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Suriname
 
[National
                                    flag of the Netherlands]
27 Feb 1667 - 15 Dec 1959
 
[1959-1975 Flag of Suriname]
15 Dec 1959 - 25 Nov 1975
 
[Suriname
                                    flag]
Adopted 25 Nov 1975
 
Map of Suriname
Hear National Anthem
"God zij met ons Suriname!"
 (God Be With Our Suriname)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 7 Dec 1954
Constitution
(30 Sep 1987)
Capital: Paramaribo
(Fort Zeelandia 1739-1815;

Fort Kykoveral 1667-1739;
Fort Willoughby 1650-1667)
Currency: Surinamese
Guilder (SRG); 1815-1940
Dutch Guilder (NLG)
National Holiday: 25 Nov  (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 566,846 (2013)
GDP: $7.12 billion (2013)
Exports: $2.51 billion (2012)
Imports: $1.77 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Indo-Pakistani ("East Indians" ancestors from
 northern India
) 27.4%, Suriname Creole ("Afro-Surinamese" mixed white and black) 17.7%, Javanese (Indonesian) 14.6%, Maroons (descendants of runaway slaves living in the interior) 14.7%, Amerindian 1.5%, other/unknown 15.7% (2004)
Total Active Armed Forces: 1,840 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Christian 40.7% (mostly Roman Catholic and Moravian),
 Hindu 19.9%, Muslim 13.5%, non-religious 4.4%, traditional beliefs 3.3%, other 2.5%, unknown 15.7% (2004)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ACS, ACTO, ALBA (special guest), AOSIS, APM, BTWC, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, DLU (associate), ESCR, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISA, ISESCO, ISO (corespondent), ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, LAP, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNASUR, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-PA (signatory), UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Suriname
Chronology

1593 - 1629                Spanish colony (Provincia de Guayana).
1650 -  6 Mar 1667         English settlement at Willoughby-Land (modern-day 
                             Paramaribo) under William Willoughby, Baron
                             Willoughby of Parham (b. c.1616 - d. 1673).
27 Feb 1667                Dutch Suriname colony (Kolonie Suriname)(after
                             1816 commonly Dutch Guiana [Nederlands-Guiana]).

31 Jul 1667                Formally ceded to Netherlands by England by the
                             Treaty of Breda (ratified 24 Aug 1667).

 7 Oct 1667 - 28 Apr 1668  English occupation.
20 Aug 1799 -  4 Dec 1802  British occupation.
 9 May 1804 - 27 Feb 1816  British occupation.
1828 - 1848                Bonaire, Aruba, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, 
                             Sint Maarten and Dutch Guiana united as 
                             the Dutch West Indies; with the governor
                             of Dutch Guiana as the governor-general.
25 Nov 1941 - Jun 1943     U.S. forces garrison Suriname, Dutch rule continues.
20 Sep 1948                Suriname a coequal part of Netherlands realm.
25 Nov 1975                Independence (Republic of Suriname [also spelled
                             Surinam until 23 Jan 1978]).

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Chairman of the National Military Council (de facto leader)
25 Feb 1980 - 25 Jan 1988  Désiré "Dési" Delano Bouterse      (b. 1945)             Mil

Governor Spanish Guayana
1593 - 1629                Domingo de Vera e Ibargoyen        (b. c.1550 - d. 1629)
Governors of Willoughby-Land

