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Morocco
 
Morocco
                                    1666-1915
                1666 - 17 Nov 1915
 
[Flag of
                                    Morocco]
             Adopted 17 Nov 1915
 
Map of Morocco
Hear National Anthem
"Hymne Chérifien"
(Hymn of the Sharif)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1956 (lyrics 1970)
Constitution
 (10 Mar 1972)
Capital: Rabat
(Rabat, Fez, Meknes,
or Marrakesh 1666-1907;
Tafilalt 1631-66; Marrakesh
1524-1631; Fez 1472-1524;
Asila 1465-1472)
Currency: Moroccan Dirham
(MAD) 
National Holiday: 30 Jul (1999)
Throne Day
 (Accession of

King Muhammad VI)
Population: 32,649,130 (2013)
GDP: $180 billion (2013)
Exports: $16.7 billion (2013)
Imports: $38.6 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Amazigh (Berber) 45% (of which Arabized 24%),
Arab 44%, Moors 10%, other 1% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 195,800 (2010)
Merchant marine: 26 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim 99% (official), Christian 1%,
Jewish about 6,000 (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, ACS (observer), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, Arabsat, BTWC, CAEU, CEN-SAD, CTBT, CWC, EBRD, ENMOD (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-11, G-77, GAFTA, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PAM, PCA, SEGIB (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Morocco
Index
Chronology
688 - 750                  Part of Umayyad Caliphate.
750 - 789                  Part of Abbasid Caliphate.
744 - 1058                 Barghawata (Barghwata or Berghouata) rule a
                             Berber kingdom around Tamesna. 
758 - 1055                 Sijilmasa an independent Berber kingdom.
789 - 985                  Maghrib al Aqsa under the Idrisid dynasty;
                             from 920, resisting Fatimid rule.
920 - 925                  Part of Fatimid Caliphate.
927 - 937                  Part of Fatimid Caliphate.  
937 - 1014                 Northern parts of Morocco under Cordoba Caliphate.
974 - 987                  Part of Fatimid Caliphate.
1063 - 1147                Part of the Almoravid Sultanate (Morocco and most
                             of the Iberian peninsula and Mauritania).
 3 Apr 1147 - 1269         Part of the Almohad Sultanate (Morocco and parts
                             of the Iberian peninsula, Algeria and Tunisia).
1268 - 1465                Marinid dynasty (Moroc).
1472 - 1548                Wattasid dynasty rules a kingdom from Fez.
1509 - 1659                Sa'adi dynasty established, rules only in Southern
                             Morocco until 1554.
 6 Jun 1666                Sharifi Moroccan State, the A`lawi Filali Sharifi 
                             dynasty, begins rule.
26 Apr 1860                Morocco cedes Ifni to Spain by Treaty of Tetouan.
24 Feb 1895                Morocco purchases Cape Juby (Tarfaya) from British
                             North-West Africa Company.
 4 Aug 1907 - 30 Mar 1912  French occupation.
 8 Jun 1910                Spain occupies northern Morocco.
30 Mar 1912 -  2 Mar 1956  French protectorate.
27 Nov 1912 -  7 Apr 1956  Spanish protectorate in so-called Spanish Zone
                            (Tarfaya [Cape Juby] Strip, Tetouan and the Rif).
30 Mar 1912 - 29 Oct 1956  City of Tangier an international protectorate.
22 Jun 1940 -  8 Nov 1942  French Morocco administration loyal to Vichy
                             France (from 8 Nov 1942, Free French).
14 Aug 1957                Kingdom of Morocco
 1 Apr 1958                Spain returns the Tarfaya Strip to Morocco.
 4 Jan 1969                Ifni enclave returned to Morocco by Spain.
26 Feb 1976                Morocco and Mauritania partition Western Sahara.
11 Aug 1979                Mauritanian part of Western Sahara annexed by
                             Morocco.
Western Sahara
French Morocco
(1912-1956)
Spanish Morocco
(1913-1956)
 Rif Republic
(1921-1923)
 Tangier
(1421-1684,
1912-1956)
 Ifni
(1860-1969)
Portuguese  Possessions
Mazagan

(1506-1769)
Aguz
(1506-1526)
Alcácer Ceguer
(1458-1550)

Arzila
(1471-1550,
1577-1589)
Azamor
(1513-1541)
Larache
(1610-1689)
Mamora
(1614-1681)
Mogador
(1506-1510)
Safim
(1488-1541)
Santa Cruz do
Cabo de Gué
(1505-1541)
 

Note: During the period covered by this record, there are numerous "pretenders" being proclaimed rulers, in part because of the multiplicity of historic capitals. Their names
appear here, with each one being indicated as "in rebellion."

