World Statesmen.org HOME >



 
 





 

Malaysia
 
[British Straits Settlements,
                                    1874-1925]
            1874 - 1925  British Straits Settlements
 
 
[British Straits Settlements,
                                    1925-1942, 1945-46]
   1925 - 1942, 1945 - 1946 British Straits Settlements
 
 
[Japan]
                Jan 1942  - Sep 1945
 
[Federated Malay States
                                    (1895)]
     1 Jul 1896 - Jan 1942, 1 Apr 1946 - 19 May 1950 
    Federated Malay States, Malay Union, Fed. of Malaya
 
[Federation of Malaya 1950-1963
                                    (Malaysia)]
                   19 May 1950 - 16 Sep 1963
 
[Malaysia]
                        Adopted 16 Sep 1963

 Map of Malaysia
Hear National Anthem
"Negaraku"
(My Country)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 31 Aug 1957
Constitution
 (31 Aug 1957)
Capital: Kuala Lumpur
Administrative: Putrajaya
(since 2002)
Currency: Ringgit (MYR);
1940-63 Malaya Dollar (MYAD);
1941-1944 Malayan Gumpyo
Dollar (MYAG); 1858-1946
 Straits Settlements Dollar
(STSD); 1788-1858 East India
Company Dollar (XEID)
National Holidays: 31 Aug (1957)
Independence Day
-----------------------------
Malaysia Day
16 Sep (1963)
Population: 29,628,392 (2013)
GDP: $525 billion (2013) 
Exports: $230.7 billion (2013)
Imports: $192.9 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Malay 50.5%, Chinese 23.5%,
indigenous 11%, Indian 7%, others 8% (2005) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 109,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 315 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim 60.4%, Buddhist 19.2%,
Christian 9.1%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, and
other traditional Chinese religions 2.6%, other or
unknown 1.5%, none 0.8% 
(2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, ANT, APEC, APM, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, BTWC, C, CICA (observer), CP, CTBT, CWC, D-8, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Malaysia Index
Chronology

14 Aug 1826 - 29 Jan 1946   Straits Settlements (Malacca, Penang,
                              Singapore; see under Singapore).
 1 Jul 1896                 Federated Malay States (Negeri Sembilan, Pahang,
                              Perak, and Selangor).
31 Jan 1942 - 12 Sep 1945   Japanese occupation (renamed Malai Baru).
20 Aug 1943 -  8 Sep 1945   Perlis, Terengganu, Kedah, and Kelantan 
                              annexed by Thailand.
12 Sep 1945 -  1 Apr 1946   British military administration.
 1 Apr 1946                 Malay Union (federated and unfederated Malay 
                              states plus Malacca and Penang).
 1 Feb 1948                 Federation of Malaya
31 Aug 1957                 Independence from Britain.
16 Sep 1963                 Malaysia (accession of Sabah [formerly North
                              Borneo], Sarawak, and Singapore).
 9 Aug 1965                 Withdrawal of Singapore.

States and
Territories
Map of Malaysia
Administrative
divisions
Map of Historical
Malay states 1908
Historical Maps
of Malaysia
 
 
 
 

High Commissioners
 1 Jul 1896 -  1 Apr 1946  the governors of the Straits 
                           Settlements (see Singapore)
Residents-general
 1 Jan 1896 - 12 Dec 1901  Frank Athelstane Swettenham        (b. 1850 - d. 1946)
                             (from 22 Jun 1897, Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham) 
 5 Oct 1897 - 16 Apr 1898  Sir William Hood Treacher          (b. 1849 - d. 1919)
                             (acting for Swettenham)
29 Apr 1900 - 12 Dec 1901  Sir William Hood Treacher          (s.a.)
                             (acting for Swettenham)
13 Dec 1901 - 31 Dec 1904  Sir William Hood Treacher          (s.a.)
13 Sep 1904 - 30 Sep 1910  Sir William Thomas Taylor          (b. 1848 - d. 1931)
                             (acting [for Treacher] to 31 Dec 1904)
11 May 1907 - 13 Feb 1908  Sir Edward Lewis Brockman          (b. 1865 - d. 1943)
                             (acting for Taylor)
 4 May 1908 27 Jul 1908  Henry Conway Belfield              (b. 1855 - d. 1923)
                             (acting for Taylor)
26 Feb 1910 - 31 Jan 1911  Reginald George Watson             (b. 1862 - d. 1926)
                             (acting [for Taylor to 30 Sep 1910])
Chief Secretaries

