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Vietnam
 
[Long
                                    Tinh (Emperors to 1863) flag
                                    1802-1878 (Vietnam)]
1802 - c.1885
 (Emperor's Flag to 1863)
 
[Vietnam (reported approx.
                                    design) c.1878-c.1890]
c.1878 - c. 1890
 (reported approx. design)
 
[1890-1920 Vietnam]
1890 - 1920
 
[Vietnam flag 1920-1945]
1920 - 1945
 
[flag of
                                    French Protectorate of Indochina
                                    c.1923-1945]
c.1923 - 9 Mar 1945 Protectorate Flag
 
[Que Ly
                                    flag 1945 (Vietnam)]
10 Mar 1945 - 22 Aug 1945 Vietnam
 
[North
                                    Vietnam 1945-1954 (Vietnam)]
29 Sep 1945 - 30 Nov 1955 North Vietnam
 
[Cochinchina 1946-1948 (South
                                    Vietnam)]
15 Jul 1946 - 2 Jun 1948 South Vietnam
 
[South Vietnam, 1948-1975
                                    (Vietnam)]
2 Jun 1948 - 30 Apr 1975 South Vietnam
 
[Vietnam]
Adopted 30 Nov 1955
(North only to 2 Jul 1976)


Map of Vietnam Hear National Anthem
"Tiên Quân Ca"
(Marching to the Front)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 2 Jul 1976
Constitution
(1 Jan 2014)
-----------------------------------
Former Constitution

(15 Apr 1992 - 1 Jan 2014)
Capital: Hanoi (Hà Nôi)
(Phong Chau 2809-258 BC;
Co Loa 257-111 BC
and 939-965 AD;
To Lich 544-602;
Hoa Lu 968-980;
La Thanh 980-1010;
Thang Long [Hanoi] 1010-1810;
Hue 1810-1945)
Currency: Dong (VND);
1978-1985 New Dong (VNN)
National Holidays: 2 Sep (1945)
Ngày Quôc Khánh
(
Independence Day)
-------------------------------------
30 Apr (1975)
Ngày Thông nhât
(
Reunification Day)

Population: 98,721,275 (2019)
GDP: $648.7 billion (2017) Exports: $214.1 billion (2017)
Imports: $202.6 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%,
Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, Hoa 1%,
other 4.3% (2009)
Total Active Armed Forces: 455,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 1,863 ships (2019)
Religions: Buddhist 7.9%, Catholic 6.6%, Hoa Hao 1.7%, Cao Dai
0.9%, Protestant 0.9%, Muslim 0.1%, none 81.8% (2009)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AIIB, APA, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, BTWC, CICA, CP, CTBT, CWC, EAS, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OIF, OPCW, OST, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Vietnam Index
Chronology
c.500 BC - 257 BC          Van Lang kingdom under Hung Voung dynasty.
257 BC - 207 BC            Au Lac kingdom.
207 BC - 111 BC            Nam Viet
196 BC - 111 BC            Vassal of China.
111 BC                     Annexed by China (part of Giao Chi [Jiaozhi]
                             province to 203 AD, then Giao Chau [Jiaozhou]).
40 AD - 43 AD              Linh Nam, brief independence under the Trung sisters
                            (Trung Trac and Trung Nhi [b. c.12 AD-d. c.43 AD]). 
544 AD - 603 AD            Van Xuan independent under the Le dynasty.
603 - 939                  Occupied by China. In 679, China establishes the
                             protectorate-general of An Nam ("Pacified South").
938                        Dai Viet ("Great Viet"). Ngo Quyen (b. 897 - d. 944)
                             defeats the kingdom of Nam Han (Southern Han),
                             traditional date of Vietnamese independence.
938 -  9 Jun 1885          Vietnam a tributary to China.
965 - 968                  Turmoil, divided into 12 feudal lordships under:
                             Ngo Xoung Xi in Binh Kieu; Do Canh Thuc
                             in Do Dong Giang; Tran Lam in Bo Hai Khau; Kieu
                             Cong Han in Phong Chau; Nguyen Khoan in Tam 
                             Dai; Nguyen Nhat Khanh in Doung Lam; Ly Khe in
                             Sieu Loai; Nguyen Thu Tiep in Tien Du; Lu Doung
                             in Te Giang; Ngueyen Sieu in Tay Phu Liet; Kieu
                             Thuan in Cam Khe; and Pham Bach Ho in Dang Chau
968                        Dai Co Viet ("Great Vast Viet").
 3 Nov 1054                Dai Viet quoc ("Great Viet Realm").
23 Mar 1400 - 17 Jun 1407  Dai Ngu quoc ("Great Ngu Realm").
17 Jun 1407                Emperor captured.
 5 Jul 1407 - 10 Dec 1427  Territory of the former empire of Dai Viet is
                             annexed to Ming imperial state (China)(Da Ming)
                             as a province by decree of the emperor of Da Ming.
 3 Nov 1407                Dai Viet quoc ("Great Viet Realm"). 
10 Dec 1427                Restoration of statehood and tributary relationship
                             by agreement with China (Da Ming).
29 Apr 1428                Dai Viet quoc ("Great Viet Realm").
12 Jul 1527 - 14 Feb 1593  The Mac dynasty usurps imperial power, while from
                             Jan/Feb 1533, the Le dynasty is revived in
                             opposition with support from the Trinh and Nguyen
                             families. The Le eventually retake the national
                             capital, from 1592 restricting the Mac to the
                             border province of Cao Bang where they remain
                             under Ming China protection until 1677.
Sep/Oct 1545-Apr/May 1787  The Trinh dynasty controls the North of the country
                             from the capital and from May/Jun 1593, the Nguyen
                             dynasty controls the country South of Gianh River
                             (Song Gianh) from Hue (to 1777). In 1620 the Nguyen
                             refuse submission to Hanoi and civil war begins in
                             1627 (both families remain nominally subordinate
                             to the imperial Le dynasty).
1776 - Jul 1802            The "Tay Son" rule first in Central part of Vietnam
                             ends Nguyen rule in 1777 and in Apr/May 1787 Trinh
                             rule. On 22 Dec 1788, a brother of the Central
                             ruler proclaims the imperial Le dynasty extinct
                             and assumes the imperial style. The two lines
                             continue to rule, each in part of the country,
                             until the junior ruler unifies the country
                             in Oct 1793 and rules until Jul 1802.
21 Nov 1783                Nguyen Anh agrees to grant a concession at Da Nag
                             and cede Con Son Island to France in exchange for
                             French military assistance against the "Tay Son"
                             by the Treaty of Versailles (not effected).
24 Mar 1804                Viet Nam quoc ("Realm of Vietnam")(name authorized
                             by China).
1832                       Vietnam annexes the remnant of ancient Champa.
27 Mar 1838                Dai Nam quoc ("Great Southern State", literally
                             "Great Realm of the South")(name not authorized
                             by China).
 1 Sep 1858                French forces occupy Da Nang (renamed Tourane).
18 Feb 1859                French forces occupy Saigon.
 5 Jun 1862                Southern region made a French colony as Cochinchina
                             (Cochinchine) by the Treaty of Saigon (confirmed
                             14 Apr 1863).
20 Nov 1873 - 15 Mar 1874  French forces occupy Hanoi and Haiphong.
15 Mar 1874                Frances recognizes the independence of Vietnam,
                             while the country becomes a French protected state
                             (by the Second Treaty of Saigon).
27 Apr 1882 - 25 Aug 1883  French forces re-occupy Hanoi. 
25 Aug 1883                Central (Annam) and Northern (Tonkin) regions
                             become French protectorates by the Treaty of Hué
                             (not ratified, but later enforced by 2nd Treaty
                             of Hué on 6 Jun 1884).
 9 Jun 1885                China renounces suzerainty over Vietnam by Treaty
                             of Tientsin with France (ratified 28 Nov 1885).
27 Jan 1886                French Protectorate of Annam-Tonkin. 
17 Oct 1887                Union of French Indochina (Indo-Chine Française)
                             formed (Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina, Cambodia and
                             from 3 Oct 1893, Laos).
16 Jun 1940 -  9 Mar 1945  Administration loyal to Vichy France.
22 Sep 1940                Japanese troops based in Northern Indochina.
24 Jul 1941                Japanese troops based in Southern Indochina.
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation.
11 Mar 1945                Emperor Bao Dai proclaims the end of the
                             French protectorate and the restoration of the
                             independence of Vietnam (in full cooperation
                             with Japan).
12 Jun 1945                Empire of Vietnam (De quoc Viet Nam).
25 Aug 1945                End of the empire; subsequently de facto 
                             division between North and South Vietnam.
 2 Sep 1945                Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam is
                             proclaimed sovereign independent state at Hanoi).
Sep 1945-Mar/Jun 1946      Allied occupation of French Indochina by China
                             above 16th parallel (depart Hanoi 26 Jun 1946),
                             and Britain below (departing 28 Mar 1946).
 6 Mar 1946                France recognizes the Democratic Republic of
                             Vietnam (north) as a free state within the
                             Federation of Indochina and French Union. 
 1 Jun 1946                Republic of Cochinchina (autonomous at Saigon).
27 Oct 1946 -  9 Dec 1955  (South) Vietnam a member of the French Union (Union
                             Française).
19 Dec 1946 -  1 Aug 1954  First Indochina (Anti-French Resistance) War.
27 May 1948                Vietnam (Saigon).
14 Jun 1949                French associated state (State of Vietnam)(Saigon).
22 Jul 1954                Division formalized by the Geneva Accords.
 5 Oct 1954                The last French troops leave Hanoi. 
26 Oct 1955                Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam)(Saigon).
 1 Nov 1955 – 30 Apr 1975  Vietnam (Second Indochina) War (Paris Peace Accords
                             27 Jan 1973 signed).
30 Apr 1975                Republic of South Vietnam (Saigon)
 2 Jul 1976                Unification of North and South Vietnam as the 
                             Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Socialist
Republic of
Vietnam
(from 1976)
Empire
(1675-1945)
Trinh and Nguyen Rulers
(1545-1788)
Tay Son Rulers
(1776-1802)