Sultans¹
 6 Jun 1666 -  9 Apr 1672  `Ali I ar-Rashid                   (b. 1631 - d. 1672)
                             (actually from 3 Aug 1664)
Apr 1672                   Muhammad I
14 Apr 1672 - 21 Mar 1727  Abu´n Nasr Isma`il "as-Samin"      (b. 1645/46 - d. 1727)
                             (in rebellion from 27 Mar 1672)
1672 - 1684                al-Harrani ibn Muhammad ash-Sharif
                             (in rebellion)
1672 - 1684                Abu´l Abbas Ahmad I ibn Mahraz
                             (in rebellion)
16 Sep 1704 -  7 Jul 1705  al-`Alam ibn Isma`ill al-Samin
                             (in rebellion)
22 Mar 1727 - 13 Mar 1728  Abu´l Abbas Ahmad II "adh-Dhahabi"
                             (1st time)                       (b. c.1677 - d. 1729)
13 Mar 1728 - 18 Jul 1728  `Abd al-Malik
18 Jul 1728 -  5 Mar 1729  Abu´l Abbas Ahmad II "adh-Dhahabi"
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
 5 Mar 1729 - 28 Sep 1734  `Abd Allah (1st time)              (b. 1694 - d. 1757)
28 Sep 1734 - 14 Feb 1736  `Ali II "al-A`raj"
14 Feb 1736 -  8 Aug 1736  `Abd Allah (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 8 Aug 1736 - 19 Jun 1738  Muhammad II "ibn al-`Arabiyya"
19 Jun 1738 - Feb 1740     al-Mustadi (1st time)              (d. 1759)
Feb 1740 - 13 Jun 1741     `Abd Allah (3rd time)              (s.a.)
13 Jun 1741 - 24 Nov 1741  Zayn al-`Abidin ibn Isma`ill
                             al-Samin
24 Nov 1741 -  3 Feb 1742  `Abd Allah (4th time)              (s.a.)
 3 Feb 1742 - May 1743     al-Mustadi (2nd time)              (s.a.)
May 1743 - 1747            `Abd Allah (4th time)              (s.a.)
1747 - Oct 1748            al-Mustadi (3rd time)              (s.a.)
1748 - Oct 1748            Muhammad III "al-Khatib"           (b. c.1710 - d. 1790)
                             (1st time) 
Oct 1748 - 10 Nov 1757     `Abd Allah (5th time)              (s.a.)
10 Nov 1757 -  9 Apr 1790  Muhammad III "al-Khatib"           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
10 Dec 1790 - Jan 1795     Hisham (1st time)                  (d. 1799/1800) 
                             (in Marrakech only)
11 Apr 1790 - 23 Feb 1792  Yazid (in Fas only)                (b. 1750 - d. 1792)
1790 - 1792                `Abd ar-Rahman ibn Muhammad
                             (in rebellion)
11 Mar 1792 - 28 Nov 1822  Abu´r-Rabi Sulayman                (b. 1760 - d. 1822)
                             (to Jan 1795 in Fas only)
1792 - 1799                Maslama ibn Muhammad
                             (in rebellion in northeast) 
Oct 1795 - 29 Nov 1797     Hisham (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
                             (in rebllion in Marrakech)
1805                       Muhammad Darhazi 
                             (in rebellion in Wazan)
1811 - 1816                Abu Bakr Amha'us 
                             (Berber leader, in rebellion in central Atlas)
10 Nov 1820 - 15 Mar 1821  Ibrahim ibn Yazid 
                             (in rebellion in Fas and Tatuan)
1820 - 1822                Sa`id (in rebellion)
15 Mar 1821 - 1821         Sa`id ibn Yazid (in rebellion)
30 Nov 1822 - 28 Aug 1859  Abu al-Fadl `Abd ar-Rahman         (b. 1778 - d. 1859)
1822                       `Abd as-Salam (in rebellion)
1832                       Muhammad ibn Tayyib
                             (in rebellion in Fas)
28 Aug 1859 - 16 Sep 1873  Muhammad IV                        (b. 1803 - d. 1873)
1859                       `Abd ar-Rahman (in rebellion)
16 Sep 1873 -  9 Jun 1894  Hasan I                            (b. 1827/28 - d. 1894)
1873                       `Abd al-Kabir
                             (in rebellion in Miknasa)
 9 Jun 1894 -  4 Jan 1908  `Abd al-`Aziz                      (b. 1878 - d. 1943)
1895                       Muhammad (V) (in rebellion)        (b. c.1875 - d. af.1909)
 3 Apr 1903 - 22 Aug 1909  Muhammad (V) (in rebellion in Taza)(b. c.1865 - d. 1909)
 5 May 1907 - 24 Nov 1907  `Abd al-Hafiz (1st time)           (b. 1875 - d. 1937)
                             (in rebellion)
 4 Jan 1908 - 12 Aug 1912  `Abd al-Hafiz (2nd time)           (s.a.)
25 Apr 1911 - 1911         al-Za'in                           (d. af.1926)
                             (in rebellion in Miknasa)
Apr 1911 - 1911            al-Kabir ibn `Abd al-`Aziz 
                             (in rebellion)
1911                       `Arafa ibn Muhammad (in rebellion)
13 Aug 1912 - 17 Nov 1927  Yusuf                              (b. 1882 - d. 1927)
18 Aug 1912 -  6 Sep 1912  Ahmad al-Hayba (in rebellion)      (b. c.1870 - d. 1919)
18 Nov 1927 - 20 Aug 1953  Muhammad V (1st time)              (b. 1909 - d. 1961)
                            
(in Madagascar exile to Nov 1955)
20 Aug 1953 - 30 Oct 1955  Muhammad (VI) ibn `Arafa           (b. 1889 - d. 1976)

30 Oct 1955 - 16 Nov 1955  Council of Throne
                           - Mohamed bin `Abd as-Salam        (b. 1854? - d. 1957)
                               al-Muqri (El Mokri)
                           - M'barek al-Bekkai                (b. 1907 - d. 1961)
                           - Tahar Ouassou Loudyi             (b. 1917)
                           - Mohamed Sbihi                    (b. 1884 - d. 19..)
 6 Nov 1955 - 14 Aug 1957  Muhammad V (2nd time)              (s.a.)
                            
(returned from exile 16 Nov 1955)
Kings
¹
14 Aug 1957 - 26 Feb 1961  Muhammad V                         (s.a.)
26 Feb 1961 - 23 Jul 1999  Hassan II                          (b. 1929 - d. 1999)
23 Jul 1999 -              Muhammad VI                        (b. 1963)

Grand Viziers
1792 - 18..                Mohamed bin 'Utman
1820 - 1822                Abu `Abd Allah Mohamed bin         (b. 1797 - d. 1877)
                             Ahmad Akansus 
1822 - 1831                Abu `Abd Allah Mohamed bin Idris   (b. c.1784 - d. 1847)
                             bin Mohamed al-Azamuri al'Amrani 
                             al-Fasi (1st time)
1831 - 1835                ....
1835 - 1847                Abu `Abd Allah Mohamed bin Idris   (s.a.)
                             bin Mohamed al-Azamuri al'Amrani 
                             al-Fasi (2nd time)
c.1848                     al-Mukhtar al-Jama'i
1854 - 185.                Mohamed al-Saffar 
1859 - 1878                Musas bin Ahmad                    (d. 1878)
1879 - 1886                Mohamed bin al-Arbi al-Jama'i      (d. 1886)
1886 - 10 Jul 1894         al Mati al-Jama'i
10 Jul 1894 - 17 May 1900  Sidi Ba Ahmad bin Musa             (b. 1841/42 - d. 1900)
May 1900 - Jul 1900        al-Muhtar bin 'Abd Allah bin Hamid
1901 - 1906                Mohamed al-Mufaddal bin 
                             Mohamed al-Garit (acting)
1906 - 1907                al-Amin al-Haji 'Umar Tazi
1907 - 1908                Mohamed bin `Abd as-Salam          (s.a.)
                             al-Muqri (1st time) 
May 1908 - Dec 1908        `Abd al-Karim bin Sulayman         (d. 1908) 
                             (acting)
Dec 1908 - 26 May 1911     al-Mandani al-Glawi al-Fiqi
Dec 1911 - 1913            Mohamed bin Abd as-Salam           (s.a.)
                             al-Muqri (2nd time) 
 7 Nov 1913 - 1917         Sidi Mohamed bin Mohamed al-Gabbus
29 Aug 1917 - 19 Oct 1955  Muhammad bin Abd-Salam             (s.a.)
                             al-Muqri (3rd time) 
19 Oct 1955 - 22 Nov 1955  Fatmi Ben Slimane Pasha            (b. 1898? - d. 19..)
Prime ministers
 7 Dec 1955 - 12 May 1958  M'barek Bekkai                     (s.a.)               Non-party
12 May 1958 - 16 Dec 1958  Ahmed Balafrej                     (b. 1908 - d. 1990)  PI
16 Dec 1958 - 20 May 1960  Abdallah Ibrahim                   (b. 1918 - d. 2005) PI;1959 UNFP
20 May 1960 - 26 Feb 1961  Muhammad V                         (s.a.)               Non-party
20 May 1961 - 13 Nov 1963  Hassan II (1st time)               (s.a.)               Non-party
13 Nov 1963 -  7 Jun 1965  Ahmed Bahnini                      (b. 1909 - d. 1971)  FDCI
 7 Jun 1965 -  7 Jul 1967  Hassan II (2nd time)               (s.a.)               Non-party
 7 Jul 1967 -  6 Oct 1969  Mohamed Benhima bin Taiyib         (b. 1924 - d. 1992)  Non-party
 6 Oct 1969 -  6 Aug 1971  Ahmed Laraki                       (b. 1931)            Non-party
 6 Aug 1971 -  2 Nov 1972  Mohamed Karim Lamrani (1st time)   (b. 1919)            Non-party
 2 Nov 1972 - 22 Mar 1979  Ahmed Osman                        (b. 1930)            RNI
22 Mar 1979 - 30 Nov 1983  Maati Bouabid                      (b. 1927 - d. 1996)  UC
30 Nov 1983 - 30 Sep 1986  Mohamed Karim Lamrani (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
30 Sep 1986 - 11 Aug 1992  Azzedine Laraki                    (b. 1929 - d. 2010)  Non-party
11 Aug 1992 - 25 May 1994  Mohamed Karim Lamrani (3rd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
25 May 1994 -  4 Feb 1998  Abdellatif Filali                  (b. 1928 - d. 2009)  Non-party
 4 Feb 1998 -  9 Oct 2002  Abderrahmane Youssoufi             (b. 1924)            USFP
 9 Oct 2002 - 19 Sep 2007  Driss Jettou                       (b. 1945)            Non-party
19 Sep 2007 - 29 Nov 2011  Abbas El Fassi                     (b. 1940)            PI
29 Nov 2011 -              Abdelilah Benkirane                (b. 1954)            PJD
 

