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Benin
 
            22 Jun 1894 - 16 Nov 1959 
 
 
[Benin flag]
            16 Nov 1959 - 30 Nov 1975; 
               Re-adopted 1 Aug 1990
 
[Benin flag
                            1975-1990]
           30 Nov 1975 - 1 Aug 1990
 
 
Map of Benin
Hear National Anthem
"L'Aube Nouvelle"
(The Dawn of a New Day)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 30 Jul 1960
Constitution
(2 Dec 1990)
Capital: Porto-Novo
(to 1927 Abomey)
Seat of Government: Cotonou 
Currency:  Communauté
Financière Africaine
Franc (XOF)
National Holiday: 1 Aug (1960)
National Day
Population: 9,877,292 (2013)
GDP: $16.65 billion (2013)
Exports: $1.10 billion (2013)
Imports: $1.83 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Fon and related 39.2%, Adja and related 15.2%,
 Yoruba and related 12.3%, Bariba and related 9.2%, Peulh and
 related 7%, Ottamari and related 6.1%, Yoa-Lokpa and related 4%,
 Dendi and related 2.5%, other 1.6% (includes Europeans),
 unspecified 2.9% (2002)
Total Active Armed Forces: 7,250 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010) 
Religions: Catholic 27.1%, Muslim 24.4%, Vodoun 17.3%,
Protestant 10.4% (Celestial 5%, Methodist 3.2%, other Protestant
 2.2%), other Christian 5.3%, other 15.5% (2002)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, CEMAC, CEN-SAD, CCM (signatory), CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Benin Index
Chronology

1650 - 1807                English Fort William at Ouidah.
1671 - 1797                French Fort St. Louis at Ouidah.
23 Feb 1863 -  2 Jan 1865  Porto-Novo a French protectorate.
19 May 1868                Cotonou a French protectorate.
14 Apr 1882                Porto-Novo a French protectorate.
 5 Aug 1885 - 22 Dec 1887  Portugal declares a protectorate over Dahomey 
                             (with no effect).
1886                       Établissements Français du Golfe de Benin.
 3 Dec 1892                French annex Whydah (Ouidah).
22 Jun 1893                Porto-Novo a French colony.
20 Jan 1894                Dahomey a French protectorate.
22 Jun 1894                Dahomey colony, including Porto Novo.
17 Oct 1899                Part of French West Africa (see Senegal).
24 Jun 1911                Dahomey colony and Dependencies
16 Jun 1940 - 13 Nov 1942  Administration loyal to Vichy France
                             (after 13 Nov 1942 Free French).
27 Oct 1946                Dahomey an overseas territory of France.
 4 Dec 1958                Autonomy (Republic of Dahomey).
 1 Aug 1960                Independence from France (Republic of Dahomey).
30 Nov 1975                People's Republic of Benin
 1 Mar 1990                Republic of Benin

Traditional
States
Forte São João
Baptista
de Ajudá

(1680-1961)
English
Fort William

(1650-1812)
French Fort
St. Louis

(1671-1797)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Secretary of the Popular Revolutionary (Communist) Party of Benin (PRBP)
18 Nov 1979 - 28 Feb 1990  Mathieu Kérékou                   (b. 1933)
                           (abandons marxism 8 Dec 1989)