 1 Feb 1911 -  2 Sep 1911  Arthur Henderson Young             (b. 1854 - d. 1938)
 2 Sep 1911 - 13 Sep 1920  Sir Edward Lewis Brockman          (s.a.)
 3 Apr 1914 -  8 Feb 1915  Sir Reginald George Watson         (s.a.)
                             (acting for Brockman)
21 Jan 1918 -  5 Feb 1918  Edward George Broadrick            (b. 1864 - d. 1929)
                             (acting for Maxwell)
 7 Apr 1918 - 25 Aug 1918  Sir Reginald George Watson         (s.a.)
                             (acting for Brockman)
13 Jun 1920 13 Sep 1920  F.S. James (acting for Brockman)
13 Sep 1920 - 1926         William George Maxwell             (b. 1871 - d. 1959)
                             (from 3 Jun 1924, Sir William George Maxwell) 
 4 Oct 1920 -  4 Mar 1921  Arthur Blennerhassett Voules       (b. 1870 - d. 1954)
                             (acting for Maxwell)
21 Dec 1920 -  9 Jan 1922  Oswald Francis Gerard Stonor       (b. 1872 - d. 1940)
                             (acting for Maxwell)
11 May 1923 24 Oct 1923  Edward Shaw Hose                   (b. 1871 - d. 1946)
                             (acting for Maxwell)
1926 - 1930                William Peel                       (b. 1875 - d. 1945)
                             (from 4 Jun 1928, Sir William Peel) 
1930 - 1932                Charles Walter Hamilton Cochrane   (b. 1876 - d. 1932)
1932 - 1934                Andrew Caldecott                   (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
1934 - 1935                Malcolm Bond Shelley               (b. 1879 - d. 1968)
1935 - 1936                Marcus Rex                         (b. 1886 - d. 1971)
Federal Secretaries
1936 - 1939                Christopher Dominic Ahearne        (b. 1886 - d. 1964)
1939 - 31 Jan 1942         Hugh Fraser                        (b. 1890 - d. 1943)
Japanese Military governors
31 Jan 1942 - Oct 1944     Tomoyuki Yamashita                 (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
Oct 1944 - 1945            Count Hisaichi Terauchi            (b. 1879 - d. 1946)
Apr 1945 - 12 Sep 1945     Seishiro Itagaki                   (b. 1885 - d. 1948)
Civil governors of the central military administration 
15 Feb 1942 -  1 Mar 1942  Takanobu Manaki                    (b. 1894 - d. 1974)
Mar 1942 - Jun 1944        Marquis Tokugawa Yoshichika        (b. 1886 - d. 1976)
British Military Administrator
12 Sep 1945 - 31 Mar 1946  Louis Francis Mountbatten          (b. 1900 - d. 1979)
Chief civil affairs officer
Sep 1945 - 31 Mar 1946     Ralph Hone                         (b. 1896 - d. 1992)
Governor-general
(of the Malayan Union and Singapore)
22 May 1946 -  1 May 1948  Malcolm John MacDonald             (b. 1901 - d. 1981)
Governor

