World Statesmen.org HOME >

 






 

 

Ghana
 
[Royal Africa Company and
                                    Guinea Company jack, 1663-1701]
        1663 - 1701 Royal Africa Co. jack
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                                  to 1870
 
[Flag
                                    of West Africa Settlements]
                            1870 - 1877
 
[British
                                    Gold Coast ensign 1877-1957]
                        1877 - 6 Mar 1957 
 
[Flag of
                                    Ghana]
             6 Mar 1957 - 1 Jan 1964;
              Re-adopted 28 Feb 1966
[Ghana
                                    flag 1964-1966]
             1 Jan 1964 - 28 Feb 1966

Map of Ghana  Hear National Anthem
  "God Bless Our Homeland
Ghana"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1957 (lyrics 1966)
Constitution
(28 Apr 1992)
Capital: Accra
(Osu 1874-1877; Cape Castle
1665-1874; Kormantin 1632-1665)
Currency: Ghana Cedi (GHS);
 Ghana Pound (GHP) 1958-1965
National Holiday: 6 Mar (1957)
Independence Day
Population: 25,199,609 (2013)
GDP: $90.4 billion (2013)
Exports: $13.37 billion (2013)
Imports: $18.49 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%,
 Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%,
Mande-Busanga 1.1%, other 1.6% (2010)
Total Active Armed Forces: 15,500 (2010)
U.S. Forces: 115 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 4 ships (2010)
Religions: Christian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%,
 Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%,
 traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, C, CCM, CEN-SAD, CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIF (associate), OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WAMZ, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Ghana Index
Chronology

22 Nov 1631                English Gold Coast, with Kormantin chief post,
                             under the Company of Merchants Trading to Guinea
 9 Apr 1651 - Dec 1657     Under Company of London Merchants
Dec 1657 - 25 Mar 1663     Under the East India Company
29 Jan 1665                Kormantin captured by Dutch.
25 Mar 1663 - 27 Sep 1672  Under Company of Royal Adventurers
27 Sep 1672 - 12 Apr 1750  Under Royal African Company (retained legal rights
                             over the coast until dissolved in Apr 1752).
 1 May 1707                British Gold Coast
12 Apr 1750                Company of Merchants Trading to Africa takes over
                             administration.
 7 May 1821                British Gold Coast a crown colony.
17 Oct 1821                Gold Coast Territory, part of West African 
                             Territories (see Sierra Leone).
25 Jun 1828                British Gold Coast colony (under Company of 
                             Merchants Trading to Africa rule).
1843                       British Gold Coast crown colony (subordinate to
                             Sierra Leone until 1874).
13 Jan 1850                Colony of the Gold Coast
30 Mar 1850                Incorporation of former Danish Gold Coast 
                             settlements.
19 Feb 1866                Gold Cost Territory, part of British West African
                             Settlements (see Sierra Leone).
21 Feb 1871                Incorporation of former Dutch Gold Coast 
                             settlements.
24 Jul 1874                Gold Coast colony with Lagos.
13 Jan 1886                Gold Coast colony
 8 Feb 1951                Self-rule achieved.
 6 Mar 1957                Gold Coast and British Togoland independent
                             as Ghana.
11 Nov 1958 - 1962         Part of United States of West Africa federation of
                             Ghana and Guinea (and from 24 Dec 1960 Mali); on
                             2 May 1959 renamed Union of Independent African
                             States.
 1 Jul 1960                Republic of Ghana
 1 Jul 1960 - 24 Feb 1966  ("First Republic") 
 1 Oct 1969 - 13 Jan 1972  ("Second Republic")
24 Sep 1979 - 31 Dec 1981  ("Third Republic")
 7 Jan 1993 -              ("Fourth Republic")

Traditional
states
Gold Coast
Northern
Territory

(1899-1957)
 Gold Coast
Colony

(1945-1953)
Danish Gold
Coast

(1658-1850)
 Dutch Gold
Coast

(1598-1871)
Prussian Gold
Coast

(1682-1724)
Portuguese Gold
Coast

(1482-1642)
Swedish Gold Coast
(1650-1663)
 
 