French Agent in Porto Novo
23 Feb 1863 -  2 Jan 1865  Marius Denis Célestin Daumas
French Consuls in Cotonou
1878 - 1881                Albert Richard Ardin d'Elteil      (b. 1843 - d. 1894)
1881 - 1883                Victor Bareste                     (b. 1835 - d. 1889)
Residents in Porto Novo
Jun 1882 - 1882            Bonaventure Colonna de Leca        (b. 1841 - d. 1882) 
1883                       Henri Guilman
1883 - 1884                Daniel Germa
1884 - Jul 1884            Léopold Maignot
Ju1 1884 - 1886            Charles Disnematin-Dorat           (b. 1826 - d. 1898)
1886                       Émmanuel Roget                     (b. 1856 - d. 1903)
1886 - 1887                Jean-Marie Bayol                   (b. 1849 - d. 1905)
1887 - 16 Jun 1887         Gentian Antonin Maire Péréton   
16 Jun 1887 - 11 Jul 1888  Victor Marie Paul Ballot           (b. 1855 - d. 1917)
                             (1st time)
11 Jul 1888 - 1889         Paul Alphonse Frédéric Marie de    (b. 1846 - d. 1915)
                             Beeckman -Administrator
1889 - 19 Oct 1889         Louis Frédéric Émil Tautain        (b. 1855 - d. 1905) 
19 Oct 1889 - 22 Dec 1891  Victor Marie Paul Victor Ballot    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Lieutenant-governor
22 Dec 1891 - 22 Jun 1894  Victor Marie Paul Victor Ballot    (s.a.)
Governors 
22 Jun 1894 -  3 Jul 1899  Victor Marie Paul Victor Ballot    (s.a.)
 3 Jul 1899 -  8 Oct 1899  Jean-Baptiste Fonssagrives         (b. 1862 - d. 1910)
                             (acting)
 8 Oct 1899 - 26 Nov 1900  Pierre Hubert Auguste Pascal       (b. 1861 - d. 1946)
                             (acting)
26 Nov 1900 -  5 May 1906  Victor Théophile Liotard           (b. 1858 - d. 1916)
30 Jun 1902 - Oct 1902     Charles Emmanuel Joseph Marchal    (b. 1855 - d. 1917)
                             (acting for Liotard)
 1 Sep 1903 - 15 Jan 1904  Eugène Louis Frédéric Décazes      (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
                             (acting for Liotard)
15 Jan 1904 - 28 Jun 1904  Jean Penel (acting for Liotard)
 5 May 1906 -  9 Jun 1906  Joseph Étienne Gabriel Lhuerre     (b. 1855 - d. 1923) 
                             (acting)
 9 Jun 1906 -  8 Mar 1908  Charles Emmanuel Joseph Marchal    (s.a.) 
                             (acting to 16 Jul 1906)
 8 Mar 1908 - 22 Sep 1908  Marie Antoine Edmond Gaudart       (b. 1859 - d. 1942)
                             (acting)
22 Sep 1908 -  9 Oct 1908  Charles Désiré Auguste Brunet      (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
                             (acting)
 9 Oct 1908 - 25 Apr 1909  Jean Jules Émile Peuvergne         (b. 1849 - d. 1916)
25 Apr 1909 -  6 Mar 1911  Henri Jules Jean Baptiste Malan    (b. 1869 - d. 1912)
29 Jun 1909 - 10 Feb 1910  Raphaël Valentin Marius Antonetti  (b. 1872 - d. 1938)
                             (acting for Malan)
 6 Mar 1911 - 24 Jun 1911  Raphaël Valentin Marius Antonetti  (s.a.)
24 Jun 1911 -  9 May 1912  Émile Joseph Merwart               (b. 1869 - d. 1960)
Lieutenant-governors
 9 May 1912 -  7 Apr 1917  Charles Henri Adrien Noufflard     (b. 1872 - d. 1936)
                             (acting to 11 Jul 1912)
 7 Apr 1917 - 29 Aug 1928  Gaston Léon Joseph Fourn
                             (acting to Jul 1919)
 1 May 1921 - 28 Feb 1922  Pierre Aimable Chapon-Baissac      (b. 1876 – d. 19..)
                             (acting for Fourn)
 1 Apr 1924 - 26 Nov 1924  Alphonse Paul Albert Choteau       (b. 1883 - d. 1936)
                             (acting for Fourn)
29 Aug 1928 -  4 Apr 1929  Lucien Eugène Geay (acting)        (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
 4 Apr 1929 -  8 Feb 1931  Dieudonné François Joseph Marie    (b. 1879 - d. 1976)
                             Reste                         
 8 Feb 1931 -  7 Jan 1932  Théophile Antione Pascal Tellier   (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
 7 Jan 1932 -  2 Aug 1932  Louis Placide Blacher              (b. 1883 - d. 1960)
 2 Aug 1932 - 22 Jul 1933  Louis Aujas (acting)               (b. 1876 - d. 1962)
22 Jul 1933 - 24 Aug 1934  Jules Marcel de Coppet             (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
24 Aug 1934 - 15 Feb 1935  Jean Hyacinthe de Santi (acting)   (b. 1899 - d. 1944) 
15 Feb 1935 - 12 Jan 1937  Maurice Léon Bourgine              (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
22 Sep 1935 - 1936         Jean Hyacinthe de Santi            (s.a.) 
                             (acting for Bourgine)
12 Jan 1937 -  7 Aug 1937  Henri Étienne Martinet (1st time)  (b. 1896 - d. 1941)
                             (acting)
 7 Aug 1937 -  7 Apr 1938  Ernest Gayon (acting)
 7 Apr 1938 -  1 Jun 1938  Henri Étienne Martinet (2nd time)  (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
 1 Jun 1938 - 27 Aug 1940  Armand Léon Annet                  (b. 1888 - d. 1973)
27 Aug 1940 - 18 Sep 1940  Pierre Jean André Paliceti 
                             (acting)
18 Sep 1940 - 26 Aug 1943  Léon Hippolyte Truitard            (b. 1885 - d. 1972)
26 Aug 1943 - 21 May 1946  Charles André Maurice Assier       (b. 1889 - d. 1952) 
                             de Pompignan
21 May 1946 - 13 Oct 1946  Robert Legendre (acting)           (b. 1891 - d. 19..)
Governors
13 Oct 1946 - 14 Jan 1948  Robert Legendre (acting)           (s.a.)
14 Jan 1948 - 13 Jan 1949  Jean Georges Chambon               (b. 1896 - d. 1965)
13 Jan 1949 - 19 Sep 1949  Jacques Alphonse Boissier          (b. 1910 - d. 1967)
19 Sep 1949 - Nov 1951     Claude Valluy (acting)
Nov 1951 - 21 Jun 1955     Charles Henri Bonfils              (b. 1908 - d. 2001)
21 Jun 1955 - 21 Mar 1958  Marc Casimir Biros                 (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
21 Mar 1958 - 15 Jul 1958  Bernard Hepp (acting)              (b. 1919 - d. 1986)
15 Jul 1958 -  4 Dec 1958  René Tirant (acting)               (b. 1907 - d. ....)
High commissioner
 4 Dec 1958 -  1 Aug 1960  René Tirant                        (s.a.)
Presidents
 1 Aug 1960 - 27 Oct 1963  Hubert Maga (1st time)             (b. 1916 - d. 2000) RDD;1960 PDU
                            (Head of State to 31 Dec 1960)
27 Oct 1963 - 28 Oct 1963  Provisional Government
                           - Hubert Maga                      (s.a.)               RDD
                           - Sourou Migan Apithy              (b. 1913 - d. 1989)  PR
                           - Justin Ahomadegbé                (b. 1917 - d. 2002)  UDD
28 Oct 1963 - 25 Jan 1964  Christophe Soglo (1st time)        (b. 1909 - d. 1983)  Mil
                             (Head of Provisional Government)
25 Jan 1964 - 27 Nov 1965  Sourou Migan Apithy                (s.a.)               PDD
27 Nov 1965 - 29 Nov 1965  Justin Ahomadegbé (1st time)       (s.a.)               PDD
                             (acting) 
29 Nov 1965 - 22 Dec 1965  Tahirou Congacou (acting)          (b. 1913 - d. 1976)  PDD
22 Dec 1965 - 19 Dec 1967  Christophe Soglo (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Mil
19 Dec 1967 - 20 Dec 1967  Jean-Baptiste Hachéme                                   Mil
                             (chairman Revolutionary Committee)
20 Dec 1967 - 21 Dec 1967  Maurice Kouandété (1st time)       (b. 1932 - d. 2003)  Mil
                             (Head of State) 
21 Dec 1967 - 17 Jul 1968  Alphonse Amadou Alley              (b. 1930 - d. 1987)  Mil
                             (Head of State) 
17 Jul 1968 - 10 Dec 1969  Émile Derlin Henri Zinsou          (b. 1918)            Non-party
10 Dec 1969 - 13 Dec 1969  Maurice Kouandété (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (Chief-of-Staff of Army)
13 Dec 1969 -  7 May 1970  Paul-Émile de Souza                (b. 1931 - d. 1999)  Mil 
                             (chairman of Directory)
 7 May 1970 -  7 May 1972  Hubert Maga (2nd time)             (s.a.)               RDD
                             (chairman Presidential Council)
 7 May 1972 - 26 Oct 1972  Justin Ahomadegbé (2nd time)       (s.a.)               ADD
                             (chairman Presidential Council) 
26 Oct 1972 -  4 Apr 1991  Mathieu Kérékou¹ (1st time)        (s.a.)    Mil;1975 PRPB;1990 PRB
 4 Apr 1991 -  4 Apr 1996  Nicéphore Dieudonné Soglo          (b. 1934)            PRB
 4 Apr 1996 -  6 Apr 2006  Mathieu Kérékou (2nd time)         (s.a.)               FARD 
 6 Apr 2006 -              Thomas Yayi Boni                   (b. 1952)            Non-party
 
