
 
[Kuala Lumpur
                          (Malaysia)]
                   Adopted 14 May 1990
 
[Federal
                          Territories (Malaysia)]
   Adopted 27 May 2006 Federal Territory Flag
 
Capital: Kuala Lumpur 
Hear Local Anthem
"Selamatkan Kuala Lumpur"
Federal Territory Anthem
"Maju Dan Sejahtera"
(Progress and Prosperity)
Adopted 28 Jan 2011
Population: 1,627,172 (2010)

 1 Feb 1972                Kuala Lumpur becomes a city and the office
                             of Lord Mayor is established.
 1 Feb 1974                Federal territory (formerly part of Selangor).

Lord Mayors (title Datuk Bandar)
 1 Feb 1972 - 15 May 1972  Datuk Lokman bin Yusof             (b. 1910 - d. 1972)  Non-party
Jul 1972 -  1 Feb 1983     Tan Sri Yaacob bin Abdul Latiff    (b. 1918)            Non-party
 1 Feb 1983 - 17 Nov 1992  Tan Sri Datuk Elyas bin Omar       (b. 1936)            Non-party
17 Nov 1992 - 14 Dec 1995  Datuk Mazlan bin Ahmad             (b. 1943)            Non-party
14 Dec 1995 - 14 Dec 2001  Tan Sri Datuk Kamaruzzaman Shariff (b. 1941)            Non-party
14 Dec 2001 - 14 Dec 2004  Datuk Mohmad Shaid Mohd Taufek     (b. 1947)            Non-party
14 Dec 2004 - 14 Dec 2006  Datuk Ruslin Hasan                 (b. 1950)            Non-party
14 Dec 2006 - 14 Dec 2008  Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan           (b. 1951
)            Non-party
14 Dec 2008 - 18 Jul 2012  Datuk (from 1 Feb 2010, Datuk      (b. 1953)            Non-party
                             Seri; from 4 Jun 2011, Tan Sri)
                             Ahmad Fuad Ismail

18 Jul 2012 -              Datuk (from 1 Feb 2013, Datuk
                             Seri) Ahmad Phesal Talib         (b. 1954)            Non-party



Labuan
 
[British Colony
                          of Labuan c.1889 - c.1930 ]
                     c.1889 - c.1930
 
[British Straits
                          Settlements, 1867-1925]
             1906 - 1925 Straits Settlements
 
[British
                          Straits Settlements, 1925-1942, 1945-46]
   1925 - 1942, 1946 - 1949 Straits Settlements
 
[Labuan
                          (Malaysia)]
                 Adopted 16 Sep 1963

[Federal
                          Territories (Malaysia)]
   Adopted 27 May 2006 Federal Territory Flag

Capital: Labuan Town
(Victoria 1847-1949)
Hear Local Anthem
"Maju Dan Sejahtera"
(Progress and Prosperity)
Adopted 28 Jan 2011
Population: 86,908 (2010)

10 Dec 1846                Labuan Island ceded to Britain by Sultan of Brunei.
 1 Aug 1848                British colony
 1 Apr 1867                Crown colony
 1 Jan 1890                Administered by British North Borneo (see Sabah).
 1 Jan 1906                Labuan returns to British colonial administration.
30 Oct 1906                Labuan annexed to the Straits Settlements (see Singapore).
1912                       Labuan a separate settlement within Straits Settlements.
 3 Jan 1942 - 10 Jun 1945  Occupied by Japan (renamed Pulau Maida), part of Northern
                             Borneo (see Sabah).
10 Jun 1945 - 15 Jul 1946  Allied military administration (see under Sabah).
15 Jul 1946                Part of British North Borneo.
16 Sep 1963                British North Borneo joins Malaysia as Sabah
                             (with Labuan a district of Sabah).
16 Apr 1984                Labuan Federal territory.

Governors
27 Nov 1847 - Nov 1852     James Brooke                       (b. 1803 - d. 1868)
                             (from 27 Apr 1848, Sir James Brooke) 
1852 - 1856                Spenser St. John                   (b. 1825 - d. 1910)
Lieutenant governors (acting for the governors)
1848 - 1850                William Napier                     (b. 1804 - d. 1879)
1850 - 1856                John Scott                         (b. 1814 - d. 1898)
Governors
1856 - 1861                George Warren Edwardes             (b. 1802 - d. 1879)
1861 - 1866                Jeremiah Thomas Fitzgerald         (b. c.1830 - d. 1881)
                             Callaghan
1866 - 1867                Hugh Low (acting)                  (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
1867 - 1871                John Pope Hennessy                 (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
1871 - 1875                Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer       (b. 1836 - d. 1914)
 9 Aug 1875 - 1879         Herbert Taylor Ussher              (b. 1836 - d. 1880)
1879 - 1881                Charles Cameron Lees               (b. 1837 - d. 1898)
1881 - 1888                Peter Leys                         (b. 1851 - d. 1922)
1888 - 1890                Arthur Shirley Hamilton (acting)   (b. 1848 - d. ....)
1890 - 1906                the governors of North Borneo
1906 - 1946                the governors of the Straits Settlements
Deputy governors
1906 - 1946                the British Residents in Brunei
British Residents

Feb 1898 - 1902            Robert McEwen Little               (b. 1860 - d. 1905)
1901 - 1902                W.H. Hastings (acting for Little)
1902 - 31 Dec 1905         W.H. Hastings
1907 - May 1907            Malcolm Stewart Hannibal McArthur  (b. 1872 - d. 1934)
                             (1st time)
May 1907 - Dec 1907        Harvey Chevallier (1st time)       (b. 1861 - d. 1923)
Dec 1907 - Apr 1908        Malcolm Stewart Hannibal McArthur  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Apr 1908 - Sep 1909        John Fortescue Owen                (b. 1869 - d. 1942)
Nov 1909 - Nov 1913        Harvey Chevallier (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Nov 1913 - Jan 1915        Francis William Douglas (acting)   (b. 1874 - d. 1953)
1915? - 1917               Malcolm Stewart Hannibal McArthur  (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)

Jul 1916 - 1917            R.B. Osborne (acting for
McArthur)
May 1917 - 1919           
Geoffrey Edmund Cator              (b. 1884 - d. 1973)
1919 - 1921                Edmund Roberts                     (b. 1866? - d. 1948)
1921 - Sep 1923            T.H. Eley
1923 - 19 Aug 1925         James Calder                       (b. 1898 - d. 1968)
1925 - 1927                ....
28 Dec 1927 - 1928         John Richard Neave                 (b. 1893 - d. 1942)
1928 - 1929                Andrew Gilmour                     (b. 1898 - d. 1988)
1929 - 1932                ....
May 1932 - 1933            Cuthbert H. Whitton (acting)       (b. 1869 - d. 1951)
Jun 1933 - 1934            George Shirley Rawlings            (b. 1904 - d. 1963)
1934 - 1936                Arthur Desmond York                (b. 1907 - d. af.1962)
1936 - 1940                Richard Wallace Jakeman            (b. 1908 - d. 1986)
Dec 1940 -  3 Jan 1942     Arthur H.P. Humphrey               (b. 1911 - d. 2001)
Japanese commanders

 3 Jan 1942 - Mar 1945     ....
Mar 1945 - 10 Jun 1945     Hichiro Okuyama
British Residents
1945 - 1946                J.R. Black -British Commander
1947 - 1948                Derek Headly                       (b. 1908 - d. 1998)
c.1951                     Robert George Patrick Nicholson    (b. 1907 - d. 2002)
                             Combe
c.1953 - 1956?             John Ebenezer Longfield            (b. 1908 - d. 1992)

1956? - 1963               ....
Presidents of the Labuan Municipal Council
1963 - c.1982              ....
c.1982 - 198.              Wan Ali bin Tuanku Ibrahim
c.1987 - 16 Jan 1988       Kamaruddin Idris
16 Jan 1988 - 19..         Zainuddin Awang Ngah
c.1990 - 1992              Encik Abdul Rahman bin Haji Ali
Chairmen of the Labuan Development Authority

 1 Aug 1992 - 30 Jun 2000  Tun Daim Zainuddin                 (b. 1938)
 1 Jul 2000 - 2001         Datuk Mustapa Mohamed              (b. 1950)
Chief Administrators
1994? - Feb 1997           Datuk Nawawi Kamaruddin            (b. 1943?)
Feb 1997 - Feb 1999        Dato' Baseri Lamsah                (b. 1948)
Feb 1999 - Feb 2000        Datuk Muhammad Mohd Noor
Apr 2000 - 30 Jun 2001     Datuk Mohd Noor Moktar             (b. 1948?)
Chairmen of Labuan Corporation
 1 Jul 2001 - 2003         Dato' Othman Mohd Rezal            (b. 1945)            UMNO+BN 
Apr 2003 - 31 May 2009     Dato' Suhaili Abdul Rahman         (b. 1961)            UMNO+BN
 1 Jun 2009 - 30 Jun 2009  Datuk Yussof Mahal (1st time)      (b. 1957)            UMNO+BN
                             (acting)
 1 Jul 2009 - 31 May 2011  Datuk Ahmad Phesal Talib           (b. 1954)
 1 Jun 2011 - 30 Jun 2013  Datuk Yussof Mahal (2nd time)      (s.a.)               UMNO+BN
 1 Jul 2013 -              Rozman Datuk Isli                                       UMNO+BN



Malacca  (Melaka)
 
[National flag of the
                          Netherlands]
         1641 - 1795, 1818 - 1825
 
[Flag of the United
                          Kingdom]
                 1795 - 1818, 1825 - 1866
 
[British Straits
                          Settlements 1867-1925]
            1867 - 1925 Straits Settlements
[British
                          Straits Settlements, 1925-1942, 1945-46]
   1925 - 1942, 1946 - 1950 Straits Settlements
 
[British Settlement of Malacca
                          1947-1957]
              14 Aug 1951 - 31 Aug 1957 
 
[Malacca
                          (Malaysia)]
                  Adopted 4 May 1961
 
Capital: Melaka
(Malacca)
Hear State Anthem
"Melaka Maju Jaya"
(Onward Melaka)
Text of State Anthem
Adopted 1957
Population: 788,706 (2010)

24 Aug 1511                Malacca a Portuguese colony, Fortaleza de Malaca
                             (subordinated to Goa).
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Malacca along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
14 Jan 1641                Malacca a Dutch colony.
15 Aug 1795 - 21 Sep 1818  British occupation.
25 Mar 1802                Restored to Dutch by terms of Treaty of Amines,
                             but the British continue administration.
21 Sep 1818                Restored to the Dutch.
 5 Apr 1825                British colony.
14 Aug 1826                Part of Straits Settlements (see Singapore).
 1 Apr 1867                Crown colony
15 Jan 1942 - 12 Sep 1945  Occupied by Japan (Malay Federation).
 1 Apr 1946                Joins Malay Union (from 16 Sep 1963, Malaysia).

Commander
25 Aug 1511 - Nov 1511     Afonso de Albuquerque              (b. 1453 - d. 1515)
Captains-major
Nov 1511 - 1514            Rui de Brito Patalim

1514 - 1515                Jorge de Albuquerque (1st time)    (b. c.1470 - d. 15..)
1515 - 1517                Jorge de Brito                     (d. 1517)
1517 - 1518                Nuno Vaz Pereira
1518                       Aleixo de Meneses
1518 - 1519                Afonso Lopes da Costa              (d. 1519)

1519 - 1520                Garcia de Sá (1st time)
1521 - 1525                Jorge de Albuquerque (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1525 - 1526                Pedro de Mascarenhas               (b. 1470 - d. 1555) 
1526 - 1528                Jorge Cabral                       (b. c.1500 - d. 15..)
1528 - 1529                Pêro Faria (1st time)
1529 - 1533                Garcia de Sá (2nd time)
1533 - 1534                Paulo da Gama                      (d. 1534)
1534 - 1539                Estêvão da Gama                    (b. 1510 - d. 1575)
1539 - 1542                Pêro Faria (2nd time)
1542 - 1544                Rui Vaz Pereira Marramaque         (d. 1544)
1544 - 1545                Simão Botelho de Andrade
1545                       Garcia de Sá (3rd time)
1545 - 1548                Simão de Melo de Magalhães         (b. c.1480 - d. 15..)
1548 - 1552                Pedro da Silva da Gama
1552                       Francisco Álvares
1552 - 1554                Álvaro de Ataíde da Gama
1554 - 1556                António de Noronha                 (b. c.1510 - d. 1574)
1556 - 1557                João Pereira
1557 - 1560                João de Mendonça                   (b. c.1530 - d. 1578)
1561 - 1564                Francisco de Eça
1564 - 1567                Diogo de Meneses 
1567 - 1570                Leonis Pereira
1571 - 1573                António Moniz Barreto              (b. c.1530 - d. 1600)
1573 - 1574                Francisco Henriques de Meneses     (d. 1574)
Nov 1574 - 1575            Tristão Vaz da Veiga
1575                       Miguel de Castro                   (d. c.1575)
1576 - 1579                Aires de Saldanha                  (b. 1542 - d. 1605)

1579? - 1580               João da Gama (1st time)            (b. c.1540 - d. ....)
1580 – 1581                Matias de Albuquerque 
1581 – 1582                João da Gama (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1582 - 1585                Roque de Melo

1585 - 1587                João da Silva Pereira (1st time)
May 1587 - Feb 1588        João Ribeiro Gaio (acting)
1588                       João da Silva Pereira (2nd time)
1588 - 1591                Diogo Lobo 

1591 - 1595                Pêro Lopes de Sousa
1595 - 1598                Francisco da Silva de Meneses 
1598 - 1599                Martim Afonso de Melo
1599 - 1603                Fernão de Albuquerque              (b. 1540 - d. 1623)   
1603 - 1606                André Furtado de Mendonça
1606 - 1607                António de Meneses 
1607 - 1609                Sebastião de Távora
1609 - 1613                Francisco Miranda Henriques 

1613 - 1615                Gaspar Afonso de Melo 
1615 - 1616                João Caiado de Gambôa
1616                       António Pinto da Fonseca
1616                       João da Silva
1616 - 1618                João da Silveira

1618 - 1620                Fradique Lopes de Sousa
1620?                      Filipe de Sousa
1620 - 1624                ....
1624 - 1626                Francisco
Coutinho 
1626 - 1629                Luis de Mello de Sampaio           (d. 1629)
1629 - 1630                Gaspar de Mello de Sampaio
                             (1st time)

1630 - 1633                Diego de Mello e Castro
1633 - 1634                Gaspar de Mello de Sampaio
                             (2nd time)

1634 - 1636                Álvaro de Castro
1636                       Francisco de Sousa de Castro
1636 - 1638                Diogo Coutinho Doçem
1638 - 14 Jan 1641         Manuel de Sousa Coutinho           (b. c.1540 - d. 1641)
Captains-general
1616 - 1635                António Pinto da Fonseca
1636 - 1639
               Diogo Coutinho Doçem
1639 – 1640                Manuel de Sousa Coutinho           (s.a.)
1640 - 14 Jan 1641         Luís Martins de Sousa Chichorro    (d. 1658)
Governors
(of the Dutch East India Company)
14 Jan 1641 -  1 Feb 1641  Minne Williemson Kaartokoe
                             (commander)
 1 Feb 1641 – 15 Dec 1642  Jan van Twist                      (d. 1643)
15 Dec 1642 –  6 Nov 1645  Jeremias van Vliet                 (b. c.1602 - d. 1663)
 6 Nov 1645 – 24 Nov 1646  Arnold de Vlaming van Oudshoorn    (b. 1603 - d. 1662)
24 Nov 1646 –  1 Nov 1662  Jan Thyszoon Payaart               (b. 1606 - d. ....)
 1 Nov 1662 – 15 Oct 1665  Jan Anthonisz van Riebeeck         (b. 1619 - d. 1677)
15 Nov 1665 – 10 Oct 1679  Balthasar Bort                     (b. 1626 - d. 1684)
10 Oct 1679 – 23 Dec 1680  Jacob Joriszoon Pits
23 Dec 1680 –  1 Dec 1684  Cornelis van Quaelberg             (b. 1623 - d. 1687)
 1 Dec 1684 - 1685         Nicolaas Schagen                   (d. 1696)
1685                       François Tack
 5 Jan 1686 - 26 Nov 1686  Dirk Coomans (1st time)            (b. 1648 - d. 1708)
26 Nov 1686 – 18 Oct 1691  Thomas Slicher                     (b. 1647 - d. 1691)
18 Oct 1691 –  1 Oct 1692  Dirk Coomans (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 1 Oct 1692 –  1 Jan 1697  Gelmer Vosburgh                    (d. 1697)
 1 Jan 1697 - 24 Nov 1700  Govert van Hoorn
24 Nov 1700 - 18 Jan 1704  Bernhard Phoonsen
18 Jan 1704 - 22 May 1704  Johan Grotenhuys (acting)
22 May 1704 -  7 Mar 1707  Karel Bolner
 7 Mar 1707 - 26 Dec 1709  Pieter Rooselaar                   (b. 1660 - d. 1716)
26 Dec 1709 - 21 May 1711  Willem Six                         (b. 1677 - d. 1718)
21 May 1711 - 11 May 1717  Willem Moerman                     (b. 16.. - d. 1717)
11 May 1717 - 1727         Hermanus van Suchtelen             (b. 1677 - d. 1742)
1727                       P. du Quesne (acting)
1727 - 1730                Johan Frederik Gobius              (b. 1679 - d. 1730)
1731 - 1736                Pieter Rochus Pasques de Chavonnes (b. 1697 - d. 1747)
1736 - 1743                Rogier de Laver                    (b. 1701 - d. 1755)
1743 - 1749                Willem Bernard Albinus             (b. 1705 - d. 1751)
1749 - Jul 1753            Pieter van Heemskerk               (b. 1713 - d. 1753)
1753 - Mar 1758            Willem Dekker                      (b. 1709 - d. 1780)
Mar 1759 - 1764            David Boelen                       (d. 1775)
1764 - 1772                Thomas Schippers                   (d. 1780)
1772 - 1776                Jan Crans
12 Apr 1776 - 20 Apr 1776  Pierre Jean Louis de Filliettaz    (b. 1739 - d. 1776)
1776 - Nov 1788            Pieter Gerardus de Bruijn          (d. 1790)
Nov 1788 -  1 Dec 1795     Abraham Couperus                   (b. 1752 - d. 1813)
Residents
15 Aug 1795 - Dec 1795     Archibald Brown                    (b. 17.. - d. 1825)
Dec 1795 - 1796            Thomas Parr                        (b. 17.. - d. 1807)
1796 - 1797                Richard Tolson                     (b. 1746 - d. 1815)
1797 - 1798                David Campbell                     (b. 1747 - d. 1828)
1798 - 12 Jul 1803         Aldwell William Taylor             (b. 1759 - d. 1817)
1802                       Willem Jacob Cranssen              (b. 1762 - d. 1821)
                             (Dutch governor; did not take office)
12 Jul 1803 - 21 Sep 1818  William Farquhar                   (b. 1770 - d. 1839)
1814 - 181.                John Macalister
                             (acting for
Farquhar)
Governors