1650 - 1654                Anthony Rowse (Rous)
1652 - 1654                Richard Holdip
                             (appointed by Parliament)
1654 - 1657                Vacant
1657 -  6 Mar 1667         William Byam                       (b. 1623 - d. 1670)
Governors of Dutch Guiana (of the Dutch West India Company)
27 Feb 1667 -  7 Oct 1667  Mauritz de Rama
English governors
 7 Oct 1667 -  3 Nov 1667  John Harman                        (d. 1673)
 3 Nov 1667 -  1 Feb 1668  Samuel Barry                       (d. c.1698)
1668                       James Bannister                    (b. 1624 - d. 1674)
Governors of Dutch Guiana (of the Dutch West India Company)
28 Apr 1668 - 1669        
Abraham Crijnssen (acting)         (d. 1669)
1669 - 1671                Philip Julius Lichtenbergh         (b. 1637 - d. 1678)
1671 - 22 Mar 1677         Pieter Versterre (acting)          (d. 1677)
1677                       Abel Thisso (1st time)(acting)
1677 - 1678                Tobias Adriaenssen 
1678 - Dec 1678            Abel Thisso (2nd time)(acting)
Dec 1678 - Apr 1680        Johannes Heinsius                  (b. c.1625 - d. 1680)
1680                       Everhard van Hemert (acting)
1680 - 1683                Laurens Verboom (acting)           (b. 1654 - d. 1688)
1683 - 19 Jul 1688         Cornelis van Aerssen van           (b. 1637 - d. 1688)
                             Sommelsdijck
1688 - 1689                Abraham van Vredenburg (acting)
1689 - 1696                Johan van Scharphuizen             (d. 1699)
14 May 1696 -  2 Mar 1707  Paulus van der Veen                (b. c.1660 - d. 1733)
 2 Mar 1707 - 27 Sep 1707  Wilhelm de Gruijter (Gruyter)      (b. 16.. - d. 1707)
27 Sep 1707 - 19 Jan 1710  François Anthony de Raineval       (b. 16.. - d. 1726)    
                             (Rayneval)(1st time) (acting)
19 Jan 1710 - 28 Jul 1715  Johan de Goijer                    (b. 16.. - d. 1715)
28 Jul 1715 - 22 Jan 1716  François Anthony de Raineval       (s.a.)      
                             (2nd time) (acting)
22 Jan 1716 -  4 Oct 1717  Johan de Mahony                    (b. 16.. - d. 1717)
 4 Oct 1717 -  2 Mar 1718  François Anthony de Raineval       (s.a.)      
                             (3rd time) (acting)
 2 Mar 1718 -  4 Sep 1721  Johan Coutier                      (b. 16.. - d. 1721)
 4 Sep 1721 -  1 Mar 1722  François Anthony de Raineval       (s.a.)      
                             (4th time) (acting)
Governors-general (1828-1848 also governor-general of the Dutch West Indies)
 1 Mar 1722 - 17 Sep 1727  Hendrik Temminck                   (b. c.1680 - d. 1727)
17 Sep 1727 -  9 Nov 1728  Johannes Bley (acting)
 9 Nov 1728 - 26 Jan 1734  Karel Emilius Henry de Cheusses    (b. 1702 - d. 1734)
26 Jan 1734 - 11 Dec 1734  Johan François Cornelis de Vries   (d. 1735)
                             (1st time) (acting)
11 Dec 1734 - 26 Jan 1735  Jacob Alexander Henry de Cheusses  (b. 1704 - d. 1735)
26 Jan 1735 -  4 Mar 1735  Johan François Cornelis de Vries   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 4 Mar 1735 - 22 Dec 1735  Councils of the Court of Police
                           and Criminal Justice
(acting)
22 Dec 1735 - 11 Aug 1737  Johan Raije van Brenelerwaard      (b. 1699 - d. 1737)
11 Aug 1737 - 15 Oct 1742  Gerard van de Schepper             (d. 1742)
                            