 ¹The sultans and kings also held the title of Amir al-Mu´minin (Commander of the Faithful). 

Territorial Disputes: Claims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolved; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Morocco's 2002 rejection of Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Morocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco is a dormant dispute.

Party abbreviations: PI = Hizb al-Istiqlal/Parti d'Independence (Independence Party "Istiqlal", nationalist, center-right, monarchist, est.1944); PJD = Hizb al-'Adalah wa-t-Tanmiya/Parti de la Justice et du Développement (Justice and Development Party, nationalist, islamic conservative, to 1997 as Mouvement Populaire Démocratique et Constitutionnel [Popular Democratic and Constitutional Movement], est.1967); RNI = Rassemblement National des Indépendents (National Rally of Independents, center-right, est.1977); UC = al-Etihad al-Dosturi/Union Constitutionelle (Constitutional Union, liberal-conservative, center-right, est.1983); USFP = al-Ishtirakiy Lilqawat al-Sha'abiyah/Union Socialiste des Forces Populaires (Socialist Union of Popular Forces, social-democratic, center-left, former UNFP, est.1975);
- Former parties: FDIC = Front pour de la Défense des Institutions Constitutionnelles (Front for Defense of Constitutional Institutions, comprising MP, PSD, Constitutional Democratic Party, monarchist, 1963-1965); UNFP = Union Nationale des Forces Populaires (National Union of Popular Forces, socialist, nationalist, anti-monarchist, 1959-1975, became USFP, small faction continued to 2005)


French Morocco
[Morocco French
                  Protectorate civil ensign, 1919-1956]
  13 Mar 1919 - 18 Feb 1956 Civil Ensign
 

Map of French Morocco
Capital: Rabat
Population: 8,300,000 (1956 est.)

French Military governor
 4 Aug 1907 - 28 Apr 1912  Louis Hubert Lyautey               (b. 1854 - d. 1934)
French Residents-general
28 Apr 1912 - 25 Aug 1925  Louis Hubert Lyautey               (s.a.)
12 Dec 1916 -  7 Apr 1917  Henri Gouraud                      (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
                             (acting for Lyautey)
 4 Oct 1925 -  1 Jan 1929  Théodore Steeg                     (b. 1868 - d. 1950)
 2 Jan 1929 - 14 Sep 1933  Lucien Saint                       (b. 1867 - d. 1938)
14 Sep 1933 - 22 Mar 1936  Auguste Henri Ponsot               (b. 1877 - d. 1963)
22 Mar 1936 - 16 Sep 1936  Marcel Peyrouton                   (b. 1887 - d. 1983)
16 Sep 1936 -  5 Jun 1943  Hippolyte Noguès                   (b. 1876 - d. 1971)
 5 Jun 1943 - 21 Jun 1943  Jacques Meyrier (acting)           (b. 1892 - d. 1962)
21 Jun 1943 -  4 Mar 1946  Gabriel Puaux                      (b. 1883 - d. 1970) 
 4 Mar 1946 - 14 May 1947  Eirik Labonne                      (b. 1888 - d. 1971)
14 May 1947 - 28 Aug 1951  Alphonse Pierre Juin               (b. 1888 - d. 1967)
28 Aug 1951 - 20 May 1954  Augustin Léon Guillaume            (b. 1895 - d. 1983)
20 May 1954 - 20 Jun 1955  Francis Lacoste                    (b. 1905 - d. 1993)
20 Jun 1955 - 31 Aug 1955  Gilbert Yves Édmond Grandval       (b. 1904 - d. 1981)
31 Aug 1955 - 11 Nov 1955  Pierre Boyer de Latour             (b. 1896 - d. 1976)
11 Nov 1955 -  2 Mar 1956  André Louis Dubois                 (b. 1903 - d. 1998)

Spanish Morocco
[Morocco Spanish
                  Protectorate merchant Flag, 1937-1956]
   7 Jan 1937 - 7 Apr 1956 Merchant Flag
 

Map of Spanish Morocco
Capital: Tetuan
Population: 1,000,000 (1955 est.)
Spanish High Commissioners 
(also governors-general of Spanish West Africa 29 Aug 1934 - 20 Jul 1946)
 3 Apr 1913 - 15 Aug 1913  Felipe Alfau y Mendoza              (b. 1845 - d. 1937)
17 Aug 1913 -  9 Jul 1915  José Marina Vega                    (b. 1850 - d. 1926)
 9 Jul 1915 - 18 Nov 1918  Francisco Gómez Jordana (1st time)  (b. 1876 - d. 1944)
27 Jan 1919 - 13 Jul 1922  Dámaso Berenguer y Fauste           (b. 1873 - d. 1953)
15 Jul 1922 - 22 Jan 1923  Ricardo Burguete Lana               (b. 1871 - d. 1938)
16 Feb 1923 - 14 Sep 1923  Lópe Silvela y Casado               (b. 1865 - d. 1928)
25 Sep 1923 - 16 Oct 1924  Luis de Aizpuru y Mondéjar          (b. 1857 - d. 1939)
16 Oct 1924 -  2 Nov 1925  Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja,  (b. 1870 - d. 1930)
                             marqués de Estella
 2 Nov 1925 - Nov 1928     Jorje Sanjurjo Sacanell Buenrostro, (b. 1872 - d. 1936)
                             (from 26 May 1926) marqués de Monte
                             Malmusi (from 1 Oct 1927, marqués
                             del Riff)(1st time) 
Nov 1928 - 19 Apr 1931     Francisco Gómez Jordana (2nd time)  (s.a.)
19 Apr 1931 - 20 Jun 1931  Jorje Sanjurjo Sacanell Buenrostro, (s.a.)
                             marqués del Riff (2nd time)
20 Jun 1931 - May 1933     Luciano López Ferrer                (b. 1869 - d. 1945)
May 1933 - 23 Jan 1934     Juan Moles Ormella (1st time)       (b. 1871 - d. 1945)
23 Jan 1934 - Mar 1936     Manuel Rico Arello                  (b. 1887 - d. 1936)
Mar 1936 - May 1936        Juan Moles Ormella (2nd time)       (s.a.)
May 1936 - 18 Jul 1936     Arturo Álvarez-Buylla (acting)      (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
18 Jul 1936 - Jul 1936     Eduardo Sáenz de Buruaga            (b. 1893 - d. 1963)
Jul 1936 -  2 Oct 1936     Francisco Franco Bahmonde           (b. 1892 - d. 1975)
 2 Oct 1936 - Mar 1937     Luis Orgaz y Yoldi (1st time)       (b. 1881 - d. 1946)
Aug 1937 - 12 Aug 1939     Juan Luis Beigbeder Atienza         (b. 1888 - d. 1957)
16 Aug 1939 - 12 May 1941  Carlos Asensio Cabanillas           (b. 1896 - d. 1969)
12 May 1941 -  4 Mar 1945  Luis Orgaz y Yoldi (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 4 Mar 1945 - 24 Mar 1951  José Enrique Varela Iglesias        (b. 1891 - d. 1951)
24 Mar 1951 -  7 Apr 1956  Rafael García Valiño y Marcén       (b. 1898 - d. 1975)