21 Sep 1818 - 16 Dec 1822  Jan Samuel Timmermann Thijssen     (b. 1782 - d. 1823)
16 Dec 1822 - 17 Mar 1824  Adriaan Koek (acting)              (b. 1759 - d. 1825)
17 Mar 1824 - Apr 1825     Hendrik Stephanus van Son          (b. 1796 - d. 1853)
Resident Councillors
Apr 1825 - 1825            Walter Sewell Cracroft             (b. 1795 - d. 1868)
1825                       John James Erskine (acting)        (b. 1777 - d. 1833)
1825 - 1826                Thomas Dolman Lloyd-Davies (acting)(b. 1790 - d. 1828)
1826                       Edward Presgrave (acting)          (b. 1795 - d. 1830)
1826                       Robert Ibbetson                    (b. 1789 - d. 1860)
1826                       William Gordon Mackenzie           (b. 1785 - d. 1842)
 1 Aug 1826 - 31 Jul 1841  Samuel Garling                     (b. c.1793 - d. 1857)
1829 - 1830                Edward Presgrave                   (s.a.)
                             (acting for Garling)     
183. - 183.                Kenneth Murchison                  (b. 1794 - d. 1854) 
                             (acting for Garling)
 6 Dec 1838 - 1841         William Thomas Lewis               (b. 1791 - d. 1875)
                             (acting for Garling)
31 Jul 1841 - Nov 1846     James William Salmond              (b. 1807 - d. 1848)
184. - 184.                Thomas Church (acting for Salmond) (b. c.1789 - d. 1860)
1843 - 1844                William Thomas Lewis               (s.a.)
                             (acting for Salmond)
1845 - 1846                Charles Hugh Lushington            (b. 1813 - d. 1874)
                             (acting for Salmond)
25 Nov 1846 - 1848         William Thomas Lewis (acting)      (s.a.)
30 May 1848 - 1849         Edmund Augustus Blundell           (b. 1804 - d. 1868)
1849 - 24 Jul 1854         Ilay Ferrier                       (b. 1809 - d. 1854)
1854                       Charles William Francis Whish      (b. 1819 - d. 1892)
                             (acting)
1854 - 1855                William Thomas Lewis (3rd time)    (s.a.)
1855 - 1857                Henry Stuart Man                   (b. 1815 - d. 1898)
1856 - 185.                William Willans Willans
                             (acting for Man)
1858 - 1860                Ronald MacPherson                  (b. 1817 - d. 1869)
1858 - 1859                James Jackson                      (b. 1810 - d. 1879)
                             (acting for MacPherson)
18 Mar 1859 - 13 Jul 1859  Frederick Lyon Playfair (1st time) (b. 1830 - d. 1907)
                             (acting for MacPherson)
 8 Oct 1860 - May 1863     James Burn (1st time)              (b. 1820 - d. 1893)
 5 Aug 1863 - 1864         Frederick Lyon Playfair (2nd time) (s.a.)
Dec 1864 - 1867            James Burn (2nd time)              (s.a.)
1867 -  8 Mar 1869         Frederick Lyon Playfair (3rd time) (s.a.)
Lieutenant governors
 2 Sep 1867 - 1869         William Wellington Cairns          (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
 8 Mar 1869 - 1879         Edward Wingfield Shaw              (b. 1827 - d. 1879)
1874 - 1875                Robert Theodore Farringdon         (b. 1830 - d. 1886)
                             Stammers (acting for Shaw)
1875 - 1876                Charles Bushe Plunket              (b. 1830 - d. 1880)
                             (acting for Shaw)
1879 - May 1880            Charles Edward Squirl (acting)     (b. 18.. - d. 1910)
1880 -  9 Feb 1881         Charles John Irving                (b. 1831 - d. 1917)
R
esident Councillors
 9 Feb 1881 - 1895         Dudley Francis Amelius Hervey      (b. 1849 - d. 1911)
                             (acting to 19 Aug 1882)
26 Apr 1886 -  1 Nov 1887  Edwin Empson Isemonger             (b. 1836 - d. 1903)
                             (acting for Hervey)
18 May 1891 -  5 May 1892  Edwin Empson Isemonger             (s.a.)
                             (acting for Hervey)
21 Sep 1893 - 20 Nov 1893  Edward Marsh Merewether            (b. 1858 - d. 1938)
                             (acting for Hervey)
 7 Dec 1893 -  1 Jan 1895  Charles Walter Sneyd-Kynnersley    (b. 1849 - d. 1904)
                             (acting for Hervey to 1 Jan 1895)
 1 Jan 1895 - 10 Mar 1899  Charles Walter Sneyd-Kynnersley    (s.a.)
17 Apr 1895 -  6 Feb 1896  Edward Charles Hepworth Hill       (b. 18.. - d. 1930)
                             (acting for Sneyd-Kynnersley)
1897 - 1898                Edward Marsh Merewether            (s.a.)
                             (acting for Sneyd-Kynnersley)
30 Mar 1898 - 25 Nov 1898  Sir Walter Egerton                 (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
                             (acting for Sneyd-Kynnersley)
10 Mar 1899 - 11 Apr 1900  Sir Walter Egerton (acting)        (s.a.)
22 Apr 1900 - 10 Sep 1900  Robert Norman Bland (1st time)     (b. 1859 - d. 1948)
                             (acting)
12 Sep 1900 - 1901         Edward Marsh Merewether (acting)   (s.a.)
1901 - 1904                James Kortright Birch              (b. 1850 - d. 1927)
26 Nov 1901 - 13 Jun 1903  Robert Norman Bland                (s.a.)
                             (acting for Birch)
15 Oct 1903 -  1 Jan 1905  Robert Norman Bland                (s.a.)
                             (acting for Birch, then Penny)
1904 - 1905                Frederick Gordon Penney            (b. 1856? - d. 1928) 
 1 Jan 1905 - 13 Mar 1906  Robert Norman Bland (2nd time)     (s.a.)
15 Mar 1906 -  8 Feb 1910  William Evans                      (b. 1860 - d. 1936)
                             (acting to 17 Feb 1907)    
14 Mar 1908 -  8 May 1908  Harold William Firmstone           (b. 1868 - d. 1932)
                             (acting for Evans)
29 May 1908 -  3 Jul 1908  Harold William Firmstone           (s.a.)
                             (acting for Evans)
14 Feb 1909 - 25 Jul 1910  Ralph Scott                        (b. 1874 - d. 1962)
                             (acting for Evans to 8 Feb 1910)
Residents

25 Jul 1910 -  5 Jan 1921  Littleton Edward Pipe-Wolferstan   (b. 1866 - d. 1957)
24 May 1911 - 22 Jan 1912  Hayes Marriott                     (b. 1873 - d. 1939)  
                             (acting for Pipe-Wolferstan)  
15 Jun 1914 - 24 Dec 1915  Walter Cecil Michell               (b. 1864 - d. 1939)
                             (acting for Pipe-Wolferstan)  
26 Jul 1918 - 27 Aug 1918  Bernard Nunn (1st time)            (b. 1876 - d. 1949)
                             (acting for Pipe-Wolferstan)  
 5 Mar 1919 - 21 Jun 1919  Bernard Nunn (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                             (acting for Pipe-Wolferstan)  
15 Mar 1920 -  5 Jan 1921  Ralph Scott                        (s.a.) 
                             (acting for Pipe-Wolferstan)  
Resident Councillors

 5 Jan 1921 - 1922         Littleton Edward Pipe-Wolferstan   (s.a.)
15 Mar 1922 -  9 Apr 1925  William Langham-Carter             (b. 1869 - d. 1940)
                             (acting to 26 May 1922)
Dec 1923                   John Vivian Gottlieb Mills         (b. 1887 - d. 1987)
                             (acting for Langham-Carter)
11 Apr 1925 -  9 May 1926  Ralph Scott                        (s.a.)
 9 May 1926 - Jun 1926     Norman David Mudie (acting)        (b. 1884 - d. 1962)
 9 Jun 1926 - 25 Mar 1927  Meadows Frost                      (b. 1875 - d. 1954)
Mar 1927 - Nov 1927        Reginald Crichton (acting)         (d. 1937)
 3 Apr 1928 - 15 Nov 1928  Charles Francis Joseph Green       (d. 1943)
                             (acting)
16 Nov 1928 -  6 Apr 1930  Bertram Walter Elles               (b. 1877 - d. 1963)
 6 Apr 1930 - 10 Apr 1930  Cecil Harry George Clarke          (b. 1878 - d. 1943)
                             (1st time)(acting)
21 Mar 1930 - 1930         Bryan Stagg Walton                 (b. 1889 - d. 1958)
                             (acting for Clarke)
 2 May 1931 -  9 Jan 1932  William Milnes Millington          (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
                             (1st time)(acting)
10 Jan 1932 - 30 Mar 1933  Cecil Harry George Clarke          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1933 - 19 Aug 1933         Norman Kerr Bain (acting)          (b. 1883 - d. 1955)
24 Aug 1933 - 1934         William Milnes Millington          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
20 Feb 1934 - 21 Nov 1934  James Startin Wills Arthur         (b. 1881 - d. 1955)
23 Nov 1935 -  6 Nov 1936  George William Bryant (1st time)   (b. 1887 - d. 1969)
 6 Nov 1936 - 22 May 1937  George Rognvald Sykes (acting)     (b. 1889 - d. 1955)
22 May 1937 - 10 Oct 1937  Edward Victor Grace Day (acting)   (b. 1896 - d. 1968)
10 Oct 1937 - 20 Oct 1939  George William Bryant (2nd time)   (s.a.)
20 Oct 1939 -  6 Dec 1940  William Sydenham Ebden             (b. 1887 - d. 1951)
Dec 1940 - 1941            William Cecil Taylor (acting)      (b. 1902 - d. 1966)
Jan 1941 - 12 Jan 1942     George William Bryant (3rd time)   (s.a.)
Jan 1942 - 1942            Arthur Vincent Aston (acting)      (b. 1896 - d. 1981)
Japanese Governors

1942 -  8 Jun 1944         Ken Tsurumi                        (b. 1895 - d. 19..)
 8 Jun 1944 - 1944         H. Hosei
1944 - 1945                Takeo Kinukawa
British Military Governors
19 Sep 1945 - 1945         George Ross Ormiston               (b. 1908 - d. 1968)
1945 - 1946                Harold Arthur Lee Luckham (acting) (b. 1904 - d. 1984)
Resident Commissioners

Sep 1945 - 31 Mar 1946     James Calder (acting)              (b. 1898 - d. 1968)
1946 - Nov 1947            Edward Victor Grace Day            (s.a.)

24 Nov 1947 -  7 Mar 1949  John Falconer                      (b. 1898 - d. 19..)
1949                       William Cecil Taylor               (s.a.)
25 Oct 1949 - 1954         George Evans Cameron Wisdom        (b. 1899 - d. 1958)
20 Dec 1950 -  9 Jan 1951  Jonathan Edgar Meredith Cave       (b. 1913 - d. 1968)
                             (acting for Wisdom)
20 Dec 1951 -  6 Jan 1952  Jonathan Edgar Meredith Cave       (s.a.)
                             (acting for Wisdom)
18 Apr 1952 - 21 Oct 1952  Harold George Hammett              (b. 1906 - d. 1999)
                             (acting for Wisdom)
21 Apr 1954 - 31 Aug 1957  Harold George Hammett              (s.a.)
28 Aug 1954 - 15 Sep 1954  Fulwar Rupert Caven Fowle          (b. 1912 - d. 1988)
                             (acting for Hammett) 
25 Sep 1956 - Feb 1957     Maurice John Hayward               (b. 1906 - d. 2001)
                             (acting for Hammett)  
1957                       Albert William Nicholson
                             (acting for Hammett)
Governors 

31 Aug 1957 - 31 Aug 1959  Tun Leong Yew Koh                  (b. 1888 - d. 1963)
31 Aug 1959 - 31 Aug 1971  Tun Abdul Malik bin Yusuf          (b. 1899 - d. ....)
31 Aug 1971 - 23 May 1975  Tun Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Majid     (b. 1908 - d. ....)
23 May 1975 -  4 Dec 1984  Tun Syed Zahiruddin bin Syed       (b. 1918 - d. 2013)
                             Hassan 
 4 Dec 1984 -  4 Jun 2004  Tan Sri (from 1987, Tun) Syed      (b. 1925 - d. 2008)  BN+UMNO
                             Ahmad Shahabuddin         
 4 Jun 2004 -              Tan Sri (from 28 Jul 2004, Tun)    (b. 1937)            UMNO
                             Khalil Yaakob                

Chief ministers (title Ketua Menteri)
31 Aug 1957 -  1 Jun 1959  Datuk Kurnia Jasa Othman bin Talib
 1 Jun 1959 -  6 Oct 1967  Abdul Ghafar Baba                  (b. 1925 - d. 2006)
 6 Oct 1967 -  1 Aug 1972  Datuk Talib bin Karim
 1 Aug 1972 - 11 Jul 1978  Datuk Setia Abdul Ghani Ali        (b. 1923? - d. 2004) UMNO + BN
11 Jul 1978 - 26 Apr 1982  Mohd Adib Adam                     (b. 1941)
22 Apr 1982 - 14 Oct 1994  Rahim Thamby Chik                  (b. 1950)            UMNO + BN
                             (from 1983, Dato' Rahim Thamby Chik; 
                             from 1984, Datuk Seri Rahim Thamby Chik;
                             from 1990, Tan Sri Rahim Thamby Chik) 
14 Oct 1994 - 14 May 1997  Datuk (from 14 Oct 1995, Datuk
                             Seri) Mohd Zin Abdul Ghani       (b. 1941 - d. 1997)  UMNO + BN
                            (acting to 2 Dec 1994)
22 May 1997 -  2 Dec 1999  Datuk (from 11 Oct 1997, Datuk
                             Seri) Abu Zahar Isnin            (b. 1939 - d. 2013)  U
MNO + BN
 2 Dec 1999 -  7 May 2013  Datuk Wira (from 13 Oct 2001,
                             Datuk Seri) Mohd Ali Rustam      (b. 1949)            UMNO + BN
 7 May 2013 -              Datuk (from 11 Oct 2013, Datuk
                             Seri) Idris Haron                (b. 1966)            U
MNO + BN


Naning

14th cent.                 State of Naning founded.
27 Oct 1832                Annexed by U.K. to Malacca.
 3 Sep 1921                Dynasty restored by Malacca.

Rulers (title Orang Kaya Seri Raja Merah)
16.. - 16..               
Dato' Megat Alam Melintang  
16.. - 170.               
Dato' Megat Junjungan Limau  
1703 - 17..               
Dato' Juara Megat
1724 - 17..               
Dato' Kokah (Zohri) 
17.. - 17..               
Dato' Gahang Berbulu
17.. - 17..                
Dato' Janggut (Selamat Idris) 
17.. - 1786               
Dato' Timbo
1786 - 1801                
Dato' Anjak  
1801 - 1849                
Datuk Abdul Said bin Omar (Dol Said)
1849 - 1870                Dato' Idas bin Kasim 
1870 - 1900                Dato' Mohd Salleh bin Rahim (Aghap)
1900                       Dato' Ranting bin Hajji Tahir   
1900 - 1918                Dato' Hassan bin Sulong
1918 - 1923                Dato' Omar bin Abu Hassan 
1923 - 1932                Dato' Arshad -Regent
1932 - 1942                Dato' Othman bin Kering
1946 - 1949                Dato' Che Lah bin Mat Sah
1950 - 2004                Dato' Mohd Shah bin Mohd Said 
2004 -                     Dato' Abdul Latif bin Hajji Hashim



Negeri Sembilan

[Negeri Sembilan
                (Malaysia)]
                       Adopted c.1895
 
Capital: Seremban
Hear State Anthem
"Berkatlah Yang DiPertuan
Besar Negeri Sembilan" 
Text of State Anthem
Adopted 1912
Population: 997,071 (2010)

1773                       Negeri Sembilan (a confederation of nine states)
                             established.
1876                       State reduced and renamed Sri Menanti.
1888                       British protectorate.
 1 Jul 1896                Part of Federated Malay States.
1897                       Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus re-established.
14 Jan 1942 - 12 Sep 1945  Occupied by Japan.
 1 Apr 1946                Joins Malay Union (from 16 Sep 1963, Malaysia).

