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Brunei Darussalam
 
[Brunei Flag
                              until 1906]
                               to 1906 
 
[Brunei Flag
                              1906-1959]
                        1906 - 29 Sep 1959 
 
[Brunei
                              Darussalam]
                      Adopted 29 Sep 1959
 
Map of Brunei Hear National Anthem
"Allah Peliharakan Sultan"
(God Bless His Majesty)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1951
(lyrics 1 Jan 1984)
Constitution
(29 Sep 1959; some provisions
suspended from Dec 1962, others
since independence 1 Jan 1984)
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan
(to 5 Oct 1970 Bandar Brunei
 [Brunei Town
])
Currency: Bruneian Dollar
(BND) 
National Holiday: 23 Feb (1984)
 National Day
Population: 415,717 (2013)
GDP: $22.25 billion (2013) Exports: $12.75 billion (2011)
Imports: $3.02 billion (2011)
Ethnic groups: Malay 65.7%, Chinese 10.3%, other
indigenous 3.4%, other 20.6% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 7,000 (2010)
British Forces: 900 (2013)
Singapore Forces: 500 (2008)

Merchant marine: 9 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim (official) 78.8%, Christian 8.7%,
Buddhist 7.8%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 4.7% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, APEC, APM, ARF, ASEAN, BTWC, C, CP, CTBT, CWC, EAS, ENMOD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDB, IFRCS, IHO (applicant), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, KP, NAM, NPT, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Brunei Index
Chronology

1363                       Brunei founded (traditional date).
c.1425                     Name Negara Brunei Darussalam (State of Brunei,
                             Abode of Peace) adopted.
16 Apr 1578 - 26 Jun 1578  Spanish under Philippine governor Francisco de
                             Sande Picón occupy the capital of Brunei.
1704                       Sultan cedes the lands east of Marudu Bay to the
                             Sultanate of Sulu.
24 Sep 1841                Sarawak granted to James Brooke by the Sultan.
                             (see under Malay states).
17 Sep 1888                British protectorate.
 5 Dec 1905 - 23 Feb 1984  British protected state.
22 Dec 1941 - 14 Jun 1945  Occupied by Japan (subordinated to Japanese
                             occupied Northern Borneo [see Sabah]).
14 Jun 1945 -  6 Jul 1946  British military administration.
29 Sep 1959                Autonomy
23 Nov 1971                Full internal self-government.
 1 Jan 1984                Independence (Negara Brunei Darussalam).

