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Suriname
 
[National
                                    flag of the Netherlands]
            27 Feb 1667 - 15 Dec 1959
 
[1959-1975 Flag of Suriname]
            15 Dec 1959 - 25 Nov 1975
 
Suriname
                                    flag
               Adopted 25 Nov 1975
 
Map of Suriname
Hear National Anthem
"God zij met ons Suriname!"
 (God Be With Our Suriname)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 7 Dec 1954
Constitution
(30 Sep 1987)
Capital: Paramaribo
Currency: Surinamese
Guilder (SRG) 
National Holiday: 25 Nov  (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 566,846 (2013)
GDP: $7.12 billion (2013)
Exports: $2.51 billion (2012)
Imports: $1.77 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Indo-Pakistani ("East Indians" ancestors from
 northern India
) 27.4%, Suriname Creole ("Afro-Surinamese" mixed white and black) 17.7%, Javanese (Indonesian) 14.6%, Maroons (descendants of runaway slaves living in the interior) 14.7%, Amerindian 1.5%, other/unknown 15.7% (2004)
Total Active Armed Forces: 1,840 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Christian 40.7% (mostly Roman Catholic and Moravian),
 Hindu 19.9%, Muslim 13.5%, non-religious 4.4%, traditional beliefs 3.3%, other 2.5%, unknown 15.7% (2004)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ACS, ACTO, AOSIS, APM, BTWC, Caricom, CDB (signatory), CELAC, CTBT, CWC, DLU (associate), ESCR, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISA, ISESCO, ISO (corespondent), ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, LAP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Suriname
Chronology

1593 - 1629                Spanish colony (Provincia de Guayana).
1650                       English settlement at Willoughby (modern-day 
                             Paramaribo).
27 Feb 1667                Dutch colony (Dutch Guiana); ceded to Dutch by
                             England by the Treaty of Breda 31 Jul 1667.
 7 Oct 1667 - 28 Apr 1668  English occupation.
20 Aug 1799 -  4 Dec 1802  British occupation.
 4 Dec 1802                Restored to the Netherlands.
 9 May 1804 - 27 Feb 1816  British occupation.
27 Feb 1816                Restored to the Netherlands (Dutch Guiana).
1828 - 27 Jan 1848         Bonaire, Aruba, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, 
                             Sint Maarten and Dutch Guiana united as 
                             the Dutch West Indies; with the governor
                             of Dutch Guiana as the governor-general.
25 Nov 1941 - Aug 1945     U.S. forces garrison Surinam, Dutch rule continues.
20 Sep 1948                Renamed Suriname.
15 Dec 1954                Autonomous part of The Netherlands, end of
                             colonial status.
25 Nov 1975                Independence (Republic of Suriname [also spelled
                             Surinam until 23 Jan 1978]).

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Chairman of the National Military Council (de facto leader)
25 Feb 1980 - 25 Jan 1988  Désiré "Dési" Delano Bouterse      (b. 1945)             Mil

Governor Spanish Guayana
1593 - 1629                Domingo de Vera e Ibargoyen        (b. c.1550 - d. 1629)
Governors of Willoughby