Champa
(Panduranga)

(1285-1832)
Pulo Condore
(1702-1705)
French Indochina
(1887-1956)
Tonkin-Annam
(1875-1889)
Annam
(1886-1954)
Tonkin
(1886-1953)
French Cochinchina
(1858-1953)
North Vietnam
(1945-1976)
South Vietnam
(1946-1976)
Revolutionary
Government of South Vietnam

(1969-1975)
Map of Ethnic
Groups in
Indochina
Historical Maps
of Vietnam
 

Empire
 
Capital: Hue
(Co Loa 939-967;
Hoa Lu 968-1010;
Thang Long [Hanoi]
1010-1440;
Tay Do 1400-1407;
Dai Viet: Dong Kinh [Hanoi] 1428-1789; Cao Binh 1592-1677; Phu Xuan 1786-1802)

Currency: 1740-1883
Annam Dong (VNAD)
Imperial Anthem
"Dâng Dàn Cung"
(
Rise of the Esplanade
Music) 1802-1945
(lyrics from 1922)

Note: Although the monarchy dealt with imperial China as a tributary state, and the ruler was addressed by the imperial court as "king of Dai Viet," domestically a full imperial system was established, including era names. The information listed here (there sometimes is even more available) is as follows: personal name (ten [family name] + huy [tabooed personal name]) followed by temple name (mieu hieu), posthumous style (thuy hieu), and era name(s) (nien hieu) initiated during the respective reign; some emperors are often referred to by the nien hieu (e.g., the Bao Dai emperor).


Emperors (style Hoang de)
- Ho dynasty -
23 Mar1400-Dec1400/Jan1401 Ho Quy Ly (Le Quy Ly)              (b. 1336 - d. 1407?)
                             tu hieu (courtesy name): Ly Nguyen
                            
nien hieu 1400-1401: Thanh Nguyen
Dec 1400/Jan1401-17Jun1407 Ho Han Thuong (Le Han Thuong)      (d. 1407)

                            
nien hieu
1401 - 1402: Thieu Thanh
                             nien hieu 1403 - 1407: Khai Dai
- Tran dynasty -
 1 Nov 1407 -  2 Apr 1409  Tran Ngoi                          (b. 1375 - d. 1410)

                            
thuy hieu: Gian Dinh de
                             nien hieu 1 Nov 1407 -  2 Apr 1409: Hung Khanh 
 2 Apr 1409 - 30 Mar 1414  Tran Quy Khoang                    (d. 1414)
                             nien hieu 2 Apr 1409 - 1413: Trung Quang
Nov/Dec 1426 - 26 Jan 1428 Tran Cao (Ho Ong)                  (d. 1428)

                             nien hieu 1426 - 26 Jan 1428: Thien Khanh
- Le dynasty -

29 Apr 1428 -  5 Oct 1433  Le Loi                             (b. 1385 - d. 1433)
                             mieu hieu: Thai To / thuy hieu: Thong Thien Khai Van Thanh
                               Duc Than Cong Due Van Anh Vu Khoan Minh Dung Tri Hoang Nghia
                               Chi Minh Dai Hieu Cao Hoang de
                             nien hieu 29 Apr 1428 - 9 Feb 1434: Thuan Thien
20 Oct 1433 -  7 Sep 1442  Le Nguyen Long                     (b. 1423 - d. 1442)
                             mieu hieu: Thai Tong / thuy hieu: Ke Thien The Dao Hien Duc
                               Thanh Cong Kham Minh Van Tu Anh Due Triet Chieu Hien Kien
                               Trung Van Hoang de
                             nien hieu 9 Feb 1434 - 25 Nov 1440: Thieu Binh
                             nien hieu 25 Nov 1440 - 31 Jan 1443: Dai Bao
15 Sep 1442 - 28 Oct 1459  Le Bang Co                         (b. 1441 - d. 1459)
                             mieu hieu: Nhan Tong / thuy hieu: Kham Van Nhan Hieu Tuyen
                               Minh Thong Due Tuyen Hoang de
                             nien hieu 31 Jan 1443 - 29 Jan 1454: Thai Hoa
                             nien hieu 29 Jan 1454 - 1 Nov 1459: Dien Ninh
 