Chief Factors of the Company of Merchants Trading to Guinea
31 Jul 1632 –  8 Dec 1633  Arend de Groot (1st time)
1633 – 1638                John Wood
1638 –  5 Mar 1640         Timothy Mulgrave (1st time)
 5 Mar 1640 – c.Sep 1641   Arend De Groot (2nd time)
c.Sep 1641 – 15 Aug 1642   Timothy Mulgrave (2nd time)
Sep 1642 – Jul 1644        .... [six workmen names unknown]
25 Jul 1644 – 22 Oct 1644  Timothy Mulgrave (3rd time)
22 Oct 1644 –  7 Oct 1645  Francis Searle (1st time)          (d. 1646)
 7 Oct 1645 – 20 Nov 1645  James Leveson (1st time)
20 Nov 1645 – Jun 1646     Timothy Mulgrave (4th time)
c.Jun 1646 – Sep 1646      James Leveson (2nd time)
c.Sep 1646 -  8 Nov 1646   Francis Searle (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 8 Nov 1646 – c.Apr 1650   George Middleton (1st time)
c.Apr 1650 - c.Dec 1650    Thomas Crispe
c.Dec 1650 -  9 Apr 1651   George Middleton (2nd time)
Chief Factors
of the Company of London Merchants
 9 Apr 1651 - 19 Feb 1654  George Middleton
19 Feb 1654 – 14 Feb 1655  John Hulwood
14 Feb 1655 – Dec 1657     Lancelot Stavely                   (d. 1670)
Agents of the East India Company
Dec 1657 - 3 Jul 1658      Lancelot Stavely                   (s.a.)
 3 Jul 1658 – Oct 1659     James Congett
Oct 1659 – 22 Dec 1661     Chappell
22 Dec 1661 – May 1662     Edmund Young                       (d. 1662)
May 1662 -  6 Jan 1663     John Puliston                      (d. 1663)
 6 Jan 1663 – Mar 1663     Thomas Davies
Mar 1663 – 25 Mar 1663     Stephen Mitchell
                            (Superintendant and Chief manager)
Agents of the Royal Company of Adventurers
25 Mar 1663 – c.Sep 1663   Francis Selwyn (1st time)
                           + Thomas Allen (to 19 Jul 1663)    (d. 1663)
c.Sep 1663 – c.May 1664    Seven Merchants
                           (rotating monthly, incl. Selwyn)
c.May 1664 – 29 Jan 1665   Francis Selwyn (2nd time)
                            (Dutch prisoner from 29 Jan 1665)
29 Jan 1665 – 1667         Gilbert Beavis (at Cape Coast)     (d. 1667)
1667 – 1672                Thomas Pearson
1672 - 27 Sep 1672         Abraham Holditch
Agents-general
of the Royal African Company
27 Sep 1672 – 1673         Abraham Holditch
1673 – c.Jul 1676          Thomas Mellish
c.Jul 1676 – c.Aug 1677    Ralph Hodgkins                     (d. 1677)
c.Aug 1677 - c.Mar 1678    William Croxton                    (d. 1678)
c.Mar 1678                 Factors
                           - Fowler Aylmer
                           - Arthur Harbin
                           - Matthias Halstead
c.Mar 1678 –  7 Dec 1680   Nathaniel Bradley
 7 Dec 1680 –  3 Apr 1684  Henry Greenhill
 3 Apr 1684 –  5 Jun 1684  Richard Thelwall                   (d. 1685)
                           + John Adams                       (d. 1684)
                           + Mark Bedford Whiting             (d. 1692)
                           + Robert Elrves                    (d. 1692)
 5 Jun 1684 –  4 Jul 1687  Henry Nurse
Chief Merchants of the Royal African Company
(three-man administration)
 4 Jul 1687 - 1691         Samuel Humphreys (to c.May 1691)
                           + Rice Wight (to 16 Jun 1691)
                           + John Boylston (to 19 Mar 1690)   (d. 1690)
                           + Robert Elrves                    (s.a.)  
                             (from c.May 1690)     
1691 - 1692                Robert Elrves                      (s.a.)  
                           + John Bloome (c.Jun 1691 – Jan 1692)
                           + Mark Bedford Whiting             (s.a.)
                             (from c.Jul 1691)
1692 - 1693                Mark Bedford Whiting               (s.a.)        
                             (to Aug 1692)
                           + Robert Elrves                    (s.a.)  
                             (to 23 Jun 1692)    
                           + Joshua Platt (from Jan 1692)     (d. 1695)
                           + William Ronan (from c.Jul 1692)  (d. 1697)
                           + John Gregory (c.Aug - Oct 1692)  (d. 1692)
                           + William Mellross (from Oct 1692)
1693 - 1696                Joshua Platt (to 11 Jan 1695)      (s.a.)
                           + William Ronan                    (s.a.)
                           + William Mellross
                           + Nicholas Buckeridge
                             (from Jan 1695)
1696 - 1697                William Ronan                      (s.a.)
                           + William Mellross
                           + Nicholas Buckeridge
1697 - 1698                William Ronan (to 8 Oct 1697)      (s.a.)
                           + William Mellross
                           + Nicholas Buckeridge
                           + William Cooper (from c.Jul 1697) (d. 1699)
                           + John Brown (from c.Oct 1697)
1698 - 1699                Nicholas Buckeridge
                           + William Cooper                   (s.a.)
                           + John Brown
1699 - 1700                Nicholas Buckeridge
                           + William Cooper (to 3 Jan 1699)   (s.a.)
                           + John Brown (to c.Feb 1699)
                           + Howsley Freeman (from c.Mar 1699)
                           + Samuel Wallis (from c.Mar 1699)
1700 - Dec 1700            Nicholas Buckeridge (to Sep 1700)
                           + Howsley Freeman
                           + Samuel Wallis
Agents-general of the Royal African Company
Dec 1700 – bf.4 Feb 1701   Joseph Baggs                       (d. 1701)
1701 - 1702                Edward Newse (to Sep 1701)         (d. 1702)
                           + Howsley Freeman
                           + Samuel Wallis (to 1701/02)
                           + Gerrard Gore (to c.Sep 1701)     (d. 1717)
                           + Thomas Peck
                             (from c.Sep 1701)
                           + William Hicks
                             (from c.Sep 1701)
1702 - 1703                Howsley Freeman
                           + Thomas Peck
                             (to c.Sep 1702)
                           + William Hicks
                           + Peter Dowse
                             (c.Sep 1702 - c.Apr 1703)
1703 - 17 Dec 1703         Howsley Freeman (to c.Apr 1703)
                           + William Hicks (to c.Apr 1703)
                           + Peter Dowse (to c.Apr 1703)
                           + Joseph Major (from c.Apr 1703)
                           + Richard Willis (from c.Apr 1703)
                           + John Bray
                              (c.Apr 1703 – c.Jun 1703)
                           + John Snow
                              (c.Apr 1703 - c.Jun 1703)
                           + John Brown (from c.Sep 1703)
17 Dec 1703 -  3 Jan 1711  Sir Dalby Thomas                  (b. c.1650 - d. 1711)
 3 Jan 1711 – 27 Mar 1717  Seth Grosvenor (to c.Aug 1714)
                           + James Phipps                    (d. 1723)
                           + Robert Bleau (from May 1713)    (d. 1718)
                           + Gerrard Gore                    (d. 1717)
                             (Jul 1713 – 14 Jan 1717)  
                           + Randle Logan (1714)
Captains-general of the Royal African Company
27 Mar 1717 - 14 Jun 1718  William Johnson                   (d. 1718)
14 Jun 1718 - 27 Jan 1719  James Phipps                      (s.a.)
                           + Walter Charles
                           + John Stevenson (from c.Mar 1719)
27 Jan 1719 –  7 Apr 1719  James Deane                       (d. 1719)
 7 Apr 1719 – 29 Sep 1719  James Phipps                      (s.a.)
                           + Walter Charles (to 11 Apr 1719)
                           + John Stevenson
29 Sep 1719 - c.Sep 1722   James Phipps                      (s.a.)
c.Sep 1722 – Mar 1723      Henry Dodson
Mar 1723 – Apr 1726        John Tinker
Apr 1726 –  8 Jun 1727     Philip Franklin
                           + Walter Smith
                           + Charles Ross
Chief Agents of the Royal African Company
(three-man administration)
 8 Jun 1727 - Sep 1727     Philip Franklin
                           + Walter Smith (to Sep 1727)
                           + Charles Ross (to Sep 1727)
Sep 1727 – 1729            Philip Franklin (to 2 Sep 1728)
                           + George Breakes (to 1727)        (d. 1727)
                           + John Reed (to Nov 1728)
                           + Benjamin Peake (to Jul 1728)    (d. 1733)
                           + Robert Cruikshank               (d. 1731)
                             (from 24 Jul 1728)
                           + John Braithwaite
                             (from c.Nov 1728)
1729 - 1732                John Braithwaite (to Jun 1732)
                           + Robert Cruikshank               (s.a.)
                           + Benjamin Peake (from c.May 1729)
1732 – 1734                Benjamin Peake (to 11 Mar 1733)   (s.a.)
                           + William Knight
                             (from Jun 1732 - 1733)
                           + Charles Whitaker
                             (Jun 1732 – 24 Feb 1733)
                           + Edward Stephens
                             (from 18 Jan 1733)
                           + Francis Gilburne Wheeler        (d. 1736)
                             (from c.Oct 1733)
                           + William Whetstone Rogers        (d. 1735)
                             (from 1 Dec 1733)
1734 - 1735                Edward Stephens 
                           + Francis Gilburne Wheeler        (s.a.)
                           + William Whetstone Rogers        (s.a.)
                             (to Nov 1734)
1735 – 1736                Edward Stephens
                           + Francis Gilburne Wheeler        (s.a.)
1736 – 1737                Edward Stephens (to 17 Dec 1736)
                           + Francis Gilburne Wheeler        (s.a.)
                             (to 20 Jan 1736) 
                           + Jeremiah Tinker                 (d. 1737)
                             (from 17 Dec 1736)
                           + Thomas Essen (from 17 Dec 1736) (d. 1737)
                           + John Cope (from 17 Dec 1736)
1737 – 1738                Jeremiah Tinker (to 26 Oct 1737)  (s.a.)
                           + Thomas Essen (to 9 Mar 1737)    (s.a.)
                           + John Cope
                           + William Tymewell                (d. 1756)
                             (from 14 Nov 1737)
                           + Thomas Melvil (from 14 Nov 1737)(d. 1756)
1738 – 1739                John Cope
                           + William Tymewell                (s.a.)
                           + Thomas Melvil (to Mar 1738)     (s.a.)
                           + James Hope (from c.Mar 1738)    (d. 1740)
1739 – 1740                John Cope
                           + James Hope (to 27 Jul 1739)     (s.a.)
                           + William Tymewell                (s.a.)
                             (to c.17 Jan 1739, from c.Aug 1739)
                           + William Lea
                             (17 Jan 1739 – 2 Oct 1739)
                           + Nathaniel Drybutter (from Oct 1739)
1740 – 1741                John Cope
                           + William Tymewell (to c.Aug 1740) (s.a.)
                           + Nathaniel Drybutter      
                             (to 4 May 1740)                  (d. 1740)
                           + Charles Bladwell (from May 1740)
                           + John Castres (from 25 Aug 1740)  (d. 1741)
1741 – 1742                John Cope (to Dec 1741)
                           + John Castres (to Aug 1741)       (s.a.)
                           + Bladwell (to Dec 1741)
                           + David Crichton (from 25 Dec 1741)
                           + Thomas Chalmer (from 25 Dec 1741)
1742 - 1743                David Crichton
                           + Thomas Chalmer
                           + Thomas Melvil (to c.May 1742)    (s.a.)
                           + William Husbands                 (d. 1758)
                             (from 18 Aug 1742)
1743 - 1744                David Crichton 
                           + William Husbands                 (s.a.)
                             (to Dec 1743/Jan 1744)
                           + Thomas Chalmer
                           + James Craik (from Dec? 1743)    
1744 - 1745                David Crichton 
                           + Thomas Chalmer
                           + James Craik
1745 - 1748                David Crichton 
                           + Thomas Chalmer (to c.Oct 1747)
                           + James Craik
1748 - 1749                David Crichton (to c.Feb 1748)  
                           + James Craik (to c.Apr 1748)
                           + Thomas Boteler (from c.Feb 1748) 
1749 - 15 May 1749         Thomas Boteler
Governors of the Royal African Company
15 May 1749 –  2 Feb 1750  Richard Stockwell
 2 Feb 1750 – 12 Apr 1750  John Roberts                       (d. 1781)
                             (president of the council)
Governors of the Committee of Merchants