Representatives of the Sultan in the Spanish Zone (styled Khalifa of Teutan
19 Apr 1913 -  9 Nov 1923  Mulay Muhammad al-Mahdi bin Ismail  (d. 1923)
 9 Nov 1923 -  9 Nov 1925  Vacant
 9 Nov 1925 - 16 Mar 1941  Mulay Hassan bin al-Mahdi (1st time)(b. 1912 - d. 1984) 
16 Mar 1941 - Oct 1945     Vacant
Oct 1945 -  7 Apr 1956     Mulay Hassan bin al-Mahdi (2nd time)(s.a.) 



Rif Republic
Flag of Republic of Er
                  Rif
                 1921 - 27 May 1926
Map of the Rif Republic
Hear National Anthem
Text of Anthem
Constitution
(18 Sep 1921)
Capital:  Axdir (Ajdir)
Currency: Rif Republic
Riffan (MARR) 
National Holiday: 18 Sep (1921)
Independence Day
Population: 18,350 (est.)
International Organizations/Treaties: None

18 Sep 1921                Independence of the Rif proclaimed (al-Rif).
 1 Feb 1923                Rif Republic (Dawlat al-Jumhuriyya al-Rifiyya).
27 May 1926                Dissolved by Franco-Spanish forces.

Emir (style Amir al-Rif)
18 Sep 1921 -  1 Feb 1923  Abd el-Krim                        (b. 1882 - d. 1963)
                            (Sayyidi Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi)
Head of State (style Ra'is al-Dawla)
 1 Feb 1923 - 27 May 1926  Abd el-Krim                        (s.a.)

Prime minister
Jul 1923 - 27 May 1926     ben Hajj Hatmi



Tangier
[Flag of Morocco]
  17 Nov 1915 - 1940, 1945 - 29 Oct 1956
      Tangier National and Civil Ensign
 
[Merchant
                            Flag Tangier International Zone 1953-1957]
           20 Jun 1953 - 11 Apr 1957
             Tangier Merchant Ensign
 
Map of  Tangier Zone
Capital: Tangier
Hear Anthem
Tangier Statute
 (1 Jun 1925)
Capital: Tangier
Currency 1925-1956:
Tangier Franco (MATF)
National Holiday: N/A
Population: 183,729 (1955)
2,225 (1677)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $2.49 billion MF (1953)
Imports: $ 2.59 billion MF (1953)
Total Police Force: 250
Defense was Responsibility of Signatory Powers
International Organizations/Treaties 1925-1956: UPU
 
929 - 1026                 Part of Caliphate of Córdoba.
1026 - 1075                Part of Málaga Taifa state.
1075 - 1148                Part of Almoravid Empire.
1148 - 1269                Part of Almohad Caliphate.
1269 - 1273                Occupied by the Hafsids.
1273 - 12..                Part of Morocco.
12.. - 1359                Emirate of Tangier, separated from Morocco.
1359 - 1421                Part of Morocco.
1421                       Emirate of Tangier, separated from Morocco.
13 Sep 1437 - 19 Oct 1437  Failed siege by Portugal.
28 Aug 1471                Portuguese possession (Tânger).
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Tangier, along with Portugal, a Spanish possession.
29 Jan 1662                Ceded to England.
 4 Jun 1668                Tangier was declared a free city by charter, with a mayor.
 6 Feb 1684                Re-incorporated into Morocco.
30 Mar 1912                City of Tangier an international protectorate.
 1 Jun 1925                International administration begins (representing Britain, Spain,
                             France [and later, Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands,
                             Sweden, United States, and  from 1945 Soviet Union])
                             administration attached to French Morocco
                             (Tangier International Zone).
14 Jun 1940                Occupied by Moroccan troops under Spanish command.
 4 Nov 1940 - 11 Oct 1945  Incorporated into Spanish Morocco.
29 Oct 1956                Incorporated into Morocco.
18 Apr 1960                Re-integrated with Morocco financially; international
                             status formally abolished.