1 Nov 1459 - 24 Jun 1460  Le Nghi Dan                        (b. 1439 - d. 1460)
                             thuy hieu: Le Duc Hau
                            
nien hieu 1 Nov 1459 - 25 Jun 1460: Thien Hung
26 Jun 1460 -  3 Mar 1497  Le Tu Thanh (Le Hao)               (b. 1442 - d. 1497)

 
                            mieu hieu: Thanh Tong / thuy hieu: Sung Thien Quang Van Cao
                               Minh Quang Chinh Chi Duc Dai Cong Thanh Van Than Vu Dat Hieu
                               Thuan Hoang de
                             nien hieu 25 Jun 1460 - 1 Feb 1470: Quang Thuan
                             nien hieu 1 Feb 1470 - 22 Jan 1498: Hong Duc
 9 Mar 1497 -  5 Jul 1504  Le Tranh (Le Huy)                  (b. 1461 - d. 1504)
                             mieu hieu: Hien Tong / thuy hieu: The Thien Ngung Dao Mau Duc
                               Chi Chieu Van Thieu Vu Tuyen Triet Kham Thanh Chuong Hieu
                               Due Hoang de
                             nien hieu 22 Jan 1498 - 17 Jul 1504: Canh Thong
17 Jul 1504 - 12 Jan 1505  Le Thuan                           (b. 1488 - d. 1505)
                             mieu hieu: Tuc Tong / thuy hieu: Chieu Nghia Hien Nhan On
                               Cung Uyen Mac Hieu Doan Cung Kham Hoang de
                             nien hieu 17 Jul 1504 - 12 Jan 1505: Thai Trinh
22 Jan 1505 - 10 Jan 1510  Le Tuan (Le Huyen)                 (b. 1488 - d. 1510)
                             thuy hieu 1510: Man Le Cong / thuy hieu 1517: Uy Muc de
                            
nien hieu 4 Feb 1505 - 13 Jan 1510: Doan Khanh
13 Jan 1510 -  8 May 1516  Le Oanh (Le Truu)                  (b. 1495 - d. 1516)
                             thuy hieu: Tuong Duc de
                             nien hieu 13 Jan 1510 -  8 May 1516: Hong Thuan
1510 - 1511                Tran Tuan (in rebellion)           (d. 1511)
 7 Apr 1516 - Dec 1516     Tran Cao (Tran Hao)
                             nien hieu: Thien Ung
                           (in dissidence)
 8 May 1516 - 11 May 1516  Le Quang Tri                       (b. 1509 - d. 1516)
28 May 1516 - 12 Nov 1525  Le Y (Le Hue)                      (b. 1506 - d. 1527)

                             mieu hieu: Chieu Tong / thuy hieu: Than Hoang de
                             nien hieu 28 May 1516 - 12 Nov 1525: Quang Thieu
                           (in opposition to Le Xuan from 21 Aug 1522)
Dec 1516 - Aug 1521        Tran Thang (Tran Cung)            
(d. 1521)
                             nien hieu: Tuyen Hoa
                           (in dissidence)
Sep 1518 - c.Mar 1519      Le Bang
                             nien hieu 1518: Dai Duc
                           (in dissidence)
c.Mar 1519 - Jul 1519      Le Do (Le Duu)                     (d. 1519)
                             nien hieu 1519: Thien Hien
                           (in dissidence)
21 Aug 1522 - 12 Jul 1527  Le Xuan (Le Khoang)                (b. 1507 - d. 1527)
                             thuy hieu: Cung Hoang de
                             nien hieu 21 Aug 1522 - 12 Jul 1527: Thong Nguyen
- Mac dynasty (in the north) -
12 Jul1527-Dec1529/Jan1530 Mac Dang Dong                      (b. 1483 - d. 1541)
                             mieu hieu: Thai To / thuy hieu: Nhan Minh Cao Hoang de
                             nien hieu 12 Jul 1527 - Feb 1530: Minh Duc
24/29Jan1530-22Feb/3Mar1540Mac Dang Doanh                     (b. 1500 - d. 1540)
                             mieu hieu: Thai Tong / thuy hieu: Kham triet Van Hoang de
                             nien hieu Feb 1530 - 27 Jan 1541: Dai Chinh
22Feb/3 Mar1540-5 Jun 1546 Mac Phuc Hai (Mac Duc Nguyen)      (d. 1546)
                             mieu hieu: Hien Tong / thuy hieu: Hien Hoang de
                             nien hieu 22 Jan 1541 - 22 Jan 1547: Quang Hoa
 
5 Jun 1546 - Jan/Feb 1562 Mac Phuc Nguyen                    (d. 1562)
           (or 18 Feb 1564)  mieu hieu: Tuyen Tong / thuy hieu: Anh Nghi Due Hoang de
                             nien hieu 22 Jan 1547 - 10 Feb 1548: Vinh Dinh
                             nien hieu 10 Feb 1548 - 2 Feb 1554: Canh Lih
                             nien hieu 2 Feb 1554 - Feb 1562: Quang Bao
1562 - Jan/Feb 1562         Khiem Vuong Mac Kinh Dien -Regent (d. 1580)
                              (1st time)
Jan/Feb 1562 - c.28Dec 1592 Mac Mau Hiep (Hop)                (b. 1560 - d. 1592)

(or 18 Feb 1564)             mieu hieu: Anh To / thuy hieu: An Thien Huy Dia Trang
                               Van Can Vu Binh Dinh Hue Cuong Hieu Tinh Hoang de

                             nien hieu Feb 1562 - 21 Jan 1566: Thuan Phuc
                             nien hieu 21 Jan 1566 - Aug 1578: Sung Khang
                             nien hieu Aug 1578 - 18 Feb 1586: Dien Thanh
                             nien hieu 18 Feb 1586 - 28 Jan 1588: Doan Thai
                             nien hieu 28 Jan 1588 - 25 Jan 1591: Hung Tri
                             nien hieu 25 Jan 1591 - 28 Dec 1592: Hong Ninh
Jan/Feb 1562 - 1580        Khiem Vuong Mac Kinh Dien -Regent  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
c.28 Dec 1592-14 Feb 1593  Mac Toan (Mac Tuyen)               (d. 1593)

                             mieu hieu: Canh Tong / thuy hieu: Khai Thien Xung
                               Dia An Van Doat Vu Thanh Hoang de

                             nien hieu: 28 Dec 1592 - 14 Feb 1593: Vu An
 
3 Jan 1593 - 14 Feb 1593  Mac Kinh Chi                       (d. 1593)
                             mieu hieu: Man Tong / thuy hieu: Hoai Nghi Minh
                               Huan Trinh Hoang de

                             nien hieu Jan 1593 - 1 Feb 1593: Bao Dinh
                             nien hieu 1 Feb 1593 - 14 Feb 1593: Khanh Huu
Apr 1593 - Jun 1625        Mac Kinh Cung                      (d. 1625)
                             mieu hieu: Dai Tong / thuy hieu: Khoi Thien Dinh
                               Dia Khac Van Dinh Vu Linh Hoang de