12 Apr 1750 – 20 Jun 1751  John Roberts (1st time)            (s.a.)
                             (president of the council to Dec 1750)
20 Jun 1751 – 23 Jan 1756  Thomas Melvil                      (s.a.)
                             (president of the council to Feb 1752)
23 Jan 1756 - 10 Feb 1756  William Tymewell                   (d. 1756)
17 Feb 1756 - 15 Oct 1757  Charles Bell (1st time)
15 Oct 1757 - 10 May 1761  Nassau Senior (acting)
10 May 1761 - 15 Aug 1763  Charles Bell (2nd time)
15 Aug 1763 -  1 Mar 1766  William Mutter
 1 Mar 1766 - 11 Aug 1766  John Hippisley (Hippersley)        (b. 1729? - d. 1766)
11 Aug 1766 - 21 Apr 1769  Gilbert Petrie
21 Apr 1769 - 11 Aug 1770  John Grossle                       (d. 1770)
11 Aug 1770 - 20 Jan 1777  David Mill
20 Jan 1770 - 25 Mar 1780  Richard Miles (1st time)
25 Mar 1780 - 20 May 1781  John Roberts (2nd time)            (s.a.)
20 May 1781 - 29 Apr 1782  John B. Weuves (acting)
29 Apr 1782 - 29 Jan 1784  Richard Miles (2nd time)
29 Jan 1784 - 24 Jan 1787  James Morgue
24 Jan 1787 - 27 Apr 1787  Thomas Price                       (d. 1787)
27 Apr 1787 - 20 Jun 1789  Thomas Morris
20 Jun 1789 - 15 Nov 1791  William Fielde
15 Nov 1791 - 31 Mar 1792  John Gordon (1st time)
31 Mar 1792 - 16 Dec 1798  Archibald Dalzel (1st time)        (b. 1740 - d. 1811)
16 Dec 1798 -  4 Jan 1799  Jacob Mould (1st time)
 4 Jan 1799 - 28 Apr 1800  John Gordon (2nd time)
28 Apr 1800 - 30 Sep 1802  Archibald Dalzel (2nd time)        (s.a.)
30 Sep 1802 -  8 Feb 1805  Jacob Mould (2nd time)
 8 Feb 1805 -  4 Dec 1807  George Torrane                     (b. 17.. - d. 1807)
 4 Dec 1807 - 21 Apr 1816  Edward White
21 Apr 1816 - 19 Jan 1817  Joseph Dawson
19 Jan 1817 - 27 Mar 1822  John Hope Smith                    (d. 1831)
Governors
27 Mar 1822 - 17 May 1822  Sir Charles MacCarthy (1st time)   (b. 1768 - d. 1824)
17 May 1822 - 28 Nov 1822  James Chisholm (1st time)          (d. 1824)
28 Nov 1822 - 21 Jan 1824  Sir Charles MacCarthy (2nd time)   (s.a.)
21 Jan 1824 - 17 Oct 1824  James Chisholm (2nd time)          (s.a.)
17 Oct 1824 - 22 Mar 1825  Edward Purdon
22 Mar 1825 -  8 Mar 1826  Charles Turner                     (d. 1826)
18 May 1826 - 15 Nov 1826  Sir Neil Campbell                  (b. 1776 - d. 1827)
15 Nov 1826 - 11 Oct 1827  Henry John Ricketts (1st time)     (b. 1787 - d. 1838)
11 Oct 1827 - 10 Mar 1828  Hugh Lumley                        (d. 1828)
10 Mar 1828 -  5 Jun 1828  George Hingston
 5 Jun 1828 - 25 Jun 1828  Henry John Ricketts (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Governors of the Committee of Merchants
25 Jun 1828 - 19 Feb 1830  John Jackson
19 Feb 1830 - 26 Jun 1836  George Maclean (1st time)          (b. 1801 - d. 1847)
26 Jun 1836 - 15 Aug 1838  William Topp
15 Aug 1838 - 1844         George Maclean (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Governors
13 Feb 1844 -  8 Mar 1845  Henry Worsley Hill
 8 Mar 1845 - 15 Apr 1846  James Lilley (Lelley)(acting)
15 Apr 1846 - 31 Jan 1849  William Winniett (1st time)        (b. 1793 - d. 1850)
 1 Feb 1849 - 13 Jan 1850  James Coleman Fitzpatrick          (b. 1816 - d. 1880)
                             (1st time) 
13 Jan 1850 -  4 Dec 1850  Sir William Winniett (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 4 Dec 1850 - 14 Oct 1851  James Bannerman                    (b. 1790 - d. 1858)
14 Oct 1851 - Jun 1853     Stephen John Hill (1st time)       (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
Jun 1853 - Aug 1853        James Coleman Fitzpatrick          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
Aug 1853 - Feb 1854        Brodie G. Cruickshank (acting)
Feb 1854 - Dec 1854        Stephen John Hill (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Dec 1854 - Mar 1857        Henry Connor (acting)
Mar 1857 - 17 Apr 1858     Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
14 Apr 1858 - 20 Apr 1860  Henry Bird (acting)
20 Apr 1860 - 14 Apr 1862  Edward Bullock Andrews
14 Apr 1863 - 20 Sep 1862  William A. Ross (acting)
20 Sep 1862 - 1864         Richard Pine (1st time)
1864                       William Hackett                    (b. 1824 - d. 1877)
                             (Lieutenant governor)
1864 - 1865                Richard Pine (2nd time)
1865                       Rokeby S.W. Jones (acting)         (d. 1865)
1865 - Apr 1865            W.E. Mockler (acting)
Administrators
Apr 1865 - Feb 1867        Edward Conran
                             (Lieutenant governor to 19 Feb 1866)
Feb 1867 - Aug 1868        Herbert Taylor Ussher (1st time)   (b. 1836 - d. 1880)
                             (administrator)
Aug 1868 - Nov 1869        W.H. Simpson (acting)
Nov 1869 - Jul 1871        Herbert Taylor Ussher (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Jul 1871 - 1872            Charles Spencer Salmon             (b. 1832 - d. 1896)
                             (1st time) (acting) 
1872 - Apr 1872            Herbert Taylor Ussher (3rd time)   (s.a.)
Apr 1872 - 1872            John Pope Hennessey                (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
                             (Governor-in-chief) 
1872 - Sep 1872            Charles Spencer Salmon             (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time) (acting)
Sep 1872 -  7 Mar 1873     Robert William Harley              (b. 1829 - d. 1892)
Governors-in-chief
 7 Mar 1873 - 17 Mar 1873  Robert William Keate               (b. 1814 - d. 1873)
17 Mar 1873 -  2 Oct 1873  Robert William Harley              (s.a.)
                           + Alexander Bravo
                           (acting)
 2 Oct 1873 -  4 Mar 1874  Garnet Joseph Wolseley             (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
Administrators
 4 Mar 1874 - 30 Mar 1874  James Maxwell (acting)
30 Mar 1874 - Jun 1874     Charles Cameron Lees (1st time)    (b. 1831 - d. 1898)
                             (acting)
Jun 1874 - 24 Jul 1874     George Cumine Strahan              (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
Governors
24 Jul 1874 -  7 Apr 1876  George Cumine Strahan              (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1876 - Dec 1876     Charles Cameron Lees               (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
26 Dec 1876 - 13 May 1878  Sanford Freeling                   (b. 1828 - d. 1894)
                             (acting to 5 Jun 1877)
13 May 1878 - Jun 1879     Charles Cameron Lees               (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (acting)
Jun 1879 -  1 Dec 1880     Herbert Taylor Ussher (4th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1880 -  4 Mar 1881  William Brandford Griffith         (b. 1821 - d. 1897)
                             (1st time)(acting)
 4 Mar 1881 - 13 May 1882  Sir Samuel Rowe (1st time)         (b. 1835 - d. 1888)
13 May 1882 -  4 Oct 1882  Alfred Moloney (acting)
 4 Oct 1882 - 24 Dec 1882  William Brandford Griffith         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting) 
24 Dec 1882 - 29 Apr 1884  Sir Samuel Rowe (2nd time)         (s.a.)
29 Apr 1884 - 24 Apr 1885  William Alexander George Young     (b. c.1827 - d. 1885)
24 Apr 1885 - 11 Apr 1886  William Brandford Griffith         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
11 Apr 1887 - 26 Nov 1887  F.B.P. White (acting)
26 Nov 1887 - 30 Jun 1889  Sir William Brandford Griffith     (s.a.)
                             (4th time) 
                             (from 24 May 1887, Sir William Brandford Griffith)
30 Jun 1889 - 18 Feb 1890  Frederick Mitchell Hodgson         (b. 1851 - d. 1925)
                             (1st time) (acting)
18 Feb 1890 - 12 Jun 1891  Sir William Brandford Griffith     (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
12 Jun 1891 - 24 Nov 1891  Frederick Mitchell Hodgson         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
24 Nov 1891 - 12 Aug 1893  Sir William Brandford Griffith     (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
12 Aug 1893 -  7 Mar 1894  Frederick Mitchell Hodgson         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
 7 Mar 1894 -  7 Apr 1895  Sir William Brandford Griffith     (s.a.)
                             (7th time) 
 7 Apr 1895 - 19 Apr 1896  William Edward Maxwell (1st time)  (b. 1842/43 - d. 1897)
                             (from 1896, Sir William Edward Maxwell)
19 Apr 1896 - 23 Oct 1896  Frederick Mitchell Hodgson         (s.a.)
                             (4th time) (acting)
23 Oct 1896 -  6 Dec 1897  Sir William Edward Maxwell         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 6 Dec 1897 - 29 Aug 1900  Frederick Mitchell Hodgson         (s.a.)
                             (5th time)(acting to 29 May 1898)
29 Aug 1900 - 17 Dec 1900  W. Low (acting)
17 Dec 1900 -  9 Feb 1904  Sir Matthew Nathan                 (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
 9 Feb 1904 -  3 Mar 1904  Herbert Bryan (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1865 - d. 1950)
 3 Mar 1904 -  1 Sep 1910  John Pickersgill Rodger            (b. 1851 - d. 1910)
 1 Sep 1910 - 20 Nov 1910  Herbert Bryan (2nd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
21 Nov 1910 - 29 Jun 1912  James Jamieson Thorburn            (b. 1864 - d. 1929)
29 Jun 1912 - 26 Dec 1912  Herbert Bryan (3rd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
26 Dec 1912 -  1 Apr 1919  Sir Hugh Charles Clifford          (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
 1 Apr 1919 -  8 Oct 1919  Alexander Ransford Slater          (b. 1874 - d. 1940)
                             (1st time) (acting)
 9 Oct 1919 - 24 Apr 1927  Frederick Gordon Guggisberg        (b. 1869 - d. 1930)
24 Apr 1927 -  5 Jun 1927  Sir James Crawford Maxwell         (b. 1869 - d. 1932)
 5 Jun 1927 - Jul 1927     John C. Maxwell (acting)           (b. 1875 - d. 1946)
Jul 1927 -  5 Apr 1932     Sir Alexander Ransford Slater      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 5 Apr 1932 - 29 Nov 1932  Geoffrey Alexander Stafford        (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
                             Northcote (1st time) (acting)
30 Nov 1932 - 13 May 1934  Sir Shenton Whitelegge Thomas      (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
13 May 1934 - 23 Oct 1934  Geoffrey Alexander Stafford        (s.a.)
                             Northcote (2nd time) (acting)
24 Oct 1934 - 24 Oct 1941  Sir Arnold Wienholt Hodson         (b. 1881 - d. 1944)
24 Oct 1941 - 29 Jun 1942  George Ernest London (acting)      (b. 1889 - d. 1957)
29 Jun 1942 -  2 Aug 1947  Sir Alan Cuthbert Maxwell Burns    (b. 1887 - d. 1980)
12 Jan 1948 - 15 Feb 1949  Sir Gerald Hallen Creasy           (b. 1897 - d. 1983)
15 Feb 1949 - 28 Mar 1949  Sir Robert Scott (1st time)        (b. 1903 - d. 1968)
                             (acting)
28 Mar 1949 - 11 Jun 1949  Thorleif Rattray Orde Mangin       (b. 1896 - d. 1950)
                             (acting)
11 Jun 1949 - 11 Aug 1949  Sir Robert Scott (2nd time)        (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
11 Aug 1949 -  6 Mar 1957  Sir Charles Noble Arden-Clarke     (b. 1898 - d. 1962)
Queen¹
 6 Mar 1957 -  1 Jul 1960  the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 6 Mar 1957 - 24 Jun 1957  Sir Charles Noble Arden-Clarke     (s.a.)
14 May 1957 - 13 Nov 1957  Sir Arku Korsah (acting)           (b. 1894 - d. 1967)
13 Nov 1957 -  1 Jul 1960  William Francis Hare, Earl         (b. 1906 - d. 1997)
                             of Listowel 
Presidents
 1 Jul 1960 - 24 Feb 1966  Kofi Kwame Nkrumah                 (b. 1909 - d. 1972)  CPP
24 Feb 1966 -  2 Apr 1969  Joseph Ankrah                      (b. 1915 - d. 1992)  Mil
                             (chairman National Liberation Council)
 2 Apr 1969 -  7 Aug 1970  Akwasi Afrifa                      (b. 1936 - d. 1979)  Mil
                            (chairman National Liberation Council to 3 Sep 1969,
                             then chairman Presidential Commission)
 7 Aug 1970 - 31 Aug 1970  Nii Amaa Ollennu (acting)          (b. 1906 - d. 1986)  Non-party
31 Aug 1970 - 13 Jan 1972  Edward A. Akufo-Addo               (b. 1906 - d. 1979)  Non-party
13 Jan 1972 -  5 Jul 1978  Ignatius Kutu Acheampong           (b. 1931 - d. 1979)  Mil
                            (chairman National Redemption Council to 9 Oct 1975,
                             then chairman Supreme Military Council)
 5 Jul 1978 -  4 Jun 1979  Frederick "Fred" William Kwasi     (b. 1937 - d. 1979)  Mil
                             Akuffo 
                             (chairman Supreme Military Council)
 4 Jun 1979 - 24 Sep 1979  Jerry John Rawlings (1st time)     (b. 1947)            Mil
                             (chairman Armed Forces Revolutionary Council)
24 Sep 1979 - 31 Dec 1981  Hilla Limann                       (b. 1934 - d. 1998)  PNP
31 Dec 1981 -  7 Jan 2001  Jerry John Rawlings (2nd time)     (s.a.)              Mil;1993 NDC
                             (chairman Provisional National Defense Council
                             to 7 Jan 1993)
 7 Jan 2001 -  7 Jan 2009  John Agyekum Kufuor                (b. 1938)            NPP
 7 Jan 2009 - 24 Jul 2012  John Evans Atta Mills              (b. 1944 - d. 2012)  NDC
24 Jul 2012 -              John Dramani Mahama                (b. 1958)            NDC