Rulers, with the title Yang Di-Pertuan Besar¹
1773 - 1795                Sultan Mahmud ibni Sultan Abdul   (d. 1795) 
                             Jalil (installed 8 Nov 1778) 
1795 - 1808                Raja Hitam                        (b. 17.. - d. 1808)
1808 - 1824                Yamtuan Raja Lenggang Laut        (d. 1824)
1824                       Raja Radin ibni Raja Lenggang     (b. c.1823 - d. 1861)
                             Laut (1st time)
1824 - 1826                Raja Kerjan -Regent               (d. 1844)
1826 - 30 Nov 1831         Yamtuan Sati (Raja Labuh)
30 Nov 1831 - 1833         Raja Radin ibni Raja Lenggang     (s.a.)
                             Laut (2nd time) 
1833 - 1836                Raja Ali bin Daeng Alampaki       (d. 1850)
1836 - 1861                Raja Radin ibni Raja Lenggang     (s.a.)
                             Laut (3rd time) 
1861 - 1869                Yamtuan Ulin (Tuanku Imam ibni    (d. 1869)
                             al-Marhum Raja Ali)         
1869 - 22 Oct 1888         Tengku Antah ibni Yamtuan Radin   (d. 1888)
                            (Tuanku Antah ibni al-Marhum
                             Tuanku Nasiruddin
)
1869 - 1872                Tuanku Ampuan Intan (f) -Regent
22 Oct 1888 -  1 Aug 1933  Tuanku Muhammad ibni al-Marhum    (b. 1865 - d. 1933)
                             Yamtuan Antah (from 3 Jun 1916,
                             Tuanku Sir Muhammad
ibni al-Marhum
                            
Yamtuan Antah   
 3 Aug 1933 -  1 Apr 1960  Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni          (b. 1895 - d. 1960)
                             al-Marhum Yamtuan Muhammad (from
                             14 Mar 1934,
Tuanku Sir Abdul Rahman
                             ibni
al-Marhum Yamtuan Muhammad)    
31 Aug 1957 -  1 Apr 1960  Tuanku Munawir -Regent            (b. 1922 - d. 1967)
 5 Apr 1960 - 14 Apr 1967  Tuanku Laksman Munawir ibni       (s.a.)
                             al-Marhum Yamtuan Abdul Rahman
19 Apr 1967 - 27 Dec 2008  Tuanku Jaafar ibni al-Marhum      (b. 1922 - d. 2008)
                             Yamtuan Abdul Rahman
26 Apr 1994 - 25 Apr 1999  Tuanku Naquiyuddin -Regent        (b. 1947)
29 Dec 2008 -             
Tuanku Mukhriz ibni al-Marhum     (b. 1948)
                             
Tuanku Munawir


Chief ministers (title Menteri Besar)
 1 Feb 1948 - 11 Aug 1950  Abdul Malek bin Yusuf (1st time)
11 Aug 1950 -  1 Jan 1951  Mohamad Salleh bin Sulaiman
 1 Jan 1951 - 15 Apr 1952  Abdul Malek bin Yusuf (2nd time)
15 Apr 1952 -  1 Oct 1952  Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Majid         (b. 1908 - d. 1975)
 1 Oct 1952 -  1 Oct 1953  Abdul Malek bin Yusuf (3rd time)
 1 Oct 1953 - 31 Jan 1959  Shamsuddin bin Nain
 1 Apr 1959 - 23 Jun 1959  Mohamad Shariff bin Abdul Samad
23 Jun 1959 - 10 May 1969  Mohamad Said bin Mohamad           (d. 1996)
10 May 1969 - 12 Jul 1978  Mansor bin Othman                  (b. 1923? - d. 1999)  PKN
12 Jul 1978 - 29 Apr 1982  Dato' Rais Yatim                   (b. 1942)             UMNO + BN
29 Apr 1982 - 25 Mar 2004  Mohamed Isa Abdul Samad            (b. 1949)             UMNO + BN
                             (from 14 Jun 1982, Dato' Mohamed Isa Abdul
                             Samad; from 5 Jun 1991, Tan Sri
                             Mohamed Isa Abdul Samad) 
25 Mar 2004 -              Datuk Mohamad Hasan                (b. 1956)             UMNO + BN
                             (from 19 Jul 2004, Datuk Seri Mohamad Hasan) 

British Residents
(excluding Sungai Ujong and Jelebu until 1 Jan 1895)
1887 - 24 Feb 1897         Martin Lister                      (b. 1857 - d. 1897)

                             (superintendant to 1 Jan 1895)
1894 - 1895                Robert Norman Bland                (b. 1859 - d. 1948)

                             (acting for Lister)
24 Feb 1897 -  7 Apr 1901  Ernest Woodford Birch              (b. 1857 - d. 1929)
 
                           (acting to 4 Jun 1897)
 8 Apr 1901 - 17 Aug 1902  Henry Conway Belfield              (b. 1855 - d. 1923)

 5 Apr 1901 - 28 Oct 1901  Dacres Hope Wise                   (b. 1865 - d. 1903) 
                            (acting for Belfield)

29 Oct 1901 -  1 Jan 1902  Harvey Chevallier                  (b. 1861 - d. 1923)
                             (acting for Belfield)
 2 Jan 1902 -  6 Feb 1902 
Dacres Hope Wise                   (s.a.)
                           
(acting for Belfield)
 7 Feb 1902 - 22 Mar 1902  
Dacres Hope Wise                   (s.a.)
                           
(acting for Belfield)
23 May 1902 - 17 Aug 1902  Dacres Hope Wise                   (s.a.)
                            
(acting for Belfield)
18 Aug 1902 - 26 Feb 1904  Walter Egerton                     (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
28 Nov 1903 - 18 May 1905  Frederick Joseph Weld              (b. 1870 - d. 1926)
                             (acting for
Egerton, then Campbell)
27 Feb 1904 - 31 Dec 1909  Douglas Graham Campbell            (b. 1867 - d. 1918)

17 Nov 1906 - 20 Apr 1908  R.C. Grey (acting for Campbell)
 1 Jan 1910
- 31 Jan 1911  Edward Lewis Brockman              (b. 1865 - d. 1943)
 1 Feb 1911 - 1912         Richard James Wilkinson            (b. 1867 - d. 1941)

 9 Sep 1911 - 1912        
Cecil William Chase Parr           (b. 1871 - d. 1943)
                             (acting for Wilkinson)
25 Apr 1912 - 1919         Arthur Henry Lemon                 (b. 1864 - d. 1933)

30 Aug 1917 -  1 Oct 1917  C.W. Harrison (acting for Lemon)
 1 Jul 1919 - 21 May 1920  John Richard Oliver Aldworth       (b. 1868 - d. 1948)
                             (acting to 2 Sep 1919)

22 Feb 1920 - 20 Jun 1920  William James Parke Hume           (b. 1866 - d. 1952)
                             (acting [for Aldworth to 21 May 1920])        
29 Jun 1920 -  3 Feb 1922  V. Hill (acting to 13 Feb 1921)
 5 Feb 1921 - 11 Apr 1921 
Arthur Blennerhassett Voules       (b. 1870 - d. 1954)
                             (acting for Hill)
 4 Feb 1922 - 1924         Edward Shaw Hose                   (b. 1871 - d. 1946)

 7 May 1923 - 24 Oct 1923  Ralph Scott (acting for Hose)      (b. 1874 - d. 1962)
18 Jul 1924 - 1928         Ernest Charteris Holford Wolff     (b. 1875 - d. 1946)

1928 - 1932                James William Simmons              (b. 1877 - d. 19..)
1932 - 1936                John Whitehouse Ward Hughes        (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
Dec 1936 - 1939            Gordon Lupton Ham                  (b. 1885 - d. 1965)
1939 - 1941                John Vincent Cowgill (1st time)    (b. 1888 - d. 1959)
Japanese governor
Mar 1942 - 12 Sep 1945     Hatta Saburo
British Resident Commissioners
1945 - 1946                John Vincent Cowgill (2nd time)    (s.a.)
13 Sep 1945 - Mar 1946     James Calder (acting)              (b. 1898 - d. 1968)

1946 - May 1949            William Alexander Gordon-Hall      (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
Jun 1947 - Dec 1947        Ernest Edgar Pengilley             (b. 1897 - d. 1984)
                             (acting for Gordon-Hall)

May 1949 - Nov 1950        Hugh Patterson Croix de Guerre
     (b. 1898 - d. 1977)
                             Bryson         
Nov 1950 - Sep 1951        Anthony Hyde                       (b. 1900 - d. 1963)   
 1 Oct 1951 - 1955         Mervyn Cecil Sheppard              (b. 1905 - d. 1994)
British Adviser

1955 - Jul 1956            Mervyn Cecil Sheppard              (s.a.)

 ¹Full style of the ruler: Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negri Sembilan ("He who is the highest Lord of Negri Sembilan").


As noted, Negeri Sembilan ("Nine States") is nominally a confederation of several (originally nine) states. The six surviving states, with an occasional subsidiary state, are recorded below. The premier state (whose ruler substitutes during vacancies in the office of Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan) is Sungai Ujong.

Inas

c.1750                     Luak Inas (also called Jelai) founded.

Rulers (title Undang Luak Inas)
.... - ....                Embun Serin (f)
.... - ....                Bayan
.... - 1810                Datuk Rambutan Jantan              (d. 1810)
1810 - ....                Datuk Nuri
.... - ....                Mantik
.... - ....                Cenderong
.... - ....                Sohat
.... - ....                Biong
.... - ....                Omar
.... - 1915                Sulung                             (d. 1915)
1915 - 1930?               Ujang bin Cepus
1931 - 19..                Abdul Ghani bin Layar
19.. - 1957                Bacik bin Abdul Rahman             (d. 1957)
1957 - 1966?               Rentah bin Takin


Jelebu

[Luak Jelebu (Malaysia)
                flag]

1757                       Ruler of Luak Jelebu adopts style of sultan.
1820 - 1884                Parallel government headed by a yang di-pertuan muda Jelebu.
1886 - 1895                Separate British protectorate.

Sultans and rulers (title Undang Luak Jelebu)
1757 - 17..                Datuk Moyang Saleh 
17.. - 17..                Datuk Bukor
17.. - 17..                Datuk Bakul
17.. - 17..                Datuk Yunus
17.. - 18..                Datuk Lob
18.. - c.1820              Datuk Durama                       (d. c.1820)
c.1820                     Datuk Penghulu Rangga Ali Tua Tuk
                             Gila "Durongga"
18.. - 18..                Datuk Pandak
18.. - 18..                Datuk Mahmud (Kulup Tunggal)
18.. - 1883?               Datuk Ibrahim
1883? - 1902               Datuk Saiyid Ali                   (b. 18.. - d. 1902)
1902 - 1945                Datuk Abdullah ibni Panglima Muda  (b. 1870 - d. 1945)
1945 - Jan 1962            Datuk Shamaruddin ibni Abdul       (d. 1962)
                             Rahman
1962 - 1966                Datuk Othman ibni Baginda (acting) (b. 1911)
1966 - 20 Nov 1979         Datuk Abu Bakar                    (d. 1979)
 4 Feb 1980 -              Datuk Musa bin Wahab               (b. 1937)

Rulers (title Yang di-Pertuan Muda Jelebu)
1820 - 18..                Tengku Ahmad Shah bin Singkul
18.. - c.1872              Tengku Jaya bin Sabun              (d. c.1872)
c.1872 - 1875              Tengku Etet bin Jaya               (d. 1875)
1875 - 13 Dec 1884         Tengku Abdullah bin Radin          (d. 1884)
Dec 1884 - Mar 1886        Tengku Nambul bin Abdullah

British Collectors (subordinated to the Residents in Sungai Ujong)
  8 Jun 1885 - 1890        Edward Peregrine Gueritz           (b. 1855 - d. 1938)
1890 - 1897                Arthur Louis Keyser                (b. 1856 - d. 1924)


Jempol

c.1750                     Luak Jempol founded, under suzerainty of Jelebu.

Rulers (title Datuk Penghulu)
.... - ....                Daim
.... - ....                Cap
.... - ....                Rial
.... - ....                Matik
c.1839                     Hasan
.... - ....                Johan
.... - 1916                Shukul
1916 - 19..                Abdul Wahab
c.1966                     Sulaiman bin Abdullah


Johol

[Luak Johol (Malaysia)
                flag]

1723                       State of Pasir Besar renamed Luak Johol.

Rulers (title Undang Luak Johol)
1723 - 1747                Datuk Putri Setiawan I (f)
1747 - c.1760              Datuk Rambut Panjang (f)           (d. c.1760)
c.1760 - c.1790            Datuk Putri Setiawan II (f)        (d. c.1790)
c.1790 - c.1810            Datuk Rambutan Jantan
c.1810 - c.1820            Datuk Nuri
c.1820 - c.1840            Datuk Abubakar Buncit (Gubah)
c.1840 - 1900              Datuk Saeto                        (b. 1810? - d. 1900)
1901 - Feb 1918            Datuk Wan Omar bin Wan Hasan       (b. 18.. - d. 1918)
Mar 1918 - 14 Aug 1947     Datuk Kamat bin Sulaiman           (b. 1880 - d. 1947)
Oct 1947 - 10 Oct 1973     Datuk Abdul Manap bin Tolok        (b. 1907 - d. 1973)
10 Oct 1973 -  4 Apr 1985  Datuk Abdul Majid bin Abdul Wahid  (b. 1902 - d. 1985)
 4 Apr 1985 - 29 Sep 1988  Datuk Abdul Rahman bin Mat Som     (b. 1909 - d. 1988)
29 Sep 1988 - 13 Mar 2007  Datuk Abdul bin Ali                (b. 1923 - d. 2007)
13 Mar 2007 -              Datuk Muhammad bin Abdul Ghani     (b. 1940)

Ulu Muar

c.1750                     Luak Ulu Muar founded, under suzerainty of Johol.

Rulers (title Datuk Penghulu Luak Ulu Muar)
.... - 177.                Datuk Naam bin Khatib Akhir
177. - ....                Datuk Mindek
.... - ....                Datuk Mopeng
.... - ....                Datuk Ajong
.... - ....                Datuk Jaalam
.... - ....                Datuk Talun
1824? - 1839?              Datuk Bongkok Abdul Malik
.... - ....                Datuk Sidin
1910 - 19..                Datuk Hashim
c.1966                     Datuk Jailani


Rembau

[Luak Rembau (Malaysia) flag]

1540                       Luak Rembau founded.
1798 - 1836                Parallel government headed by a yang di-pertuan muda Rembau.
1887 - 1895                Separate British protectorate.

Rulers (title Undang Luak Rembau)
c.1690 - c.1725            Datuk Sedia Raja Kurup
c.1725 - c.1750            Datuk Sedia Raja Sabat
c.1750 - c.1790            Datuk Lela Maharaja Lulinsoh
c.1790 - c.1795            Datuk Sedia Raja Pekak
c.1795 - 1812              Datuk Lela Maharaja Kusil bin Uban
1812 - 1819                Datuk Sedia Raja Bogok             (d. 1819)
1819 - 1843                Datuk Lela Maharaja Nganit
1843 - 1871                Datuk Sedia Raja Akhir
1871 - 1883                Datuk Lela Maharaja Sahil
1883 - 1905                Datuk Sedia Raja Serun bin Saidin  (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
1905 - 1922                Datuk Lela Maharaja Sulung bin
                             Miah                             (d. 1922)
1922 - 1938                Datuk Sedia Raja Abdullah bin
                             Dahan                            (d. 1938)
1938 - Dec 1962            Datuk Lela Maharaja Ipap bin       (d. 1962)
                             Abdullah 
19 Jan 1963 - 21 Sep 1998  Datuk Sedia Raja Adnan bin Maah    (b. 1931 - d. 1998)
21 Nov 1998 -              Datuk Lela Maharaja Muhammad bin
                             Sharif Othman                    (b. 1941)

Rulers (title Yang di-Pertuan Muda Rembau)
1798 - 1813                Raja Asil                          (d. bf.1824)
                             (later named Sultan Muhammad Shah)
1813 - 13 Sep 1832         Raja Ali bin Daeng Alampaki        (d. 1850)
13 Sep 1832 - 1836         Saiyid Shaaban ibn Saiyid Ibrahim  (d. 1872)
                             al-Qadri 


Gunung Pasir

c.1750                     Luak Gunung Pasir founded, under suzerainty of Rembau.

Rulers (title Penghulu Luak Gunung Pasir)
.... - ....                Meshit
.... - ....                Tuakal
.... - ....                Mantik
.... - ....                Budin
.... - ....                Malik
.... - ....                Uteh
.... - ....                Alam
.... - ....                Kandak
.... - ....                Pacoh (Mentadoh)
.... - ....                Lahu
.... - ....                Muhammad Amin
c.1920                     Basir
c.1966                     Shamsuddin bin Bahali


Sungai Ujong

[Luak Sungai Ujong
                (Malaysia) flag]

bf.1700                    Luak Sungai Ujong founded.

1874 - 1895                Separate British protectorate.

Rulers (title Penghulu Mentri)
.... - ....                Datuk Penghulu Kadim
.... - ....                Datuk Penghulu Pandak
.... - c.1760              Datuk Penghulu Chantak
                            (Rumah Gadong)
Rulers (title Undang Luak Sungai Ujong)
c.1760 - c.1780            Datuk Bador
c.1780 - c.1800            Datuk Leha
c.1800 - c.1824            Datuk Bahi
c.1824 - 1850              Datuk Kawal                        (d. 1850)
1850 - 1873                Datuk Sendeng                      (d. 1873)
1873 - 1881                Datuk Saiyid Abdul Rahman bin
                             Ahmad al-Qadri                   (d. 1881)
1879 - 17 Feb 1880         Saiyid Ahmad bin Saiyid Ibrahim
                             al-Qadri -Regent
1881 - 1889                Datuk Lela Setia Muhammad Yusof

                             bin Hashim
1889 - 15 Dec 1945         Datuk Maamor bin Kasim             (b. 1880 - d. 1945)
1889 - 1898                .... -Regent
26 Mar 1946 - 23 Oct 1983  Datuk Muhammad Kasim ibni Datuk    (b. 1904 - d. 1983)

                             Andika Abdul Rahim 
23 Oct 1983 - 29 Dec 1993  Interregnum
29 Dec 1993 -              Datuk Mubarak bin Thahak           (b. 1961)

British Residents
1874 - 1881                Patrick J. Murray
1881 - 30 Jun 1893         W.F.B. Paul
27 Aug 1889 - 30 Jun 1890  Walter Raymond Hallowell Carew     (b. 1853 - d. 1896)
                             (acting for Paul)
 1 Jul 1893 -  5 Dec 1893  
Walter Egerton                     (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
                             (officer in charge)
 6 Dec 1893 -  1 Jan 1895  Robert Norman Bland                (b. 1859 - d. 1948)

                             (officer in charge)

 

Teraci

c.1750                     Luak Teraci founded, under suzerainty of Sungai Ujong.

Rulers (title Penghulu Luak Teraci)
.... - ....                Ahmad bin Mantris Maharaja
.... - ....                Tengkis
.... - ....                Tuk "Pecat"
.... - ....                Dato
.... - ....                Linsoh
c.1839                     Sulung
.... - ....                Said
.... - ....                Adil
.... - 1919                Jaal
1919 - 19..                Sohor
19.. - 19..                Arifin
19.. - 19..                Ujang bin Yahya
c.1966                     Lebai Hussin


Tampin

[Luak Tampin (Malaysia)
                flag]

13 Sep 1832                Luak Tampin founded.

Rulers (title from 1883 Tunku Besar Tampin)
13 Sep 1832 - 1856         Raja Ali bin Daeng Alampaki        (b. c.1784 - d. 1856)
1856 - 1872                Saiyid Shaaban ibni Saiyid Ibrahim
                             al-Qadri                         (d. 1872)
1872 - 1893                Saiyid Abdul Hamid ibni Saiyid
                             Shaaban al-Qadri                 (d. 1893)
1893 - 19..                Saiyid Dewa ibni Saiyid Abdul
                             Hamid al-Qadri
19.. - 19..                Saiyid Akil ibni Saiyid Dewa   

                             al-Qadri 
19.. - May 1929            Saiyid Muhammad ibni Saiyid Dewa

                             al-Qadri                         (d. 1929)
May 1929 - 26 Dec 2005     Saiyid Idris ibni Saiyid Muhammad
                             al-Qadri                         (b. 1927 - d. 2005)
May 1929 - 21 Dec 1945     Sharifah Leng bint Saiyid Abdul
                             Hamid (f) -Regent
26 Dec 2005 -              Saiyid Razman ibni Saiyid Idris    (b. 1962)
                             al-Qadri 



Pahang
 
[Pahang Flag to
                          1887]
                      c.1853 - 1887
 
[Pahang Flag 1887-1903]
                     1887 - 28 Dec 1903
 
[Pahang
                          (Malaysia)]
                  Adopted 28 Dec 1903
 
Capital: Kuantan
(Kuala Lipis 1898-1955;
Pekan to 1898)
Hear State Anthem
"Allah Selamatkan
Sultan Kami"
(Allah Save Our Sultan)

Text of State Anthem
Adopted 1923
Population: 1,443,365 (2010)

1460                       Negeri Pahang Darul Makmur established.
1623 - 1853                In personal union with Johor, eventually becoming a
                             fief of the Bendahara
1770 - 1882                Nominally under suzerainty of Johor.
Aug 1888                   British protectorate.

