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Aruba
 
[National flag of
                            the Netherlands]
1636 - 15 Dec 1959
 
[Netherlands
                            Antilles flag, 1959-86]
15 Dec 1959 - 18 Mar 1976

[Aruba flag]
Adopted 18 Mar 1976
 
Map of Aruba
Hear National Anthem
"Wilhelmous van Nassouwe"
(William of Nassau)
Hear Local Anthem
"Aruba Dushi Tera"
(Aruba Sweet Land)
Adopted 18 Mar 1976
Constitution
(1 Jan 1986; in Dutch)
Capital: Oranjestad
(1780-1824 Paardenbaai;
 1636-1780 Commandeursbaai)
Currency: Aruban Guilder/Florin
(AWG)
National Holiday: 18 Mar (1976)
Dag van het Volkslied en de Vlag
(Anthem and Flag Day)
Population: 115,120 (2017) 
GDP: $2.67 billion (2011)
Exports: $246.3 million (2017)
Imports: $1.16 billion (2017)
Ethnic Groups: Dutch 82.1%, Colombian 6.6%, Venezuelan
2.2%, Dominican 2.2%, Haitian 1.2%, other 5.5%,
unspecified 0.1% (2010)
Total Police Force: 250 (2006)
Defense is the Responsibility of The Netherlands
Merchant marine: None (2017)
Religions: Roman Catholic 75.3%, Protestant 4.9% (includes
 Methodist 0.9%, Adventist 0.9%, Anglican 0.4%, other Protestant
 2.7%), Jehovah's Witness 1.7%, other 12%, none 5.5%,
unspecified 0.5% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (associate), Caricom (observer), DLU (cooperation), FATF, ILO, Interpol, IOC, LAP, UNESCO (associate), UNWTO (associate), UPU, WMO
Aruba
Chronology

c.1502                     Discovered and claimed for Spain by Alonso de Ojeda
                             and named Oro Hubo
1526                       First recorded mention as Aruba.
10 May 1636                Aruba a Dutch colony (subordinate to Curaçao).
1636 - 1792                Under Dutch West India Company administration.
1647 - 1664                Part of New Netherland colony (see New York).
30 Jan 1648                Spain recognizes Dutch possession of Aruba. 
Oct 1804  (1 week)         British occupation.
12 Feb 1805 - 20 Nov 1805  British occupation.
10 Apr 1806 - 15 Apr 1806  Occupied by Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco
                             de Miranda.
19 Aug 1806 - 25 Sep 1806  Re-occupied by Francisco de Miranda.
Jan 1807 - 11 Mar 1816     British occupation.
1828                       Bonaire, Aruba, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, 
                             Sint Maarten and Dutch Guiana united as 
                             the Dutch West Indies; with the governor
                             of Dutch Guiana as the governor-general
                             (see Suriname).
27 Jan 1848                Islands united under the name of Curaçao and
                             Dependencies (from 20 Sep 1948, renamed
                             Netherlands Antilles).
29 Dec 1954                Netherlands Antilles an autonomous part of 
                             the Netherlands.
11 May 1940 - 11 Feb 1942  Allied occupation (French to 6 Jul 1940, then
                             British), Dutch administration continues.
11 Feb 1942 - 1945         U.S. occupation, Dutch administration continues.
25 Mar 1977                Referendum Aruba 82% of voters support independence
                             and withdrawal from the Netherlands Antilles.
12 Mar 1983                Autonomy granted; to be followed by independence 
                             within ten years.
 1 Jan 1986                Separation from Netherlands Antilles, Aruba an
                             autonomous country of The Netherlands.
Jun 1990                   Movement toward full independence (that was to
                             occur on 1 Jan 1996) halted at Aruba's request.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Commanders