1650 - 1654                Anthony Rowse (Rous)
1654 - 27 Feb 1667         William Byam                       (b. 1623 - d. 1670)
Governors of Dutch Guiana (of the Dutch West India Company)
27 Feb 1667 -  7 Oct 1667  Mauritz de Rama
 7 Oct 1667 -  3 Nov 1667  John Harman                        (d. 1673)
 3 Nov 1667 -  1 Feb 1668  Samuel Barry                       (d. c.1698)
1688                       James Bannister                    (b. 1624 - d. 1674)
28 Apr 1668 - 1669        
Abraham Crijnssen (acting)         (d. 1669)
1669 - 1671                Philip Julius Lichtenbergh         (b. 1637 - d. 1678)
1671 - 22 Mar 1677         Pieter Versterre (acting)          (d. 1677)
1677                       Abel Thisso (1st time)(acting)
1677 - 1678                Tobias Adriaenssen 
1678 - Dec 1678            Abel Thisso (2nd time)(acting)
Dec 1678 - Apr 1680        Johannes Heinsius                  (b. c.1625 - d. 1680)
1680                       Everhard van Hemert (acting)
1680 - 1683                Laurens Verboom (acting)           (b. 1654 - d. 1688)
1683 - 19 Jul 1688         Cornelis van Aerssen van           (b. 1637 - d. 1688)
                             Sommelsdijck
1688 - 1689                Abraham van Vredenburg (acting)
1689 - 1696                Johan van Scharphuizen             (d. 1699)
14 May 1696 -  2 Mar 1707  Paulus van der Veen                (b. c.1660 - d. 1733)
 2 Mar 1707 - 27 Sep 1707  Wilhelm de Gruijter (Gruyter)      (b. 16.. - d. 1707)
27 Sep 1707 - 19 Jan 1710  François Anthony de Raineval       (b. 16.. - d. 1726)    
                             (Rayneval)(1st time) (acting)
19 Jan 1710 - 28 Jul 1715  Johan de Goijer                    (b. 16.. - d. 1715)
28 Jul 1715 - 22 Jan 1716  François Anthony de Raineval       (s.a.)      
                             (2nd time) (acting)
22 Jan 1716 -  4 Oct 1717  Johan de Mahony                    (b. 16.. - d. 1717)
 4 Oct 1717 -  2 Mar 1718  François Anthony de Raineval       (s.a.)      
                             (3rd time) (acting)
 2 Mar 1718 -  4 Sep 1721  Johan Coutier                      (b. 16.. - d. 1721)
 4 Sep 1721 -  1 Mar 1722  François Anthony de Raineval       (s.a.)      
                             (4th time) (acting)
Governors-general (1828-1848 also governor-general of the Dutch West Indies)
 1 Mar 1722 - 17 Sep 1727  Hendrik Temminck                   (b. c.1680 - d. 1727)
17 Sep 1727 -  9 Nov 1728  Johannes Bley (acting)
 9 Nov 1728 - 26 Jan 1734  Karel Emilius Henry de Cheusses    (b. 1702 - d. 1734)
26 Jan 1734 - 11 Dec 1734  Johan François Cornelis de Vries   (d. 1735)
                             (1st time) (acting)
11 Dec 1734 - 26 Jan 1735  Jacob Alexander Henry de Cheusses  (b. 1704 - d. 1735)
26 Jan 1735 -  4 Mar 1735  Johan François Cornelis de Vries   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 4 Mar 1735 - 22 Dec 1735  Councils of the Court of Police
                           and Criminal Justice
(acting)
22 Dec 1735 - 11 Aug 1737  Johan Raije van Brenelerwaard      (b. 1699 - d. 1737)
11 Aug 1737 - 15 Oct 1742  Gerard van de Schepper             (d. 1742)
                            