(acting to 1738)
15 Oct 1742 - 23 Apr 1751  Johan Jacob Mauricius              (b. 1692 - d. 1768)
23 Apr 1751 -  7 Sep 1752  Hendrik Ernst baron van Spörcke    (d. 1752)
                             (acting)
 7 Sep 1752 - 22 Oct 1754  Wigbold Crommelin (1st time)       (b. 1712 - d. 1789)
                             (acting)
22 Oct 1754 - 24 Aug 1756  Pieter Albert van der Meer         (d. 1756)
24 Aug 1756 - 21 Jan 1757  Jan Nepveu (1st time) (acting)     (b. 1719 - d. 1779)
21 Jan 1757 - 22 Nov 1768  Wigbold Crommelin (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting to 20 Sep 1757)
22 Nov 1768 - 27 Feb 1779  Jan Nepveu (2nd time)              (s.a.)
                             (acting to 8 Mar 1770)
27 Feb 1779 - 23 Sep 1783  Bernard Texier                     (b. 1725 - d. 1783)
23 Sep 1783 - 24 Dec 1784  Wolphert Jacob Beeldsnijder        (b. 1742 - d. 1793)
                             Matroos (acting)
24 Dec 1784 - 15 Jun 1790  Jan Gerhard Wichers                (b. 1745 - d. 1808)
15 Jun 1790 -  4 Dec 1802  Juriaan François de Frederici      (b. 1751 - d. 1812)
                             (acting to 24 Aug 1792)
 4 Dec 1802 -  9 Dec 1803  Willem Otto Blois van Treslong     (b. 1765 - d. 1837)
                             (acting)
 9 Dec 1803 -  9 May 1804  Pierre Berranger -Commissioner-general
 9 May 1804 - 15 Apr 1805  Sir Charles Green                  (b. 1749 - d. 1831)
15 Apr 1805 - 27 Sep 1808  William Carlyon                    (b. 1752 - d. 1808)
                             Hughes -Lieutenant governor
27 Sep 1808 -  4 May 1809  Sir John Wardlaw (acting)          (b. 1775 - d. 1848)       
 4 May 1809 -  8 Nov 1811  Charles Bentinck,                  (b. 1764 - d. 1811)
                             Earl of Bentinck -Chief commissioner
 8 Nov 1811 - 27 Feb 1816  Pinson Bonham (acting)             (b. 1762 - d. 1855)
27 Feb 1816 - 18 Jul 1816  Willem Benjamin van Panhuijs       (b. 1764 - d. 1816)
18 Jul 1816 -  1 Apr 1822  Cornelis Reinhard Vaillant (acting)(b. 1781 - d. 1849)
 1 Apr 1822 - 12 Oct 1827  Abraham de Veer                    (b. 1767 - d. 1838)
12 Oct 1827 - 20 May 1828  Johannes Graaf van den             (b. 1780 - d. 1844)
                             Bosch -Commissioner-general
20 May 1828 - 19 Dec 1831  Paulus Roeloff Cantz'laar          (b. 1771 - d. 1831)
19 Dec 1831 -  5 Jun 1838  Evert Ludolph baron van Heeckeren  (b. 1784 - d. 1838) 
                             (acting to 6 May 1832)
 5 Jun 1838 - 16 Jul 1839  Philippus de Kanter (1st time)     (b. 1804 - d. 1852)
                             (acting)
16 Jul 1839 - 31 Mar 1842  Julius Constantijn Rijk            (b. 1787 - d. 1854)
31 Mar 1842 - 15 Nov 1842  Philippus de Kanter (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
15 Nov 1842 - 16 Jul 1845  Burchard Jean Elias                (b. 1799 - d. 1871)
16 Jul 1845 - 13 Oct 1845  Philippus de Kanter (3rd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
13 Oct 1845 -  1 Mar 1852  Reinier Frederik baron van Raders  (b. 1794 - d. 1868)
 1 Mar 1852 - 14 Jun 1852  Philippus de Kanter (4th time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
14 Jun 1852 - 22 Jun 1852  Coenraad Barends (acting)
22 Jun 1852 - 25 Aug 1855  Johann George Otto Stuart von      (b. 1806 - d. 1857) 
                             Schmidt auf Altenstadt
25 Aug 1855 - 11 Aug 1859  Charles Pierre Schimpf             (b. 1813 - d. 1886)
11 Aug 1859 - 29 Jun 1867  Reinhart Frans van Lansberge       (b. 1804 - d. 1873)
29 Jun 1867 -  1 Aug 1873  Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga   (b. 1822 - d. 1896)
 1 Aug 1873 -  1 Nov 1882  Cornelis Ascanius van Sypesteyn    (b. 1823 - d. 1892)
 1 Nov 1882 - 30 Jul 1885  Johannes Herbert August Willem     (b. 1829 - d. 1893)
                             baron van Heerdt tot Eversberg
30 Jul 1885 - 18 Jul 1888  Hendrik Jan Smidt                  (b. 1831 - d. 1917)
18 Jul 1888 - 30 Jan 1889  Warmolt Tonckens (1st time)(acting)(b. 1848 - d. 1922)
30 Jan 1889 - 27 Jun 1891  Maurits Adriaan de Savornin Lohman (b. 1832 - d. 1899)
27 Jun 1891 - 12 May 1896  Titus Anthony Jacob van Asch       (b. 1849 - d. 1902)
                             van Wijck