Leader of Government Business
13 Feb 1951 - 21 Mar 1952  Kofi Kwame Nkrumah                 (s.a.)               CPP
Prime ministers

21 Mar 1952 -  1 Jul 1960  Kofi Kwame Nkrumah                 (s.a.)               CPP
 1 Jul 1960 -  3 Sep 1969  Post abolished
 3 Sep 1969 - 13 Jan 1972  Kofi Abrefa Busia                  (b. 1913 - d. 1978)  PP
13 Jan 1972                Post abolished

  ¹Full style:
(a) 6 Mar 1957 - 27 Jul 1957: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(b) 27 Jul 1957 - 30 Jun 1960: "Queen of Ghana and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

Territorial Disputes: Disputed maritime border between Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire.

Party abbreviations: NDC = National Democratic Congress (social-democratic, center-left, est.1992); NPP = New Patriotic Party (liberal conservative, center-right, est.1992); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: CPP = Convention People's Party (authoritarian, socialist, Nkrumah personalist, socialist, pan-African, 1949-1966, only legal party 1964-1966); PNP = People's National Party (socialist, Nkrumah personalist, pan-African, 1979-1981); PP = Progress Party (1969-1972)


Gold Coast Northern Territories

[Flag of the United Kingdom]
 
Capital: Tamale
Population: N/A

1897                      Gold Coast Northern Territories Military Protectorate, 
                            created as part of Gold Cost colony.
 1 Jan 1902               Gold Coast Northern Territories Protectorate.
 6 Mar 1957               Incorporated into Ghana.

Chief Commissioners
1897 - 1899               Henry P. Northcott                  (b. 1856 - d. 1899)
1899                      Sir Edwin Arney Speed               (b. 1869 - d. 1941)
                            (district officer)
1899 - 1904               Sir Arthur Henry Morris             (b. 1861 - d. 1939)
1904 - 1910               Alan Edward Garrard Watherston      (b. 1867 - d. 1910)
1910 - 1920               Cecil Hamilton Armitage             (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
1920 - 1924               Arthur James Philbrick              (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
1924 - 1929               Arthur Henry Chamberlain Walker-    (b. 1871 - d. 19..)
                            Leigh
Dec 1929 - Jan 1930       Angus Colin Duncan Johnstone        (b. 1889 - d. 19..)
                            (acting)
1930 - 1933               Francis Walter Fillon Jackson       (b. 1881 - d. 1936)
1933 - 1942               William John Andrew Jones           (b. 1889 - d. 1971)
1942 - 1946               George Edward Gibbs
1946 - 1948               William Harold Ingrams              (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
1948 - 1950               Edward Norton Jones                 (b. 1902 - d. 1983)
1950 - 1953               Geoffrey Noel Burden                (b. 1898 - d. 198.)
Chief Regional Officers
1953 - 1954               Arthur John Loveridge               (b. 1912 - d. 1994)
1954 -  6 Mar 1957        Sydney MacDonald-Smith              (b. 1908 - d. ....)