(acting to 1738)
15 Oct 1742 - 23 Apr 1751  Johan Jacob Mauricius              (b. 1692 - d. 1768)
23 Apr 1751 -  7 Sep 1752  Hendrik Ernst baron van Spörcke    (d. 1752)
                             (acting)
 7 Sep 1752 - 22 Oct 1754  Wigbold Crommelin (1st time)       (b. 1712 - d. 1789)
                             (acting)
22 Oct 1754 - 24 Aug 1756  Pieter Albert van der Meer         (d. 1756)
24 Aug 1756 - 21 Jan 1757  Jan Nepveu (1st time) (acting)     (b. 1719 - d. 1779)
21 Jan 1757 - 22 Nov 1768  Wigbold Crommelin (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting to 20 Sep 1757)
22 Nov 1768 - 27 Feb 1779  Jan Nepveu (2nd time)              (s.a.)
                             (acting to 8 Mar 1770)
27 Feb 1779 - 23 Sep 1783  Bernard Texier                     (b. 1725 - d. 1783)
23 Sep 1783 - 24 Dec 1784  Wolphert Jacob Beeldsnijder        (b. 1742 - d. 1793)
                             Matroos (acting)
24 Dec 1784 - 15 Jun 1790  Jan Gerhard Wichers                (b. 1745 - d. 1808)
15 Jun 1790 -  4 Dec 1802  Juriaan François de Frederici      (b. 1751 - d. 1812)
                             (acting to 24 Aug 1792)
 4 Dec 1802 -  9 Dec 1803  Willem Otto Blois van Treslong     (b. 1765 - d. 1837)
                             (acting)
 9 Dec 1803 -  9 May 1804  Pierre Berranger -Commissioner-general
 9 May 1804 - 15 Apr 1805  Sir Charles Green                  (b. 1749 - d. 1831)
15 Apr 1805 - 27 Sep 1808  William Carlyon                    (b. 1752 - d. 1808)
                             Hughes -Lieutenant governor
27 Sep 1808 -  4 May 1809  Sir John Wardlaw (acting)          (b. 1775 - d. 1848)       
 4 May 1809 -  8 Nov 1811  Charles Bentinck,                  (b. 1764 - d. 1811)
                             Earl of Bentinck -Chief commissioner
 8 Nov 1811 - 27 Feb 1816  Pinson Bonham (acting)             (b. 1762 - d. 1855)
27 Feb 1816 - 18 Jul 1816  Willem Benjamin van Panhuijs       (b. 1764 - d. 1816)
18 Jul 1816 -  1 Apr 1822  Cornelis Reinhard Vaillant (acting)(b. 1781 - d. 1849)
 1 Apr 1822 - 12 Oct 1827  Abraham de Veer                    (b. 1767 - d. 1838)
12 Oct 1827 -  1 Aug 1828  Johannes Graaf van den             (b. 1780 - d. 1844)
                             Bosch -Commissioner-general
 1 Aug 1828 - 19 Dec 1831  Paulus Roelof Cantz'laar           (b. 1771 - d. 1831)
19 Dec 1831 -  5 Jun 1838  Evert Ludolph baron van Heeckeren  (b. 1784 - d. 1838) 
                             (acting to 6 May 1832)
 5 Jun 1838 - 16 Jul 1839  Philippus de Kanter (1st time)     (b. 1804 - d. 1852)
                             (acting)
16 Jul 1839 - 31 Mar 1842  Julius Constantijn Rijk            (b. 1787 - d. 1854)
31 Mar 1842 - 15 Nov 1842  Philippus de Kanter (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
15 Nov 1842 - 16 Jul 1845  Burchard Jean Elias                (b. 1799 - d. 1871)
16 Jul 1845 - 13 Oct 1845  Philippus de Kanter (3rd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
13 Oct 1845 -  1 Mar 1852  Reinier Frederik baron van Raders  (b. 1794 - d. 1868)
 1 Mar 1852 - 14 Jun 1852  Philippus de Kanter (4th time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
14 Jun 1852 - 22 Jun 1852  Coenraad Barends (acting)
22 Jun 1852 - 25 Aug 1855  Johann George Otto Stuart von      (b. 1806 - d. 1857) 
                             Schmidt auf Altenstadt
25 Aug 1855 - 11 Aug 1859  Charles Pierre Schimpf             (b. 1813 - d. 1886)
11 Aug 1859 - 29 Jun 1867  Reinhart Frans van Lansberge       (b. 1804 - d. 1873)
29 Jun 1867 -  1 Aug 1873  Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga   (b. 1822 - d. 1896)
 1 Aug 1873 -  1 Nov 1882  Cornelis Ascanius van Sypesteyn    (b. 1823 - d. 1892)
 1 Nov 1882 - 30 Jul 1885  Johannes Herbert August Willem     (b. 1829 - d. 1893)
                             baron van Heerdt tot Eversberg
30 Jul 1885 - 18 Jul 1888  Hendrik Jan Smidt                  (b. 1831 - d. 1917)
18 Jul 1888 - 30 Jan 1889  Warmolt Tonckens (1st time)(acting)(b. 1848 - d. 1922)
30 Jan 1889 - 27 Jun 1891  Maurits Adriaan de Savornin Lohman (b. 1832 - d. 1899)
27 Jun 1891 - 12 May 1896  Titus Anthony Jacob van Asch       (b. 1849 - d. 1902)
                             van Wijck