Captains
28 Aug 1471 - 1484         Rodrigo (Rui) Afonso de Melo,     (b. c.1430 - d. 1487)
                             (from 21 Jul 1476) conde de
                             Olivença
1484 - 1486                Manuel de Melo                    (b. c.1440 - d. 1493)
 6 Aug 1486 -  9 Jun 1489  João de Meneses, conde de Tarouca (b. c.1460 - d. 1522)
                             (1st time)
1487 - 1489                Fernando (Fernão) Martins
                             Mascarenhas (interim)
1489 - 1490                Manuel Pessanha (interim)
1490 - 1501                Lopo Vaz de Azevedo "o Monge"     (b. c.1430 - d. 15..)
1501 - 1502                Rodrigo de Castro (de Monsanto)   (b. c.1440 - d. af.1503)
                             (interim)
1502 - 1508                João de Meneses, conde de Tarouca (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1508 - 1521                Duarte de Meneses (1st time)      (b. bf.1488 - d. 1539)
1521 - 1522                Henrique de Meneses (acting)      (b. c.1490 - d. af.1536) 
1522 - 1532                Duarte de Meneses "o d'Evora"     (b. c.1450 - d. af.1532)
1532 - 1533                Álvaro de Abranches               (b. c.1480 - d. 1563)
26 Sep 1533 -  4 Oct 1536  Gonçalo Mendes Sacoto (Caçoto)
 4 Oct 1536 - 1539         Duarte de Meneses (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1539 -  3 Mar 1546  João de Meneses "o Púcaro"        (b. c.1520 - d. 1557)
 3 Mar 1546 - 18 Dec 1548  Francisco Botelho                 (b. c.1510 - d. af.1548)
18 Dec 1548 - 16 Jun 1550  Pedro de Meneses                  (b. c.1520 - d. 1550)
16 Jun 1550 - 21 Nov 1552  João Álvares de Azevedo (acting)
1552 - 13 Mar 1553         Luís de Loureiro                  (b. c.1490 - d. 1553)
1553                       Fernando de Meneses               (b. c.1530 - d. ....)
1553                       Pedro Garcia
1553                       Pedro Álvares Correia
1553                       Diogo Lopes de Franca (1st time)  (b. c.1520 - d. 1578)
Sep 1553 - 29 Apr 1554     Ls da Silva de Meneses          (d. 1554)
1554 - 1564                Bernardim de Carvalho             (b. c.1510 - d. af.1574)
1564                       Diogo Lopes da Franca (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (interim)
 1 Apr 1564 - 1566         Lourenço Pires de Távora          (b. c.1500 - d. 1573)
1564 - 1566                Diogo Lopes da Franca (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                             (interim)
15 Jul 1566 -  1 Aug 1572  João de Meneses "o Craveiro"
1572 - 1573                Rui de Sousa de Carvalho          (b. 1536? - d. 1573)
1573 - Jul 1574            Diogo Lopes da Franca (4th time)  (s.a.)
                             (interim)
1574 - 15 Aug 1574         António de Portugal, prior do     (b. 1531 - d. 1595)
                             Crato
1574 - 1577                Duarte de Meneses (1st time)      (b. 1537 - d. 1588)
1577                       Pedro da Silva (1st time)(interim)(b. c.1554 - d. 1578?)
1577 - 1578                Duarte de Meneses (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1578 - Sep 1578            Pedro da Silva (2nd time)(interim)(s.a.)
 7 Sep 1578 - 25 Jul 1581  Jorge de Mendonça Cação           (b. c.1515 - d. ....)
25 Jul 1581 - 1590         Francisco de Almeida              (b. c.1550 - d. af.1613)
1590 - Jun 1591            Belchior da Franca                (b. c.1550 - d. c.1591)
                           + Simão Lopes de Mendonça
                           (interim)
17 Jun 1591 - 24 Aug 1599  Aires de Saldanha                 (b. 1542 - d. 1605)
24 Aug 1599 - 22 Sep 1605  António Pereira Lopes de Berredo  (b. c.1550 - d. c.1614)
22 Sep 1605 - Mar 1610     Nuno de Mendonça                  (b. c.1560 - d. 1633?)
Mar 1610 - Jun 1614        Afonso de Noronha                 (b. c.1550 - d. 1627)
Jun 1614 - Oct 1614        Luís de Meneses, conde de Tarouca (b. c.1570 - d. 1614)
Oct 1614 - Aug 1615        Luís de Noronha e Meneses,        (b. 1570 - d. 16..) 
                             conde de Vila Real (interim)
Aug 1615 - 22 Dec 1616     João Coutinho, conde de Redondo   (b. c.1540 - d. 1619)
22 Dec 1616 -  1 Jul 1617  André Dias da Franca (1st time)
                             (interim)
 1 Jul 1617 - 1621         Pedro Manuel
1621 - 13 Mar 1622         André Dias de Franca (2nd time)
                             (acting)
13 Mar 1622 - Jul 1624     Jorge de Mascarenhas, marquês     (b. 1597 - d. 1652)
                             de Montalvão
Jul 1624 - 14 May 1628     Miguel de Noronha, conde de       (b. 1585 - d. 1647)
                             Linhares
14 May 1628 - 18 Jun 1628  Glaaz Fernandes da Silveira
                             (interim)
18 Jun 1628 - 1637         Fernando de Mascarenhas, conde    (b. c.1610 - d. 1651)
                             de Torre 
1637                       André Dias da Franca (3rd time)
                             (interim)
15 Apr 1637 - 28 Aug 1643  Rodrigo Lobo da Silveira, conde   (d. 1656)
                             de Sarzedas
1643 - 16 Apr 1645         André Dias da Franca (4th time)
                           + Baltasar Martins de Lordelo
                           + Francisco Lopes Tavares
                           + Francisco Banha de Sequeira
16 Apr 1645 - 20 Nov 1649  Caetano Coutinho
20 Nov 1649 - Jan 1653     Luís Lobo, barão de Alvito
Jan 1653 -  7 Mar 1656     Rodrigo de Lencastre
 7 Mar 1656 - 1661         Fernando de Meneses, conde        (b. 1614 - d. 1699)
                             da Ericeira
1661 - 29 Jan 1662         Luís de Almeida Portugal          (b. c.1610 - d. 1671)
Governors
29 Jan 1662 - 1663         Henry Mordaunt, Earl of           (b. 1621 - d. 1697) 
                             Peterborough
1663 -  4 May 1664         Andrew Rutherford, Earl of Teviot (d. 1664)
 4 May 1664 - 1664         Tobias Bridge (acting)
1664 - Apr 1665            John Fitzgerald
Apr 1665 - 1666            John Belasyse, Baron Belasyse     (b. 1614 - d. 1689)
1666 - 1668                Sir Henry Norwood                 (b. c.1614 - d. 1689)
1669 - 1670                John Middleton, Earl of           (b. c.1608 - d. 1674) 
                             Middleton (1st time)
1670 - 1672                Sir Hugh Cholmeley (acting)       (b. 1632 - d. 1689)
1672 - Jun 1674            John Middleton, Earl of           (s.a.)
                             Middleton (2nd time)
1674 - 1675                Budget Meakin (acting)
1675 - 1680                William O'Brien, Earl of          (b. 1640 - d. 1692) 
                             Inchiquin
1675 - 1680                Sir Palmes Fairborne              (b. 1644 - d. 1680)
                            (acting [for often absent Earl Inchiquin to ... 1680])
 1 Oct 1680 - 17 Oct 1680  Charles FitzCharles, Earl of      (b. 1657 - d. 1680)
                             Plymouth
Oct 1680 - 28 Dec 1681     Sir Edward Sackville (acting)     (b. c.1640 - d. 1717)
28 Dec 1681 - Aug 1683     Sir Percy Kirke                   (b. c.1646 - d. 1691)
Aug 1683 -  6 Feb 1684     George Legge, Baron Dartmouth     (b. c.1647 - d. 1691)
Mayors
21 Aug 1668 - 1669         John Bland (1st time)             (d. 1680)
16 Nov 1669 - 1670         Samuel Taylor
 3 Nov 1670 - 1671         John Bland (2nd time)             (s.a.)
16 Nov 1671 - c.1673       William Staines (Staynes)
167. - 167.                John White
1675 - 18 Oct 1683         William "Tangier" Smith           (b. 1655 - d. 1705)
Administrators