Historical Maps
of Brunei
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Sultansč 
 7 Dec 1661 - 1673         Abdul Hakul Mubbin                 (b. 16.. - d. 1673)
1673 - 1690                Muhiuddin (in rebellion from 1661) (b. 16.. - d. 1690)
1690 - 1710                Nasruddin                          (b. 16.. - d. 1710)
1710 - 1730                Kamaluddin (1st time)              (b. 16.. - d. 1740)
1730 - 1737                Muhammad Alauddin                  (d. 1737)
1737 - 1740                Kamaluddin (2nd time)              (s.a.)
1740 - 10 Jul 1795         Omar Ali Saifuddin (I)             (b. 17.. - d. 1795)
10 Jul 1795 - 27 Apr 1804  Muhammad Tajuddin (1st time)       (b. 17.. - d. 1807)
27 Apr 1804 - 10 Nov 1804  Muhammad Jamalul Alam              (b. 17.. - d. 1804)
10 Nov 1804 - 11 Feb 1807  Muhammad Tajuddin (2nd time)       (s.a.)
11 Feb 1807 - May 1822     Muhammad Khanzul Alam              (b. 17.. - d. 1822)
                             (regent Nov 1804 - 11 Feb 1807)  
18? May 1822 - Dec 1824   
Muhammad Alam (Raja Api) (usurper) (d. 1824)
May 1822 - 18 Nov 1852     Omar Ali Saifuddin (II)            (b. 1804 - d. 1852)
                             (in dissidence to Dec 1824)  
18 Nov 1852 - 30 May 1885  Abdul Mumin ibni Pengiran          (b. 1785 - d. 1885)
                             Shahbandar (regent to ... 1852)
30 May 1885 - 10 May 1906  Hashim Jalilul Alam Akamuddin      (b. 1824 - d. 1906)
10 May 1906 - 11 Sep 1924  Muhammad Jamalul Alam              (b. 1889 - d. 1924)
                             (from 5 Jan 1920, Sir Muhammad Jamalul Alam) 
10 May 1906 - 15 May 1918  Council of Regency
                           - Pengiran Anak Muhammad Saleh     (b. 18.. - d. 1912)
                               (to 2 Dec 1912)
                           - Pengiran Anak Chuchu Besar       (b. 1829 - d. 1917)
                               (to 3 Jul 1917)
                           - Pengiran al-Haji Muhammad
                               Yasin ibni al-Marhum Pengiran  (b. 1887 - d. 1951)
                               Tua Omar Ali (from 1913) 
11 Sep 1924 -  4 Jun 1950  Ahmad Tajuddin Ahazul Khairi       (b. 1913 - d. 1950)
                             Waddien (from 20 Sep 1949, Sir 
                             Ahmad Tajuddin Ahazul Khairi Waddien)
11 Sep 1924 - 19 Sep 1931  Council of Regency
                           - Pengiran al-Haji Muhammad
                               Yasin ibni al-Marhum Pengiran  (s.a.)
                               Tua Omar Ali 
                           - Pangeran Pemancha ....
 4 Jun 1950 -  4 Oct 1967  Omar Ali Saifuddin SaŽadul Khairi  (b. 1914 - d. 1986)
                             Waddien (from 9 Jun 1953, Sir Omar
                             Ali Saifuddin SaŽadul Khairi Waddien)
 4 Oct 1967 -              Hassanal Bolkiah MuŽizzadin        (b. 1946)
                             Waddaulah (from 29 Feb 1972, Sir Muda 
                             Hassanal Bolkiah MuŽizzadin Waddaulah)


Chief ministers (title Menteri Besar)
Dec 1941 - 1945            Pehin Dato Haji Ibrahim Jaafar     (b. 1902 - d. 1971)
                             (chief secretary, appointed by Japanese)
Jul 1947 - 1959            Omar Ali Saifuddin SaŽadul Khairi  (s.a.)
                             Waddien (from 9 Jun 1953, Sir Omar
                             Ali Saifuddin SaŽadul Khairi Waddien)          
Sep 1959 - 1962            Pekin Dato Perdana Menteri Dato     
                             Paduka Haji Ibrahim
1962 - 1967                Dato Seri Paduka Haji Marsal bin   (b. 1913? - d. 2000)
                             Maun 
1968 - 1972                Dato Pengiran Muhammad Yusuf bin   (b. 1923?)
                             Abdul Rahim (acting to .... 1967) 
May 1972 - Sep 1981        Pengiran Dipa Negara Laila Diraja  (b. 19.. - d. 2008)
                             Pengiran Abdul Mumin 
                             (acting to 1973)
Sep 1981 - 31 Dec 1983     Pehin Orang Kaya Laila Wijaya Dato (b. 1936)
                             Haji Abdul Aziz Umar (acting) 
Prime minister
 1 Jan 1984 -              Sir Muda Hassanal Bolkiah          (s.a.)              Non-party
                             MuŽizzadin Waddaulah 