12 May 1896 -  4 Oct 1902  Warmolt Tonckens (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 4 Oct 1902 - 12 Sep 1905  Cornelis Lely                      (b. 1854 - d. 1929)
12 Sep 1905 - 18 Nov 1905  David Hendrick Havelaar (acting)   (b. 1852 - d. 1918)
18 Nov 1905 - 28 Feb 1908  Alexander Willem Frederik Idenburg (b. 1861 - d. 1935)
28 Feb 1908 - 10 Aug 1908  Pieter Hofstede Crull (1st time)   (b. 1862 - d. 1925) 
                             (acting)
10 Aug 1908 - 30 Jun 1911  Dirk Fock                          (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
30 Jun 1911 - 14 Jul 1911  Louis Marie Rollin Couquerque      (b. 1869 - d. 1960)
14 Jul 1911 - 17 Oct 1911  Pieter Hofstede Crull (2nd time)   (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
17 Oct 1911 - 25 Nov 1916  Willem Dirk Hendrik baron van      (b. 1858 - d. 1935)
                             Asbeck
25 Nov 1916 - 25 Nov 1919  Gerard Johan Staal (1st time)      (b. 1870 - d. 1936)
25 Nov 1919 - 15 Jul 1920  Lambertus Johannes Rietberg        (b. 1870 - d. 1924)
                             (1st time)
15 Jul 1920 - 16 Dec 1920  Gerard Johan Staal (2nd time)      (s.a.)
16 Dec 1920 - 23 May 1921  Lambertus Johannes Rietberg        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
23 May 1921 - 21 May 1924  Aarnoud Jan Anne Aleid baron van   (b. 1871 - d. 1957)
                             Reemstra (1st time)
21 May 1924 - 18 Sep 1924  Lambertus Johannes Rietberg        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
18 Sep 1924 - 21 Feb 1925  Jan Luchies Nysingh                (b. 1877 - d. 1945)
21 Feb 1925 -  1 Apr 1928  Aarnoud Jan Anne Aleid baron van   (s.a.) 
                             Reemstra (2nd time)
 1 Apr 1928 - 16 Aug 1933  Abraham "Bram" Arnold Lodewijk     (b. 1884 - d. 1966)
                             Rutgers 
16 Aug 1933 -  3 Jan 1944  Johannes Coenraad Kielstra         (b. 1878 - d. 1951)
16 Aug 1935 - 12 Apr 1936  Johannes Cornelis Brons            (b. 1884 - d. 1964)
                             (1st time)(acting for Kielstra)
Sep 1938 - Jan 1939        Johannes Cornelis Brons            (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting for Kielstra) 
 3 Jan 1944 -  2 Aug 1948  Johannes Cornelis Brons (3rd time) (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1948 -  2 Dec 1949  Willem Huender                     (b. 1900 - d. 1963)
 2 Dec 1949 - 11 Feb 1956  Jan Klaasesz                       (b. 1907 - d. 1997)
11 Feb 1956 - 18 Mar 1963  Jan van Tilburg                    (b. 1900 - d. 1977)
19 Mar 1963 - 22 Aug 1964  Archibald Currie                   (b. 1889 - d. 1986)
                             (acting to 1 May 1963)
22 Aug 1964 - 26 Feb 1965  François Haverschmidt (acting)     (b. 1906 - d. 1987)
26 Feb 1965 - 12 Aug 1968  Henri Lucien de Vries              (b. 1909 - d. 1987)
12 Aug 1968 - 25 Nov 1975  Johan Henri Eliza Ferrier          (b. 1910 - d. 2010)
Presidents
25 Nov 1975 - 13 Aug 1980  Johan Henri Eliza Ferrier          (s.a.)               Non-party
13 Aug 1980 - 15 Aug 1980  Désiré "Dési" Delano Bouterse      (s.a.)               Mil 
                             (National Army Commander)(1st time)
15 Aug 1980 -  4 Feb 1982  Hendrick Rudolf Chin A Sen         (b. 1934 - d. 1999)  PNR
 4 Feb 1982 -  8 Feb 1982  Désiré "Dési" Delano Bouterse      (s.a.)               Mil
                             (National Army Commander)(2nd time)
 8 Feb 1982 - 25 Jan 1988  Lachmipersad Frederick Ramdat      (b. 1926 - d. 2004)  Non-party
                             Misier (acting)
25 Jan 1988 - 24 Dec 1990  Ramsewak Shankar                   (b. 1937)            VHP
24 Dec 1990 - 30 Dec 1990  Ivan Frank Graanoogst                                   Mil
                             (National Army Commander) 
30 Dec 1990 - 16 Sep 1991  Johannes Samuel Petrus Kraag       (b. 1913 - d. 1996)  NPS + FDO
16 Sep 1991 - 14 Sep 1996  Runaldo Ronald Venetiaan (1st time)(b. 1936)            NPS + NF
14 Sep 1996 - 12 Aug 2000  Jules Albert Wijdenbosch           (b. 1941)            NDP 
12 Aug 2000 - 12 Aug 2010  Runaldo Ronald Venetiaan (2nd time)(s.a.)               NPS + NF
12 Aug 2010 -              
Désiré "Dési" Delano Bouterse      (s.a.)               NDP + MC
                             (3rd time)