Vice President of the Government Council
25 May 1957 - 26 Jul 1958  Sourou Migan Apithy                (s.a.)               PR; PND
Prime ministers
26 Jul 1958 - 22 May 1959  Sourou Migan Apithy                (s.a.)               PPD
                            (to 4 Dec 1958, president of the government council;
                             then president of the provisional government)
22 May 1959 - 31 Dec 1960  Hubert Maga                        (s.a.)              RDD;1960 PDU
31 Dec 1960 - 25 Jan 1964  Post abolished
25 Jan 1964 - 29 Nov 1965  Justin Ahomadegbé                  (s.a.)               PDD
29 Nov 1965 - 21 Dec 1967  Post abolished
21 Dec 1967 - 17 Jul 1968  Maurice Kouandété                  (s.a.)               Mil
17 Jul 1968 - 12 Mar 1990  Post abolished
12 Mar 1990 -  4 Apr 1991  Nicéphore Dieudonné Soglo (interim)(s.a.)               Non-party
 9 Apr 1996 - 14 May 1998  Adrien Houngbédji                  (b. 1942)            PRD 
14 May 1998 - 28 May 2011  Post abolished
28 May 2011 - 11 Aug 2013  Pascal Irénée Koupaki              (b. 1951)            UDBN
11 Aug 2013                Post abolished