                             nien hieu Apr 1593 - 1625: Can Thong (Kien Thong)
Aug 1623 - 1638            Mac Kinh Khoan                     (d. 1638)
                             mieu hieu: Quang To / thuy hieu: Hoa Thien Phu Dia
                               Do Van Khanh Vu Hue Nguyen Hoang de

                             nien hieu Aug 1623 - 1638: Long Thai
Apr 1638 - Sep 1677        Mac Kinh Vu (Mac Kinh Hoan)
                             mieu hieu: Minh Tong / thuy hieu: Trang Thien Hue
                               Dia Canh Van Di Vu Khai Hoang de

                             nien hieu Apr 1638 - Sep 1677: Thuan Duc
1677 - 1681                Mac Kinh He (Mac Nguyen Thanh)
                             mieu hieu: Quy Tong / thuy hieu: Hoan Thien Thanh
                               Dia Doat Van Duong Vu Hue Dai vuong

                             nien hieu 1677 - 1681: Vinh Xuong
                           (in China exile)

1681 - 1683                Mac Kinh Tieu (Mac Kinh Quang)     (d. 1683)
                             mieu hieu: Duc Tong / thuy hieu: Thien Dia Dai Bao
                               Van Vu Do Dai vuong

                           (in China exile)
Emperors (style Hoang de)
- Le dynasty -
Jan/Feb 1533 - 9 Mar 1548  Le Ninh (Le Huyen)                 (b. 1515 - d. 1548)
                             mieu hieu: Trang Tong / thuy hieu: Du Hoang de
                             nien hieu Feb 1533 - 29 Jan 1549: Nguyen Hoa
1533 - 1536                Le Hien
                             nien hieu: Quang Chieu
                           (in rebellion)
 9 Mar 1548 -  5 Mar 1556  Le Huyen                           (b. 1535 - d. 1556)

                             mieu hieu: Trung Tong / thuy hieu: Vu Hoang de
                             nien hieu 29 Jan 1549 - 30 Jan 1557: Thuan Binh
af.5Mar1556 - 23 Feb 1573  Le Duy Bang                        (b. 1532 - d. 1573)
                             mieu hieu: Anh Tong / thuy hieu: Tuan Hoang de
                             nien hieu 30 Jan 1557 - 20 Jan 1558: Thien Huu
                             nien hieu 20 Jan 1558 - Feb 1572: Chinh Tri
                             nien hieu Feb 1572 - 2 Feb 1573: Hong Phuc
                            (fled capital Van Lai on 25/26 Dec 1572)
af.5Mar155
6 -  2 Dec 1569  Trinh Kiem -Regent
                 (b. 1503 - d. 1570)
19 Sep 1570 -
25/26 Dec1572 Trinh Tung -Regent                 (b. 1550 - d. 1623)
 2 Feb 1573 - 12 Oct 1599  Le Duy Dam                         (b. 1567 - d. 1599)

                             mieu hieu: The Tong / thuy hieu: Tich Thuan Cuong
                              
Chinh Dung Qua Nghi Hoang de
                             nien hieu 2 Feb 1573 - 7 Feb 1578: Gia Thai
                             nien hieu 7 Feb 1578 - 14 Feb 1600: Quang Hung
1594                       Vu Dang                            (d. 1594)
                             nien hieu: La Binh
                           (in rebellion)
1595 - May 1597            Nguyen Minh Tri

                             nien hieu: Dai Duc
                           (in rebellion)
1596 -
1597                Nguyen Duong Minh

                             nien hieu: Phuc Duc
                           (in rebellion)
15 Oct 1599 - 23 Jun 1619  Le Duy Tan                         (b. 1588 - d. 1619)
                             mieu hieu: Kinh Tong / thuy hieu: Hien Nhan Du Khanh
                               Tuy Phuc Hue Hoang de
                             nien hieu 14 Feb 1600 - 6 Dec 1600: Than Duc
                             nien hieu 6 Dec 1600 - 11 Jul 1619: Hoang Dinh
Jul/Aug 1619-Nov/Dec 1643  Le Duy Ky (1st time)               (b. 1607 - d. 1662)
                             nien hieu 11 Jul 1619 - 24 Jan 1629: Vinh To
                             nien hieu 24 Jan 1629 - 17 Jan 1635: Duc Long
                             nien hieu 17 Jan 1635 - 11 Nov 1643: Duong Hoa
Jul/Aug 1619 - 17 Jul 1623 Trinh Tung -Regent                 (b. 1550 - d. 1623)
Jul/Aug 1623 -
Nov/Dec 1643 Trinh Trang -Regent                (b. 1577 - d. 1657)
Nov/Dec 1643 - 28 Sep 1649 Le Duy Huu            
            (b. 1630 - d. 1649)
            (or 2 Oct)1649   mieu hieu: Chan Tong / thuy hieu: Thuan Hoang de
                             nien hieu 11 Nov 1643 - 4 Nov 1649: Phuc Thai
Nov/Dec 1649 - 2 Nov 1662  Le Duy Ky (2nd time)               (s.a.)
                             mieu hieu: Than Tong / thuy hieu: Uyen Hoang de
                             nien hieu 4 Nov 1649 - 28 Feb 1653: Khanh Duc
                             nien hieu 28 Feb 1653 - 4 Feb 1658: Thinh Duc
                             nien hieu 4 Feb 1658 - 18 Feb 1662: Vinh Tho
                             nien hieu 18 Feb 1662 - 10 Dec 1662: Van Khanh
Dec1662/Jan 1663-16 Nov1671 Le Duy Vu                         (b. 1654 - d. 1671)
                             mieu hieu: Huyen Tong / thuy hieu: Khoat dat Due thong Cuong
                               nghi Trung chinh On nhu Hoa Iac Kham minh Van tu Doan cung
                               Khac nhuong Muc Hoang de
                             nien hieu 8 Feb 1663 - 30 Jan 1672: Canh Tri
19 Dec 1671 - 27 Apr 1675  Le Duy Coi (Hoi)                   (b. 1661 - d. 1675)
                             mieu hieu: Gai Tong / thuy hieu: Khoan Minh Man Dat Nhan
                               Qua Huy Nhu Khac Nhan Doc Nghia My (Mi) Hoang de
                             nien hieu 30 Jan 1672 - 29 Oct 1674: Duong Duc
                             nien hieu 29 Oct 1674 - 14 Feb 1676: Duc Nguyen
 
3 Aug 1675 - Apr/May 1705 Le Duy Hiep (Hop)                  (b. 1663 - d. 1716)
                             mieu hieu: Hy Tong / thuy hieu: Thong man Anh qua Don
                               khoat Khoan du Vi do Huy cung Chuong Hoang de

                             nien hieu 14 Feb 1676 - 31 Jan 1680: Vinh Tri
                             nien hieu 31 Jan 1680 - May 1705: Chinh Hoa
Apr/May 1705 - 18 May 1729 Le Duy Duong                       (b. 1679 - d. 1731)
                             mieu hieu: Du Tong / thuy hieu: Thuan chinh Huy nhu On gian
                               Tu tuong Khoan hue Ton man Hoa Hoang de