Chairmen of the College of Administration (from 25 Jun 1948, Executive General Board)
 3 Apr 1948 -  18 Jun 1949  Arthur John May                   (b. 1903 - d. 1979)  Non-party
Prime ministers
 3 Jun 1949 -  2 Apr 1951  Julius Caesar de Miranda           (b. 1906 - d. 1956)  PSV
 5 Apr 1951 -  4 Jun 1951  Jacques Adam Drielsma              (b. 1886 - d. 1976)  Non-party
 4 Jun 1951 -  6 Sep 1952  Johannes Ate Eildert Buiskool      (b. 1899 - d. 1960)  Non-party
 6 Sep 1952 -  4 Dec 1952  Adriaan Cornelis Jasper Marius     (b. 1887 - d. 1952)  Non-party
                             Alberga 
 4 Dec 1952 - 16 Apr 1955  Archibald Currie                   (s.a.)               NPS
                             (acting to 20 Aug 1954)
16 Apr 1955 - 16 Jul 1958  Johan Henri Eliza Ferrier          (s.a.)               NPS
16 Jul 1958 - Jun 1963     Severinus Désiré Emanuels          (b. 1910 - d. 1981)  NPS
Jun 1963 -  5 Mar 1969     Johan Adolf Pengel                 (b. 1916 - d. 1970)  NPS
 5 Mar 1969 - 20 Nov 1969  Arthur John May (acting)           (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Nov 1969 - 24 Dec 1973  Jules Sedney                       (b. 1922)            PNP
24 Dec 1973 - 25 Feb 1980  Henck Alphonsus Eugène Arron       (b. 1936 - d. 2000)  NPS + NPK
15 Mar 1980 -  4 Feb 1982  Hendrick Rudolf Chin A Sen         (s.a.)               Non-party
31 Mar 1982 -  9 Dec 1982  Henry Roëll Neijhorst              (b. 1940)            Non-party 
 9 Dec 1982 - 26 Feb 1983  Vacant
26 Feb 1983 -  8 Jan 1984  Liakat Ali Errol Alibux            (b. 1948)            PALU
 3 Feb 1984 - 17 Jul 1986  Willem "Wim" Alfred Udenhout       (b. 1937)            Non-party
17 Jul 1986 -  7 Apr 1987  Pretaapnarian Shawh Radhecheran    (b. 1935 - d. 2001)  VHP
                             Radhakishun 
 7 Apr 1987 - 26 Jan 1988  Jules Albert Wijdenbosch           (s.a.)               NDP
Vice Presidents (chairing the Council of Ministers ex officio)
26 Jan 1988 - 24 Dec 1990  Henck Alphonsus Eugène Arron       (s.a.)               NPS + FDO
 7 Jan 1991 - 16 Sep 1991  Jules Albert Wijdenbosch           (s.a.)               NDP
16 Sep 1991 - 15 Sep 1996  Jules Rattankoemar Adjodhia        (b. 1945)            VHP + NF
                             (1st time)
15 Sep 1996 - 12 Aug 2000  Pretaapnarian Shawh Radhecheran    (s.a.)               BVD
                             Radhakishun 
12 Aug 2000 - 12 Aug 2005  Jules Rattankoemar Ajodhia         (s.a.)               VHP + NF
                             (2nd time)
12 Aug 2005 - 12 Aug 2010  Ramdien "Ram" Sardjoe              (b. 1935)            VHP + NF
12 Aug 2010 -              Robert Leo Ameerali                (b. 1961)            ABOP + MC