 ¹Kérékou changed his first name to Ahmed on his conversion to Islam on 28 Sep 1980, but a few years later used the name Mathieu again. 

Territorial Disputes: Talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River; Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso around the town of Koualou; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved.

Party abbreviations: FARD = Front d'Action pour le Rénouveau et le Développement (Action Front for Renewal and Development, centrist, est.1994); PRB = Parti de la Renaissance du Bénin (Party for the Rebirth of Benin, liberal, est.1992); PRD = Parti du Rénouveau Démocratique (Democratic Renewal Party, Houngbédji personalist, est.1990); UDBN = Union pour le Développement d'un Bénin Nouveau (Union for the Development of a New Benin, est.2010); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ADD = Alliance Démocratique Dahoméen (J. Ahomadegbé personalist, UDD successor, est.Dec 1965); PDD = Parti Démocratique Dahoméen (Dahomey Democratic Party, mainly Yoruba-Nago & Fon-Adja, merger of PR and UDD, 1963-22 Dec 1965); PDU = Parti Dahoméen de l'Unité (Unity Party of Dahomey, merger of PND and RDD, 1960-1963); PND = Parti des Nationalistes du Dahomey (Nationalist's Party of Dahomey, S.M. Apithy personalist, Yorua and Nago based, 1960, merged into PDU); PPD = Parti Progressiste Dahoméen (Dahomean Progressive Party, anti-Ahomadegbé, merger of PR and MDD, 1958-1959, dissolved); PR = Parti Républicain Dahoméen (Republican Party of Dahomey, S.M. Apithy personalist, merged into PDU, 1951-1958, 1959-1963, renamed PND); PRPB = Parti de la Révolution Populaire du Bénin (Benin People's Revolutionary Party, communist, abandons marxism 8 Dec 1989, 1975-90 only legal party, 1975-1990); RDD = Rassemblement Démocratique Dahoméenn (Democratic Rally of Dahomey, northern based, H. Maga personalist, 1957-1965); UDD = Union Démocratique du Dahoméenne (Dahomey Democratic Union, Fon Adja-based, J. Ahomadegbé personalist, 1955-1961)   