                             nien hieu May 1705 - 8 Feb 1720: Vinh Thinh
                             nien hieu 8 Feb 1720 - 27 Apr 1729: Bao Thai
18 May 1729 -c.14 Oct 1732 Le Duy Phuong (Banh)               (b. 1709 - d. 1735)
                             mieu hieu: Due Tong / thuy hieu: Thoi Hoang De
                             nien hieu Apr 1729 - Sep 1732: Vinh Khanh
14 Oct 1732 -  5 Jun 1735  Le Duy Tuong                       (b. 1699 - d. 1735)
                             mieu hieu: Thuan Tong / thuy hieu: Khoan hoa Don man
                               Nhu ton Cẩn khac Tram tiem Than di Gian Hoang de

                             nien hieu Sep 1732 - 7 May 1735: Long Duc
17 Jun 1735 - 14 Jun 1740  Le Duy Than                        (b. 1719 - d. 1759)
                             mieu hieu: Y Tong / thuy hieu: On gia Trang tuc Khai
                               de Thong man Khoan hong Uyen due Huy Hoang de

                             nien hieu May 1735 - Jun 1740: Vinh Huu
17 Jun 1740 - 10 Aug 1786  Le Duy Dieu (Theiu)                (b. 1717 - d. 1786)
                             mieu hieu: Hien Tong / thuy hieu: Vinh Hoang de
                             nien hieu Jun 1740 - 18 Feb 1787: Canh Hung
Apr 1767 - Jan 1770        Le Duy Mat (in rebellion)          (d. 1770)

Aug 1786 - 30 Jan 1789     Le Duy Khiem (Le Duy Ky          (b. 1765 - d. 1793)
                             mieu hieu: Man Tong / thuy hieu: Man Hoang de
                             nien hieu 18 Feb 1787 - 1789/31 May 1802: Chieu Tong
                           (reputed later to have continued to 31 May 1802)
30 Jan 1789 -  1 Jun 1802  rule extinguished by Tay Son rulers
1789 - 1790                Le Duy Chi                         (d. 1790)
                             (in rebellion against Tay Son rule)
King (style Quoc vuong)
-
Nguyen Phuc dynasty -
 
1 Jun 1802 - 28 Jun 1806  Nguyen Phuc Noan (Nguyen Phuc Anh) (b. 1762 - d. 1820)
                             mieu hieu: The To
Emperors (style Hoang de)
- Nguyen Phuc dynasty -
28 Jun 1806 -  3 Feb 1820
  Nguyen Phuc Noan                   (s.a.)
                             mieu hieu: The To / thuy hieu: Khai thien Hoang dao Lap
                               ky Thuy thong Than van Thanh vo Tuan duc Long cong Chi
                               nhan Dai hieu Cao Hoang de

                             nien hieu 31 May 1802 - 13 Feb 1820: Gia Long
14 Feb 1820 - 20 Jan 1841  Nguyen Phuc Hieu (Nguyen Phuc Dam) (b. 1791 - d. 1841)

                             mieu hieu: Thanh To / thuy hieu: The thien Xuong van Chi
                               hieu Thuan duc Van vu Minh doan Sang thuat Dai thanh Hau
                               trach Phong cong Nhan Hoang de

                             nien hieu 14 Feb 1820 - 10 Feb 1841: Minh Meng
11 Feb 1841 -  4 Nov 1847  Nguyen Phuc Dung                   (b. 1807 - d. 1847)
                            (Nguyen Phuc Mien Tong)
                             mieu hieu: Hien To / thuy hieu: Thieu thien Long van Chi
                               thien Thuan hieu Khoan minh Due doan Van tri Vu cong
                               Thanh triet Chuong Hoang de

                             nien hieu 11 Feb 1841 - 4 Feb 1848: Thieu Tri
10 Nov 1847 - 19 Jul 1883  Nguyen Phuc Thi                    (b. 1829 - d. 1883) 
                          
  mieu hieu: Duc Tong / thuy hieu: The (Ke) thien Hanh van
                               Chi thanh Dat hieu The kien Don nhan Khiem cung Minh
                               luoc Due van Anh Hoang de

                             nien hieu 5 Feb 1848 - 27 Jan 1884: Tu Duc
19 Jul 1883 -  2 Dec 1883  Regency Council
                           - Tran Tien Thanh (to Sep 1883)    (b. 1813 - d. 1883)
                           - Nguyen Van Tuong                 (b. 1824 - d. 1886)
                           - Ton That Thuyet                  (b. 1835 - d. 1913)
20? Jul 1883 - 23 Jul 1883 Nguyen Phuc Ung Chan               (b. 1852 - d. 1883)
                            
mieu hieu: Cung Tong / thuy hieu: Khoan nhan Due
                               triet Tinh minh Hue Hoang de

                             nien hieu 20? Jul 1883 - 23 Jul 1883: Duc Duc
30 Jul 1883 - 29 Nov 1883  Nguyen Phuc Thang                  (b. 1847 - d. 1883)
                            
(Nguyen Phuc Hong Dat)
                             thuy hieu: Trang Cung Van Lang quan vuong
                             nien hieu 30 Jul 1883 - 29 Nov 1883: Hiep Hoa
 2 Dec 1883 - 31 Jul 1884  Nguyen Phuc Hao                    (b. 1869 - d. 1884)
                            (Nguyen Phuc Ung Ho; Nguyen Phuc Ung Dang)
                            
mieu hieu: Gian Tong / thuy hieu: Thieu duc Chi hieu
                               Uyen nhue Nghi hoang de

                             nien hieu 28 Jan 1884 - 14 Feb 1885: Kien Phuc
 2 Dec 1883 -  2 Aug 1884  Regency Council
                           - Nguyen Van Tuong                 (s.a.)
                           - Ton That Thuyet                  (s.a.)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuc Huong Huu,    (b. 1835 - d. 1885)
                               Gia-huong Vuong 
 2 Aug 1884 - 23? Jul 1885 Nguyen Phuc Minh                   (b. 1871 - d. 1944)
                           
(Nguyen Phuc Ung Lich)
                             nien hieu 15 Feb 1885 - 6 Nov 1885: Ham Nghi
                            (continues in rebellion to 14 Nov 1888)
 2 Aug 1884 -  5 Jul 1885  Regency Council
                           - Nguyen Van Tuong                 (s.a.)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuc Huong Huu,    (s.a.)
                              Gia-huong Vuong 
                               (to 21 Oct 1884)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuc Mien Lam,     (b. 1832 - d. 1897)
                               Duke of Hoai Duc             
                               (from Nov 1884)
15 Jul 1885 - Jul 1885     Prince Nguyen Phuc Mien Dinh,      (b. 1810 - d. 1886)
                             Tho-Xuan Vuong -Regent 
19 Sep 1885 - 28 Jan 1889  Nguyen Phuc Bien                   (b. 1864 - d. 1889)
                           