 1 Jul 1896                Part of Federated Malay States.
 3 Jan 1942 - 12 Sep 1945  Occupied by Japan (Malay Federation).
 1 Apr 1946                Joins Malay Union (from 16 Sep 1963, Malaysia).

Rulers, with the title Bendahara Seri Maharaja
1699 - 28 Jan 1708         Tun Mas Anum bin Tun Habib Abdul   (d. 1708)
                             Majid
1708 - 1716                Tun Abdullah bin Tun Habib Abdul   (d. 1716)
                             Majid
1716 - 1721                Tun Abdul Djamal bin Tun Habib     (d. af.1721)
                             Abdul Majid
1722 - c.1734              Tun Abbas bin Sultan Abdul Djalil  (d. af.1734)
                             Riayat Shah
c.1734 - 1750              Tun Mutahir bin Sultan Abdul       (d. af.1750)
                             Djalil Riayat Shah
1750 - 1770                Tun Hasan bin Tun Abbas
1770 - 1802                Tun Abdul Majid bin Tun Hasan      (b. 1718 - d. 1802)

1802 - 1803                Tun Muhammad bin Tun Abdul Majid   (b. 17.. - d. 1803)
1803 - 1806                Tun Koris bin Tun Abdul Majid      (b. 17.. - d. 1806)
1806 - Oct 1858            Tun Ali bin Tun Koris              (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
Oct 1858 - 30 May 1863     Tun Muhammad Tahir bin Tun Ali     (b. 1813 - d. 1863)
30 May 1863 -  3 Jun 1863  Muda Koris bin Tun Muhammad Tahir  (b. 18.. - d. 1863)
10 Jun 1863 -  6 Aug 1882  Tun Ahmad bin Tun Ali              (b. 1836 - d. 1914)
Sultans¹
 6 Aug 1882 -  3 Apr 1909  Tuanku Ahmad al-Muadzam Shah ibni  (s.a.)
                             al-Marhum Tun Ali (from 9 Nov 1902, 
                            
Tuanku Sir Ahmad al-Muadzam Shah
                             ibni
al-Marhum Tun Ali)
 3 Apr 1909 - 19 Jun 1917  Tuanku Mahmud Shah ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Ahmad al-Muadzam Shah     (b. 1868 - d. 1917)
19 Jun 1917 - 23 Jun 1932  Tuanku Abdullah al-Mutasim Billah
                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad
                             al-Muadzam Shah                  (b. 1874 - d. 1932)
                            (from 3 Jun 1921,
Tuanku Sir Abdullah
                             al-Mutasim Billah
ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Ahmad
al-Muadzam Shah)
23 Jun 1932 -  7 May 1974  Tuanku Abu Bakar Riayatuddin
                             al-Muadzam Shah ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Abdullah                  (b. 1904 - d. 1975)
                            (from 3 Jun 1935,
Tuanku Sir Abu Bakar
                             al-Muadzam Shah ibni al-Marhum 
                             Sultan Abdullah) 
 

 7 May 1974 -              Tuanku Ahmad Shah al-Mustain       (b. 1930)
                             Billah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Abu
                             Bakar Riayatuddin al-Muadzam Shah 
29 Mar 1979 - 25 Apr 1984  Tengku Abdullah -Regent            (b. 1959)


Chief ministers (title Menteri Besar)

 1 Feb 1948 -  1 Feb 1951  Dato' Setia Wangsa Sir Mahmud bin                       UNMO
                             Mat
 1 Feb 1951 -  1 Feb 1955  Tengku Panglima Perang Tengku
                             Mohamad ibni al-Marhum Sultan
                             Ahmad (1st time)
 1 Feb 1955 - 15 Jun 1955  Orang Kaya Indera Shahbandar Abdul
                             Razak bin Hussein                (b. 1922 - d. 1976)  UMNO
15 Jun 1955 -  8 Jan 1957  Tengku Panglima Perang Tengku                           UMNO
                             Muhamad ibni al-Marhum Sultan
                             Ahmad (2nd time)
 9 Jan 1957 - 18 Jul 1959  Datuk Kurnia Paduka Raja Abdullah                       UMNO
                             bin Tok Muda Ibrahim
18 Jul 1959 -  5 May 1964  Orang Kaya Indera Pahlawan Wan                          UMNO
                             Abdul Aziz bin Ungku Abdullah
 5 May 1964 -  1 Sep 1972  Dato' Pentara Raja Tan Sri Yahaya  (b. 19.. - d. 2011)  UMNO
                             bin Mohd Seh
 1 Sep 1972 - 31 Aug 1974  Datuk Abdul Aziz Ahmad                                  UMNO
 1 Sep 1974 - 18 Jul 1978  Datuk Seri Mohamad bin Jusoh                            UMNO
19 Jul 1978 -  7 Nov 1981  Datuk Abdul Rahim bin Bakar        (b. 1943 - d. 2009)  UMNO
11 Nov 1981 -  4 May 1982  Datuk Abdul Rashid bin Abdul       (b. 1938?)           UMNO
                             Rahman
 4 May 1982 - 14 Aug 1986  Dato' (from 24 Oct 1985, Dato'
                             Seri) Najib Tun Razak            (b. 1953)            UMNO
14 Aug 1986 - 20 May 1999  Dato' (from 24 Oct 1987, Dato' 
                             Seri; from 24 Apr 1989, Tan Sri)
                             Khalil Yaakob                    (b. 1937)            UMNO
20 May 1999 -              Dato' (from 24 Oct 1999, Dato'
                             Seri; from 9 Oct 2004, Datuk Seri)
                             Adnan Yaakob                     (b. 1950)            UMNO

British Residents
Oct 1888 - Jun 1896        John Pickersgill Rodger            (b. 1851 - d. 1910)
Jul 1896 - Dec 1899        Hugh Clifford (1st time)           (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
Jan 1900 - Apr 1901        Arthur Butler                      (b. 18.. - d. 1901)
Feb 1901 - Mar 1901        Dacres Hope Wise (acting)          (b. 1865 - d. 1903)
Apr 1901 - Sep 1904        Sir Hugh Clifford (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Sep 1904 - Mar 1908        Cecil John Wray
Mar 1908 - Oct 1908        Harvey Chevallier (acting)         
(b. 1861 - d. 1923)
Oct 1908 - Dec 1909        Sir Edward Lewis Brockman          (b. 1865 - d. 1943)
Jan 1910 - Jun 1911        Warren Delabere Barnes             (b. 1865 - d. 1911)
Jun 1911 - 1916            Edward John Brewster               (b. 1861 - d. 1931)
Mar 1912 - Apr 1913        Frederick Joseph Weld              (b. 1870 - d. 1926)
                            
(acting for Brewster)
Feb 1916 - Jul 1921        Cecil William Chase Parr           (b. 1871 - d. 1943)

Jul 1921 - 1926            Henry Wagstaffe Thomson            (b. 1874 - d. 1941)
Nov 1921 - Sep 1922        Francis Alexander Stewart          (b. 1873 - d. 1947)
                             McClelland (acting for Thomson)     
1926 - 1929                Arthur Furley Worthington          (b. 1874 - d. 1964)

1929 - 1930                Charles Francis Joseph Green       (d. 1943)
1931 - 1935                Hugh Goodwin Russell Leonard       (b. 1880 - d. 19..)
Sep 1935 - 1941            Charles Cuthbert Brown             (b. 1888 - d. 1972)
1937 - 1938                John Vincent Cowgill               (b. 1888 - d. 1959)
                             (acting for Brown)

1940 - 1941                George William Bryant              (b. 1887 - d. 1969)
                             (acting for Brown)

Japanese governors

1942 - Aug 1945            ....
British Resident Commissioners
1945 - 1946                ....
 1 Apr 1946 - 1946         
John Allen Harvey (1st time)       (b. 1900 - d. 1991)
                             (acting)
 9 Jun 1946 -  8 Jul 1946  Arthur Vincent Aston               (b. 1896 - d. 1981)

1946 - 1948                Arthur Sleep                       (b. 1894 - d. 1959)
Aug 1947 - 194.            John Allan Harvey                  (s.a.)
                             (acting for Sleep)

1948 - Feb 1953            Wilfred Charles Steuart Corry
     (b. 1900 - d. 1974)
1949?                      Laird (acting for Corry)
May 1950 - 1950            Anthony Hyde (acting for Corry)    (b. 1900 - d. 1963)
Feb 1953 - Jul 1953        John Lewis Haycraft Davis (acting) (b. 1911 - d. 2006)
Jul 1953 - Oct 1954        John Allen Harvey (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Oct 1954 - Feb 1955       
Jonathan Edgar Meredith Cave       (b. 1913 - d. 1968)
British Adviser

Feb 1955 - 1956            Maurice John Hayward
              (b. 1906 - d. 2001)

 ¹Full style of the ruler: KeBawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Pahang Darul Makmur ("Sultan and Head of State of Pahang").


Patani: see under Thailand


Penang  (Pinang)
 
[Flag of the United
                          Kingdom]
           1786 - 1867, 1946 - 11 Sep 1949
 
[British Straits
                          Settlements, 1867-1925]
              1867 - 1925 Straits Settlements
 
[British
                          Straits Settlements, 1925-1942, 1945-46]     1925 - 1942, 1945 - 1949 Straits Settlements
 
[British Colony
                          of Penang 1949-1957]
     11 Sep 1949 - 31 Aug  1957 State Ensign
 
[British Colony of
                          Penang, 1949-1957]
             11 Sep 1949 - 1957 State Flag
 
[Penang
                          (Malaysia)]
                         Adopted 1957 
 
Capital: George Town
(Kempettai 1942-1945)
Hear State Anthem
"Untuk Negeri Kita"
(For Our State)
Text of State Anthem
Population: 1,520,143 (2010)

11 Aug 1786                Prince of Wales Island colony (under British East India Company)
                             ceded to Britain by Sultan of Kedah.
1790                       Failed attempt by Sultan of Kedah to retake Penang.
Jun 1801                   Province Wellesley on mainland added (confirmed Nov 1802).
1805 - 1830                Prince of Wales Island Presidency (under British East India Co.)
1867                       Renamed Penang Island.
14 Aug 1826                Part of Straits Settlements (see Singapore).
 1 Apr 1867                Crown colony
 1 Jul 1896                Part of Federated Malay States.
Feb 1935                   Dindings dependency merged with Perak.
19 Dec 1941 -  4 Sep 1945  Occupied by Japan (Malay Federation).
 1 Apr 1946                Joins Malay Union (from 16 Sep 1963, Malaysia).

Superintendents (of the British East India Company)
11 Aug 1786 - 21 Nov 1789  Francis Light (1st time)           (b. 1740 - d. 1794)
21 Nov 1789 -  9 Feb 1790  John Glass (acting)                (d. 1795)
 9 Feb 1790 - 21 Oct 1794  Francis Light (2nd time)           (s.a.)
21 Oct 1794 - 14 May 1795  Philip Mannington (acting)         (d. 1795)

1795 - 1796                Thomas Pigou (acting)              (b. 1765 - d. 1796)
1796 - May 1799            Forbes Ross MacDonald              (d. 1799)

31 Jan 1796 -  3 Apr 1796  John Beanland
                             (acting for
MacDonald)
 
8 Sep 1797 - 19 Apr 1800  George Caunter                     (b. 1758 - d. 1805)
                             (acting [for MacDonald to 1799])

Lieutenant governors

20 Apr 1800 - 1804         Sir George Leith                   (b. 1766 - d. 1842)
 2 Dec 1802 - 13 May 1803  William Edward Phillips            (b. 1769 - d. 1865)
                             (acting for Leith)
Jan 1804 - 1805            Robert Townsend Farquhar           (b. 1776 - d. 1866)

Governors
Sep 1805 -  8 Apr 1807     Philip Dundas                      (b. c.1763 - d. 1807)
13 Apr 1807 - 16 Oct 1807  Henry Shepherd Pearson (acting)    (b. c.1775 - d. 1840)
16 Oct 1807 - 1810         Norman Macalister                  (b. 17.. - d. 1812)
21 Mar 1810 - 27 Dec 1810  Charles Andrew Bruce               (b. 1768 - d. 1810)
28 Dec 1810 - 1811         William Edward Phillips (1st time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 9 May 1811 - 1812         Archibald Seton                    (b. 1758 - d. 1818)
Dec 1812 - 27 Oct 1816     William Petrie                     (b. 1748 - d. 1816)
Oct 1816 - 1817            William Edward Phillips (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
24 Nov 1817 -  8 Aug 1819  John Alexander Bannerman           (b. 1758 - d. 1819)
1819 - 20 Aug 1824         William Edward Phillips (3rd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting to 4 Jun 1820)
20 Aug 1824 -  1 Aug 1826  Robert Fullerton                   (b. 1773 - d. 1831)
Resident Councillors 
 1 Aug 1826 - 11 Nov 1830  Robert Ibbetson                    (b. 1789 - d. 1860)
                            
(acting from 30 Jun 1830)
 5 Nov 1828 - 13 Apr 1829  John Anderson (acting for Ibbetson)
11 Nov 1830 - Nov 1833     Kenneth Murchison                  (b. 1794 - d. 1854)
                             (acting to 10 Apr 1832)
Nov 1833 - Jul 1841        James William Salmond              (b. 1807 - d. 1848)

Dec 1838 - 1839            James Low (acting for Salmond)     (b. 1791 - d. 1852)
Jul 1841 - 21 Sep 1849     Samuel Garling                     (b. c.1793 - d. 1857)

21 Sep 1849 - 15 Apr 1855  Edmund Augustus Blundell           (b. 1804 - d. 1868)
15 Apr 1855 - Apr 1860     William Thomas Lewis               (b. 1791 - d. 1875)
1859 - 1860                George Samuel Windsor Earl         (b. 1813 - d. 1865)
                            
(acting for Lewis)
1860 - 1867                Henry Stuart Man                   (b. 1815 - d. 1898)
 
9 Jun 1863 - 1863         Montague Protheroe (acting for Man)(b. 1841 - d. 1905)
Lieutenant governors
 8 Jun 1867 - 19 Feb 1871  Archibald Edward Harbord Anson     (b. 1826 - d. 1925)

                             (1st time)
19 Feb 1871 -  4 Mar 1871  David Thompson Hatchell (acting)   (b. 1840 - d. 1926)
 4 Mar 1871 -  1 Apr 1872  Arthur Nonus Birch (acting)        (b. 1837 - d. 1919)
 1 Apr 1872 - 1873         Sir George William Robert Campbell (b. 1835 - d. 1905)
                             (acting)
1873 -  2 Feb 1881
         Archibald Edward Harbord Anson     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

May 1877 - Oct 1877        Edward Wingfield Shaw              (b. 1827 - d. 1879)
                             (acting for Anson)
1879                       Edward Richard Connor
              (b. 1848 - d. 1903)
                             (acting for Anson)
Feb 1879 - 1880
            Charles John Irving                (b. 1831 - d. 1917)
                             (acting for Anson)
Resident Councillors
Feb 1881 -  9 Aug 1884     John Frederick Adolphus McNair     (b. 1828 - d. 1910)
                             (acting)
1881                       Charles James Hamilton
                             (acting for
McNair)
1884 - 1885                Samuel Dunlop (acting)             (b. 1838 - d. 1917)

1885 - 13 May 1887         Charles John Irving                (s.a.)
13 May 1887 - Apr 1889     Sir William Edward Maxwell         (b. 1846 - d. 1897)
                             (acting)
25 Apr 1889 -  9 Mar 1890 
Charles Walter Sneyd-Kynnersley    (b. 1849 - d. 1940)
                             (1st time)(acting)
10 Mar 1890 - Mar 1897     Allan Maclean Skinner              (b. 1846 - d. 1901)
24 Oct 1891 - Mar 1892     Henry Trotter (acting for Skinner) (b. 1837 - d. c.1911)
30 Nov 1894 -  7 Dec 1895
  Henry Trotter (acting for Skinner) (s.a.)
1897                       Francis James Anderson             (b. 18.. - d. 1920)
                             (acting for Skinner)
 
3 Mar 1897 -  3 Apr 1900  James Kortright Birch (1st time)   (b. 1850 - d. 1927) 
                             (acting)
 3 Apr 1900 - 1901         Charles Walter Sneyd-Kynnersley    (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)
28 Feb 1901 -  6 Apr 1901  Sir Walter Egerton (acting)        (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
Apr 1901 - 1906            James Kortright Birch (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jun 1905 - 1905         Leonard Powney Ebden               (b. 1864 - d. 1934)    
                             (acting for Birch)
22 Nov 1906 - 22 Feb 1908  Robert Norman Bland (1st time)     (b. 1859 - d. 1948)
                            
(acting to 17 Feb 1907)
22 Feb 1908 -  7 May 1908
  William Evans (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1860 - d. 1936) 
 7 May 1908 - 29 Apr 1910
  Robert Norman Bland (2nd time)     (s.a.)
28 May 1908 -  3 Jul 1908  Harold William Firmstone           (b. 1868 - d. 1932)
                             (acting for Bland)
29 Apr 1910 - 17 Jan 1911  James Oliver Anthonisz (acting)    (b. 1860 - d. 1921)
21 Jan 1911 - 11 May 1912  William Evans (2nd time)           (s.a.)
18 May 1912 - 29 Jan 1913  Walter Cecil Michell (1st time)    (b. 1864 - d. 1939)
                             (acting)
29 Jan 1913 - 13 Feb 1914  William Evans (3rd time)           (s.a.)
11 Feb 1914 - 24 Feb 1917  Alfred Thomas Bryant               (b. 1860 - d. 1940)
26 Feb 1917 -  5 Oct 1917  William Peel (1st time)(acting)    (b. 1875 - d. 1940)
 9 Oct 1917 - 20 Oct 1919  Walter Cecil Michell (2nd time)    (s.a.)
24 Jul 1919 - 27 Feb 1920  Gilbert Amos Hall (1st time)       (b. 1867 - d. 1953)
                             (acting for Michell to 20 Oct 1919)
28 Feb 1920 - 31 Jan 1921  
Harold William Firmstone (acting)  (s.a.)
31 Jan 1921 -  9 Sep 1922  Gilbert Amos Hall (2nd time)       (s.a.)
17 Nov 1922 -  9 May 1925  Arthur Blennerhassett Voules       (b. 1870 - d. 1954)
                             (acting to 9 Dec 1922)
11 May 1924 -  8 Oct 1924  Stewart Codrington                 (b. 1874 - d. 1948)
                             (acting for Voules)
10 May 1925 -  9 May 1926  William Peel (2nd time)            (s.a.)