Forte de São João Baptista de Ajudá (Fortress of Saint John the Baptist of Whydah)

[Portugal]
                to 1 Aug 1961
 
Map of  São João Baptista
de Ajudá
Hear National Anthem
"A Portugesa"
(The Portuguese)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1910
Constitution
Capital: São João Baptista
de Ajudá
Currency: Portuguese 
Escudo (PTE)
National Holiday: 10 Jun (1580)
Portugal Day
Population: 2 (1961)
 5 (1921)
GDP: $N/A (1960)
Exports: $N/A (1960)
Imports: $N/A (1960)
Ethnic groups: Portuguese 100%
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Defense was the responsibility of Portugal
Merchant marine: None (1960)
Religions: Roman Catholic 100%
International Organizations/Treaties: None

1680                       Portuguese governor of São Tomé and Príncipe establishes
                             a fort in the city of Hweda (in English: Whydah, French:
                             Ouidah, Portuguese: Ajudá).
17.. - 1721                Abandoned.
1721                       Fort re-established and named Forte de São João Baptista de Ajudá; 
                             subordinated to Brazil until 1821.
1730 - ...                 Under Companhia de Cacheu e Cabo Verde rule.
 7 Sep 1822 - 1844         Under the sovereignty of Brazil.
18 Apr 1861 -  6 Mar 1865  Occupied by French missionaries (expelled on 12 Apr 1865).
 6 Mar 1865                Fort reclaimed by the Portuguese; subordinated to the governors 
                             of São Tomé and Príncipe.
1869 - 1872?               Abandoned.
 1 Aug 1961                Occupied and annexed by Dahomey (Benin).
1975                       Annexation formally recognized by Portugal.
 