12 May 1896 -  4 Oct 1902  Warmolt Tonckens (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 4 Oct 1902 - 12 Sep 1905  Cornelis Lely                      (b. 1854 - d. 1929)
12 Sep 1905 - 18 Nov 1905  David Hendrick Havelaar (acting)   (b. 1852 - d. 1918)
18 Nov 1905 - 28 Feb 1908  Alexander Willem Frederik Idenburg (b. 1861 - d. 1935)
28 Feb 1908 - 10 Aug 1908  Pieter Hofstede Crull (1st time)   (b. 1862 - d. 1925) 
                             (acting)
10 Aug 1908 - 30 Jun 1911  Dirk Fock                          (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
30 Jun 1911 - 14 Jul 1911  Louis Marie Rollin Couquerque      (b. 1869 - d. 1960)
14 Jul 1911 - 17 Oct 1911  Pieter Hofstede Crull (2nd time)   (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
17 Oct 1911 - 25 Nov 1916  Willem Dirk Hendrik baron van      (b. 1858 - d. 1935)
                             Asbeck
25 Nov 1916 - 25 Nov 1919  Gerard Johan Staal (1st time)      (b. 1870 - d. 1936)
25 Nov 1919 - 15 Jul 1920  Lambertus Johannes Rietberg        (b. 1870 - d. 1924)
                             (1st time)
15 Jul 1920 - 16 Dec 1920  Gerard Johan Staal (2nd time)      (s.a.)
16 Dec 1920 - 23 May 1921  Lambertus Johannes Rietberg        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
23 May 1921 - 21 May 1924  Aarnoud Jan Anne Aleid baron van   (b. 1871 - d. 1957)
                             Reemstra (1st time)
21 May 1924 - 18 Sep 1924  Lambertus Johannes Rietberg        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
18 Sep 1924 - 21 Feb 1925  Jan Luchies Nysingh                (b. 1877 - d. 1945)
21 Feb 1925 -  1 Apr 1928  Aarnoud Jan Anne Aleid baron van   (s.a.) 
                             Reemstra (2nd time)
 1 Apr 1928 - 16 Aug 1933  Abraham "Bram" Arnold Lodewijk     (b. 1884 - d. 1966)
                             Rutgers 
16 Aug 1933 -  3 Jan 1944  Johannes Coenraad Kielstra         (b. 1878 - d. 1951)
16 Aug 1935 - 12 Apr 1936  Johannes Cornelis Brons            (b. 1884 - d. 1964)
                             (1st time)(acting for Kielstra)
Sep 1938 - Jan 1939        Johannes Cornelis Brons            (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting for Kielstra) 
 3 Jan 1944 -  2 Aug 1948  Johannes Cornelis Brons (3rd time) (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1948 -  2 Dec 1949  Willem Huender                     (b. 1900 - d. 1963)
 2 Dec 1949 - 11 Feb 1956  Jan Klaasesz                       (b. 1907 - d. 1997)
11 Feb 1956 - 18 Mar 1963  Jan van Tilburg                    (b. 1900 - d. 1977)
19 Mar 1963 - 22 Aug 1964  Archibald Currie                   (b. 1889 - d. 1986)
                             (acting to 1 May 1963)
22 Aug 1964 - 26 Feb 1965  François Haverschmidt (acting)     (b. 1906 - d. 1987)
26 Feb 1965 - 12 Aug 1968  Henri Lucien de Vries              (b. 1909 - d. 1987)
12 Aug 1968 - 25 Nov 1975  Johan Henri Eliza Ferrier          (b. 1910 - d. 2010)
Presidents
25 Nov 1975 - 13 Aug 1980  Johan Henri Eliza Ferrier          (s.a.)               Non-party
13 Aug 1980 - 15 Aug 1980  Désiré "Dési" Delano Bouterse      (s.a.)               Mil 
                             (National Army Commander)(1st time)
15 Aug 1980 -  4 Feb 1982  Hendrick Rudolf Chin A Sen         (b. 1934 - d. 1999)  PNR
 4 Feb 1982 -  8 Feb 1982  Désiré "Dési" Delano Bouterse      (s.a.)               Mil
                             (National Army Commander)(2nd time)
 8 Feb 1982 - 25 Jan 1988  Lachmipersad Frederick Ramdat      (b. 1926 - d. 2004)  Non-party
                             Misier (acting)
25 Jan 1988 - 24 Dec 1990  Ramsewak Shankar                   (b. 1937)            VHP
24 Dec 1990 - 30 Dec 1990  Ivan Frank Graanoogst                                   Mil
                             (National Army Commander) 
30 Dec 1990 - 16 Sep 1991  Johannes Samuel Petrus Kraag       (b. 1913 - d. 1996)  NPS + FDO
16 Sep 1991 - 14 Sep 1996  Runaldo Ronald Venetiaan (1st time)(b. 1936)            NPS + NF
14 Sep 1996 - 12 Aug 2000  Jules Albert Wijdenbosch           (b. 1941)            NDP 
12 Aug 2000 - 12 Aug 2010  Runaldo Ronald Venetiaan (2nd time)(s.a.)               NPS + NF
12 Aug 2010 -              
Désiré "Dési" Delano Bouterse      (s.a.)               NDP + MC
                             (3rd time)