Gold Coast Colony

[Flag of the United Kingdom]
 
Capital: Accra
Population: N/A

1945                      Gold Coast Colony (that part of the gold Coast south of Ashanti,
                            a separate region) created as part of Gold Coast.
1953                      Incorporated into Gold Coast.

Chief Commissioners
1945 - 1950               Thorleif Rattray Orde Mangin        (b. 1896 - d. 1950)
1950 - 1953               Arthur John Loveridge               (b. 1912 - d. 1994)


Ashanti Colony/Region: see under Ghana Native States


Danish Gold Coast (Danish Guinea)

[Denmark]
 
Capital: Fort Christiansborg
(Fort Fredriksborg 1659-1685)
Population: N/A

1658                      Danish Gold Coast Settlements established on eastern Gold coast 
                            (Ft. Friedensborg [Ningo: 1734-Mar 1850], Ft. Christiansborg 
                            [Accra/Osu: 1658-Apr 1659,1661-Dec 1680, Feb 1683-1693,1694-1850],
                             Ft. Augustaborg [Tshe: 1787-Mar 1850], Ft. Prinzenstein [Keta:
                             1780-12 Mar 1850], Ft. Konigenstein [Ada: 1784-Mar 1850], 
                             Carlsborg [Cape Castle: Feb 1658-16 Apr 1659, 22 Apr 1663 - 3 May
                             1664], Cong Heights [Cong: 1659-24 Apr 1661], Ft. Fredriksborg
                             [Amanful or Amanfro: 1659-16 Apr 1685]); also called Danish
                             Guinea.
1658 - 1750                Under Danish West India Company administration.
20 Apr 1663                Danes seize last of Sweden's Gold Coast settlements 
                             (Ft. Christiansborg and Carlsborg [Cape Castle]).
1674 - 1755                Settlements administered by the Danish West India-Guinea Company.
Dec 1680 - 29 Aug 1682     Portuguese occupy Ft. Christiansborg.
1684 - 1688                English occupy Ft. Fredriksborg.                         
1750                       Danish crown colony.
1782 - 1785                British occupation.
 5 Jun 1849                Denmark agrees to sell all settlements to Britain.
30 Mar 1850                Danish Gold Coast Settlements sold to Britain and 
                             incorporated into the Gold Coast.

Opperhoveds (Station Chiefs)
28 Jan 1658 - 1658         Heinrich Carloff (Henrik Carloff)  (b. 1621/22 - d. c.1694)
1658 - 16 Apr 1659         Samuel Smidt (acting)
17 Apr 1659 -  6 Jun 1662  Jost Cramer                        (d. 1662)
 7 Jun 1662 - Jun 1668     Henning Albrecht (Henri Halbreckhe)
                             (acting to 10 Sep 1664)
Jun 1668 - 23 Jan 1674     Bartholomæus von Gronstein         (d. 1674)
                             (von Grünenstein)
                             (acting to 20 Jan 1670) 
24 Jan 1674 - c.1679       Conrad Crull (acting)              (d. c.1679)
c.1679 -  2 Feb 1681       Peter With (acting)
Dec 1680 - 29 Aug 1682     Julian de Campo Bareto
                             (Portuguese Captain-major at Ft. Christiansborg)
 2 Feb 1681 - 21 Apr 1681  Magnus Prang                       (d. 1681)
22 Apr 1681 -  2 May 1681  Conrad Busch (acting)
 2 May 1681 - 19 Sep 1687  Hans Lykke                         (d. 1687)
19 Sep 1687 -  5 Jan 1691  Nikolay Fensman (1st time)
 5 Jan 1691 - Jul 1692     Jørgen Meyer
Jul 1692 -  8 Sep 1692     Nikolay Fensman (2nd time)
 8 Sep 1692 - 1694         Harding Petersen
May 1694 - 28 Jan 1698     Thomas Jacobsen
28 Jan 1698 - 23 Dec 1698  Erik Olsen Lygaard (1st time)      (b. 16.. - d. 1711) 
                             (acting)
23 Dec 1698 - 31 Aug 1703  Johan Tranne (John Trawne)         (b. 16.. - d. 1703)
11 Sep 1703 - 23 Apr 1704  Hartvig Meyer                      (b. 16.. - d. 1704)
23 Apr 1704 -  5 May 1705  Peter Sverdrup (acting)            (b. 16.. - d. 1705)
 5 May 1705 - 25 May 1705  Peder Pedersen Todbjerg (acting)   (b. 16.. - d. 1709)
25 May 1705 - 17 Aug 1711  Erik Olsen Lygaard (2nd time)      (s.a.) 
17 Aug 1711 - 25 Nov 1717  Franz Boye                         (b. 16.. - d. 1717)
25 Nov 1717 -  6 Aug 1720  Knud Røst                          (b. 16.. - d. 1720)
 6 Aug 1720 - 24 Jan 1722  Peter Østrup                       (d. 1722)
25 Jan 1722 - 22 Jan 1723  Niels Jensen Østrup                (d. 1724)
22 Jan 1723 - 27 Apr 1724  Christian Andreas Syndermann       (d. 1727)
27 Apr 1724 -  1 Mar 1727  Hendrik von Suhm                   (d. 1727)
 4 Mar 1727 - 18 Sep 1727  Fred Pahl                          (d. 1727)
18 Sep 1727 - 24 Dec 1728  Andreas Willumsen                  (d. 1728)
24 Dec 1728 - 12 Aug 1735  Anders Pedersen Waerøe
12 Aug 1735 - 14 Jun 1736  Severin Schilderup                 (d. 1736)
14 Jun 1736 - 20 Jun 1740  Enevold Nielson Boris              (d. 1740)
20 Jun 1740 - 26 May 1743  Peter Nikolaj Jørgensen            (d. 1743)
26 May 1743 -  3 Feb 1744  Christian Glob Dorph               (d. 1744)
 3 Feb 1744 - 11 Mar 1745  Jørgen Billsen                     (d. 1745)
11 Mar 1745 - 23 Mar 1745  Thomas Brock                       (d. 1745)
23 Mar 1745 - 23 Apr 1745  Johan Wilder                       (d. 1745)
23 Apr 1745 - 21 Jun 1746  August Frederik Hackenburg
21 Jun 1746 -  6 Mar 1751  Joost Platfusz
 6 Mar 1751 -  8 Mar 1751  Magnus Christopher Lützow          (d. 1751)
 8 Mar 1751 - 21 Jul 1752  Magnus Hacksen (acting)            (d. 1752)
21 Jul 1752 - 11 Mar 1757  Carl Engman
11 Mar 1757 - 14 Feb 1762  Christian Jessen                   (d. 1768)
14 Feb 1762 - 20 Oct 1766  Carl Gottlieb Resch                (d. 1768)
Governors
20 Oct 1766 - 11 Jan 1768  Christian Tychsen                  (d. 1768)
11 Jan 1768 -  2 Jul 1769  Frantz Joachim Kühberg             (d. 1769)
 2 Jul 1769 - 11 Jun 1770  Joachim Christian Otto (acting)    (d. 1770)
11 Jun 1770 - 15 Jun 1772  Johan Daniel Frøhlich (acting)     (d. 1772)
15 Jun 1772 - 24 Jun 1777  Niels Urban Aarestrup (acting)
24 Jun 1777 -  2 Dec 1780  Johan Conrad von Hemsen            (d. 1780)
 2 Dec 1780 - 21 Apr 1788  Jens Adolf Kiøge (acting)          (b. 1746 - d. 1789)
21 Apr 1788 - 23 Oct 1789  Johan Friedrich Kipnasse (acting)  (d. 1796)
23 Oct 1789 - Jul 1792     Andreas Rieselsen Bjørn            (b. 1748 - d. 1821)
Jul 1792 - 30 Jun 1793     Andreas Hammer 
                             (acting to 25 Jan 1793)
30 Jun 1793 -  3 Aug 1793  Bendt Olrik                        (b. 1749 - d. 1793)
 3 Aug 1793 - 17 Aug 1795  Christian Friedrich baron von      (b. 1754 - d. 1795)
                             Hager (acting) 
Oct 1795 - 31 Dec 1799     Johan Peter David Wrisberg         (b. 1771 - d. 1819)
                             (1st time) 
31 Dec 1799 -  3 Dec 1802  Johan David Ahnholm (acting)       (b. 1756 - d. 1806)
 3 Dec 1802 - 15 Apr 1807  Johan Peter David Wrisberg         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
15 Apr 1807 -  1 Mar 1817  Christian Schiønning               (b. 1764 - d. 1817)
 3 Mar 1817 -  5 Oct 1817  Johan Emanuel Rechter              (d. 1817)
 5 Oct 1817 -  6 May 1819  Jens Nikolas Cornelius Reiersen    (d. 1819)
                             (acting)
 6 May 1819 -  1 Jan 1821  Christian Svanekjaer (acting)      (b. 1788 - d. 1843)
 1 Jan 1821 -  5 Sep 1821  Peter Svane Steffens               (d. 1821)
 5 Sep 1821 - 23 Dec 1823  Matthias Thønning (acting)         (d. 1824)
23 Dec 1823 -  7 May 1825  Johan Christopher von Richelieu    (b. 1789 - d. 1858)
 7 May 1825 - 30 Sep 1827  Niels Brøch (1st time) (acting)    (b. c.1802 - d. 1836)
30 Sep 1827 -  1 Aug 1828  Jens Peter Flindt                  (b. 1788 - d. 1842)
 1 Aug 1828 - 20 Jan 1831  Heinrich Gerhard Lindt (Lind)      (b. 1797 - d. 1833)
                             (1st time) (acting)
29 Jan 1831 - 21 Oct 1831  Ludwig Vincent von Hein            (b. 1799 - d. 1831)
21 Oct 1831 -  4 Dec 1831  Helmut von Ahrenstorff             (b. 1807 - d. 1832)
 4 Dec 1831 -  1 Mar 1833  Niels Brøch (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1833 - 21 Jul 1833  Heinrich Gerhard Lindt             (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
21 Jul 1833 - 26 Dec 1834  Edvard von Gandil (acting)         (b. 1804 - d. 1834)
26 Dec 1834 - 18 Mar 1839  Ferderik Segfried Mørch            (b. 1800 - d. 1839)
                             (acting to 19 Aug 1837) 
19 Mar 1839 - 18 Aug 1839  Hans Angel Gjede (acting)          (d. 1839)
18 Aug 1839 - 24 May 1842  Lucas Dall (acting)                (b. 1806 - d. 1855) 
24 May 1842 - 26 Aug 1842  Bernhard Johan Christian Wilkens   (b. 1810 - d. 1842)
                             (acting)
26 Aug 1842 - 15 Mar 1844  Edvard James Arnold Carstensen     (b. 1815 - d. 1848)
                             (1st time) (acting)
18 Mar 1844 -  5 Jul 1844  Edvard Ericksen (acting)
 5 Jul 1844 -  9 Oct 1844  George Lutterdot (acting)
 9 Aug 1844 - 10 Apr 1847  Edvard James Arnold Carstensen     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
10 Apr 1847 - 20 Feb 1850  Rasmus Emil Schmidt (acting)
20 Feb 1850 - 30 Mar 1850  Edvard James Arnold Carstensen     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(nominally to 17 Aug 1850)