                             (acting to 9 Jul 1925)
Mar 1926 - Apr 1926        George Arthur Hereford             (b. 1875 - d. 1950)
                             (acting for Peel)
May 1926 - 1928            Ralph Scott (acting to 9 Jun 1926) (b. 1874 - d. 1962)

21 Apr 1928 -  9 Jan 1930  Meadows Frost                      (b. 1875 - d. 1954)
                             (acting to 8 Jul 1930)
 9 Jan 1930 -  2 May 1931  Edward Wilmot Francis Gilman       (b. 1876 - d. 1955)

                             (acting to 17 Apr 1930)
 2 May 1931 - Apr 1933     Percy Tothill Allen                (b. 1878 - d. 1968) 

                             (acting to 16 Aug 1931)
 1 Apr 1933 - 20 Apr 1933  Arthur Vincent Aston (1st time)    (b. 1896 - d. 1981)
                             (acting)
21 Apr 1933 - 24 Nov 1934  Arthur Mitchell Goodman (1st time) (b. 1886 - d. 1961)
                             (acting to 14 Oct 1933)
25 Nov 1934 - 29 Aug 1935  James Startin Wills Arthur (acting)(b. 1881 - d. 1966)
29 Aug 1935 -  8 Dec 1937  Arthur Mitchell Goodman (2nd time) (s.a.)
24 Jul 1936 - 10 Aug 1936  Richard John Froude Curtis         (b. 1897 - d. 1987)
                             (acting for Goodman)
 8 Dec 1937 -  6 Jul 1938  George Alexander de Chazal        
(b. 1888 - d. 1976)
                             Moubray (acting)
 6 Jul 1938 -  2 Aug 1941
  Arthur Mitchell Goodman (3rd time) (s.a.)
1941 - 16 Nov 1941         Leslie Forbes
(acting)             (b. 1889 - d. 1982)
1941
                       Eric Tregear Williams (acting)     (b. 1890 - d. 1972)
Japanese Governors
20 Dec 1941 - 1942         Toshiro Hiroyasu                   (d. 1942)
15 Mar 1942 - 22 Apr 1943  Shotaro Katayama                   (b. 1889 - d. 1982)
22 Apr 1943 - 22 Aug 1944
  Masakichi Itami                    (b. 1883 - d. 1964)
1944                       S. Ikagawa (acting for Itami)
22 Aug 1944 - 1945         Seiichiro Shinohara

British Military Governors
 3 Sep 1945 - 24 Sep 1945  Thomas John Norman Hilken (acting) (b. 1901 - d. 1969)
24 Sep 1945 -  1 Nov 1945  Peter Dicken Cracroft              (b. 1907 - d. 2003)

 1 Nov 1945 - 1946         Lancelot Edgar Connop Mervyn       (b. 1902 - d. 1982)
                             Perowne (sub-area commander)

Resident Resident Commissioners
 1 Nov 1945 -  8 Mar 1946  Peter Donald Macfeat (acting)      (b. 1888 - d. 1982)
 8 Mar 1946 - 12 May 1946  Norman Grice                       (b. 1893 - d. 1966)

12 May 1946 - 29 Feb 1948  Sydney Noel King                   (b. 1897 - d. 1981)

29 Feb 1948 -  3 May 1948  George Evan Cameron Wisdom         (b. 1899 - d. 1958)
                             (acting)
 3 May 1948 -  3 Nov 1951  Arthur Vincent Aston (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 3 Nov 1951 - 31 Aug 1957  Robert Porter Bingham              (b. 1903 - d. 1982)

19 Apr 1952 - 26 Oct 1952  Norman Ward (acting for Bingham)   (b. 1904 - d. 1988)
25 Jun 1954 - 17 Jul 1954  John Sjovald Hoseason Cunyngham-   (b. 1905 - d. 1989)
                             Brown (acting for Bingham)    
23 Dec 1954 - 30 Dec 1954  Herbert Raymond Ellis              (b. 1905 - d. 1992)
                             (acting for Bingham)  
30 Dec 1954 -  3 Aug 1955  David Gray (acting for Bingham)    (b. 1906 - d. 1976)

Heads of State (title Yang di-Pertua Negeri)

31 Aug 1957 - 30 Aug 1967  Raja Sir Tun Uda Al-Haj bin Raja   (b. 1894 - d. 1976)
                             Muhammad 
31 Aug 1967 - 31 Jan 1969  Tun Syed Sheh bin Syed Abdullah    (b. 1910 - d. 1969)
                             Shahabuddin 
 5 Feb 1969 -  5 Feb 1975  Tun Syed Sheh bin Syed Hassan      (b. 1906 - d. 1975)
                             Barakbah 
 5 Feb 1975 -  1 May 1981  Tan Sri (from Jun 1976, Tun)       (b. 1917 - d. 1985)  PBB
                             Sardon Jubir
 1 May 1981 -  1 May 1989  Tun Awang Hassan                   (b. 1910 - d. 1998)
 1 May 1989 -  1 May 2001  Tan Sri (from 7 Jun 1989, Tun)     (b. 1921 - d. 2005)
                             Hamdan Sheikh Tahir 
 1 May 2001 -              Dato' Seri (from 9 Jul 2001, Tun)  (b. 1938)            UMNO
                             Abdul Rahman Abbas 

Chief ministers (title Ketua Menteri)
12 Jun 1959 - 12 May 1969  Wong Pow Nee                       (b. 1911 - d. 2002)  MCA
12 May 1969 - 25 Oct 1990  Lim Chong Eu                       (b. 1919 - d. 2010)  Gerakan
25 Oct 1990 - 11 Mar 2008  Koh Tsu Koon                       (b. 1949)            Gerakan
                             (from 3 Jun 1995, Tan Sri Koh Tsu Koon)
11 Mar 2008 -             
Lim Guan Eng                       (b. 1960)            DAP 



Perak
 
Perak flag to
                          1879
                     18th cent - 1879
 
[Perak
                          (Malaysia)]
                        Adopted 1879
 
Capital: Ipoh
(Taiping 1876-1937;
Kuala Kangsar to 1876)
Hear State Anthem
"Allah Lanjutkan Usia
Sultan"
Text of State Anthem
Adopted 1888
Population: 2,258,428 (2010)

1528                       Negeri Perak Darur Ridzwan established.
1816 - 20 Jan 1874         Under Thai sovereignty.
20 Jan 1874                British protectorate
 1 Jul 1896                Part of Federated Malay States.
Feb 1935                   Dindings dependency of Penang merged into Perak.
26 Dec 1941 - 12 Sep 1945  Occupied by Japan (Malay Federation).
 1 Apr 1946                Joins Malay Union (from 16 Sep 1963, Malaysia).

Sultans¹
1654 - 1720                Mahmud Iskandar Shah Auliaullah    (b. 1641 - d. 1720)
                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muzaffar Shah
1654 -  9 Oct 1675         Sultana Ratu Tajul Alam (f)-Regent (d. 1675)
1720 - 1728                Aladdin Mughayat Riayat Shah ibni  (d. 1728)
                             al-Marhum Sultan Mansur Shah
1728 - 1742                Muzaffar Shah III Johan Berdaulat  (d. 1754)
                             Per Alam Jalalullah ibni al-Marhum 

                             Sultan Mansur Shah (1st time)
                            (continues at
Kuala Kangsar to 1750)
1742 - 1750                Muhammad Shah Aminullah ibni       (d. 1750)
                             al-Marhum Sultan Mansur Shah
1750 - 30 Aug 1754         Muzaffar Shah III Johan Berdaulat  (s.a.)
                             Per Alam Jalalullah ibni al-Marhum 

                             Sultan Mansur Shah (2nd time)
30 Aug 1754 - 14 Jul 1765  Iskandar Zulkarnain Inayat Shah    (d. 1765)
                             Kaharullah Khalifat ur-Rahman
                             Johan Berdaulat Zillullahi
                             fil-Alam ibni al-Marhum Sultan  

                             Muhammad Shah Amaiullah 
14 Jul 1765 - 17 Jun 1773  Mahmud II Shah ibni al-Marhum      (d. 1773)
                             Sultan Muhammad Shah Aminullah
17 Jun 1773 - Sep 1792     Aladdin Mansur Shah Iskandar Muda  (d. 1792)
                             Khalifat ur-Rahman Sulong ibni  
                             al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad Shah
                             Aminullah
1786 - Sep 1792            Ahmadin Shah ibni al-Marhum        (b. 17.. - d. 1806)
                             Sultan Muhammad Shah
                            
Aminullah -Regent  
Sep 1792 - 1806            Ahmadin Shah ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Muhammad Shah Aminullah   (s.a.)
1806 - 18 Aug 1825         Abdul Malik Mansur Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Ahmadin Shah    (d. 1825)
                             (executive powers removed from 1818)
1818 - 18 Aug 1825         Raja Tajuddin ibni
al-Marhum Sultan
                             Abdul Malik Muadzam Shah
                             Jamalullah -Regent

18 Aug 1825 - 20 Dec 1830  Abdullah Muadzam Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Malik     (d. 1830)
                             Mansur Shah
20 Dec 1830 - 1851         Shahabuddin Riayat Shah ibni       (d. 1851)
                             al-Marhum Raja Inu
1851 - 1857                Abdullah Muhammad Shah I
                             ibni al-Marhum Raja Inu          (d. 1857)
1857 - 20 Mar 1865         Jaafar Safiuddin Muadzam Shah
                             ibni al-Marhum Raja Ahmad        (d. 1865)
20 Mar 1865 - 25 May 1871  Ali al-Mukammal Inayat Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Shahabuddin
                             Riayat Shah                      (d. 1871)
26 May 1871 - 20 Jan 1874  Ismail Muabidin Riayat Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Syed Shaikh al-Khairat (d. 1889)
20 Jan 1874 - 30 Mar 1877  Abdullah Muhammad Shah II
                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Jaafar
                             Safiuddin Muadzam Shah           (b. 1842 - d. 1922)
30 Mar 1877 - 26 Jul 1887  Tuanku Yusuf I Sharifuddin Mufdzal
                             Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan       (d. 1887)
                             Abdullah Muhammad Shah
                             (regent to 11 May 1887)
26 Jul 1887 - 14 Jan 1916  Tuanku Idris Murshidul Aadzam
                             Shah ibni al-Marhum Raja 
                             Bendahara Alang Iskandar         (b. 1849 - d. 1916)
                            (from 1 Jan 1892,
Tuanku Sir Idris
                            
Murshidul Aadzam Shah ibni al-Marhum
                             Raja
Bendahara Alang Iskandar)  
14 Jan 1916 - 26 Oct 1918  Tuanku Abdul Jalil Nasruddin
                             Muhtaram Shah ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Idris Murshidul Aadzam    (b. 18.. - d. 1918)
                             Shah (from 3 Jun 1917, Tuanku Sir
                             Abdul Jalil Nasruddin
Muhtaram Shah
                            
ibni al-Marhum Sultan Idris Murshidul
                             Aadzam Shah)

26 Oct 1918 - 14 Oct 1938  Tuanku Iskandar Shah ibni         (b. 1881 - d. 1938)
                             al-Marhum Sultan Idris Murshidul
                             Aadzam Shah (from 1 Jan 1921, Tuanku
                            
Sir
Iskandar Shah ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan
Idris Murshidul Aadzam Shah)
14 Oct 1938 - 29 Mar 1948  Tuanku Abdul Aziz al-Mutasim       (b. 1887 - d. 1948)
                             Billah Shah ibni al-Marhum Raja
                             Muda Musa (from 3 May 1937, Tuanku
                             Sir
Abdul Aziz al-Mutasim Billah
                             Shah ibni al-Marhum Raja
Muda Musa                       
31 Mar 1948 -  4 Jan 1963  Tuanku Yusuf Izzuddin Shah ibni    (b. 1890 - d. 1963)
                             al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Jalil
                             Nasruddin Muhtaram Shah (from
                             1 Jan 1949,
Tuanku Sir Yusuf
                             Izzuddin
Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan
                             Abdul Jalil
Nasruddin Muhtaram Shah)           
 4 Jan 1963 - 31 Jan 1984  Tuanku Idris II al-Mutawakkil
                             Alallah Shah ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Iskandar Shah Kadasaullah (b. 1924 - d. 1984)
 3 Feb 1984 - 28 May 2014  Tuanku Azlan Muhibuddin Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Yusuf Izzuddin
                             Shah Ghafarullahu-Lah            (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
26 Apr 1989 - 25 Apr 1994  Raja Nazrin -Regent (1st time)     (b. 1956)
28 Jan 2008 - 29 May 2014  Raja Nazrin -Regent (2nd time)     (s.a.)
29 May 2014 -              Tuanku Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Azlan Muhibuddin
                             Shah                             (s.a.)


Chief ministers (title Menteri Besar)
 1 Feb 1948 -  1 Aug 1957  Abdul Wahab bin Toh Muda Abdul     (b. 1905 - d. 1959)  PKP
                             Aziz                        
 1 Aug 1957 - 16 Apr 1960  Mohamed Ghazali bin Jawi           (b. 1924)            UMNO
                             (1st time)           
16 Apr 1960 -  7 May 1964  Shaari bin Shafie                  (b. 1912)            UMNO
 7 May 1964 - 18 Mar 1970  Ahmad bin Said                     (b. 1919)            UMNO
18 Mar 1970 -  4 Sep 1974  Kamaruddin bin Mohd Isa            (b. 1930)            UMNO
 4 Sep 1974 -  1 Oct 1977  Mohamed Ghazali bin Jawi           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)           
 1 Oct 1977 -  1 Mar 1983  Wan Mohamed bin Wan Teh            (b. 1929)            UMNO
 1 Mar 1983 -  3 Dec 1999  Ramli Ngah Talib (from May 1984,
                             Dato' Seri Ramli Ngah Talib; from
                             7 Jun 1989, Tan Sri Ramli Ngah
                             Talib)                           (b. 1941)            UMNO
 3 Dec 1999 - 17 Mar 2008  Dato' Seri (from 11 Oct 2003,
                             Datuk Seri) Mohd Tajol Rosli
                             Ghazali                          (b. 1944)            UMNO
17 Mar 2008 -  6 Feb 2009  Mohammad Nizar Jamaluddin (from
                             19 Apr 2008, Datuk Seri Mohammad
                             Nizar Jamaluddin)(1st time)      (b. 1957
)            PAS
 6 Feb 2009 - 11 May 2009  Datuk (from 19 Apr 2009, Datuk
                             Seri) Zambry Abdul Kadir         (b. 1962)            UMNO
                             (1st time)

11 May 2009 - 12 May 2009  Datuk Seri Mohammad Nizar          (s.a.)               PAS
                             Jamaluddin (2nd time)
12 May 2009 -              Datuk Seri Zambry Abdul Kadir      (s.a.)               UMNO
                             (2nd time)



British Residents
 4 Oct 1874 -  2 Nov 1875  James Wheeler Woodford Birch       (b. 1826 - d. 1875)
Nov 1875 - Mar 1876        Frank Athelstane Swettenham        (b. 1850 - d. 1946)
                             (1st time)(acting)
11 Apr 1876 - 31 Mar 1877  James Guthrie Davidson

 1 Apr 1877 - 31 May 1889  Hugh Low (from 1883, Sir Hugh Low) (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
 1 Jun 1889 - 30 Jun 1896  Frank Athelstane Swettenham        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 1 Jul 1896 - 12 Dec 1901  Sir William Hood Treacher          (b. 1849 - d. 1919)

13 Dec 1901 -  9 Feb 1904  John Pickersgill Rodger            (b. 1851 - d. 1910)
 4 Nov 1903 -  7 Nov 1904  Henry Conway Belfield              (b. 1855 - d. 1923)
                             (acting for Rodger)
10 Feb 1904 -  5 Mar 1911  Ernest Woodford Birch              (b. 1857 - d. 1929)

15 Apr 1908 - 10 Dec 1908  Edward Lewis Brockman              (b. 1865 - d. 1943)
                             (acting for Birch)
 6 Jul 1910 - 30 Aug 1910  Oliver Marks (acting for Birch)    (b. 1866 - d. 1940)
 6 Dec 1910 - 31 Jan 1911
 Edward Lewis Brockman              (s.a.)
                             (acting for Birch)

 6 Mar 1911 - 15 Dec 1911  Henry Conway Belfield              (s.a.)
15 Dec 1911 -  9 Aug 1912  Oliver Marks (acting)              (s.a.)
 9 Aug 1912 - 12 Aug 1912 
William James Parke Hume           (b. 1866 - d. 1952)
                             (1st time)(acting) 
12 Aug 1912 - 17 Sep 1919  Reginald George Watson             (b. 1862 - d. 1926)

 3 Apr 1914 -  8 Feb 1915  Oliver Marks (acting for Watson)   (s.a.)
11 Nov 1916 - 23 Dec 1916
 Oliver Marks (acting for Watson)   (s.a.)
17 Sep 1919 - 12 Sep 1920  William George Maxwell             (b. 1871 - d. 1959)
                             (acting to 19 Dec 1919)
29 Jun 1920 - 13 Jul 1921  William James Parke Hume           (s.a.)