 1 Apr 1946 -  1 Feb 1948  Sir Gerard Edward James Gent       (b. 1895 - d. 1948)
High commissioners
 1 Feb 1948 -  4 Jul 1948  Sir Gerard Edward James Gent       (s.a.)
 1 Oct 1948 -  6 Oct 1951  Sir Henry Lovell Goldworthy Gurney (b. 1898 - d. 1951)
15 Jan 1952 - 31 May 1954  Sir Gerald Walter Robert Templer   (b. 1898 - d. 1979)
31 May 1954 - 31 Aug 1957  Sir Donald Charles MacGillivray    (b. 1906 - d. 1966)
Paramount Rulers
31 Aug 1957 -  1 Apr 1960  Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni           (b. 1895 - d. 1960)
                             al-Marhum Yamtuan Muhammad 
                             (Negeri Sembilan) 
 1 Apr 1960 -  1 Sep 1960  Tuanku Hisamuddin Alam Shah        (b. 1898 - d. 1960)
                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Alaeddin
                             Sulaiman Shah (Selangor) 
                             (acting to 14 Apr 1960)
 1 Sep 1960 - 21 Sep 1965  Syed Harun Putra ibni al-Marhum    (b. 1920 - d. 2000)
                             Syed Hasan Jamalullail (Perlis)
                             (acting to 21 Sep 1960)
21 Sep 1965 - 21 Sep 1970  Tuanku Ismail Nasiruddin Shah      (b. 1907 - d. 1979)
                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Zainal
                             Abidin Muadzam Shah (Terengganu)
21 Sep 1970 - 21 Sep 1975  Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah    (b. 1927)
                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Badishah 
                             (1st time)(Kedah)
21 Sep 1975 - 29 Mar 1979  Tuanku Yahya Petra ibni al-Marhum  (b. 1917 - d. 1979)
                             Sultan Ibrahim (Kelantan) 
29 Mar 1979 - 26 Apr 1984  Tuanku Ahmad Shah al-Mustain
                             Billah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Abu (b. 1930)
                             Bakar Riayatuddin al-Muadzam Shah 
                             (acting to 26 Apr 1979)(Pahang)
26 Apr 1984 - 26 Apr 1989  Tuanku Mahmud Iskandar ibni        (b. 1932 - d. 2010)
                             al-Marhum Sultan Ismail (Johore) 
26 Apr 1989 - 26 Apr 1994  Tuanku Azlan Muhibuddin Shah ibni  (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
                             al-Marhum Sultan Yusuf Izzuddin
                             Shah Ghafarullahu-Lah (Perak) 
26 Apr 1994 - 26 Apr 1999  Tuanku Jaafar ibni al-Marhum       (b. 1922 - d. 2008)
                             Yamtuan Abdul Rahman 
                             (Negeri Sembilan)
26 Apr 1999 - 21 Nov 2001  Tuanku Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah  (b. 1926 - d. 2001)
                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Hisamuddin 
                             Alam Shah (Selangor) 
21 Nov 2001 - 13 Dec 2001  Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni    (b. 1962)
                             al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud (1st time)
                             (acting [for Salahuddin from 8 Oct 2001])
                             (Terengganu) 
13 Dec 2001 - 13 Dec 2006  Syed Sirajuddin ibni al-Marhum     (b. 1943)
                             Syed Putra Jamalullail (Perlis) 
13 Dec 2006 - 13 Dec 2011  Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni    (s.a.)
                             al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud (2nd time)
                             (Terengganu) 
13 Dec 2011 -       p;       Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah    (s.a.)
                             ibni al-Marhum Sultan Badishah 
                             (2nd time)(Kedah)

Chief minister
 4 Aug 1955 - 28 Aug 1957  Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj     (b. 1903 - d. 1990)  UMNO
Prime ministers
28 Aug 1957 - 15 Apr 1959  Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj     (s.a.)               UMNO 
                             (1st time) 
15 Apr 1959 - 21 Aug 1959  Tun Abdul Razak bin Hussein        (b. 1922 - d. 1976)  UMNO 
                             (1st time) 
21 Aug 1959 - 22 Sep 1970  Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj     (s.a.)               UMNO
                             (2nd time) 
22 Sep 1970 - 14 Jan 1976  Tun Abdul Razak bin Hussein        (s.a.)               UMNO
                             (2nd time) 
15 Jan 1976 - 16 Jul 1981  Datuk Hussein bin Onn              (b. 1922 - d. 1990)  UMNO 
16 Jul 1981 - 31 Oct 2003  Dato' Seri Mahathir bin Mohamad    (b. 1925)            UMNO 
31 Oct 2003 -  3 Apr 2009  Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi   (b. 1939)            UMNO
 3 Apr 2009 -              Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak         (b. 1953)            UMNO

 The full style of the Paramount Rulers:
(a) 31 Aug 1957 - 17 May 1960: Ketua Utama Negara bagi Persekutuan ("Supreme Head of the Federation") and Yang di-Pertuan Agong ("Paramount Ruler");
(b) 17 May 1960 - 16 Sep 1963: Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Persekutuan Tanah Melayu ("Paramount Ruler, Federation of Malaya");
(b) in official use from 16 Sep 1963: Yang di-Pertuan Agong ("Paramount Ruler") which is normally exended to Dengan kurnia Allah, Yang di-Pertuan Agong bagi negeri-negeri dan wilayah-wilayah Malaysia ("By the grace of God, Paramount Ruler of the States and Territories of Malaysia").

Territorial Disputes: While the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions over the Spratly Islands, it is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Malaysia was not party to the Mar 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; land and maritime negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo; per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait.

Party abbreviation: UMNO = Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu (United Malays National Organization, mainly ethnic Malay, nationalist, social conservative, islamist, est.1946)








Ben Cahoon