1636                       Johannes van Walbeeck              (b 1602 – af.1649)
1660?                      Hendrik Martens
1667?                      N. Williams
1676? - 21 Dec 1680        Josephus Flaccius (1st time)       (b. 16.. - d. 1715)
1680                       Willem Kien (acting)
1680? - 1681               Johannes "Hans" Bontemantel        (b. 1613 - d. 1688)
1681 - Oct 1715            Josephus Flaccius (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1717? - 1719               Hermanus Koolman
1719 - 1721                Willem Palmers
1721 - 1722                Pieter Pietersz. van Kempen
1722 - 1726                Willem Jansz. (1st time)
1726 - 1730                Isaäc Obbens
1730 - 1739                Willem Jansz. (2nd time)
1739 - 1754                Daniël Nieuwkerk                   (d. 1754)
1754 - 1756                Lourens (Laurens) Croes (acting)   (b. 1707 - d. 1758) 
20 Aug 1756 - 10 Oct 1768  Jan van der Biest I                (b. c.1700 - d. 1768) 
1768 - 1780                Gilles Poppe (acting to 1772)
1780 - 1791                Harmen van der Biest               (b. 1725 - d. ....)
1791 - 24 Sep 1792         Jacobus Pellicorde Porrier
24 Sep 1792 - 1803         Borchard Specht                    (b. c.1740 - d. 18..) 
Sep 1799 - Oct 1799        Edward Hamilton                    (b. 1772 - d. 1851) 
                             (British commander)
May 1800                   Henry Anderson (British commander)
Sep 1800                   Frederick Watkins                  (b. 1770 - d. 1856)
                             (British commander)
1803 - 1804                Pieter Specht
Oct 1804  (1 week)         Mahling (Maling)(British commander)
                             (1st time)
1804 - 1805                Johan Craneveldt
1805 -  8 Oct 1805         Bruin Govertsz Quant (1st time)    (b. c.1760 - d. 18..)
 8 Oct 1805 - 20 Nov 1805  William Doran (British Lt. governor)
20 Nov 1805                Patrick Balfour                    (b. 1784 - d. 1848)
Nov 1805                   Pedro Luis Brión (acting)          (b. 1782 - d. 1821)
Nov 1805 - 15 Jan 1806     Bruin Govertsz Quant (2nd time)    (s.a.)
12 Feb 1805 - 20 Nov 1805  Mahling (Maling)(British commander)
                             (2nd time)
15 Jan 1806 - 1806         Joseph Franke (acting)
1806                       Samuel Bartholomeus van            (b. 17.. - d. 1817)
                             den Broek (commissioner)
                             (1st time)(acting)
1806                       Jan van der Biest III (1st time)
1806 - 18..                Samuel Bartholomeus van            (s.a.)
                             den Broek (commissioner)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
10 Apr 1806 - 15 Apr 1806  Francisco de Miranda (1st time)    (b. 1750 - d. 1816)
                             (military commander)
19 Aug 1806 - 25 Sep 1806  Francisco de Miranda (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (military commander)
10 Nov 1810 - 181.         John Harrison Church 
                             (British commander)
181.                       Hartmann?
                             (British commander)
181. - 11 Mar 1816         Jan van der Biest II
                             (civil commander)
11 Mar 1816 -  1 Jul 1819  Lodewijk Christoph Boyé            (b. 1773 - d. 1841)
1819 -  1 Jan 1822         Jan van der Biest III (2nd time)
                             (acting)
 1 Jan 1822 - 1826         Jacob Thielen I                    (b. 1766 - d. 1843)
1826 - 14 Aug 1827         Simon Plats                        (b. 1773 - d. 1827)
1827 - 1833                Johan Frederik Waters Gravenhorst  (b. 1800 - d. 18..)
                             (acting to 1829)  
Directors (gezashebber)
1833 - 1837                Johan Frederik Waters Gravenhorst  (s.a.)
1837                       Gerard Jan van Spall               (b. 1795 - d. 1853)
18 Feb 1839 - 1848         Jacobus Jarman, Jr.                (b. 1792 - d. 1859)
Lieutenant governors (gezaghebber)
1848 - 1859                Jacobus Jarman, Jr.                (s.a.)
1859                       Borchard Specht II (acting)
1859                       Michaël de Veer (1st time)(acting) (b. 1823 - d. 1859)
1859 - 1860                Herman François Gerardus Wagner    (b. 1822 - d. 1904)
1860 - 1863                Michaël de Veer
(2nd time)         (s.a.)
1863 - 1866                Edouard Denis Ernest van den       (b. 1831 - d. 1908)
                             Bossche 
1866 - 1871                Jan Helenus Ferguson               (b. 1826 - d. 1908)
1871 - 1876                Willem Melanchton Bennebroek       (b. 1836 - d. ....)
                             Gravenhorst
1876 - 1883                Jan Hendrik Rudeloff Beaujon       (b. 1838 - d. 1930)
15 May 1883 - 29 Mar 1888  David Gäerste Willemszoon          (b. 1841 - d. 1898)
1885                       E.L. Zeppenfeldt
                             (acting for Willemszoon)
 1 Nov 1885 -  1 Jun 1886  P.J.C. Lampe
                             (acting for Willemszoon)
29 Mar 1888 - Jul 1897     Jacob Thielen II (1st time)        (b. 1834 - d. 1915)
Jul 1897 -  1 Sep 1897     J.G. Lampe (acting)
 
1 Sep 1897 - 31 Aug 1899  Johannes Adriaan de Veer           (b. 1853 - d. 1899)
1899 - 1901                Jacob Thielen II (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)
24 Dec 1901 - 1909         Gerard Raven Zeppenfeldt           (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
1911 - 1920                Hendrik Johannes Beaujon           (b. 1870 - d. 19..)
23 Nov 1920 - 15 Dec 1928  Jan Frederik "Frits" Quast         (b. 1875 - d. 1953)
15 Dec 1928 -  1 Jun 1945  Isaac Wagemaker                    (b. 1884 - d. 19..)
24 Jun 1931 -  4 Sep 1931  J.N. van der Veen Zeppenfeldt
                             (acting for Wagemaker)
 3 Nov 1934 -  4 May 1945  J.H. Perret Gentil

                             (acting for Wagemaker)
 