Chairman of the College of Assistance

 
5 Apr 1948 - 25 Jun 1948  Arthur John May                    (b. 1903 - d. 1979)  Non-party
Chairmen of the College of General Management (from 20 Jan 1950, Government Council)
25 Jun 1948 -  3 Jun 1949  Arthur John May                    (s.a.)               Non-party
 3
Jun 1949 -  2 Apr 1951  Julius Caesar de Miranda           (b. 1906 - d. 1956)  PSV
Prime ministers
 5 Apr 1951 -  4 Jun 1951  Jacques Adam Drielsma              (b. 1886 - d. 1976)  Non-party

 4 Jun 1951 -  6 Sep 1952  Johannes Ate Eildert Buiskool      (b. 1899 - d. 1960)  Non-party
 6 Sep 1952 -  4 Dec 1952  Adriaan Cornelis Jasper Marius     (b. 1887 - d. 1952)  Non-party
                             Alberga 
 4 Dec 1952 - 16 Apr 1955  Archibald Currie                   (s.a.)               NPS
                             (acting to 20 Aug 1954)
16 Apr 1955 - 16 Jul 1958  Johan Henri Eliza Ferrier          (s.a.)               NPS
16 Jul 1958 - Jun 1963     Severinus Désiré Emanuels          (b. 1910 - d. 1981)  NPS
Jun 1963 -  5 Mar 1969     Johan Adolf Pengel                 (b. 1916 - d. 1970)  NPS
 5 Mar 1969 - 20 Nov 1969  Arthur John May (acting)           (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Nov 1969 - 24 Dec 1973  Jules Sedney                       (b. 1922)            PNP
24 Dec 1973 - 25 Feb 1980  Henck Alphonsus Eugène Arron       (b. 1936 - d. 2000)  NPS + NPK
25 Feb 1980 - 15 Mar 1980  Vacant
15 Mar 1980 -  4 Feb 1982  Hendrick Rudolf Chin A Sen         (s.a.)               Non-party

 
4 Feb 1982 - 31 Mar 1982  Vacant
31 Mar 1982 -  9 Dec 1982  Henry Roëll Neijhorst              (b. 1940)            Non-party 

 9 Dec 1982 - 26 Feb 1983  Vacant
26 Feb 1983 -  8 Jan 1984  Liakat Ali Errol Alibux            (b. 1948)            PALU
 
8 Jan 1984 -  3 Feb 1984  Vacant
 3 Feb 1984 - 17 Jul 1986  Willem "Wim" Alfred Udenhout       (b. 1937)            Non-party