(Nguyen Phuc Ung Duong; Nguyen Phuc Ung Thi)
                             mieu hieu: Canh Tong / thuy hieu: Tu thien Gia van Thanh minh
                               Than tri Nhan hieu Thanh kinh Di mo Thua liet Tuyen Hoang de

                             nien hieu 7 Nov 1885 - 31 Jan 1889: Dong Khanh
 1 Feb 1889 -  3 Sep 1907  Nguyen Phuc Buu Lan                (b. 1879 - d. 1954)
                             thuy hieu: Hoai Trach cong 
                            
nien hieu 1 Feb 1889 - 4 Sep 1907: Thanh Thai
 1 Feb 1889 - 27 Sep 1897  Regency Council
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuc Mien Trinh,
                               Tuy-Ly Vuong                   (b. 1820 - d. 1897)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuc Mien Lam,
                               Duke of Hoai Duc               (s.a.)
                           - Nguyen Trong Hiep                (b. 1834 - d. 1902)
                               (to 4 Sep 1896 [effectively Mar 1897])
                           - Truong Quang Dan (to Apr 1896)   (b. 1833 - d. 1914)
                           - Nguyen Than (from Apr 1896)      (b. 1840 - d. 1914)
                           - Bui An Nien (= Biu Van Di)       (b. 1833 - d. 1895)
                               (from Apr 1890)
 
                         - Hoang Cao Khai (from Jul 1897)   (b. 1850 - d. 1933)
29 Jul 1907 - 18 May 1916  Truong Nhu Cuong                   (b. 1843 - d. 1923)
                             (president of the Regency Council)
 5 Sep 1907 -  3 May 1916  Nguyen Phuc Vinh San               (b. 1900 - d. 1945)
                             (Nguyen Phuc Hoang)
                             nien hieu 5 Sep 1907 - 17 May 1916: Duy Tan
18 May 1916 -  6 Nov 1925  Nguyen Phuc Tuan                   (b. 1885 - d. 1925)
                            
(Nguyen Phuc Buu Dao)
                             mieu hieu: Hoang Tong / thuy hieu: Tu Thien Gia Van Thanh Minh
                               Thuan Tri Nhan Hieu Thanh Kinh Di Mo Thua Liet Tuyen Hoang de

                             nien hieu 18 May 1916 - 12 Feb 1926: Khai Dinh
 6 Nov 1925 - 10 Sep 1932  Ton That Han                       (b. 1854 - d. 1944)
                            (president of the Regency Council)
 8 Jan 1926 - 24 Aug 1945  Nguyen Phuc Vinh Thuy              (b. 1913 - d. 1997)
                             nien hieu 13 Feb 1926 - 30 Aug 1945: Bao Dai
                           (transfer of state authority to provisional
                            government at Hue on 30 Aug 1945)

Chief ministers of the Supreme Privy Council
1923 - 1932                Nguyen Huu Bai                     (b. 1863 - d. 1935)
11 Nov 1932 - 11 Mar 1945  Pham Quynh                         (b. 1892 - d. 1945)

Prime ministers
1
7 Apr 1945 - 23 Aug 1945  Tran Trong Kim                     (b. 1883 - d. 1953)  Non-party

Japanese Supreme Adviser

11 Mar 1945 - 25 Aug 1945  Masayuki (Seiko) Yokoyama          (b. 1892 - d. 1978)  Non-party


The Trinh and Nguyen Rulers

Note: The Trinh family ruled the North from the imperial capital at or near present-day Hanoi; the Nguyen (properly Nguyen Phuc) family ruled the South (present-day Center) from their capital at or near present-day Hue. The Trinh are assigned honorifics (tuoc hieu) with the Sino-Viet royal style vuong. The Nguyen rulers not only acquired royal honorifics during their reign, but the full royal/imperial temple name (mieu hieu) and posthumous style (thuy hieu), changing in time from Sino-Viet vuong (king) to hoang de (emperor) after the family became the imperial rulers after 1802. This record shows a limited choice of these often very long names and styles.

Capital  (Trinh): Dong Kinh (1597-1787);
(Nguyen): Phu Xuan (1687-1777) ,
(Kim Long 1636-1687, Thua Thien 1558-1636)
Population: N/A

- Trinh dynasty (in the North) -

Commander-in-chief of all forces by sea and land, Chief Administrator
of important military and state affairs, internal and external

Sep/Oct 1545 - 2 Dec 1569  Trinh Kiem                         (b. 1503 - d. 1570)
                             mieu hieu: The To / thuy hieu: Trung Huan
                             tuoc hieu: Minh khang Nhan tri Vu trinh Hung luoc thai vuong
Commanders-in-chief of the forces by sea and land
 2 Dec 1569 - 19 Sep 1570  Trinh Coi                          (d. 1584)

                             tuoc hieu: Trung Quan cong
                            
thuy hieu: Tuan Duc Hau / Dat Nghia cong
19 Sep 1570 -
Oct/Nov 1570 Trinh Tung                         (b. 1550 - d. 1623)
                             mieu hieu: Thanh To
Commander-in-chief of all forces by sea and land
Oct/Nov 1570-af.2 Feb 1573 Trinh Tung                         (s.a.)
                             mieu hieu: Thanh To
                             tuoc hieu: Cung hoa Khoan chinh Triet vuong
Commander-in-chief of all forces by sea and land, Chief Administrator 
of important military and state affairs, internal and external
af.2 Feb 1573 - 1 May 1599
  Trinh Tung                        (s.a.)
                             mieu hieu: Thanh To
Head of State Affairs
 1 May 1599
- 17 Jul 1623  Trinh Tung                         (s.a.)
                             mieu hieu: Thanh To

Commander-in-chief of all forces by sea and land, Chief Administrator
of important military and state affairs, internal and external

Jul/Aug 1623 -  1 Jan 1624 Trinh Trang                        (b. 1577 - d. 1657)
                             mieu hieu: Van To
                             tuoc hieu: Nghi vuong

Chief of State Affairs

 1 Jan 1624 - 28 May 1657  Trinh Trang                  
      (s.a.)
                             mieu hieu: Van To / thuy hieu: Long Tu
                             tuoc hieu: Nghi vuong
Manager of State Affairs (ex officio)
28 May 1657 - 24 Sep 1682  Trinh Tac                          (b. 1606 - d. 1682)
                             mieu hieu: Hoang To / thuy hieu: Thong Tien
                            
tuoc hieu: Duong vuong
Intendant of State Affairs
19 Aug 1674 - Nov/Dec 1684 Trinh Can                          (b. 1633 - d. 1709)

                             mieu hieu: Chieu To
                             tuoc hieu
:
Dinh Nam vuong
Head of State Affairs

Nov/Dec 1684 - 25 Jun 1709
Trinh Can                          (s.a.) 
                             mieu hieu: Chieu To / thuy hieu: Dung Doan
                            
tuoc hieu:
Dinh Nam vuong
Imperial Commissioner Commanding-in-chief of all forces by sea and land,
heading the government machinery
(ex officio)
25 Jun 1709 - Oct/Nov 1709 Trinh Cuong                        (b. 1686 - d. 1729)