9 Jun 1938 - 14 Oct 1938  Matthias Bartels Bartels Daal
                             (acting for Wagemaker)
 1 Jun 1945 - 30 Nov 1957  Lindoro Cristoffel Kwartsz         (b. 1873 - d. 1959)
10 Aug 1946 - 23 Sep 1946  Arnoldus Marinus Schütte           (b. 1897 - d. 1960)
                             (acting for Kwartsz)
 
8 Jan 1947 - 29 Apr 1947  Arnoldus Marinus Schütte           (s.a.)
                             (acting for Kwartsz)
1948                       Herman Bernard Cornelis Schotborgh (b. 1883 - d. 1950)
                             
(acting for Kwartsz)
1949 - 1950                Hendrikus "Henk" Anthonius Hessling(b. 1901 - d. 1966)
                             (acting for Kwartsz)
1951                       Frans Adrianus Jas, Jr.
                            
(acting for Kwartsz)
1952                       P.G. Hooghoudt (acting for Kwartsz)
1957                       P. Croes (acting)
30 Nov 1957 - 31 Oct 1959  K.H. de Boer (acting)
1958 - 1959                E. Arends (acting)
1959                       Oscar Siegfried Henriquez (acting) (b. 1926)
                             (1st time)
1959                       Otto R.A. Beaujon (acting)         (b. 1915 - d. 1984)
31 Oct 1959 - 23 Apr 1963  Frederik J.C. Beaujon              (b. 1906 - d. 1964)
23 Apr 1963 -  1 Jan 1973  Oscar Siegfried Henriquez          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
15 May 1973 - 23 May 1979  Francisco Jose "Jossy" Tromp       (b. 1925 - d. 2014)
28 Nov 1979 -  3 Sep 1982  Francisco D. Figaroa               (b. 1927 - d. 1993)
1982                       Remy R. Zaandam (acting)           (b. 1936)
1982 - 1983                Euladio D. Nicolaas (acting)       (b. 1941)
 
1 Feb 1983 -  3 Oct 1985  Pedro Bislip                       (b. 1937 - d. 2007)
1985 - 31 Dec 1985         Frans Wernet (acting)              (b. 1929 - d. 1995)
Governors
 1 Jan 1986 - 12 Mar 1992  Felipe Tromp                       (b. 1917 - d. 1995)
12 Mar 1992 - 11 May 2004  Olindo Koolman                     (b. 1942)
11 May 2004 - 31 Dec 2016  Fredis Refunjol                    (b. 1950)
 1 Jan 2017 -              Juan Alfonso Boekhoudt             (b. 1965)


Leaders of the government
(unofficial post)

1954 - 1956?               Juan Enrique Irausquin             (b. 1904 - d. 1962)  PPA
1956? - 1973?              ....
1973? - 1977?   
           Gilberto "Betico" F. Croes         (b. 1938 - d. 1986)  MEP
                             (1st time)
1977? - 1979?
              ....                                                    PPA
1979? - 31 Dec 1985        Gilberto "Betico" F. Croes         (s.a.)               MEP
                            
(2nd time)
Prime ministers

 1 Jan 1986 -  9 Feb 1989  Jan Hendrik "Henny" Albert Eman    (b. 1948)            AVP 
                             (1st time) 
 9 Feb 1989 - 29 Jul 1994  Nelson Orlando Oduber (1st time)   (b. 1947)            MEP
29 Jul 1994 - 30 Oct 2001  Jan Hendrik "Henny" Albert Eman    (s.a.)               AVP 
                             (2nd time) 
30 Oct 2001 - 30 Oct 2009  Nelson Orlando Oduber (2nd time)   (s.a.)               MEP 
30 Oct 2009 - 17 Nov 2017  Michiel "Mike" Godfried Eman
       (b. 1961)            AVP
17 Nov 2017 -              Evelyna "Evelyn" Wever-Croes (f)   (b. 1966)            MEP

Allied Military Commanders, Aruba
(subordinated to the commanders of All Allied Forces in Aruba and Curaçao)
12 May 1940 - 18 May 1940  Pierre Frédéric Henri Goybet       (b. 1887 - d. 1963)
                             (France)

18 May 1940 -  6 Jul 1940  .... (France)
Sep 1940 - Feb 1941       
Colin Muir Barber (U.K.)           (b. 1897 - d. 1964)
11 Feb 1942 - Sep? 1942    Charles Rouse Jones (U.S.)         (b. 1890 - d. 1970)
1942 - 1945                .... (U.S.)

Party abbreviations: AVP = Arubaanse Volkspartij/Partido di Pueblo Arubano (Aruba People's Party, christian-democratic, center-right, est.3 Dec 1942); MEP = Movimiento Electoral di Pueblo/Electorale Volksbeweging (People's Electoral Movement, socialist, supports full independence, est.9 Feb 1971); PPA = Partido Patriótico Arubano/Arubaanse Patriottische Partij (Patriotic Party of Aruba, social democratic, opposes full independence, est.23 Oct 1949) 






© Ben Cahoon