Directors
1680 - ....                Jacinto de Figueiredo Abreu 
.... - 1721                abandoned
1721 - 1728                Francisco Pereira Mendes 
1728 - 1743                João Basílio
1743 - 1746                Martinho de Cunha Barbosa
1746                       Francisco Nunes Pereira (usurper) 
1746                       Frei Francisco do Espírito Santo
                             (interim) 
1746 - 1751                Félix José de Gouveia (1st time) 
1751                       Luis Coelho de Brito
1751 - 1759                Teodósio Rodrigues da Costa 
1759                       António Nunes de Gouveia (interim)
1759 - 1762                Félix José de Gouveia (2nd time) 
1764 - 1767                José Gomes Gonzaga Neves
1768 - 1781                Bernardo Azevedo Coutinho
1782 - 1797                Francisco António da Fonseca e     (b. 1745 - d. ....)
                             Aragão (acting to 22 Jul 1784)
1797 - ....                Manuel Bastos Varela Pinto Pacheco
1805 - 1844                Francisco Félix de Sousa           (b. 1754 - d. 1849) 
                             (acting to 1818)
Governors
1844 - 1845                Joaquim José Libanio               (d. 1845) 
1845 -  4 May 1849         Francisco Félix de Souza           (s.a.) 
1849 - 18..                Quaresma 
1851                       Francisco Celestino Ellenperk      (d. 1851)
                             (Elerpech)
1851 - 1852                Isidoro Félix de Souza             (b. 1802 - d. 1858) 
1852 - 1853                João Justino da Costa 
1853 - May 1857            José Pinheiro de Souza 
May 1857 - Nov 1858        Francisco "Chico" Félix de Souza   (b. 1824 - d. 1880)
Jun 1859 - 18 Apr 1861     Claudio Lancastre
18 Apr 1861 -  6 Mar 1865  French missionary leaders
                           - Francesco Borghero               (b. 1830 - d. 1892)
                             (superior of the apostolic vicariat;
                              6 May 1861 - 12 Jan 1865)
                           - Philibert Courdioux              (b. 1838 - d. 1898)
                             (superior-delegate of Borghero)
1865 - 1868                José Maria Borges de Sequeira 
1868 - 1869                Vital de Bettencourt Vasconcellos  (b. c.1820 - d. 1870) 
                             Corte Real do Canto 
1869 - 1872?               abandoned 
1872 - 187.                António Joaquim da Fonseca 
187. - 1878                Augusto Fructuoso Figueiredo de    (b. 1851 - d. 1921)                               Barros 
1878 - 1879                Lourenço da Rocha 
1879 - 1881                António José Machado               (b. 1852 - d. ....) 
1881 - 1883                .... 
1883 - 1885                Fernando Gonçalves 
1885                       Bernardo Francisco Luís da Cruz 
1885                       José Gomes de Souza 
1885 - 1886                Francisco Rego 
1886 - 1887                António Domingues Cortez da Silva  (b. 1849 - d. 1904) 
                             Curado 
1887 - 1888                Manuel Francisco Rodrigues 
                             Guimaräes
1888                       Vicente da Rosa Rolim (1st time)   (b. 1848 - d. 1940)  
1888 - 1890                Manuel José Ferreira dos Santos 
                             (1st time) 
1890                       Carolino Acácio Cordeiro 
1890 - 1893                Vicente da Rosa Rolim (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1893 - 189.                Manuel José Ferreira dos Santos 
                             (2nd time) 
1897 - 1898                Campos 
1898 - ....                Nunes da Aguiar 
1900 - 190.                António Mendes da Costa 
190. - 1905                João de Deus Pires (1st time) 
1905 - 1906                Joaquim Luís de Carvalho 
1906 - 1909                João de Deus Pires (2nd time) 
1909 - 1911                Sebastião Lousada 
1911                       Cândido João de Barros 
1911 - 1912                Guilherme Spínola de Melo          (b. 1876 - d. 19..)
1912 - 1913                Eduardo Germack Possolo            (b. 1886 - d. 19..)
1913 - 191.                Vicente da Rosa Rolim (3rd time)   (s.a.)
191. - 1918                ....
1918                       Vicente da Rosa Rolim (4th time)   (s.a.)
1919 - 1920                José Bento de Oliveira Viegas
1921 - 1928                Viriato Henrique dos Anjos Garcez 
1928 - 1931                Joaquim Sinel de Cordes 
1932 - 1938                Miguel Maria Pupo Correia (1st time)
1938 - 1941                José Pimenta Segurado Avelar       (b. 1893 - d. 1941) 
                             Machado
1941 - 1942                Jean Louis Bourjac 
                             (self-proclaimed; not recognized by Portugal)
1942 - 1944                José de Vasconcelos e Sá Guerreiro (b. 1899 - d. 19..)
                             Nuno (1st time) (interim)
1944 - 1946                Carlos Alberto de Serpa Soares     (b. 1908 - d. 1983)
1946                       José de Vasconcelos e Sá Guerreiro (s.a.)
                             Nuno (2nd time) 
1946 - 1951                Miguel Maria Pupo Correia (2nd time)
Administrators
1951 - 1954                António João Teles Pereira de
                             Vasconcelos
1954 - 1956                Ernesto António Pereira Enes       (b. c.1910)
Intendant
1956 -  1 Aug 1961         António Agostinho Saraiva Borges



English Whydah:  Fort William

[Flag of the United Kingdom]
1681                       English Fort William at Ouidah (English spelling: Whydah).
May 1716 - 20 Oct 1720     Factory leased to William Baillie and Johnson.
Feb 1812                   Abandoned.