                             mieu hieu: Hi To
                            
tuoc hieu:
Nhan vuong
Head of State Affairs
Oct/Nov 1709 - 17 Nov 1729 Trinh Cuong                        (s.a.)
          (or 16 Jan 1730)   mieu hieu: Hi To / thuy hieu: Y Luoc
                            
tuoc hieu:
Nhan vuong
Imperial Commissioner Commanding-in-chief of all forces by sea and land,
holding the government machinery
(ex officio)
17 Nov 1729 - May/Jun 1730 Trinh Giang                        (b. 1711 - d. 1762)

(or 16 Jan 1730)             mieu hieu: Du To
                            
tuoc hieu: Thuan vuong

Head of State Affairs
May/Jun 1730 - 16 Oct 1732
Trinh Giang  (1st time)            (s.a.)
                             mieu hieu: Du To
                            
tuoc hieu: Thuan vuong
Chief of State Affairs
16 Oct 1732 - Oct/Nov 1734
Trinh Giang                        (s.a.)
                             mieu hieu: Du To
                            
tuoc hieu: Thuan vuong

Heads of State Affairs
Oct/Nov 1734 -  4 Jan 1740
Trinh Giang  (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                             mieu hieu: Du To / thuy hieu: Di Muc
                            
tuoc hieu: Thuan vuong
 4 Jan 1740 - 15 Feb 1767
  Trinh Doanh                        (b. 1720 - d. 1767) 
                             mieu hieu: Nghi To
/ thuy hieu: Thieu Co
                            
tuoc hieu: Tu vuong

Imperial Commissioner Commanding-in-chief of all forces by sea and land,
managing the government machinery
(ex officio)
15 Feb 1767 - 31 May 1767  Trinh Sam                          (b. 1739 - d. 1782)

                            
tuoc hieu:
Tinh vuong
Heads of State Affairs
31 May 1767 - 19 Oct 1782  Trinh Sam                          (s.a.)
                             mieu hieu: Thanh To
                            
tuoc hieu:
Thinh vuong

19 Oct 1782 - 29 Nov 1782  Trinh Can                          (b. 1777 - d. 1782)
                             thuy hieu: Xung Man
                            
tuoc hieu: Cung
Quoc cong
29 Nov 1782
- 20 Jul 1786  Trinh Tong                         (b. 1763 - d. 1786)
                            
tuoc hieu: Linh vuong

 
3 Oct 1786
- Apr/May 1788 Trinh Bong                         (b. 1749 - d. 1791)
                            
tuoc hieu: Yen Do vuong

- Nguyen Phuc dynasty (in the South) -

Managing Chief Supervisor to the Left of the Chief Supervisor's Office for the Army
of the Middle

May/Jun 1593 - 20 Jul 1613 Nguyen Hoang                       (b. 1525 - d. 1613)
                             (Tien Chu [Chua])
                             mieu hieu: Thai To / thuy hieu: Trieu co Thuy thong Kham
                               minh Cung y Can nghia Dat li Hien ung Chieu huu Dieu linh
                               Gia du Hoang de
Commander of the forces by sea and land, Chief Administrator of important military and
state affairs, internal and external

20 Jul 1613 - 19 Nov 1635  Nguyen Phuc Nguyen                 (b. 1563 - d. 1635)

                             (Phat Chu [Chua])
                            
mieu hieu: (Hi) Hy Tong (
Tuyen To)/ thuy hieu: Hien mo Quang
                               liet On cung Minh due Duc thien Tuy du Hieu van Hoang de
Commanders-in-chief of the forces by sea and land, Chief Administrators of important military
and state affairs, internal and external
19 Nov 1635 - 19 Mar 1648  Nguyen Phuc Lan                    (b. 1601 - d. 1648)
                             (Thuong Chu [Chua])
                             mieu hieu: Than Tong / thuy hieu: Thua co Toan thong
                               Cuong minh Hung nghi Uy doan Anh vo hieu chieu Hoang de

19 Mar 1648 - 30 Apr 1687  Nguyen Phuc Tan                    (b. 1620 - d. 1687) 
                             (Hien Chu [Chua])
                             mieu hieu: Thai Tong / thuy hieu: Tuyen uy Kien vu Anh
                               minh Trang chinh Thanh duc Than cong Hieu triet Hoang de
30 Apr 1687 -  7 Feb 1691  Nguyen Phuc Tran                   (b. 1650 - d. 1691) 

                             (Nguyen Phuc Thai, Nguyen Phuc Ngan)
                             mieu hieu: Anh Tong / thuy hieu: Thieu huu Toan nghiep
                               Khoan hong Bac hau On hue Tu tuong Hieu nghia Hoang de
 7 Feb 1691 -  1 Jun 1725  Nguyen Phuc Chu                    (b. 1675 - d. 1725)

                             (Quoc Chu [Chua])
                            
mieu hieu: Hien Tong / thuy hieu: Anh mo Hung luoc Thanh
                               van Tuyen dat Khoan tu Nhan thu Hieu minh Hoang de

 1 Jun 1725 -  7 Jun 1738  Nguyen Phuc Chu                    (b. 1697 - d. 1738)

                             (Nguyen Phuc Vuong)
                             mieu hieu: Tuc Tong / thuy hieu: Tuyen quang Thiau liet
                               Tuan triet Tinh uyen Kinh van Vi Vo Hieu ninh Hoang de

 7 Jun 1738 - 23 May 1744  Nguyen Phuc Khoat                  (b. 1714 - d. 1765)
                             (Nguyen Phuc Hieu)
                             mieu hieu: The Tong
Kings (title Quoc vuong)
23 May 1744 -  7 Jul 1765  Nguyen Phuc Khoat                  (s.a.)

                             mieu hieu: The Tong / thuy hieu: Kien Cuong Uy Doan
                               than Nghi Thanh Du Nhan Tu Due Tri Hieu Vu Hoang de

31 Dec 1765 - 14 Dec 1776  Nguyen Phuc Thuan                  (b. 1754 - d. 1777)
                             (
Nguyen Phuc Han)
                             mieu hieu: Due Tong / thuy hieu: Thong minh Khoan hau
                               Anh man Hue hoa Hieu dinh Hoang de

14 Dec 1776 - 19 Sep 1777  Nguyen Phuc Duong                  (d. 1777)
                             thuy hieu: (Cung man Anh doan Huyen mac Vi van?) Muc vuong


The Tay Son period

[Tay Son
                              flag 1778-1802 (Vietnam)]
1778 - 1802

Capital: Phu Xuan
(Qui Nhon 1778-1793)
Population: N/A

Note: The rule by the "Tay Son" dynasty (family name Nguyen, changed from Ho) begins in 1776 in the Central part of the country, restricting the imperial Le line to a small area. On 22 Dec 1788, a brother of the Central ruler proclaims the Le rule extinct and assumes the imperial style. The two lines continue to rule, each in part of the country, until the junior ruler
unifies the country in 1793 and rules until Jul 1802.