24 Aug 1926 - 19 Aug 1929  Paul Alberge (France)
19 Aug 1929 -  1 Aug 1940  Joseph Le Fur (France)
 1 Aug 1940 -  4 Nov 1940  Manuel Amieva Escandón (Spain)    (b. 1889 - d. 1960)
Spanish military governor
14 Jun 1940 -  3 Nov 1940  Antonio Yuste
Governors-general
 3 Nov 1940 - 1941         Antonio Yuste
1941 - 18 Nov 1942         Uriarte
18 Nov 1942 - 11 Oct 1945  Pothous
Administrators
11 Oct 1945 - 18 Jun 1948  Luis António de Magalhães Correia (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
                             (Portugal) 
15 Aug 1948 -  9 Apr 1951  Jonkheer H.F.L.K. van Vredenburch (b. 1905 - d. 1981)
                             (Netherlands) 
 9 Apr 1951 - 21 Jun 1954  José Luís Archer (Portugal)       (b. 1901 - d. 1979)
21 Jun 1954 - 31 Dec 1954  Étienne de Croÿ, prince de        (b. 1898 - d. 1990)
                             Croÿ-Roeulx (Belgium)
 4 Jan 1955 -  5 Jul 1956  Robert van de Kerckhove           (b. 1890 - d. 1974)    
                             d'Hallebast (Belgium)

Presidents of the Legislative Assembly
(and Representatives of the Sultan of Morcco)
1923 - 16 Mar 1941         Muhammad at-Tazi Bu Ashran (1st time)
16 Mar 1941 - 11 Oct 1945  Post abolished
Oct 1945 - 1954            Muhammad at-Tazi Bu Ashran (2nd time)
1954 -  8 Jul 1956         Ahmad at-Tazi



Ifni
[Spain 1945-1977]
                 to 4 Jan 1969 
 
Map of Ifni
Capital: Sidi Ifni
Population: 51,521 (1958)
  
26 Apr 1860                Port of Sidi Ifni ceded by Morocco to Spain by Treaty of
                             Tetuán; not occupied.
 3 Nov 1884                Part of Spanish West Africa (see Western Sahara).
12 Nov 1912                Ifni protectorate.
 6 Apr 1934                Ifni first occupied by Spain.
Sep 1936                   Spanish Nationalist forces take control of Ifni.
20 Jul 1946                United with Río de Oro as (Ifni Territory of) Spanish West Africa
                              (see Western Sahara).
12 Jan 1958                Ifni a Spanish overseas province.
30 Jun 1969                Spain retrocedes Ifni to Morocco (retroactive to 4 Jan 1969).


Governors of Ifni

(subordinated to Spanish High Commissioners for Morocco to 1956)
29 Aug 1934 - 12 Jan 1958  the governors of Spanish Sahara
Governors-delegate
6/9 Apr 1934 - 20 Jul 1934 Osvaldo Fernando Capaz Montes        (b. 1874 - d. 1936)
                             (military governor)
1934 -  4 May 1936         Benigno Martínez Portillo            (d. 1936)
                             (military governor to 29 Aug 1934)
12 May 1936 - 20 Jul 1936  Carlos Pedemonte Sabín               (d. c.1936)
20 Jul 1936 - 15 Aug 1936  Juan Montero Cabañas
15 Aug 1936 - 15 Oct 1937  Rafael Molero Pimentel           
16 Oct 1937 - 1952         Juan Fernández Aceytuno Montero
c.1952 - 11 Aug 1957       José Martín Álvarez-Chas de Berbén   (b. 1918 - d. 1957)
c.1957                     José María Troncoso Palleiro
c.1957                     Francisco Mena Díaz
Governors-general
12 Jan 1958 - 12 Feb 1959  Mariano Gómez Zamalloa y Quirce      (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
12 Feb 1959 - 15 Nov 1961  Pedro Latorre Alcubierre             (b. 1900 - d. 1995)
15 Nov 1961 -  3 May 1963  Joaquín Agulla y Jiménez-Coronado    (b. 1902 - d. 1971)
 3 May 1963 -  5 Nov 1965  Adolfo Artalejo Campos               (d. 1965)
 5 Nov 1965 - 20 Jun 1967  Marino Trovo Larrasquito
20 Jun 1967 - 30 Jun 1969  José Miguel Vega Rodríguez           (b. 1913 - d. 1992)


Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña

1478 - 1526                Spanish settlement of Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña located
                             on Moroccan Atlantic coast near Sidi Ifni (abandoned 1485-96)
                             (subordinated to Canary Islands).


Alcaíde
s of Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña
1478 - Jun 1485            Diego García de Herrera              (d. 1485)
1485 - 1496                abandoned
1496 - 1517                the governors of Grán Canaria
10 Aug 1517 -  5 Sep 1519  Hernán Darias de Saavedra
                             (de facto)
 5 Sep 1519 - 28 Mar 1522  Luis de Zapata (to 1521)
                           + Francisco de Vargas
                           + Cristóbal Bivas (from 1521)
28 Mar 1522 -  4 Aug 1525  Juan de Chaves                       (d. 1525)
                           + Diego Vargas
Aug 1525 - 1526            the governor of Grán Canaria
                           + Diego Vargas (to ... 1525)
                           + Luis de Aday (interim)
                              (19 Apr - 8 May 1526)
Lieutenants of the Alcaíde at Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña
1478 - 1479                Alonso de Cabrera
1479 - 1485?               Jofre de Tenorio
1485 - 1496                abandoned
1496 - 1497                Diego Ramirez
11 Dec 1497 - Dec 1498     Rodrigo de Narvaez
1498? - 1501               Alonso de Valenzuela
1504 - 1508?               Juan Fernandes Portugués
c.1508                     Diego de Cabrera
15.. - Aug 1517            Hernando de Baeza
c.1519                     Cristóbal Bivas (Vivas)    
13 Nov 1522 - 1524         Pedro Hernandez de Lugo
1524 - 1526                Luis de Aday


Former Portuguese Possessions

Mazagan (Mazagão)

1506                        Mazagan (El Jadida) claimed for Portugal.
1514                        Portuguese possession.
18 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640   Mazagan along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
11 Mar 1769                 Mazagan re-incorporated into Morocco.