Dutch Gold Coast (Dutch Guinea)

[National flag of the
                Netherlands]
 
Capital: Fort Elmina
(Fort Nassau 1598-1637)
Population: N/A

1612                       Dutch Gold Coast Settlements (Axim [Feb 1642-1664, 1665-71],
                             Ft. Dorothea [Akwida: 1687-1698, 1711-1712, 1732-1804],
                             Ft. Elmina [also called Ft. Conraadsburg, St. Jago, Ft. de Veer,
                             Ft. Java, Ft. Scomarus, and Ft. Naglas 29 Aug 1637 - 6 Apr 1872],
                             Ft. Hollandia [1725-1815], Ft. Batenstein [Butri: 1656-1665, 
                             1666-1871], Ft. Apollonia [Benyin: 16..-16.., 1868-1871],
                             Ft. Oranje [Sekondi: 1640-1871], Ft. San Sebastian [Shama:
                             1637-1664,1664-1871], Ft. Vredenburgh [Komenda: 1785-1871]),
                             Carlsborg [Cape Castle: 1688-1782, 16 Apr 1659-May 1659], 
                             Ft. Nassau [Mouri: 1598/1612-1664, 1665-1782, 1785-1867],
                             Ft. Amsterdam [Kormantin: 29 Jan 1665-1782, 1785-1867],
                             Ft. Leydsaemheyt [Apam: 1697-1782, 1785-1868], Ft. Goede Hoop
                             [Senya Beraku: 1667/1705-1782, 1785-1868], Ft. Crêvecoeur [Accra:
                             1649-1782, 1785-1867/8], Ft. Metaal Kruis [Dixcove: 1868-1871],
                             Ft. Ruychaver [Abacqua: 1654-1659], Ft. Singelenburgh (Keta:
                             1734-1737], Ft. Witsen [Takoradi: 1660-1665], Anomabu
                             [1640-1652], Egya [1647-16.., 1663-1664], Kpone [1697-1700,
                             1706-17..] in modern Ghana; Petit Popo [Aneho: 1731-1760]
                             in Togo; and Great Popo [1680-...], Ouidah [1670-1687, 1702-                                  - 1724/26], Ft. Zelandia [Godomey: 1726-1734], Offra [1675-1691)
                             & Appa [1732-1736] in modern Benin).
 3 Jun 1621 - 1791         Under Dutch West India Company administration.
29 Aug 1637                Dutch take the Fort of Elmina from the Portuguese.
29 Jan 1665                Dutch take Kormantin from the English.
1721                       Prussia sells Gross-Friedrichsburg to the Dutch, which is renamed 
                             Hollandia.
1782 - 1785                British occupy Ft. Vredenburgh, Ft. Amsterdam, Ft. Nassau, 
                             Ft. Goede Hoop, Ft. Crêvecoeur (to 1786) and Ft. Leydsaemheyt.
21 Feb 1871                Dutch Gold Coast Settlements sold to Britain and incorporated 
                             into Gold Coast (ratified 17 Feb 1872).