                             (acting for Maxwell to 12 Sep 1921) 

                             (2nd time)
14 Jul 1921 - 1925         Cecil William Chase Parr           (b. 1871 - d. 1943)

20 Apr 1923 -  6 Sep 1923  Francis Alexander Stewart          (b. 1873 - d. 1947)
                             McClelland (acting for Parr)
20 Dec 1925 - 1927         Oswald Francis Gerard Stonor       (b. 1872 - d. 1940)

 6 Jun 1927 - 1929         Henry Wagstaffe Thomson            (b. 1874 - d. 1941)
1929 - 1930                Charles Walter Hamilton Cochrane   (b. 1876 - d. 1932)
1931 - 1932                Bertram Walter Elles               (b. 1877 - d. 1963)
1933 - 1939                Geoffrey Edmund Cator              (b. 1884 - d. 1973)
1939 - 1941                Marcus Rex                         (b. 1886 - d. 1971)
Japanese Governors
1942                       T. Kubota
1942 - 1943                Kubata Shun

194. - 1945                Takajiro
1945                       Naokata Kawamura Nomura
1945                       Oda
British Resident Commissioners
1945 - 1946                Vivian Tyrell Champion de          (b. 1907 - d. 1952)
                             Crespigny (acting)      
1946                       R.N. Walker (acting)
1946 - Dec 1947            Adolphe Charles Jomaron            (b. 1893 - d. 1963)

 8 Jul 1946 - Sep 1947     Arthur Vincent Aston               (b. 1896 - d. 1981)

                             (acting for Jomaron)
Dec 1947 - Oct 1948        
James Innes Miller                 (b. 1892 - d. 1972)
Nov 1948 - 1951            John Graham Black                  (b. 1896 - d. 1988)
1951 - 1955                Ian William Blelloch               (b. 1901 - d. 1982)
Mar 1953 - Dec? 1953       Edwin Cyril Geddes Barrett         (b. 1909 - d. 1986)
                             (acting for
Blelloch)
Apr 1955 - Aug 1955        John Kelly Creer                   (b. 1908 - d. 1997)
                             (acting for Blelloch)
British
Adviser

1955 - 1956                Ian William Blelloch               (s.a.)
                             (from 1955, Sir Ian William Blelloch)

 ¹Full style of the ruler: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Maulana Paduka Sri Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Perak Dar ur-Ridzwan ("Sultan and Head of the State of Perak").



Perlis

[Perlis (Malaysia)]
                      Adopted 1870
 
Capital: Kangar
Hear State Anthem
"Amin Amin Ya Rabaljalil "
Text of State Anthem
Adopted 1935
Population: 227,025 (2010)

1759                       Negeri Perlis Indera Kayangan established (subject
                             to Kedah to 1821).
12 Sep 1821 - 16 Jul 1909  Perlis under Thai sovereignty.
1895 - 1909                Part of Thai monthon (region) of Phuket along with Kelantan
                             and Terengganu.
16 Jul 1909                British protectorate (an unfederated Malay state).
 8 Dec 1941 - 20 Aug 1943  Occupied by Japan (Malay Federation).
20 Aug 1943 -  8 Sep 1945  Annexed by Thailand.
 1 Apr 1946                Joins Malay Union (from 16 Sep 1963, Malaysia).

Rajas¹
20 May 1834 - 21 Nov 1873  Syed Husain ibni al-Marhum Syed
                             Harun Jamalullail                (b. 1805 - d. 1873)
21 Nov 1873 - 17 Feb 1897  Syed Ahmad ibni al-Marhum Syed
                             Husain Jamalullail               (b. 1825 - d. 1897)
17 Feb 1897 - 30 Dec 1904  Syed Safi ibni al-Marhum Syed
                             Alawi Jamalullail                (b. 1862 - d. 1905)
30 Dec 1904 -  1 Feb 1943  Syed Alawi ibni al-Marhum Syed
                             Safi Jamalullail                 (b. 1881 - d. 1943)
                            (from 1 Jan 1938,
Syed Sir Alawi
                             ibni al-Marhum Syed
Safi Jamalullail
 2 Feb 1943 - 20 Aug 1943  Syed Hamzah ibni al-Marhum
                             Syed Safi Jamalullail (1st time) (b. 1895 - d. 1958)
 8 Sep 1945 - 17 Sep 1945  Syed Hamzah ibni al-Marhum
                             Syed Safi Jamalullail (2nd time) (s.a.)
17 Sep 1945 - 16 Apr 2000  Syed Harun Putra ibni al-Marhum
                             Syed Hasan Jamalullail           (b. 1920 - d. 2000)
                            (from 31 May 1956,
Syed Sir Harun
                            
Putra ibni al-Marhum Syed Hasan
                             Jamalullail)

 1 Sep 1960 - 20 Aug 1965  Tengku Sulaiman -Regent            (b. 1932)
17 Apr 2000 -              Syed Sirajuddin ibni al-Marhum
                             Syed Putra Jamalullail           (b. 1943)
13 Dec 2001 - 12 Dec 2006  Syed Faizuddin Putra -Regent       (b. 1967)


Chief ministers (title Menteri Besar)
Feb 1948 - 20 Sep 1957     Raja Ahmad bin Raja Endut          (b. 1892 - d. 19..)  Non-party
1957 - 1959                Mohd Razali bin Mohamed Ali Wasi
 1 May 1959 - 31 Dec 1971  Tan Sri Sheikh Ahmad bin Mohamed   (b. 1896 - d. 19..)  PP+UMNO
                             Hashim
 1 Jan 1972 - 22 Oct 1981  Datuk Jaafar bin Hassan            (b. 1926)            BN+UMNO
 1 Nov 1981 - 13 Aug 1986  Datuk Ali bin Ahmad                (b. 1925)            BN+UMNO
13 Aug 1986 -  6 May 1995  Tan Sri Abdul Hamid Pawanteh       (b. 1944)            BN+UMNO
 6 May 1995 - 17 Mar 2008  Shahidan Kassim (from 4 Dec 1995,  (b. 1951)            BN+UMNO
                             Dato' Seri Shahidan Kassim; from
                             25 Oct 2002, Datuk Seri Shahidan
                             Kassim)                        
17 Mar 2008 -  7 May 2013  Datuk (from 17 May 2008, Datuk
                             Seri) Mohammad Isa Sabu          (b. 1947)            BN+UMNO
 7 May 2013 -              Azlan Man                          (b. 1958)            BN+UMNO


British Advisers
1909 - 1910                Meadows Frost (1st time)           (b. 1875 - d. 1954)
1910                       Alexander Cavendish (acting)       (b. 1878 - d. 1960)
1910 - 1911                Meadows Frost (2nd time)(acting)   (s.a.)
1911 - 18 Oct 1911         J.G. Richey (acting)               (b. 18.. - d. 1911)
1911 - 1913                Henry Charles Eckhardt (1st time)  (b. 1877 - d. 19..)
1913 - 1914                George Muir Laidlaw (acting)       (b. 1878 - d. 1919)
1914 - 1920                Henry Charles Eckhardt (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1920 - 1922                Edward Warren Nevile Wyatt (acting)(b. 1879 - d. 1962)
1922 - 1923                Thomas Watts Clayton               (b. 1877 - d. 1972)
1923 - 1925                John Whitehouse Ward Hughes        (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
1925 - 1928                P.S. Williams 
1928 - 1930                Lucien Arthur Allen                (b. 1888 - d. 1977)
Dec 1930 - 1932            Mortimer Cecil Hay                 (b. 1891 - d. 1981)
1932 - 1933                Malcolm Bond Shelley               (b. 1879 - d. 1968)
1933 - 1935                Oswald Eric Venables               (b. 1891 - d. 1960)
1935 - 1937                Charles Roberts Howitt             (b. 1894 - d. 1969)
1937 - 1939                Christopher William Dawson         (b. 1896 - d. 1983)
1939 - 1941                Edward Victor Grace Day (1st time) (b. 1896 - d. 1968)
Japanese Governors
1941 - 1942                Ohyama Kikancho
Mar 1942 - 20 Aug 1943     Sukegawa Seiji (Osagawa)
Thai Military Commissioner
20 Aug 1943 -  8 Sep 1945  Charn Na Song Khram
British Resident Commissioners
Sep 1945 - 1946            D. Burr
                             (civil affairs officer)
1945 - 1946                Osley (acting)
 1 Apr 1946 - 26 May 1946  Edward Victor Grace Day (2nd time) (s.a.)

                             (acting)
1946 - 1947                Richard John Froude Curtis         (b. 1897 - d. 1987)
                             (1st time) (acting)
1947 - 1948                Arthur Glencross (1st time)(acting)(b. 1908 - d. 1993)

1948                       Richard John Froude Curtis         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)      

1948 - 1951                Maurice John Hayward               (b. 1906 - d. 2001)
1951                       Arthur Glencross (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)
1951 - 1955                Frank Marshall Smith
               (b. 1912 - d. ....)
British Advisers

1955? - 1956               William "Bill" Foulsham            (b. 1914 - d. 2012)
1956 - 31 Aug 1957         John Hamer                         (b. 1910 - d. 1990)

 ¹Full style of the ruler: Raja dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Perlis Indra Kayangan ("Raja and Head of the State of Perlis").



Putrajaya
 
[Putrajaya
                          (Malaysia)]
                   Adopted 1 Feb 2001
 
[Federal
                          Territories (Malaysia)]
   Adopted 27 May 2006 Federal Territory Flag
 
Capital: Putrajaya
Hear Local Anthem
"Maju Dan Sejahtera"
(Progress and Prosperity)
Text of Local Anthem
Adopted 28 Jan 2011
Population: 67,964 (2010)

 1 Feb 2001                Federal Territory of Putrajaya created (from southern
                             district of Selangor).

Presidents of Putrajaya Corporation
 1 Feb 2001 - 14 Jul 2004  Tan Sri Datuk Seri Azizan Zainul   (b. 1935 - d. 2004)  UMNO+BN
                             Abidin 
 8 Aug 2004 - 31 Jul 2012  Tan Sri Samsudin Osman             (b. 1947)            MCA+BN
 1 Aug 2012 -              Tan Sri Aseh Che Mat               (b. 1951)            UMNO



Sabah
 
[Flag of the United Kingdom]
              26 Aug 1881 - 5 Jan 1882
 
 
[State Ensign 1882-1948 (North
                          Borneo, Malaysia)]
 5 Jan 1882 - 3 Jan 1942, 10 Sep 1945 - 13 Sep 1948
                      State Ensign
 
[State Ensign 1882-1948 (North
                          Borneo, Malaysia)]
 5 Jan 1882 - 3 Jan 1942, 10 Sep 1945 - 13 Sep 1948
                       Civil Ensign
 
[Blue ensign of
                          the British North Borneo Company (North
                          Borneo, Malaysia)]
               13 Sep 1948 - 31 Aug 1963
 
[Sabah 1963 -
                          1982 (Malaysia)]
                31 Aug 1963 - 31 Dec 1981 
 
[Sabah 1982 -
                          1988 (Malaysia)]
                 1 Jan 1982 - 16 Sep 1988
 
[Sabah
                          (Malaysia)]
                   Adopted 16 Sep 1988
 


Capital: Kota Kinabalu
(Jesselton 1946-30 Sep 1967;
Sandakhan 1877-1881, 
1883-1942, 1945-1946;
Elopura 1942-1945;
Kudat 1881-1883;
Boruneo Kita: Kuching 1942-43, Elopura 1943-1945)
Hear State Anthem
"Sabah Tanah Airku"
(Sabah, My Homeland)
Text of State Anthem
Adopted 19 Jul 1963
Population: 3,117,405 (2010)
454,000 (1961)
------------------------------
Currency
: 1885-1953 British
North Borneo Dollar (BNBD);
1953-1963
Malaya and British
Borneo Dollar (MYAD)
International Organizations/Treaties to 1963: IMO (associate), IOC, ITU (associate), UNESCO (associate), UPU, WMO

1704                       Sultan of Brunei cedes the lands east of Marudu Bay to the
                             Sultanate of Sulu.
22 Jan 1763 - 26 Feb 1775  Sultan of Sulu cedes Pulau Balambangan and part of the North
                             Borneo coast to British East India Company; Balambangan is
                             renamed Felicia Island.
1775 - 15 Jul 1946         Formally under the sovereignty of the Sultan of Sulu 
                             (but from 1881 under British rule [see Philippines]).
1803 - Nov 1805            Second British attempt to settle Balambangan.
Nov 1865 - 1866            Failed American Trading Company settlement named Ellena in
                             North Borneo near the mouth of the Kimanis River.
26 Aug 1881                British North Borneo Charter Company rule.
12 May 1888                British protectorate (State of North Borneo)¹
18 Jan 1942 - 10 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation; part of Boruneo Kita (North Borneo)
                             (Brunei, British North Borneo, Sarawak and Labuan).
                             in May 1942 British Borneo divided into 4 shu (provinces/states)
                             - Seikai-shu (west coast and Jesselton); Kuching-shu (Kuching,  
                             Sarawak); Miri-shu (Brunei and north Sarawak); and
                             Tokai-shu (east coast and Sandakan); [Sibu-shu (3rd division of
                             Sarawak: Rejang and Central Sarawak) Jul 1942 - Oct 1943?];
                             May - Jul 1942 Pontianak on the west coast of Dutch Borneo
                             was also briefly a shu.
10 Sep 1945 -  5 Jan 1946  Australian military administration.
 5 Jan 1946 - 15 Jul 1946  British military administration.
15 Jul 1946                British crown colony (British North Borneo [incl. Labuan]).
31 Aug 1963                Self-government granted.
16 Sep 1963                Joins Federation of Malaysia.

Chiefs of Balambangan
22 Jan 1763 - 21 Mar 1771  Alexander Dalrymple                (b. 1737 - d. 1808)
1774 - 26 Feb 1775         John Herbert -Resident             (b. 1723 - d. 1791)
1775 - 1803                abandoned
1803 - Nov 1805            Robert Townsend Farquhar           (b. 1776 - d. 1830)

Governors at Ellena
Nov 1865 - 1866            Thomas B. Harris                   (b. 1826? - d. 1866)
                           + Joseph W. Torrey                 (b. 1828 - d. 1883) 
                            (titled Rajah of Ambong and Marudu)
Maharajah of Sabah and Rajah of Gaya and Sandakan
29 Dec 1877 - 26 Aug 1881  Alfred Dent                        (b. 1844 - d. 1927)
Chairmen of the British North Borneo Provisional Association, Ltd.
26 Aug 1881 - Apr/May 1882 Gustav Freiherr von Overbeck       (b. 1830 - d. 1894)
                           + Alfred Dent                      (s.a.)
                           + Richard Charles Mayne            (b. 1835 - d. 1892)
                           + William Henry McLeod Read        (b. 1819 - d. 1907)
Chairmen of the British North Borneo Chartered Company
Apr/May 1882 - 1893        Sir Rutherford Alcock              (b. 1809 - d. 1897)
1893 - 1903                Richard Biddulph Martin            (b. 1838 - d. 1916)
1903 - 1909                Sir Charles James Jessel           (b. 1860 - d. 1928)
1909 - 14 Sep 1910         William Clark Cowie                (b. 1849 - d. 1910)
Presidents of the British North Borneo Chartered Company
1910 - 1926                Sir Joseph West Ridgeway           (b. 1844 - d. 1930)
 3 Feb 1926 - 15 Jul 1946  Sir Neill Malcolm                  (b. 1869 - d. 1953)

Governors
26 Aug 1881 - 1887         William Hood Treacher              (b. 1849 - d. 1919)
1887 - 1888                William Maunder Crocker            (b. 1843 - d. 1899)
1888 - 1895                Charles Vandelleur Creagh          (b. 1842 - d. 1917)
1895 - 1900                Leicester Paul Beaufort            (b. 1853 - d. 1926)
1900 - 1901                Hugh Charles Clifford              (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
1901 - 1903                Ernest Woodford Birch              (b. 1857 - d. 1929)
1904 - 1911                Edward Peregrine Gueritz           (b. 1855 - d. 1938)
1911 - 1912                Francis Robert Ellis               (b. 1849 - d. 1915)
1912                       F.W. Fraser (1st time)(acting)
1912 -  6 Dec 1912         James Scott Mason                  (b. 1853 - d. 1912)

1912 - 1913                F.W. Fraser (2nd time)(acting)
1913 - 1915                Cecil William Chase Parr           (b. 1871 - d. 1943)
1915 - 1916                F.W. Fraser (3rd time)(acting)
1916 - 1922                Aylmer Cavendish Pearson (1st time)(b. 1876 - d. 1926)

1919                       F.W. Fraser (acting for Pearson)
1922 - 1925                Sir William Henry Rycroft          (b. 1861 - d. 1925)

1925 - 1926                Aylmer Cavendish Pearson (2nd time)(s.a.)
Oct 1926 - 16 Dec 1929     John Lisseter Humphreys            (b. 1881 - d. 1929)
1930 - 1933                Arthur Frederick Richards          (b. 1885 - d. 1978)
1934 - 1937                Douglas James Jardine              (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
1937 - 18 Jan 1942         Charles Robert Smith (1st time)    (b. 1887 - d. 1959)
                             (Japanese prisoner 18 Jan 1942 - Aug 1945)
Japanese military governors
Dec 1941 - 1942            Kiyatoki Kawaguchi                 (b. 1892 - d. 1961) 
1942                       Yoshitake Tsuda
11 Apr 1942 -  5 Sep 1942  Maeda Toshinari                    (b. 1885 - d. 1942) 
 5 Sep 1942 - 26 Dec 1944  Yamawaki Masataka                  (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
26 Dec 1944 - 10 Sep 1945  Masao Baba                         (b. 1892 - d. 1947)
Japanese civil governors
- of Seikai-shu -
194. - 194.                Yoshimasa Murakami
20 Nov 1943 -  1 Jun 1945  Kuji Manabu
1945                       Kuroda Shigeru
- of Kuching-shu -
1942 - c.1943              Nozoki
1943 - 194.                Yamada Setsuo                      (b. 1898 - d. 1975)
194. - 1945                Sotojiro Tokuno 
- of Miri-shu -
194. - 1945                Kodama Roichi
- of Tokai-shu -
1942 - 1945                Taneki Kunabe
- of Sibu-shu -
1942 - 1943?               Kawada Saburoo (?)
                             (administrative officer)
Allied Military Governors

10 Sep 1945 - Jan 1946     Sir Thomas Charles Eastick         (b. 1900 - d. 1988)
                             (Australia) 
Jan 1946 - 15 Jul 1946     Edward Cecil James Woodford (U.K.) (b. 1901 - d. 1988) 
Chief Civil Affairs Officers for Borneo
1945                       James Calder (acting)              (b. 1898 - d. 1968)
10 Sep 1945 - 30 May 1946  Charles Frederick Cunningham       (b. 1888 - d. 1969)