British Consuls
1890 - 1898                Noel Penrose Trevenen              (b. 1852 - d. 1901)
1898 - 1900                A
rthur Louis Keyser                (b. 1856 - d. 1924)
1900 - 1904                Godfrey Hewett                     (b. 1859 - d. 1932)
Apr 1904 - Dec 1905        Malcolm Stewart Hannibal McArthur  (b. 1872 - d. 1934)
British
High Commissioners
 5 Dec 1905 -  1 Apr 1946  the governors of the Straits 
                           Settlements (see Singapore)
British Residents
 2 Jan 1906 - May 1907     Malcolm Stewart Hannibal McArthur  (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
May 1907 - Dec 1907        Harvey Chevallier (1st time)       (b. 1861 - d. 1923)
                             (acting)
Dec 1907 - Apr 1908        Malcolm Stewart Hannibal McArthur  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Apr 1908 - Sep 1909        John Fortescue Owen                (b. 1869 - d. 1942)
Sep 1909 - Nov 1909        Bowes Ormonde Stoney (acting)      (b. 1878 - d. 1910)
Nov 1909 - Nov 1913        Harvey Chevallier (2nd time)       (s.a.) 
Nov 1913 - Jan 1915        Francis William Douglas (acting)   (b. 1874 - d. 1953)
Feb 1915 - 18 May 1916     Ernest Barton Maundrell (acting)   (b. 1880 - d. 1916)
May 1916 - Mar 1921
       Geoffrey Edmund Cator              (b. 1884 - d. 1973)
Mar 1921 - Jan 1923        Lucien Arthur Allen                (b. 1888 - d. 1977)
Jan 1923 - Feb 1926
        Eric Ernest Falk Pretty (1st time) (b. 1891 - d. 1967)
Mar 1926 - May 1927
       Oswald Eric Venables               (b. 1891 - d. 1960)
May 1927 - May 1928
        Eric Ernest Falk Pretty (2nd time) (s.a.)
May 1928 - Jan 1929
        Patrick Alexander Bruce McKerron   (b. 1896 - d. 1964)
                             (1st time)                  
Jan 1929 - Aug 1929        Richard John Froude Curtis         (b. 1897 - d. 1987)
Aug 1929 - Sep 1931        Patrick Alexander Bruce McKerron   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)            
Sep 1931 - Oct 1934
        Thomas Falkland Carey              (b. 1903 - d. 1966)
Nov 1934 - Jan 1937
       Roland Evelyn Turnbull             (b. 1905 - d. 1960)
Jan 1937 - Dec 1939
        John Graham Black                  (b. 1896 - d. 1988)
Jan 1940 - 22 Dec 1941 
    Ernest Edgar Pengilley             (b. 1897 - d. 1984)
22 Dec 1941 - 1942         Kiyotake Kawaguchi -Japanese cmdr. (b. 1892 - d. 1961)    
1942 - 14 Jun 1945         Masao Baba -Japanese commander     (b. 1892 - d. 1947)
Jun 1945 - Jul 1946        K.E.H. Kay -British commander
 1 Jul 1946 - Jan 1948
     William John Peel                  (b. 1912 - d. 2004)
Jan 1948 - Aug 1948        Leslie Harold Newsom Davis         (b. 1909 - d. 2003)
Aug 1948 - Jun 1951
        Eric Ernest Falk Pretty (3rd time) (s.a.)
Jul 1951 - Jun 1953
        John Coleraine Hanbury Barcroft    (b. 1908 - d. 1958)
Jun 1953 - Jul 1958
       John Orman Gilbert                 (b. 1907 - d. 1995)
Jul 1958 - 29 Sep 1959     Dennis Charles White               (b. 1910 - d. 1983)
High Commissioners
29 Sep 1959 - 31 Mar 1963  Dennis Charles White               (s.a.) 
                             (from 1 Jan 1962, Sir Dennis Charles White)
1963                       Angus MacKay Mackintosh            (b. 1915 - d. 1986)
 9 Dec 1963 - 1965         Edgar Ord Laird                    (b. 1915 - d. 1992)
 1 Jul 1965 - 1967         Fernley Douglas Webber             (b. 1918 - d. 1991)
 1 May 1968 - 1972         Arthur Robin Adair                 (b. 1913 - d. 1981)
12 Jan 1972 - 1975         Peter Gautrey                      (b. 1918)
 8 Jan 1975 - 1978         James Alfred Davidson              (b. 1922 - d. 2004)
 6 Nov 1978 - 1983         Arthur Christopher Watson          (b. 1927 - d. 2001)
 5 Aug 1983 - 31 Dec 1983  Francis Cornish                    (b. 1942)

 čFull style: Paduka Sri Baginda Sultan dan Yang di-Perutan of Brunei Darussalam
("His Majesty the Sultan and Yang di-Perutan of Brunei Darussalam").

Territorial Disputes: per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef.

Political Parties - legal parties exist, but are small and have limited activity and have not been able to gain electoral representation as legislative elections have not been held in Brunei since 1962.






© Ben Cahoon