17 Jul 1986 -  7 Apr 1987  Pretaapnarian Shawh Radhecheran    (b. 1935 - d. 2001)  VHP
                             Radhakishun 
 7 Apr 1987 - 26 Jan 1988  Jules Albert Wijdenbosch           (s.a.)               NDP
Vice Presidents (chairing the Council of Ministers ex officio)
26 Jan 1988 - 24 Dec 1990  Henck Alphonsus Eugène Arron       (s.a.)               NPS + FDO
 7 Jan 1991 - 16 Sep 1991  Jules Albert Wijdenbosch           (s.a.)               NDP
16 Sep 1991 - 15 Sep 1996  Jules Rattankoemar Adjodhia        (b. 1945)            VHP + NF
                             (1st time)
15 Sep 1996 - 12 Aug 2000  Pretaapnarian Shawh Radhecheran    (s.a.)               BVD
                             Radhakishun 
12 Aug 2000 - 12 Aug 2005  Jules Rattankoemar Ajodhia         (s.a.)               VHP + NF
                             (2nd time)
12 Aug 2005 - 12 Aug 2010  Ramdien "Ram" Sardjoe              (b. 1935)            VHP + NF
12 Aug 2010 - 12 Aug 2015  Robert Leo Ameerali                (b. 1961)            ABOP + MC
12 Aug 2015 -              Ashwin Adhin                       (b. 1980)            NDP


Commander of U.S. Surinam Base Force (1st Battalion Force "A")
25 Nov 1941 - 1943         Parley Doney Parkinson             (b. 1892 - d. 1958)
Commanding officer of U.S. Army Forces in Surinam
1943 - Jun 1943            Paul L. Singer 

Territorial Disputes: Area claimed by French Guiana between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); Suriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Guyana seeks United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea arbitration to resolve the longstanding dispute with Suriname over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially oil-rich waters.

Party abbreviations (political parties banned 1985-1987): ABOP = Algemene Bevrijdings- en Ontwikkelingspartij (General Liberation and Development Party, est.1986); BEP = Broederschap en Eenheid in de Politiek (Brotherhood and Unity in Politics, mostly Maroon, est.1973); BVD = Basispartij voor Vernieuwing en Democratie (Basic Party for Renewal and Democracy, mainly East Indian, split from VHP, est.1996); MC = Megacombinatie (Mega Combination, NDP coalition incl. PALU, BVD to 2009, KTPI and Nieuw Suriname, est.2008); NDP = Nationale Democratische Partij (National Democratic Party, left-wing, formerly authoritarian, est.1987); NF = Nieuwe Front (New Front, anti-NDP coalition of NPS, VHP, Suriname Labor Party, former FDO, est.1990); NPS = Nationale Partij Suriname (National Party of Suriname, Creole, est.1946); PALU = Progressieve Arbeiders- en Landbouwers Unie (Progressive Workers' and Farm Laborers' Union, socialist, est.1977); PSV = Progressieve Surinaamse Volkspartij (Surinamese Progressive People's Party, christian democratic, mainly Creole, est.1946); VHP = Vooruitstrevende Hervormingspartij (Progressive Reform Party, multi-ethnic, originally East Indian to 2011, 1949-1966 named Verenigde Hindoestaanse Partij [United Hindustani Party], est.1949); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: FDO = Front voor Democratie en Ontwikkeling (Front for Democracy and Development, democratic coalition of NPS, VHP and KTPI, 1987-1990, renamed NF); NC = National Coalition (PNP and NPS, 1973-1977); NPK = Nationale Partij Kombinatie (National Party Combination, pro-independence coalition of NPS, PNR, PSV and Kaum Tani Persatuan Indonesia [KTPI], 1973-1980); PNP = Progressieve Nationale Partij (Progressive National Party); PNR = Partij Nationalistische Republiek (Nationalist Republic Party, Creole, 1959-1961 named Nationalistische Beweging Suriname [Nationalist Movement Suriname], 1961-1987)







© Ben Cahoon