Commanders of U.S. Force Surinam
25 Nov 1941 - 1942         Parley Doney Parkinson             (b. 1892 - d. 1958)
c.1943                     Paul L. Singer
1942 - 1945                .... 

Territorial Disputes: Area claimed by French Guiana between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); Suriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Guyana seeks United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea arbitration to resolve the longstanding dispute with Suriname over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially oil-rich waters.

Party abbreviations (political parties banned 1985-1987): ABOP = Algemene Bevrijdings- en Ontwikkelingspartij (General Liberation and Development Party, est.1986); BEP = Broederschap en Eenheid in de Politiek (Brotherhood and Unity in Politics, mostly Maroon, est.1973); BVD = Basispartij voor Vernieuwing en Democratie (Basic Party for Renewal and Democracy, mainly East Indian, split from VHP, est.1996); MC = Mega Combinatie (Mega Combination, NDP coalition incl. PALU, BVD to 2009, KTPI and Nieuw Suriname, est.2008); NDP = Nationale Democratische Partij (National Democratic Party, left-wing, formerly authoritarian, est.1987); NF = Nieuwe Front (New Front, anti-NDP coalition of NPS, VHP, Suriname Labor Party, former FDO, est.1990); NPS = Nationale Partij Suriname (National Party of Suriname, Creole, est.1946); PALU = Progressieve Arbeiders- en Landbouwers Unie (Progressive Workers' and Farm Laborers' Union, socialist, est.1977); PSV = Progressieve Surinaamse Volkspartij (Surinamese Progressive People's Party, christian democratic, mainly Creole, est.1946); VHP = Vooruitstrevende Hervormingspartij (Progressive Reform Party, multi-ethnic, originally East Indian to 2011, 1949-1966 named Verenigde Hindoestaanse Partij [United Hindustani Party], est.1949); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: FDO = Front voor Democratie en Ontwikkeling (Front for Democracy and Development, democratic coalition of NPS, VHP and KTPI, 1987-1990, renamed NF); NC = National Coalition (PNP and NPS, 1973-1977); NPK = Nationale Partij Kombinatie (National Party Combination, pro-independence coalition of NPS, PNR, PSV and Kaum Tani Persatuan Indonesia [KTPI], 1973-1980); PNP = Progressieve Nationale Partij (Progressive National Party); PNR = Partij Nationalistische Republiek (Nationalist Republic Party, Creole, 1959-1961 named Nationalistische Beweging Suriname [Nationalist Movement Suriname], 1961-1987)







© Ben Cahoon