Generals of the Gold Coast 
1612 - 1614                Jacob Adriaensz Clantius (1st time)
1614 - 1617?               Adriaen Jacobsz Roest
1617 - 1620?               Jacob Adriaensz Clantius (2nd time)
1620? - 1621               Anthonie van Liedekercke
1621? - 1624?              Geert Reck
Directors-general
1624 - 1629                Adriaen Jacobsz. van Amersfoort
                             (at Ft. Nassau)
1629 - 18 Jul 1639         Nikolaes van Ypren (Iperen)
                             (at Elmina from 1637)
18 Jul 1639 -  6 Jan 1641  Arend Jacobsz. Montfort
 6 Jan 1641 - 18 Dec 1645  Jacob Ruyghaver (Ruijghaver)       (d. 1656)
                             (1st time)
18 Dec 1645 -  9 Apr 1650  Jacob van der Well
 9 Apr 1650 - 11 Jun 1650  Hendrik Doedens
Governor
11 Jun 1650 - 15 Mar 1651  Arent Cocq
Directors-general
15 Mar 1651 - 24 Jan 1656  Jacob Ruyghaver (2nd time)         (s.a.)
24 Jan 1656 - 27 Apr 1659  Johannes van Valkenburgh (1st time)(b. 1623 - d. 1667)
27 Apr 1659 -  7 Apr 1662  Casper van Heussen (Houssen)
 7 Apr 1662 - 23 Dec 1662  Dirck Wilre (1st time)             (b. 1636 - d. 1674)
23 Dec 1662 -  2 Jun 1667  Johannes van Valkenburgh (2nd time)(s.a.)
Governor
 2 Jun 1667 - 12 Dec 1668  Huijbrecht van Gageldonk
Directors-general
12 Dec 1668 - 12 Jun 1675  Dirck Wilre (2nd time)             (s.a.)
12 Jun 1675 - 13 Sep 1676  Joan Root
13 Sep 1676 - 26 Mar 1680  Heerman Abramsen
26 Mar 1680 -  1 Aug 1683  Daniel Verhouten (Verhoutert)
 1 Aug 1683 - 15 Jul 1685  Thomas Ernsthuijsen (Ernsthuis)
15 Jul 1685 - 29 Jan 1690  Nikolaas de Sweerts
29 Jan 1690 - 25 Mar 1694  Joel Smits (Schmits)
25 Mar 1694 -  9 Jun 1696  Jan Staphorst
 9 Jun 1696 -  2 Jun 1702  Jan van Sevenhuysen (Sevenhuijsen)
 9 Jun 1702 -  5 Nov 1705  Willem de la Palma
 5 Nov 1705 - 10 Oct 1708  Pieter Nuyts (Nuijts)
Governor
10 Oct 1708 - 14 Aug 1709  Henrikus van Weesel
Directors-general
14 Aug 1709 - 16 Apr 1711  Adriaan Schoonheidt (Schoonheijd )
16 Apr 1711 - 11 Jun 1716  Hieronimus Haring
11 Jun 1716 -  9 Apr 1718  Robberts Abraham Engelgraef
 9 Apr 1718 - 14 Oct 1722  William Bullier (Wilhelm Butler)
14 Oct 1722 - 28 May 1723  Abraham Houtman                    (d. 1723)
Governor
28 May 1723 - 14 Dec 1723  Mattheus de Kraane (Crane)
Directors-general
14 Dec 1723 - 11 Mar 1727  Pieter Valckenier                  (b. 1691 - d. 1738)
11 Mar 1727 -  6 Mar 1730  Robbert Norri
 6 Mar 1730 - 13 Mar 1734  Jan Pranger                        (b. 1700 - d. 1773)
13 Mar 1734 -  2 Apr 1736  Anthony van Overbeek               (d. 1736)
 7 Apr 1736 - 16 Mar 1740  Martinus François des Bordes       (d. 1740)
Governor
16 Mar 1740 -  7 Mar 1741  François Barovius (Barbrius)       (d. 1741)
Directors-general
 8 Mar 1741 - 11 Apr 1747  Jacob baron de Petersen
11 Apr 1747 - 14 Jul 1754  Jan van Voorst
14 Jul 1754 - 24 Oct 1755  Nikolaas van der Nood de Gieterre  (d. 1755)
                             (Nicolaas van der Noot de Gieter)
Governor
24 Oct 1755 - 16 Jan 1758  Roelof Ulsen                       (d. 1758)
Directors-general
16 Jan 1758 - 12 Mar 1759  Lambert Jacob van Tets             (d. 1759)
13 Mar 1759 -  2 Mar 1760  Jan Pieter Theodor Huydecooper     (b. 1728 - d. 1767)
                             (1st time) 
 2 Mar 1760 - 11 Jul 1763  David Pieter Erasmie               (d. 1763)
Governor
11 Jun 1763 - 10 Sep 1764  Henrick Walmbeck                   (d. 1764)
                             (Hendrik Walmbeek)
Director-general
10 Sep 1764 - 11 Jul 1767  Jan Pieter Theodor Huydecooper     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
11 Jul 1767 - 27 Aug 1767  Willem Sulyard van Leefdael
                           + Cornelis Klok
27 Aug 1767 - 14 Apr 1780  Pieter Woortman                    (b. c.1700 - d. 1780)
14 Apr 1780 - 10 May 1780  .... (acting)
Governor
10 May 1780 - 30 Dec 1780  Jacobus van der Puye (Pujie)       (d. 1780)
Director-general
30 Dec 1780 - 12 Mar 1784  Pieter Volkmar                     (d. 1784)
Governor-general
15 Mar 1784 - 14 Feb 1785  Gilles Servaas Gallé (Galie)
                             (1st time)
Director-general
14 Feb 1785 - 26 May 1786  Adolphus Thierens                  (b. 1738 - d. 1786)
Governor-general
 2 Jun 1786 - 24 Aug 1787  Gilles Servaas Gallé (Galie)
                             (2nd time)
President
 8 Sep 1788 - 19 Mar 1790  Lieve van Bergen van der Gryp      (d. 1795)
                             (Grijp)(1st time)
Director-general
19 Mar 1790 -  5 May 1794  Jacobus de Veer                    (b. 1749 - d. 1794)
President
 5 May 1794 - 10 Jan 1795  Lieve van Bergen van der Gryp      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Governor
10 Jan 1795 -  2 Jun 1796  Otto Arnoldus Duim                 (d. 1796)
Directors-general
 2 Jun 1796 - 10 Aug 1796  Lieve van Bergen van der Gryp      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
10 Aug 1796 -  1 May 1798  Gerhardus Hubertus van Hammel      (d. 1798)
 8 May 1798 - 28 Apr 1804  Cornelis Ludewich Bartels          (b. 17.. - d. 1804)
                             (from 1801, governor-general)
President
28 Apr 1804 - 15 Jun 1805  Izaak de Roever 
Governor-general
16 Jun 1805 - 21 Jul 1807  Pieter Linthorst                   (b. 1757 - d. 1807)
President
22 Jul 1807 - 11 Aug 1808  Johannes Petrus Hoogenboom         (b. 17.. - d. 1808)
Director-general
12 Aug 1808 - 23 Feb 1810  Jan Frederik Koning
Commandant-general
23 Feb 1810 -  1 Mar 1816  Abraham de Veer                    (b. 1767 - d. 1838)
Governors-general
 1 Mar 1816 - 22 Apr 1818  Herman Willem Daenels              (b. 1762 - d. 1818)
22 Apr 1818 - 10 Jan 1820  Frans Christiaan Eberhard          (d. 1820/21) 
                             Oldenburg (acting)
Commanders
10 Jan 1820 - 27 Jul 1821  Johannes Oosthout
27 Jul 1821 - 11 Jan 1823  Frederick Frans Ludewich Ulrich
                             Last (1st time)(acting)
11 Jan 1823 -  6 May 1823  Librecht Jan Temmink (acting)      (b. c.1773 - d. 18..)
 6 May 1823 - 14 May 1824  Willem Poolman                     (b. 1809 - d. 1873)
14 May 1824 - 25 Dec 1824  Hendrik Adriaan Mouwe, Jr. (acting)
25 Dec 1824 -  2 Jan 1825  Johan David Carel Pagenstecher
                             (acting)
 2 Jan 1825 - 12 Nov 1826  Frederick Frans Ludewich Ulrich
                             Last (2nd time)(acting)
12 Nov 1826 -  4 Oct 1828  Jacobus Cornelis van der Breggen
                             Paauw (acting)
 4 Oct 1828 - 17 Apr 1833  Frederick Frans Ludewich Ulrich
                             Last (3rd time)
17 Apr 1833 - 17 May 1833  Jan Thieleman Jacobus Cremer
                             (acting)
17 May 1833 -  2 Feb 1834  Eduard Daniel Leopold van Ingen
                             (acting)
 2 Feb 1834 - 16 Mar 1834  Marthinus Swarte (acting)
16 Mar 1834 -  2 Dec 1836  Christian Ernst Lans 
 2 Dec 1836 - 28 Oct 1837  Hendrikus Jacobus Tonneboeyer      (b. 1814 - d. 1837)
                             (Tonneboeijer) (acting) 
29 Oct 1837 -  5 Aug 1838  Anthony van der Eb (1st time)      (b. 1813 - d. 1852)
                             (acting)
Governors

 5 Aug 1838 -  7 Mar 1840  Hendrik Bosch
 7 Mar 1840 - 1846         Anthony van der Eb (1st time)      (s.a.)
1846 - 1847                Willem George Frederik Derx        (b. 1813 - d. 1890)
                             (1st time)(acting)
1847 - 1852                Anthony van der Eb (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1852 - 1856                Hero Schomerus                     (b. 1816 - d. 1856)
1856                       Petrus Jacobus Runckel             (b. 1822 - d. 1860)
1856 - 1857                Willem George Frederik Derx        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(government commissioner)
Apr 1857 - 11 Sep 1857     Jules Felicine Romain Stanislas    (b. 1819 - d. 1882) 
                             van den Bossche
1857 - Jun 1862            Cornelis Johannes Marius Nagtglas  (b. 1814 - d. 1897)
                             (1st time)
1862 - 1865                Henry Alexander Elias              (b. 1829 - d. 1903)
1865 - 1866                Arent Magnin (acting)              (b. 1825? - d. 1888)
1866 - 1867                Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga   (b. 1822 - d. 1896)
1867 - 20 Mar 1869         George Pieter Willem Boers         (b. 1811 - d. 1884)
20 Mar 1869 - Jun 1871     Cornelis Johannes Marius Nagtglas  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(government commissioner)
1871                       Cornelis Meeuwsen (acting)         (b. 1824 - d. 1896)
1871                       Jan Albert Hendrik Hugenholtz      (b. 1826 - d. 1874)
                             (government commissioner)
1871                       J.M.L.A.P. Wirix (acting)
1871                       W.P.A. Le Jeune (acting)
1871 - 1872                Jan Helenus Ferguson               (b. 1826 - d. 1908)
                             (lieutenant governor)
1872                       R.I. de Haes (government commissioner)