Captains-major
1514 - 1517                 Martim Afonso de Melo
1517 – 1520                 Alvaro de Noronha
1520 - 1529                 António Leite (1st time)
1529 - 1536?                ....
1536? - 1537?               Manuel de Sande
1537?                       António Leite (2nd time)
1537 - 1541                 João Gomes
1541 - 1548                 Luís de Loureiro                     (d. 1553)
1548 - 1551                 Tristão de Ataíde
1551 - 1561                 Álvaro de Carvalho (1st time)
1561 - 1562                 Rui de Sousa de Carvalho (1st time)  (d. 1574)
1562                        Álvaro de Carvalho (2nd time)
1562                        Rui de Sousa de Carvalho (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1562 - 1564                 Francisco de Barros de Paiva
1564 - 1572                 Rui de Sousa de Carvalho (3rd time)  (s.a.)
1572 - 1574                 Pedro Álvares de Carvalho
1574                        Bernardim de Carvalho
1574 - 1577                 Gil Fernandes de Carvalho (1st time)
1577 - 1578                 Francisco de Figueiredo (interim)
1578                        Martim Correia da Silva
1578 - 1581                 João de Mendonça Furtado              (d. 1581)
1581 - 1582                 Pêro de Mendonça Furtado
1582 - 1586                 Francisco de Mendonça Furtado
1586                        Gil Fernandes de Carvalho (2nd time)
1586 - 1607                 Diogo Lopes de Carvalho
Governors
1607 - 1610                 Manuel Mascarenhas
 7 Sep 1610 - 1615          Henrique Correia da Silva
1615 - 1619                 Jorge Mascarenhas, marquês            (b. 1597 - d. 1652)
                              de Montalvão  
1619 - 1624                 Brás Teles de Meneses
15 Mar 1624 - Jun 1627      Gonçalo Coutinho
26 Jun 1627 -  7 Jun 1631   Francisco de Almeida
 7 Jun 1631 - 1635          João da Silva Telo de Meneses
                              conde de Aveiras
1635 - Mar 1640             Francisco de Mascarenhas
                              conde de Castelho Novo 
Mar 1640 - Jun 1640         Luísa Antónia de Velasco (f)
                            + Nuno da Cunha da Costa 
                            (acting)
25 Jun 1640 - 1642          Martim Correia da Silva (interim)  
1642 - Nov 1645             Rui de Moura Teles  
10 Nov 1645 - May 1648      João Luís de Vasconcelos e Meneses    (b. 1600 - d. 1649) 
May 1648 - Jul 1648         Junta 
                            - António Dinis Barbosa
                            - Gonçalo Barreto
                            - Gaspar Rodrigues
1648 - 1649                 Nuno da Cunha da Costa (1st time)
1649                        Francisco de Noronha (1st time)
1649 - 1650                 Nuno da Cunha da Costa (2nd time)
1650 - 1654                 Francisco de Noronha (2nd time)
29 Jan 1654 - 1658          Alexandre de Sousa Freire  
1658 - 1661                 Francisco de Mendonça Furtado
1661 - 1667                 Cristóvão de Melo                     (b. c.1625 - d. ....) 
1667 - 27 Nov 1671          Martinho Mascarenhas, conde de
                              Santa Cruz 
Nov 1671 - 1677             Marco de Noronha  
Feb 1677 - 1681             Cristóvão de Almada                   (b. 1632 - d. 1713)
1681 - 1687                 Bernardim de Sousa de Távora Tavares
1687 - 1691                 Manuel de Sousa de Castro
1691 - 1692                 Domingos de Matos  
1692 - 1695                 João de Saldanha de Albuquerque
Governors and Captains-general
1695 - 1698                 Luís de Saldanha da Gama 
1698 -  9 Oct 1702          Sancho de Faro e Sousa
                              conde de Vimieiros 
 9 Oct 1702 - Sep 1705      Manuel de Sousa Tavares de Távora 
 1 Oct 1705 - 27 Jul 1713   Francisco de Melo e Castro
27 Jul 1713 - 1719          Manuel Rolim de Moura                 (d. 1738)  
1719 - 1724                 Duarte Sodré Pereira  
1724                        António José de Miranda Henriques     (b. c.1695 - d. 17..) 
1724 - 1734                 João Jacques de Magalhães  
1734 -  4 Aug 1745          Bernardo Pereira de Berredo  
Aug 1745 - 1752             António Álvares da Cunha 
1752 - 1757                 José Leite de Sousa                   (b. c.1715 - d. ....) 
1757 - Sep 1763             José Joaquim Vasques da Cunha
Sep 1763 - 11 Mar 1769      Dinis Gregório de Melo e Castro       (d. 1793)
                              Mendonça


Aguz

1506 - 1525                 Portuguese rule at Aguz (Souira Guedima).

Captains
1506 - 1507                 Diogo de Azambuja                     (b. 1432 -  d. 1518)
c.1510 - c.1516             Francisco Mendes
15.. - c.1522               Diogo de Azambuja, Jr.
152. - 1525                 Gonçalo Mendes Sacoto


Alcácer Ceguer  (Qsar es-Seghir)

23 Oct 1458 - 1550          Portuguese rule at Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir).

Captains

1458 - 1464                 Duarte de Meneses, conde de Viana     (d. 1464)
1464 - 1480                 Henrique de Meneses
1480 - 1488                 Rodrigo (Rui) Vaz Pereira
1488 - 1501                 Martim de Sousa e Távora              (b. c.1450 - d. ....)
1501 - 1512?                Rodrigo de Sousa
151. - 151.                 António de Sousa
1516 - 1516/17              Ruy Dias de Sousa                     (d. 1516/17)
1517 - 1518                 Diogo Lopes de Sequeira
1521? - 1523?               Pedro de Sousa, conde de Prado
c.1529 - 1531               Francisco de Carvalho
1531 - 1545                 Pedro Álvares de Carvalho
1545 - 1549                 Alvaro de Carvalho
1549 - 1550                 Bernardim de Carvalho

Arzila (Arcila) 

24 Aug 1471                 Portuguese rule at Arzila (Asilah). 
Aug 1550 - 1577             Restored to Morocco.
1577                        Portuguese rule restored.
18 Jul 1580                 Arzila along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
1589                        Restored to Morocco.

Captains
1471 - 1479                 Henrique de Meneses  
1480 - 1481                 Lopo Dias de Azevedo
1482 - 1486                 João de Meneses 
1486 - 1488?                Álvaro de Faria
1488? - 1495                Vasco Coutinho, conde de Redondo      (b. 14.. - d. 1522)
                              (1st time)(interim to 1490)
1495?                       Rodrigo Coutinho
1495                        João de Meneses (1st time)(interim)
1495 - 1501                 Vasco Coutinho, conde de Redondo      (s.a.) 
                              (2nd time)
1501 - 1502                 João Coutinho (1st time)(interim)
1502 - 1505                 João de Meneses (2nd time)(interim)
1505 - 1508                 Vasco Coutinho, conde de Redondo      (s.a.) 
                              (2nd time)
1508                        Jorge Barreto
1508 - 1513                 Vasco Coutinho, conde de Redondo      (s.a.) 
                              (3rd time)
1513                        João Coutinho (2nd time)(interim)
1513 - 1514                 Vasco Coutinho, conde de Redondo      (s.a.) 
                              (4th time)
1514 - 1523                 João Coutinho (3rd time)(interim)
1523                        Manuel de Meneses (interim)
1523                        Fernão Caldeira (interim)
1523 - 1525                 João Coutinho (4th time)(interim)
1525 - Oct 1529             António da Silveira (substitute)
1529 - 1538                 João Coutinho (5th time)(interim)
1538 - 1544?                Manuel Mascarenhas
1544 - 1546                 Sebastião de Vargas
1546 - 1549                 Francisco Coutinho, conde de Redondo
1549 - Aug 1550             Luís de Loureiro                      (d. 1553)
Aug 1550 - 1577             Moroccan rule
1577 - 1578                 Duarte de Meneses
1578                        Pedro de Mesquita
1578 - 1580?                Pedro de Silva 
1580 - 158.                 Vasco Fernandes Homem


Azamor

 3 Sep 1513                 Portuguese rule in Azamor (Azemmour).
30 Oct 1541                 Restored to Morocco.

Captains
 3 Sep 1513 - 1513          Jaime de Bragança
1513 - 1514                 Rui Barreto 
May 1514 - Sep 1514         João Soares (acting)
 2 Sep 1514 - 1516          Pedro de Sousa 
1516                        Nuno Gato (acting)
1516 - Dec 1517             Simão Correia
30 Dec 1517 - 1525          Álvaro de Noronha                     (b. c.1475 - d. 15..)
Jun 1525 - 1529             Jorge Viegas
10 Sep 1529 - 1530          António Leite (1st time)
1530 - 1534                 Pedro de Mascarenhas
1534 - 1535                 Lançarote de Freitas (interim)
1535 - 1537                 Álvaro de Abranches
1537 - 1541                 António Leite (2nd time)
1541 - 1542                 Fernando de Noronha


Larache

20 Nov 1610                 Larache (El Araich) a Spanish possession, named Castillo
                              de Nuestra Señora de Europa, popularly called Las Cigüeñas.
 6 Dec 1689                 Retaken by Morocco.