                             Macaskie
Governors
10 Sep 1945 - Nov 1946     Charles Robert Smith (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Nov 1946 - 1949            Edward Francis Twining             (b. 1899 - d. 1967)
1950 - 1954                Sir Herbert Ralph Hone             (b. 1896 - d. 1992)
 4 Mar 1954 - 1959         Sir Ronald Evelyn Turnbull         (b. 1905 - d. 1960)
1959 - 1963                Sir William Allmond Codrington     (b. 1907 - d. 1986)
                             Goode
Heads of State (title Yang di-Pertuan Negara; from 1976, Yang di-Pertua Negeri)
16 Sep 1963 - 16 Sep 1965  Tun Mustapha Harun                 (b. 1918 - d. 1995)  UNSO+BN
16 Sep 1965 - 16 Sep 1973  Datuk Pangeran Ahmad Rafai         (b. 1908 - d. 1995)  BERJAYA+UPKO
16 Sep 1973 - 28 Jul 1975  Tun Mohd Fuad Stephens             (b. 1920 - d. 1976)  BERJAYA+BN
28 Jul 1975 - 12 Oct 1977  Datuk Mohamad Indan Kari           (b. 1922 - d. 1977)  USNO
                             (from 1 Jun 1977, Tun Mohd Hamdan)
12 Oct 1977 - 25 Jun 1978  Tun Ahmad Koroh                    (b. 1925 - d. 1978)
27 Jun 1978 - 31 Dec 1986  Tun Datuk Mohamad Adnan Robert     (b. 1917 - d. 2003)
 1 Jan 1987 - 31 Dec 1994  Tun Mohamad Said Keruak            (b. 1926 - d. 1995)  UMNO+BN
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 2002  Tun Sakaran Dandai                 (b. 1930)            UMNO+BN
 1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2010  Datuk (from Mar 2003, Tun)         (b. 1946)
                             Ahmadshah Abdullah Datuk
 1 Jan 2011 -              Datuk Seri (from 19 Apr 2011, Tun) (b. 1953)            UMNO
                             Juhar Mahiruddin              


Chief ministers (title Ketua Menteri)

16 Sep 1963 - 31 Dec 1964  Donald Stephens (1st time)         (s.a.)               UPKO+BN
 1 Jan 1965 - 12 May 1967  Peter Lo Su Yin                    (b. 1923)            SCA+PP
12 May 1967 -  1 Nov 1975  Tun Mustapha Harun (1st time)      (s.a.)               USNO+BN
 1 Nov 1975 - 18 Apr 1976  Tun Mohamad Said Keruak            (s.a.)               USNO+BN
18 Apr 1976 -  6 Jun 1976  Tun Mohd Fuad Stephens (2nd time)  (s.a.)               BERJAYA+BN
 6 Jun 1976 - 22 Apr 1985  Datuk Harris Salleh                (b. 1933)            BERJAYA+BN
22 Apr 1985  (hours)       Tun Mustapha Harun (2nd time)      (s.a.)               USNO+BN
22 Apr 1985 - 17 Mar 1994  Datuk (from 1986, Datuk Seri       (b. 1940)            PBS
                             Panglima) Joseph Pairin Kitingan 
17 Mar 1994 - 27 Dec 1994  Tun Sakaran Dandai                 (s.a.)               UMNO+BN
27 Dec 1994 - 28 May 1996  Datuk (from 21 Mar 1996, Datuk     (b. 1957)            UMNO+BN
                             Seri) Salleh Said Keruak 
28 May 1996 - 28 May 1998  Datuk Yong Teck Lee                (b. 1958)            SAPP+BN
28 May 1998 - 14 Mar 1999  Tan Sri Bernard Dompok             (b. 1949)            PDS+BN
14 Mar 1999 - 27 Mar 2001  Datuk Seri Osu Sukam               (b. 1949)            UMNO+BN
27 Mar 2001 - 27 Mar 2003  Datuk Chong Kah Kiat               (b. 1948)            LDP+BN
 7 Mar 2003 -              Datuk (from 11 Oct 2003, Datuk     (b. 1951)            UMNO+BN
                             Seri) Musa Aman 
                             (acting for Chong to 27 Mar 2003)

British Agents for Sarawak and North Borneo
12 May 1888 -  3 Jan 1942  the governors of the Straits
                           Settlements (see Singapore)

Territorial Dispute: Sabah was claimed by Spain to 1898, and since 1946 by the Philippines.

 ¹Gustav Freiherr von Overbeck (s.a.) was appointed Maharajah of Sabah and Rajah of Gaya and Sandakan by the Sultan of Brunei 29 Dec 1877 and Datu Bendahara and Rajah of Sandakan by the Sultan of Sulu 22 Jan 1878. In early 1881 Overbeck, Alfred Dent (s.a.), Richard Charles Mayne (s.a.), and William Henry McLeod Read (s.a.) established the British North Borneo Provisional Association, Ltd. The British North Borneo Chartered Company (charter dated 1 Nov 1881) became the entity which, under U.K. protection and formal suzerainty of the Sultan of Sulu, constituted the State of North Borneo. The governors were appointed (with U.K. authorization) by the Chartered Company.



Sarawak
 
[Flag of Sarawak
                          1841-1848]
          24 Sep 1841 - 21 Sep 1848
 
 
[Flag of
                          Sarawak 1848-1870]
               21 Sep 1848 - 7 May 1870 
 
 
[Sarawak
                          1870-1946 (Malaysia)]
               7 May 1870 - 25 Dec 1941, 
               10 Sep 1945 - 30 Jun 1946
 
[Flag of the United
                          Kingdom]
                  1 Jul 1946 - 10 Mar 1947
 
[Sarawak Crown
                          Colony 1947-1963 (Malaysia)]
               10 Mar 1947 - 10 Aug 1963 
 
[Flag of
                          Sarawak 1963-1973]
              10 Aug 1963 - 31 Aug 1973
[Sarawak
                          (Malaysia) 1973-1988]
          31 Aug 1973 - 31 Aug 1988
[Sarawak
                          (Malaysia)]
                   Adopted 31 Aug 1988


Capital: Kuching 
Hear State Anthem
"Ibu Pertiwiku" 
(My Motherland)
Adopted 31 Aug 1988
Former State Anthems
"Gone Forth Beyond the Sea"
(1872-c.1946);
"Fair Land Sarawak"
(c.1963-1973);
"Sarawak Bahagia"
(1973-1988)
Population: 2,420,009 (2010)
777,000 (1961)
  -----------------------------
Currency: 1858-1953
Sarawak Dollar (SWKD);

1953-1963 Malaya and British
Borneo Dollar (MYAD)
International Organizations/Treaties to 1963: IMO (associate), ITU (associate), UNESCO (associate), UPU, WMO

24 Sep 1841                Sarawak given to James Brooke by the Sultan of Brunei.
1853                       Independence from Brunei.
19 Feb 1857 - 23 Feb 1857  Chinese revolt under Liu Shanbang (d. 1857) occupies
                             of Kuching.
14 Jun 1888                British protectorate.
24 Dec 1941 - 10 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation, part of Boruneo Kita; May 1942 Sarawak 
                             divided into 2 Shu (provinces/states)- Kuching-shu (southern
                             Sarawak) and Miri-shu (northern Sarawak and Brunei) and briefly
                             Sibu-shu (central Sarawak) Jul 1942 - Oct? 1943 (see Sabah).
11 Sep 1945 - 15 Apr 1946  Australian military administration (see under Sabah).
 1 Jul 1946                British crown colony.
31 Aug 1963                Self-government granted.
16 Sep 1963                Joins Federation of Malaysia.

Governor
24 Sep 1841 - 18 Aug 1842  James Brooke                       (b. 1803 - d. 1868) 
Rajahs¹
18 Aug 1842 - 11 Jun 1868  James Brooke                       (s.a.)
                             (from 27 Apr 1848, Sir James Brooke)
11 Jun 1868 - 17 May 1917  Charles Johnson Brooke             (b. 1829 - d. 1917)
                             (from 2 Jun 1888, Sir Charles Johnson Brooke) 
1859 - 1863                John Brooke Johnson Brooke         (b. 1823 - d. 1868)
                             (acting for the absent Rajah)
1863 - 1868                Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke     (b. 1829 - d. 1917)
                             (acting for the absent Rajah)
17 May 1917 -  1 Jul 1946  Charles Vyner Brooke               (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
                             (from 3 Jun 1927, Sir Charles Vyner Brooke)
                             (in exile [Australia and U.K.] 25 Dec 1941 - 14 Apr 1946)
1939 - 1940                Anthony Walter Dayrell Brooke      (b. 1912 - d. 2011) 
                             (acting for the absent Rajah)
24 Dec 1941 - 10 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation (see under Sabah)
1945 - 1946                British military administrators
                           - William Piercy Nevill Leslie     (d. 1970)
                              Ditmas (at Kuching)
                           - John Keith McCarthy (at Sibu)    (b. 1905 - d. 1976)
                           - R.G. Talbot (at Marudi)
Governors
29 Oct 1946 - 1949         Sir Charles Noble Arden-Clarke     (b. 1898 - d. 1962)
14 Nov 1949 - 10 Dec 1949  Duncan George Stewart              (b. 1904 - d. 1949)
10 Dec 1949 - 1950         Christopher William Dawson         (b. 1896 - d. 1983)
                             (acting)
 4 Apr 1950 - 1959         Anthony Foster Abell               (b. 1906 - d. 1994)
                             (from 1 Jan 1952, Sir Anthony Foster Abell) 
23 Feb 1960 - 1963         Sir Alexander Nicol Anton Waddell  (b. 1913 - d. 1999)
Heads of State (title Yang di-Pertua Negeri)
16 Sep 1963 - 28 Mar 1969  Tun Datuk Abang Openg bin Abang    (b. 1905 - d. 1969)
                             Sapie                       
 2 Apr 1969 -  2 Apr 1977  Tun Bujang bin Tunku Othman        (b. 1898 - d. 1986)
 2 Apr 1977 -  2 Apr 1981  Datuk Patinggi (from 7 Jun 1978,
                             Tun Datuk Patinggi) Abang
                            
Muhammad Salahuddin (1st time)   (b. 1921)
 2 Apr 1981 -  2 Apr 1985  Datuk Seri Panglima (from 1982,
                             Tun) Abdul Rahman Yakub          (b. 1928)
 2 Apr 1985 -  4 Dec 2000  Tun Datuk Patinggi Ahmad Zaidi
                             Adruce bin Mohamad Noor          (b. 1924 - d. 2000)
 4 Dec 2000 - 28 Feb 2014  Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Muhammad
                             Salahuddin (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                             (acting to 22 Feb 2001)
 1 Mar 2014 -              Pehin Sri Abdul Taib Mahmud        (b. 1936)

Chief minister
1843 - 1846                Thomas Williamson                  (b. 1818/19 - d. 1846)
Resident
1863 - 1873                Arthur Chichester Crookshank       (b. 1825 - d. 1891)
Chairmen of the Committee of Administration
1875 - 1880                William Maunder Crocker            (b. 1843 - d. 1899)
1881 - 1895                Francis Richard Ord Maxwell        (b. 1849 - d. ....) 
1896 - 1903                Charles Agar Bampfylde             (b. 1856 - d. 1918) 
1903 - 1904                Henry FitzGibbon Deshon            (b. 1858 - d. 1924)
1904 - 1909                Sir Percy Francis Cunynghame       (b. 1867 - d. 1947) 
1909 - 1910                Harry Robert Arbuthnot Day         (b. 1866 - d. 1939)
1910 - 1915                Ivone Kirkpatrick-Caldecott        (b. 1867 - d. 1951) 
1915 - 1923                Arthur Bartlett Ward               (b. 1879 - d. 1957)
Chief Secretaries (and Chairmen of the Committee of Administration)
1923 - 1926                John Coney Moulton                 (b. 1886 - d. 1926)
1927 - 1928                Harold Brooke Crocker              (b. 1881 - d. 1941) 
1928 - 1930                Charles Vyner Brooke (1st time)    (s.a.)
1930                       Sir Francis Farrington Boult       (b. 1879 - d. 1952)
1930                       James Colin Swayne (1st time)      (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
                             (acting)

1930 - 1931                Charles Vyner Brooke (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1931 - 1932                James Colin Swayne (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting)

1932 - 1934                Charles Frederick Cunningham       (b. 1888 - d. 1969)
                             Macaskie (government secretary) 
1934 - 1937                Charles Vyner Brooke (3rd time)    (s.a.)
1937 - 1939                Edward Parnell
1939 - 1941                John Beville Archer (1st time)     (b. 1893 - d. 1947)
May 1941 - 25 Dec 1941     Cyril Drummond Le Gros Clark       (b. 1894 - d. 1945)
25 Dec 1941 - 1946         Vacant
1946                       John Beville Archer (2nd time)     (s.a.)

1946 - 1950                Christopher William Dawson         (b. 1896 - d. 1983)
1950 - 1955                Robert Gordon Aikman               (b. 1905 - d. 1962)
1955 - 1958                John Hugh Ellis                    (b. 1909 - d. 1959)
1958 - 1959                John Coleraine Hanbury Barcroft    (b. 1908 - d. 1958)
1959 - 1963                Francis Derek Jakeway              (b. 1915 - d. 1993)
Chief ministers (title Ketua Menteri)
22 Jul 1963 - 16 Jun 1966  Stephen Kalong Ningkan             (b. 1920 - d. 1997)  SNAP
                             (from 1946, Datuk Stephen Kalong
                             Ningkan)
(1st time) 
16 Jun 1966 -  7 Sep 1966  Datuk Penghulu Tawi Sli (1st time) (b. 1912 - d. 1987)  PBB
 7 Sep 1966 - 23 Sep 1966  Datuk Stephen Kalong Ningkan       (s.a.)               SNAP
                             (2nd time) 
23 Sep 1966 -  7 Jul 1970  Datuk Penghulu Tawi Sli (2nd time) (s.a.)               PBB
 7 Jul 1970 - 26 Mar 1981  Datuk Seri Panglima Abdul Rahman   (s.a.)               BN+PBB
                             Yakub 
26 Mar 1981 - 28 Feb 2014  Datuk Patinggi (from 1988, Datuk
                             Seri; from 1989, Tan Sri; from
                            
2003, Pehin Sri) Abdul Taib
                             Mahmud
                           (s.a.)               BN+PBB
28 Feb 2014 -              Tan Sri Adenan Satem               (b. 1944)            BN+PBB

British Agents for Sarawak and North Borneo
14 Jun 1888 - 25 Dec 1941  the governors of the Straits
                           Settlements (see Singapore)
British Adviser
1940 - 25 Dec 1941         Walter Evelyn Pepys                (b. 1885 - d. 1966) 
British Resident
1946                       John Coleraine Hanbury Barcroft    (s.a.)
British Representative
1946 -  1 Jul 1946         Christopher William Dawson         (s.a.) 

 ¹Full style of the ruler: Sri Paduka Duli Yang Maha Mulia Rajah dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Sarawak ("The Rajah of Sarawak").



Selangor
 
[Selangor,1859-1965 ( Malaysia)]
                      1859 - 30 Jan 1965 
 
[Selangor
                          (Malaysia)]
                  Adopted 30 Jan 1965
 
Capital: Shah Alam
(Kuala Lumpur 1880-1974;
Klang 1743-1880, 1974-1977)
Hear State Anthem
"Duli Yang Maha Mulia"
(His Royal Highness)
Adopted 1967
Former State Anthem
"Allah Selamatkan"
(1908-1967)
Population: 5,411,324 (2010)

1743                       Negeri Selangor Darul Ehsan established.
 8 Jan 1758 - 1766         Under sovereignty of Johor.
13 Aug 1784 - 29 Jul 1786  Dutch occupation.
Oct 1874                   British protectorate.

 1 Jul 1896                Part of Federated Malay States.
11 Jan 1942 - 12 Sep 1945  Occupied by Japan (Malay Federation).
 1 Apr 1946                Joins Malay Union (from 16 Sep 1963, Malaysia).

Raja
1743 - 1766                Raja Lumu bin Daing Celak          (b. c.1705 - d. 1778)
Sultans¹
1766 - 1778                Tuanku Salahuddin Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Yamtuan Muda
                             Daing Celak (= Raja Lumu)        (s.a.)
1778 - 27 Oct 1826         Tuanku Ibrahim Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Salahuddin Shah (b. c.1736 - d. 1826)
                            (in Pahang exile 2 Aug 1784 - 29 Jul 1786)
13 Jul 1784 -  8 Apr 1785  Saiyid Ali bin Uthman Abdul        (b. 17.. - d. 1821)
                             Jalil Saifuddin -Regent
 8 Apr 1785 - 1786         Saiyid Abdul Rahman -Governor
27 Oct 1826 -  6 Jan 1857  Tuanku Muhammad Shah ibni

                             al-Marhum Sultan Ibrahim Shah    (b. 1772 - d. 1857)
 6 Jan 1857 -  6 Feb 1898  Tuanku Abdus Samad ibni al-Marhum
                             Raja Abdullah                    (b. 1804 - d. 1898)
                            (from 25 May 1886, Tuanku Sir Abdus
                             Samad
ibni al-Marhum Raja Abdullah)
 6 Jan 1857 - 1859         Raja Mahmud ibni al-Marhum

                             Sultan Muhammad Shah -Regent     (b. 1849 - d. 1919)
 6 Feb 1898 - 31 Mar 1938  Tuanku Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Raja Muda Musa         (b. 1863 - d. 1938)
                            (from 1 Jan 1912, Tuanku Sir Alaeddin
                             Sulaiman
Shah ibni al-Marhum Raja
                             Muda Musa)  

 4 Apr 1938 - 15 Feb 1942  Tuanku Hisamuddin Alam Shah

                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Alaeddin
                             Sulaiman Shah (1st time)         (b. 1898 - d. 1960)
                            (from 9 Jun 1938, Tuanku Sir
                            
Hisamuddin Alam Shah ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Alaeddin
Sulaiman Shah)
15 Feb 1942 - 14 Sep 1945  Tuanku Musa Ghiathuddin Riayat

                             Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan
                             Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah           (b. 1893 - d. 1955)
14 Sep 1945 -  1 Sep 1960  Tuanku Sir Hisamuddin Alam Shah
                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Alaeddin
                             Sulaiman Shah (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1960 -  1 Sep 1960  Tengku Salahuddin Shah -Regent     (b. 1926 - d. 2001)
 1 Sep 1960 - 21 Nov 2001  Tuanku Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah
                             ibni al-Marhum Hisamuddin Alam
                             Shah                             (s.a.)
26 Apr 1999 - 21 Nov 2001  Tengku Idris Shah -Regent          (b. 1945)
22 Nov 2001 -              Sharafuddin Idris Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul
                             Aziz Shah                        (s.a.)