Brandenburger/Prussian Gold Coast 
[Brandenburg African
                  Company c.1680-1701 (Prussia, Germany)]
                    c.1682 - 1717
            Brandenburg African Company 
Capital: Gross-Friedrichsburg
Population: N/A

17 Mar 1682                Brandenburg African Company (Kurfürstliche Brandenburgisch-
                             Afrikanische Compagnie) founded.
1682                       Brandenburger Gold Coast Settlements (Gross-Friedrichsburg [Pokesu:
                             1682-1717], Ft. Dorothea [Akwida: Apr 1684-1687, 1698-1711, 
                             Apr 1712-1717], Ft. Louise [Takrama: 1684-....]); administered by
                             the Brandenburg African Company.
1687 - 1698                Dutch occupy Ft. Dorothea.
15 Jan 1701                Renamed Prussian Gold Coast Settlements.
1711 - Apr 1712            Dutch occupy Ft. Dorothea. 
18 Dec 1717                Settlements sold to the Netherlands (ratified 14 Jan 1718),
                             renamed Hollandia (see Dutch Gold Coast).
1717 - 1724                Johannes Conrad (or Jan Conny) occupies Gross-Friedrichsburg
                             in opposition to Dutch rule.
 

Commandants 
1682 - 1683                Otto Friedrich von der Gröben      (b. 1657 - d. 1728)
1683 - 1684                Philip Pietersen Blonck
1684                       Nathaniel Dillinger (Dillger)
1684                       J. van Coulster
1684 - 1685                Karl Konstantin von Schnitter
1685 - 1686                Johan Brouw
1686 - 1691                Johann Niemann
c.1691                     Jan ten Hoof (Johann von Hoft)
c.1696                     Jacob ten Hoof (Jacob von Hoft)
1696 - 1697                Gijsbrecht van Hoogveldt
1697 - 1698                Jan van Laar
1698 - 1699                Otto Swalme (Swalwe)
1699 - 1700                Jan de Visser (Vister)
1700 - 1704                Adriaan Grobbe
1704 - 1706                Johann Münz (Muntz)
1706 - 1709                Heinrich Lamy (Lamey)
1709 - 1710                Harmen Stockhoff (Stockhof)
c.1711                     Frans de Lange
1712 - 1716                Nicholas Dubois (du Bois)
1716 - 1717                Anton Günter van der Menden
1717 - 1724                Johannes Conrad (Jean Cunny, Jan Konny) 
                             (in rebellion, in Gross-Friedrichsburg)



Portuguese Gold Coast

 
[1667 flag of
                Portugal]
   
Capital: São Jorge da Mina
Population: N/A

21 Jan 1482                Portuguese Gold Coast (Ft. São Jorge da Mina de Ouro [Elmina:
                             21 Jan 1482-29 Aug. 1637], Ft. Santo Antonio de Axim
                             [Axim: 1486-Feb 1642], Ft. São Francisco Xavier [Osu: 1640-42]
                             and Ft. São Sebastião [Shama: 1526-1637]). 
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Portuguese Gold Coast along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
29 Aug 1637                Dutch occupation of São Jorge da Mina.
 9 Jan 1642                Ceded to the Dutch (part of Dutch Gold Coast).

Captains-major
21 Jan 1482 - 1485         Diogo de Azambuja                  (b. 1432 - d. 1518)
1485 - 1486                Álvaro Vaz Pestano
148.                       Alvaro Mascarenhas
c.1487                     João Fogaça
15 Sep 1495 - 30 Jun 1499  Lopo Soares de Albergaria          (b. c.1442 - d. c.1520)
1499? - 1503?              Fernão Lopes Correia
1503? - 1506?              Diogo Lopes de Sequeira            (b. 1465 - d. 1530)
1506? - 1509?              António de Bonadilha
1509? - 1512?              Mabuel de Goes (Góis)
1513                       Affonso Caldeira
c.1513                     Antonio Froes
Sep 1514 - 1516?           Nuno Vaz de Castelbranco
1516? - 1519               Fernão Lopes Correia
 2 Sep 1519 - 10 Jan 1522  Duarte Pacheco Pereira             (b. 1469 - d. 1533)
1522 - 1524                Afonso de Albuquerque
1524 - 1526                João de Barros                     (b. 1496 - d. 1570)
1526 - 1529                João Vaz de Almada
1529 - 1532                Estévão da Gama                    (b. 1505 - d. 1576)
20 Aug 1536 - 22 Nov 1537  Manuel de Albuquerque
1537 - 1540?               ....
1540 - 1543                António de Miranda de Azevedo
1541 - 1545?               Lopo de Sousa Coutinho
1545                       Diogo Soares de Albergaria (1st time)
1545 - 1548                António de Brito
1549? - 1550?              Martin de Castro
1550? - 1552?              Diogo Soares de Albergaria (2nd time)
1552?                      Felipe Lobo
1552? - 1556?              Rui de Melo
1556 - 155.                Afonso Gonçalves de Botafogo
155. - 1559                António de Melo
1559                       Manuel da Fonseca
1559 - 1562                Rui Gomes de Azevedo
1562 - 15..                Manuel de Mesquita Perestrelo       (b. c.1510 - d. c.1580)
c.1562                     João Vaz de Almada Falcão
156.                       Francisco de Barros de Paiva
1564 - 15..                Fernando Cardoso
15.. - 1570                ....
1570 - 1573                António da Sá
c.1573                     Martim Affonso
c.1574 - c.15..            Mendio da Mota
15.. - c.1579              ....
1579 - c.1583              Vasco Fernandes Pimentel
1583 - 1586                João Rodrigues Peçanha
1586 - 15..                Bernardinho Ribeiro Pacheco
15.. - 1586                ....
1586 - 1594                João Róis Coutinho
c.1595 - c.1596            Duarte Lôbo da Gama
1596 - 1608                Cristóvão da Melo
Jul 1608 - 1610            Duarte de Lima                     (d. 1610)
1610 - 1613                João de Castro
1613 - 1616                Pedro da Silva
1616/17 - 1624             Manuel da Cunha de Teive
1624 - c.1625              Francisco de Souto-Maior
162. - 162.                Luís Tomé de Castro
162. - 1629                João da Sera de Morais
1629 - c.1632              ....
1632 - 27 Jun 1634         Pedro de Mascarenhas               (d. 1634)
Jun 1634 -  1 Oct 1634     Duarte Borges (acting)             (d. 1634)
Oct 1634 - 1642            André da Rocha Magalhães (acting)
1642 - Feb 1642            Francisco de Sotte



Swedish Gold Coast

[Flag of Sweden]
 
Capital: Fort Frederiksborg/
Fort Christiansborg
Population: N/A

22 Apr 1650                Swedish Gold Coast (Ft. Carlsborg [Cape Castle: 22 Apr 1650 - 
                             Jan/Feb 1658, 10 Dec 1660-22 Apr 1663], Apollonia [Benyin:
 
                           1655-1657], Ft. Chistiansborg/Ft. Frederiksborg [Osu: 1652-1658],
                             Ft. Batenstein [Butri: 1650-1656], Ft. Witsen [Takoradi: 
                             1653-58], and Ft. William [Anomabu 1650-1657).
27 Jan 1658 - 1659         Ft. Carlsborg and Ft. Chistiansborg seized by the Denmark.
22 Apr 1663                Ft. Carlsborg re-taken Denmark.
 9 May 1664                Area seized by England.    
21 Jul 1667                By the Treaty of Breda, Sweden formally cedes Gold Coast
                             possessions to the England.

Director
22 Apr 1650 - 1656         Heinrich Carloff (Henrik Carloff)  (b. 1621/22 - d. c.1694)
Commandant               
1652 - 165.                Isaak Meville (Melville)
Governors
1656 - Feb 1658            Johan Filip von Krusenstierna      (d. af.1680)
                             (1st time)
1658 - 1659                Danish occupation
1659 - 1660                Johan Filip von Krusenstierna      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
16 Apr 1663 - 22 Apr 1663  Anton Voss (Tönnies Voss)







© Ben Cahoon