Governors

1610 - 1614                 Gaspar de Valdés                      (b. 1561 - d. 1639)
1614 - 1618                 Pedro Rodríguez de Sanistéban y       (b. c.1555/53 - d. c.1628)
                              y Dávalos,(1st time)
1618 - 1622                 Francisco Carrillo de Santoyo
                              (acting)
1622 - 1623                 Pedro Rodríguez de Santisteban y      (s.a.)
                              Dávalos, marqués de Cropani
                              (2nd time)
1623                        Pedro Francisco de Sanisteban         (d. c.1636)
 5 Oct 1623 - Sep 1627      Juan Jaraquemada y Codina             (b. c.1563 - d. 1627)
1627 -  1 Aug 1628          Diego de Vera Ordóñez (acting)        (d. 1648)
 1 Aug 1628 - 1630          Alonso de Alvarado y Velasco,         (b. c.1579 - d. 1632)
                              conde de Villamor
18 Jul 1630 - 1631          Sebastián Granero de Alarcón          (b. c.1569 - 1639/40)
                              y Pérez Coronado (1st time)
1631 - 1633                 Fernando de Navarrete (acting)
1633 - 1637                 Sebastián Granero de Alarcón          (s.a.)
                              y Pérez Coronado (2nd time)
1637 - 1641                 Luis de Sotomayor                     (b. c.1584 - d. 1649)
1641 - 1644                 Cristobál de Unzueta Labrit y
                              Nuñez de Prado
 4 Apr 1644 - 1649          Diego de Moreda y Munilla             (b. c.1601 - d. 1657)
1649 - 1652                 Alfonso Palomino Rajadel (acting)
1652 - 1655                 Diego de Vera (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1655 - 1664          Benito Figueroa y Barrantes y         (d. 1670)
                              de la Puerta
1664 - 1668                 Juan Alvarado Bracamonte
                              y Saravia
1668 - 1677                 Juan de Barbosa                       (b. c.1613 - d. ....)
22 Jun 1677 - 1679          Diego Pacheco y Arce                  (b. c.1621 - d. c.1710)
1679 - 1683                 Lorenzo de Ripalda y Ayanz (acting)
1683 - 1689                 Fernando de Villerías y Medrano

Mamora (Mehdiya)

1515                        Briefly occupied by Portugal and renamed São João da Mamora.
Aug 1614                    Spanish rule, named San Miguel de Ultramar.
30 Apr 1681                 Re-taken by Morocco, later named Mehdiya.

Governors
Dec 1614 - 1622             Cristóbal Lechuga                     (b. 1556 - d. 1622)
Sep 1622 - 1626             Diego de Escobedo y Gallego           (b. c.1562 - d. c.1632)
1626 - 1629                 Francisco de Murga y Ortiz de Orue    (d. 1634)
1629 - 1636                 Toribio de Herrera y Gutiérrez        (b. c.1589 - d. 1636)
1636 - 1647                 Fernando Dorado de Astorga            (d. c.1666)
1647 - 1656                 José de Medrano de los Rios
1656 - 1667                 Alonso Prieto de Valencia y Angulo
1667 -  5 Mar 1671          Diego Lopez Gallardo
1671 - 19 Dec 1671          Juan Torres de Vivar (1st time)
19 Dec 1671 - 11 May 1672   Pedro Cajés (1st time)(acting)
11 May 1672 - Oct 1673      Juan Torres de Vivar (2nd time)
1673 - 1680                 Pedro Cajés (2nd time)
1680 - 1681                 Juan de Peñalosa y Estrada


Mogador

Aug 1506                    Castello Real de Mogador (Essaouira) built.
Nov 1510                    Re-taken by Morocco.

Captains
Aug 1506 - 1510             Diogo de Azambuja, Sr.
27 Jun 1507 - 1510          Francisco de Miranda
                              (acting for Azambuja)
1510 - May 1510             Pedro de Azevedo
May 1510 - Nov 1510         Nicolão de Sousa

Safim

1488 - Oct 1541             Portuguese rule at Safim (Safi).

Captains
1488 - 1506                 no administration
1508 - 1509                 Diogo de Azambuja, Sr.
1509 - 1510                 Pedro de Azevedo
1510 - 19 May 1516          Nuno Fernandes de Ataíde
1516                        Nuno Gato (interim)
1516 – 1520                 Nuno Mascarenhas
1520 – 1522                 Francisco Lopes Girão (1st time
                              (acting)
1522 –  9 Oct 1525          Gonçalo Mendes Sacoto
 9 Oct 1525 – 1529          Garcia de Melo
1529 - 1534                 Francisco Lopes Girão (2nd time)
                              (acting)
Mar 1534 – May 1534         Luis de Loureiro (1st time)           (d. 1553)
May 1534 – Sep 1534         Garcia de Noronha
Sep 1534 – 1535             Jorge de Noronha
1535 – 1541                 Rodrigo de Castro
1541 - 1542                 Luis de Loureiro (2nd time)           (s.a.)   



Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué

1505 - 12 Mar 1541          Portuguese rule at Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir).

Governors
1505 - 1512                 João Lopes de Sequeira
                              (holder of the factory)
1513 - 1517                 Francisco de Castro (1st time)
1517                        Pêro Leitão (interim)
1517 - 1521                 Francisco de Castro (2nd time)
1521 - 1523                 Simão Gonçalves da Costa (interim)
1523 - 1525                 António Leitão de Gambôa (1st time)    (d. 1529)
1525 - 1528                 Luís Sacoto
1528 - Feb 1529             António Leitão de Gambôa (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Feb 1529 - Jul 1529         António Rodrigues de Parada (interim)
1529 - 1533                 Simão Gonçalves da Costa
1533 - 1534                 Simão Gonçalves da Câmara (interim)
1534                        Rui Dias de Aguiar (interim)
1534                        Guterre de Monroy (1st time)           (d. 1548)
1534 - 1538                 Luís de Loureiro                       (d. 1553)
1538 - 1541                 Guterre de Monroy (2nd time)           (s.a.)





© Ben Cahoon