Chief ministers (title Menteri Besar)
Jun 1947 - Jul 1949        Datuk Hamzah bin Abdullah                               Non-party
 1 Jul 1949 - Mar 1953     Raja Tun Uda Al-Haj bin Raja       (b. 1894 - d. 1976)  Non-party
                             Muhammed (1st time)
Mar 1953 - Sep 1954        Datuk Othman bin Mohamed           (b. 1905 - d. ....)  UMNO
Sep 1954 - Aug 1955        Raja Sir Tun Uda Al-Haj bin Raja   (s.a.)               UMNO
                             Muhammed (2nd time)
Aug 1955 - Jul 1957        Tan Sri Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Majid                      UMNO
Jul 1957 - May 1959        Tan Sri Abdul Jamil bin Abdul Rais (b. 1912 - d. ....)  UMNO
30 May 1959 - 19 Mar 1964  Datuk Abu Bakar Baginda            (d. 1972)            BN+UMNO
19 Mar 1964 - 15 Apr 1976  Dato' Harun Idris                  (b. 1925 - d. 2003)  BN+UMNO
15 Apr 1976 -  3 May 1982  Datuk Hormat Rafei                 (b. 1923 - d. 2001)  BN+UMNO
 3 May 1982 - 14 Aug 1986  Dato' Ahmad Razali Mohd Ali        (b. 1928 - d. 2001)  BN+UMNO
14 Aug 1986 - 14 Apr 1997  Muhammad Muhammad Taib             (b. 1945)            BN+UMNO
                             (from 8 Mar 1987, Datuk Muhammad 
                             Muhammad Taib; from 7 Jun 1989, 
                             Tan Sri Muhammad Muhammad Taib) 
 2 May 1997 - 18 Aug 2000  Datuk Seri Abu Hassan Omar         (b. 1940)            BN+UMNO
18 Aug 2000 - 13 Mar 2008  Mohamad Khir Toyo                  (b. 1965)            BN+UMNO
                             (from 14 Sep 2000, Datuk Mohamad 
                             Khir Toyo; from 10 Mar 2001, Datuk 
                             Seri Mohamad Khir Toyo)
13 Mar 2008 - 23 Sep 2014  Tan Sri Khalid Ibrahim             (b. 1946)            PKR
23 Sep 2014 -             
Mohamad Azmin Ali                  (b. 1964)            PKR  


British Residents

20 Jan 1875 -  1 Nov 1875  James Guthrie Davidson         
20 Nov 1875 -  1 Oct 1882  Bloomfield Douglas                 (b. 1822 - d. 1906)
 2 Oct 1882 - 31 May 1889  Frank Athelstane Swettenham        (b. 1850 - d. 1946)
 8 Feb 1884 -  8 Jan 1888  John Pickersgill Rodger (1st time) (b. 1851 - d. 1910)
                             (acting for Swettenham)
 1 Jun 1889 - 16 Mar 1892  William Edward Maxwell             (b. 1846 - d. 1897)
 3 Apr 1892 -  9 May 1892  Frederick Gordon Penney            (b. 1856? - d. 1928)
                            
(acting for Maxwell)
17 Mar 1892 - 30 Jun 1896  William Hood Treacher              (b. 1849 - d. 1919)

 9 May 1892 - 10 Jan 1893  Ernest Woodford Birch              (b. 1857 - d. 1929)
                             (acting for Treacher)
Jul 1896 - 12 Dec 1901     John Pickersgill Rodger (2nd time) (s.a.)

 5 Apr 1897 -  4 Jul 1897  Henry Conway Belfield (1st time)   (b. 1855 - d. 1923)
                             (acting for Rodger)
 4 Oct 1897 - 21 Apr 1898  Henry Conway Belfield (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting for Rodger)
 5 Apr 1899 - 28 Sep 1899  
Henry Conway Belfield (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting for Rodger)
29 Sep 1899 -  2 Jan 1900  Robert Sandilands Frowd Walker     (b. 1850 - d. 1917)
                            
(acting for Rodger)
 3 Jan 1900 - 23 Sep 1901  Henry Conway Belfield (4th time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting for Rodger)
 1 Oct 1901 - 24 Oct 1901  Hugh Clifford (acting for Rodger)
24 Oct 1901 - 18 Jun 1902  Edward Marsh Merewether            (b. 1858 - d. 1938)
                             (acting [for Rodger to 12 Dec 1901])
19 Jun 1902 - 18 Aug 1902  Arthur Reid Venning (acting)       (b. 1846 - d. 1927)
18 Aug 1902 -  5 Mar 1911  Henry Conway Belfield (5th time)   (s.a.)

18 Jan 1911 - 15 Aug 1911  James Oliver Anthonisz             (b. 1860 - d. 1921)
                            
(acting for Belfield)
 4 Nov 1903 - 17 Feb 1905 
Douglas Graham Campbell (1st time) (b. 1867 - d. 1918)
                             (acting for Belfield)
10 Nov 1906 - 15 Feb 1907
 Douglas Graham Campbell (2nd time) (s.a.)
                            (acting for Belfield)

23 Oct 1908 - 29 Jan 1909  Douglas Graham Campbell (3rd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting for Belfield)

 6 Mar 1911 -  8 Aug 1913  Reginald George Watson             (b. 1862 - d. 1926)
                             (acting to 9 Aug 1912)
 9 Aug 1912 -  1 Jul 1919  Edward George Broadrick            (b. 1864 - d. 1929)

 8 Aug 1913 - 20 Aug 1914  E. Burnside (acting for Broadrick)
 7 Jun 1917 - 28 Dec 1917  John Richard Oliver Aldworth       (b. 1868 - d. 1948)
                             (acting for Broadrick)
 1 Jul 1919 - 12 Feb 1920  Arthur Henry Lemon                 (b. 1864 - d. 1933)

                             (acting to 3 Sep 1919)
13 Feb 1920 - 12 Dec 1921  Oliver Marks                       (b. 1866 - d. 1940)
                             (acting to 13 Feb 1921)
13 Sep 1921 -  2 Nov 1921  Edward Shaw Hose (acting for Marks)(b. 1871 - d. 1946)
13 Dec 1921 - 1926         Oswald Francis Gerard Stonor       (b. 1872 - d. 1940)

25 Oct 1923 - 26 Mar 1924  Ralph Scott (acting for Stonor)    (b. 1874 - d. 1962)
27 Mar 1924 -  9 Apr 1924  H.S. Sircom
(acting for Stonor)
1926 - 1927                Henry Wagstaffe Thomson            (b. 1874 - d. 1941)
1927 - 1931                James Lornie                       (b. 1876 - d. 1959)
Jul 1932 - 1933            Geoffrey Edmund Cator              (b. 1884 - d. 1973)
1933 - 1934                George Ernest London (acting)      (b. 1889 - d. 1957)
Jan 1935 - 1935            William Douglas Barron (acting)    (b. 1887 - d. 1970)
Dec 1935 - Dec 1936
        Theodore Samuel Adams              (b. 1885 - d. 1961)
Jan 1937 - Jun 1940        Stanley Wilson Jones               (b. 1888 - d. 1962)
Jun 1940 - Aug 1941        George Montgomery Kidd             (b. 1889 - d. 1942)
Aug 1941 - Dec 1941        Norman Rowlstone Jarrett (acting)  (b. 1889 - d. 1982)
Japanese Governors
194. - 1942                Fujiyama
1942 - 14 Apr 1942         Shinzo Kikuchi
Apr 1942 - 1945            Shotaro Katayama                   (b. 1889 - d. 1982)

British Resident Commissioners
1945 -  1 Apr 1946         ....
 1 Apr 1946 - 1947         George Evans Cameron Wisdom        (b. 1899 - d. 1958)
                             (acting)
1947 - Feb 1949            Arthur Louis Birse                 (b. 1898 - d. 1973?)
Feb 1949 - 1950            
Richard John Froude Curtis         (b. 1897 - d. 1987)
1950 - Oct 1952            Alexander Noel Ross                (b. 1905 - d. 1972)
Oct 1952 - 1954            Harold George Hammett              (b. 1906 - d. 1999)
1954 - 1955
               Frederick Victor Duckworth         (b. 1901 - d. 1974)
Nov 1954 - Mar? 1955      
George Shirley Rawlings            (b. 1904 - d. 1963)
                             (acting for Duckworth)
British Adviser
1955 - Jun 1956            Frederick Victor
Duckworth         (s.a.)

 ¹Full style of the ruler: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Selangor Dar
ul-Ihsan
("Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of the State of Selangor").



Terengganu
 
[Terengganu 1912 -
                        1933]
                 1912 - 1933
 
[State Flag
                          (Trengganu, Malaysia) 1933 - 1947]
                   1933 - 1947 
 
[Trengganu
                          (Malaysia)]
                        Adopted 1947
 
Capital: Kuala Terengganu
Hear State Anthem
"Selamat Sultan"
(Save the Sultan) 
Text of State Anthem
Adopted 1927
Population: 1,015,776 (2010)

1512                       Part of Johor.
1725                       Negeri Terengganu Darul Iman established.
c.1781 -  9 Jul 1909       Terengganu under Thai sovereignty.
1895 - 1909                Part of Thai monthon (region) of Phuket along with Kelantan, Perlis.
 9 Jul 1909                British protectorate (an unfederated Malay state).
11 Dec 1941 - 20 Aug 1943  Occupied by Japan.
20 Aug 1943 -  8 Sep 1945  Annexed by Thailand.
 1 Apr 1946                Joins Malay Union (from 16 Sep 1963, Malaysia).

Sultans¹
1725 -  7 Mar 1733         Tuanku Zainal Abidin I ibni
                             al-Marhum Bendahara Seri
                             Maharaja Tun Habib Abdul Majid   (b. 1678 - d. 1733)
 7 Mar 1733 - 26 Jan 1793  Tuanku Mansur Shah I ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Zainal Abidin   (b. 1715 - d. 1793)
 7 Mar 1733 - 26 Feb 1741  Engku Tanang Wangsa -Regent
26 Jan 1793 - 23 Oct 1808  Tuanku Zainal Abidin II ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Mansur Shah     (b. 1744 - d. 1808)
23 Oct 1808 -  4 Jul 1830  Tuanku Ahmad Shah I ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Zainal Abidin   (d. 1830)
1826 -  4 Jul 1830         Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Zainal Abidin -Regent     (d. 1831)
 4 Jul 1830 - 31 Jan 1831  Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Zainal Abidin             (s.a.)
31 Jan 1831 - 1831         Tuanku Umar ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Abdul Rahman (1st time)   (b. 1806 - d. 1876)
                           - jointly with the following -
31 Jan 1831 -  8 Mar 1837  Tuanku Mansur Shah II ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Zainal Abidin   (d. 1837)
 8 Mar 1837 -  4 Nov 1839  Tuanku Muhammad Shah I ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Mansur Shah     (b. 1821 - d. 1840)
 4 Nov 1839 - 11 Apr 1876  Tuanku Umar ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Abdul Rahman (2nd time)   (s.a.)
11 Apr 1876 - 1876         Tuanku Mahmud Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Rahman
1876 - 18 Dec 1881         Tuanku Ahmad Muadzam Shah II ibni
                             al-Marhum Yang Dipertuan         (b. 1839 - d. 1881)
                             Muda Mahmud
18 Dec 1881 - 26 Nov 1918  Tuanku Zainal Abidin III Muadzam
                             Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan
                             Ahmad Muadzam Shah               (b. 1866 - d. 1918)
                            (from 19 Jun 1911, Tuanku Sir Zainal
                             Abidin III Muadzam
Shah ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan
Ahmad Muadzam Shah) 
26 Nov 1918 - 26 May 1920  Tuanku Muhammad Shah II ibni

                             al-Marhum Sultan Zainal Abidin   (b. 1888 - d. 1956)
                             Muadzam Shah
26 May 1920 - 25 Sep 1942  Tuanku Sulaiman Badarul Alam Shah
                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Zainal
                             Abidin Muadzam Shah (1st time)   (b. 1895 - d. 1945)
                             (from 3 Jun 1922,
Tuanku Sir Sulaiman
                            
Badarul Alam Shah ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Zainal
Abidin Muadzam Shah)  
26 Sep 1942 - 20 Aug 1943  Tuanku Ali ibni al-Marhum Sultan
                             Sulaiman Badarul Alam Shah       (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
                             (1st time) 
20 Aug 1943 -  8 Sep 1945  annexed to Thailand
 8 Sep 1945 -  5 Nov 1945  Tuanku Ali ibni al-Marhum Sultan

                             Sulaiman Badarul Alam Shah       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
                             (British prisoner from 29 Sep 1945) 
16 Dec 1945 - 20 Sep 1979  Tuanku Ismail Nasiruddin Shah

                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Zainal
                             Abidin Muadzam Shah              (b. 1907 - d. 1979)
                            (from 7 Jun 1951,
Tuanku Sir Ismail
                             Nasiruddin Shah
ibni al-Marhum
                             Sultan Zainal
Abidin Muadzam Shah)  
21 Aug 1965 - 20 Sep 1970  Tengku Mahmud -Regent              (b. 1930 - d. 1998)
20 Sep 1979 - 14 May 1998  Tuanku Mahmud al-Muktafi Billah    (s.a.)
                             Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ismail
                             Nasiruddin Shah 
15 May 1998 -              Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni
                             al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud          (b. 1962)
13 Dec 2006 - 12 Dec 2011  Tengku Muhammad Ismail -Regent     (b. 1998)


Chief ministers (title Menteri Besar)

21 Apr 1925 - 28 Jun 1940  Dato' Seri Amar Diraja Ngah        (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
                             Muhamad bin Yusof
15 Jul 1940 -  6 May 1942  Tengku Seri Setia Raja Tengku Omar
                             bin Othman
17 May 1942 - 16 Dec 1945  Dato' Jaya Perkasa Da Omar bin
                             Mahmud
17 Dec 1945 - 26 Dec 1949  Tengku Panglima Perang Tengku
                             Muhamad bin al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad
27 Dec 1949 - Jun 1959     Dato' Perdana Menteri Di Raja
                             Dato' Seri Setia Raja Kamaruddin
                             bin Idris
29 Jun 1959 -  8 Nov 1961  Mohd Daud bin Abdul Samad          (b. 1926? - d. 1983) PAS
 9 Nov 1961 -  3 Sep 1970  Tan Sri Ibrahim Fikri bin Mohammad                      PP
 1 Oct 1970 -  4 Sep 1971  Dato' Mahmood bin Sulaiman                              PP
 5 Sep 1971 -  3 Aug 1974  Dato' Nik Hassan bin Wan Abdul                          PP
                             Rahman
 1 Sep 1974 -  2 Dec 1999  Wan Mokhtar Ahmad (from 7 Jul      (b. 1932)            BN          
                             1982, Datuk Amar Wan Mokhtar
                             Ahmad; from 8 Apr 1983, Datuk
                             Wan Mokhtar Ahmad; from 26 Nov
                             1988, Tan Sri Wan Mokhtar Ahmad)
 2 Dec 1999 - 25 Mar 2004  Abdul Hadi Awang                   (b. 1947)            PAS
                             (from 19 Jul 2001, Dato' Seri
                             Abdul Hadi Awang) 

25 Mar 2004 - 25 Mar 2008  Datuk (from 20 Jul 2004, Dato'
                             Seri) Idris Jusoh                (b. 1955)            BN
25 Mar 2008 - 12 May 2014  Datuk (from 5 Aug 2010, Datuk      (b. 1957)            BN
                             Seri) Ahmad Said
12 May 2014 -              Datuk Ahmad Razif Abdul Rahman     (b. 1965)            BN

      

British Agents
1909 - 1913                William Lance Conlay               (b. 1869 - d. 1927)
1913                       E.A. Dickson
1913 - 1915                Walter Dare Scott                  (b. 1870 - d. 1935)

1915 - 1916                Charleton Neville Maxwell          (b. 1872 - d. 1940)
1916 - 1919                John Lisseter Humphreys            (b. 1881 - d. 1929)
Advisers
1919 - 1925                John Lisseter Humphreys            (s.a.)
Nov 1919 - Jan 1920        Walter Evelyn Pepys                (b. 1885 - d. 1966) 

                             (acting for Humphreys)
1921 - 1922                Henry Charles Eckhardt             (b. 1877 - d. 19..) 
                             (acting for Humphreys)
1925 - 1926                James William Simmons              (b. 1877 - d. 19..)
1926 - 1928                William Milnes Millington          (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
1928 - 1931                Alfred John Sturrock               (b. 1879 - d. 1946)
Mar 1931 - 1932            Gordon Lupton Ham                  (b. 1885 - d. 1965)
1932 - 1934                Charles Cuthbert Brown             (b. 1888 - d. 1972) 
1934 - 1935                Norman Rowlstone Jarrett           (b. 1889 - d. 1982)
                             (1st time) (acting)
1935 - 1936                John Erskine Kempe                 (b. 1888 - d. 19..)
Dec 1936 - 1937            Norman Rowlstone Jarrett           (b. 1889 - d. 1982)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
1937                       Patrick Alexander Bruce McKerron   (b. 1896 - d. 1964)

                             (acting)
1937 - 1941                Norman Rowlstone Jarrett           (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
Dec 1937 - 1940            Arthur Egerton Coope               (b. 1888 - d. 1981) 
1940 - 1941                George Alexander de Chazal de      (b. 1888 - d. 1976)
                             Moubray (acting to ... 1941)
Japanese Governors
Dec 1941 - 18 Mar 1942     ....
18 Mar 1942 - Jul 1943     Manabu Kuji
Thai Military Commissioner
20 Aug 1943 - Aug 1945     Prayoon Ratanakit
British Resident Commissioners
Aug 1945 - 1946            Sir Derek Headly (acting)          (b. 1908 - d. 1998)
1946 - 1948                John Graham Black                  (b. 1896 - d. 1988)
1948 - 1951               
Ian William Blelloch (acting)      (b. 1901 - d. 1982)
1952 - May 1954            Maurice John Hayward               (b. 1906 - d. 2001)
May 1954 - 1955            John Forbes Hannyngton             (b. 1906 - d. 1978)
British Adviser
1955 - Jan 1957            John Forbes Hannyngton             (s.a.)
1955 - Feb 1956            Frank Marshall Smith               (b. 1912 - d. ....)
                             (acting for Hannyngton)     

 ¹Full style of the ruler: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Besar Terengganu Dar ul-Iman ("Sultan and Head of the State of Trengganu").







© Ben Cahoon