Governors (at first called Factors)
May 1681 - Aug 1681        John Thorne
                             (at Offra 1681-83)
Aug 1681 - Jul 1682        Vacant
Jul 1682 - 1684            John Winder
1684 - 1688                John Carter
1688 - 1690                Petley Wyborne                     (d. 1690)
1690 - c.1692              John Wortley
c.1694 - c.1698            Josiah Pearson
170. - 1704                Peter Duffield
Feb 1704 - 1709            Richard Willis                     (d. 1709)
1709 - 1712                William Hicks
Mar 1712 - May 1713        Agents
                           - Hilliard
                           - Green
May 1713 - Mar 1715        Agents
                           - J. Errington
                           - L. Green
Mar 1715 - May 1716        Agents
                           - R. Mason 
                           - D. Welsh
                           - W. Bramston
May 1716 - Oct 1720        William Baillie
                           + Johnson
Oct 1720 - Dec 1720        John Stevenson
Jan 1721 - Feb 1724        Ambrose Baldwyn
Feb 1724 - Mar 1727        Tinker
1727 - 1728                Abraham Duport
1728 - 1729                Thomas Wilson
Jul 1729 - Nov 1729        Charles Testefole                  (d. 1729)
Nov 1729 - Jan 1730        Robert Urquhart
Jan 1730 - Dec 1730        Edward Dean
Jan 1731 - Jun 1731        Robert Poulter
Jun 1731 - Mar 1733        Edward Dean
Mar 1733 - Jul 1734        Charles Whitaker
Jul 1734 - 1734            John Wyat (acting)
Nov 1734 - Apr 1735        William Whetstone Rogers
Aug 1735 - 1737/38?        Alexander Spalding
Jun 1738 - Mar 1739        Stephen Lushington
Apr 1739 - 1745            Isaac Gregory
1745 - Dec 1745            Arthur Graham
Jan - Dec 1746             Henry Turner
1747 - Jul 1750            William Devaynes (1st time)  
Jul 1750 - Jan 1751        Andrew Johnson                     (d. 1751)
Jan 1751 - Sep 1751        Robert Livingstone
Sep 1751 - Nov 1752        William Devaynes (2nd time)
Nov 1752 - Nov 1753        William Withers
Nov 1753 - Aug 1762        William Devaynes (3rd time)
Aug 1762 - Feb 1767        William Goodson                    (d. 1767)
Feb 1767 - Apr 1767        Richard Burgess
Apr 1767 - 1770            Archibald Dalzel                   (b. 1740 - d. 1811)
Aug 1770 - Sep 1770        Erasmus Williams
Oct 1770 - Jun 1803        Lionel Abson                       (d. 1803)
Jun 1803 - Mar 1804        Henry Edward James (acting)
Mar 1804 - Jun 1807        Henry Hamilton
Jul 1807 - Feb 1812        Frederick James  


French Ouidah:  Fort St. Louis

1671 - 1797                French Fort St. Louis at Ouidah.

French Commanders at Fort St. Louis (Juda)
1671 - 1690's              ....
c.1690's - 1704            abandoned
1704 - 170.                Gommat (or Gommet)
1707 - 1710                Derigouyn
1710 - 1712                Chamois
1712 - Nov 1715            Du Coulombier
Nov 1715 - 1722            Bouchel
1722? - 1727?              Levesque
1727 - 1729                Houdoyer-Dupetitval                (d. 1729)
23 Jul 1729 - 1730         Gallot (interim)
1730 - 1731                Mallet de la Mine
1732                       Lavigne                            (d. 1732)
1732 - 1734                Julien du Belay                    (d. 1734)
1734 - 1737                Delisle                            (d. 1737)
1737 - 1742                Laurent
1742                       Levens
1742 - 21 Aug 1747         Levet
Sep 1747 - Mar 1751        Druno de la Court
Mar 1751 - 1755            Jacques Guestard (1st time)        (d. 1774)
1755 - c.1758              Dubourdieu
1763 - 1764                Antoine Pruneau de Pommegorge      (b. 1720 - d .1812)
1764 -  5 Jul 1764         Remillat
Jul 1764 - Sep 1765        Cuillie
1765 - 1774                Jacques Guestard (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1774 - 1775                de Warel        
1775 - 1786                Joseph Ollivier de Montaguère      (d. c.1793)
1786 - 1789                Gourg
1789 - 1797                Louis Deniau de la Garenne
1797                       Pierre Bonon





© Ben Cahoon