Ruler (title Vuong; from 1778, Thien vuong; from Jun 1787, Trung Uong Hoang de)(in South)
1776 - Oct 1793            Nguyen Van Nhac                    (b. 1743 - d. 1793)
                           
(Ho Nhac; Nguyen Dinh Nhac)
                             thuy hieu: Minh Duc Hoang de
                            
nien hieu 1778 - Oct 1793: Thai Duc

Rulers (title Dai Viet Hoang de)
(in North only to Oct 1793)
22 Dec 1788 - 16 Sep 1792  Nguyen Hue                         (b. 1753 - d. 1792)
                            
(Ho Thom; Nguyen Quang Binh)
                             mieu hieu: Thai To / thuy hieu: Vo Hoang de
                             nien hieu 22 Dec 1788 - 11 Feb 1793: Quang Trung
16 Sep 1792 - Jul 1802     Nguyen Quang Toan (Nguyen Trat)    (b. 1783 - d. 1802)
                             nien hieu 11 Feb 1793 - Aug 1801: Canh Thinh
                             nien hieu Aug 1801 - Jul 1802: Bao Hung
16 Sep 1792 - 1795         Bui Doc Tuyen -Regent              (d. 1795)


Champa (Panduranga)

Note: Vietnamese sources on Champa dry up at the end of the 17th century. The royal chronicle of Pangdarang (Pali: Panduranga) claims that the polity of this name is the true continuation of Champa, and there is some meager evidence that that is the case, at least for the final portion of the chronicle (which claims to deal with events beginning in 1000).
 
Map of Champa
Capital: Bal Canar [Ban Canan] (1613-1832)
(Panduranga [Phan Rang]
1471-1613; Vijaya [Qui Nhon]
 982 - 1471; Indrapura [Dan Nang] 875-982; Simhapura [Tra Kieu]
 4th - 875)
Population: N/A

192 AD                     Lin Yi kingdom founded in the southern part of modern Vietnam.
877                        kingdom of Hoang Vuong became Champa Thanh.
c.986                      Cham abandon Indrapura.

1044 - 1084                Vassal of Dai Viet.
1145 - 1149                Occupied by Khmer Cambodia.
1203 - 1220                Annexed by Khmer Cambodia.
1283 - 1285                Mongol (Yuan) vassal.
21 Mar 1471                Vietnam annexes the major portions of the Champa Kingdom.
1653                       Tributary to Vietnam.
1627 - 1822               
Panduranga a vassal of Vietnam.
1692 - 1695                Occupied by Vietnam.
1822                       Kingdom extinguished by Vietnam, but retains some autonomy.
1832                      
Autonomy ended, fully incorporated into Vietnam (as Binh Thuan
                             province)
.
1834 - 1835                Ja Thak Va (d. 1835) uprising.

Kings (title Raja)
-
Champa -
1285 - 1307                Jaya Simhavarman III (Che Man)
1307 - 1312                Jaya Simhavarman IV (Che Chi)
1312 - 1318                Jaya Simhavarman V (Che Nang)
1318 - 1342                Jaya Ananda (Che A Nan)
1342 - 1360                Maha Sawa (Tra Hoa)
1360 - 1390                Jaya R'cam B'nga (Che Bong Nga)
1390 - 1400                Jaya Simhavarman VI (La Ngai)
1400 - 1441                Indravarman VI (Ba Dich Lai)
1441 - 1446                Maha Vijaya (Bai Cai)
1446 - 1449                Maha Kali (Quy Lai) 
1449 - 1458                Maha Kaya (Quy Do) 
1458 - 1460                Maha Saya (Tra Duyet)
1460 - 1471                Maha Sajan (Tra Toan)  
1471 - 1474                Maha Sajai (Tra Toai) 
- Panduranga -
1281 - 1306                Po Dobatasuar (Ba Diep)
1306 - 1328                Po Patarsuar (Ba Buc)
1328 - 1373                Po Binnasuar (Ba Binh)
1373 - 1397                Po Parican (Ba Phat)
1433 - 1460                Po Kasit (Ba Khiet)
1460 - 1494               
Po Kabrah (Ba Ke)
1494 - 1530                Po Kabih (Ba Cap)
1530 - 1536                Po Karutdrak (Ba Khu)
1536 - 1541                Maha Sarak (Tra Loc)
1541 - 1553                Po Kunarai (Ba Bai)
1553 - 1579                Po At (Ba At)
1579 - 1603                Po Klong Halau
                             (Ba Khac-luong Khat-luu)
1603 - 1613                Po Nit (Ba Nhiep)
1613 - 1618                Po Jai Paran (Ba Thai)
1618 - 1622                Po Aih Khang (Ba Ung)
1622 - 1627                Po Klong M'hnai (Maha Taha)             (d. 1627)
                             (Ba Khac-luong Nhu-lai)
1627 - 1651                Po Rome
(Ba Lam)                        (d. 1651)
1651 - 1653                Po Nraop (Ba Tham)
1654 - 1657                Po Saktiraydapaghoh (Ba Tich)
1657 - 1659                Po Jatamah
(Ba Chat)
1659 - 1692                Po Saot (Ba Tranh)                      (d. 1693)
1692 - 1695                Vacant
1695 - 1727                Po Saktiraydapatih (Ba Tu)              (d. 1727)
1727 - 1730                Po Ganuhpatih (Ba Thi)
1730 - 1732                Po Thuntiraidaputih (Nguyen Van Thuan)
1732 - 1763                Po Rattiraydaputao (Nguyen Van Dat)
1763 - 1765                Po Tisundimahrai (Nguyen Van Thiet)
1765 - 1768                Vacant
1768 - 1780                Po Tisuntiraydapaghoh
(Nguyen Van Tich)
1780 - 1781                Po Tisuntiraidapuran (1st time)         (d. 1793)
                             (Nguyen Van Ta)
1781 - 1783                Vacant
1783 - 1786                Chei Krei Brei (Nguyen Van Chieu)
1786                       Po Chongchan (Nguyen Van Tong)(1st time)
1786 - 1793                Po Tisuntiraidapuran (2nd time)        
(s.a.)
1793 - 1799                Po Ladhunpaghuh                         (d. 1799)
                             (Nguyen Van Hao)
1796 - 1799                Po Chongchan (2nd time)
                            
(in rebellion, supported by the Tay Son)
1799 - 1822                Po Saong Nyung Ceng                     (d. 1822)
                             (Nguyen Van Chan)
1822                       Po Bait Lan (Nguyen Van Lan)
1822 - 1828                Po Klan Thu                             (d. 1828)
                             (
Nguyen Van Vinh)
1828 - 1832                Po Phaok The                            (d. 1835)

                             (Nguyen Van Thua)
1834 - 1835                Po War Palei (Ba Hoa Bai-lai)           (d. 1835)
                             (in rebellion) 


Pulo Condore

[Flag of Great Britain 1606]

16 Jun 1702                English East India company founds Pulo Condore factory on island 
                             of Pulo Condor (Con Son) in the Con Dao Archipelago off the
                             Southern Vietnam coast.

 2 Mar 1705                Garrison and settlement destroyed by mercenaries hired from
                             Borneo.

Factor
16 Jun 1702 -  2 Mar 1705  Allen Catchpole (Ketchpole)        (b. 16.. - d. 1705)



French Union of Indochina

[France]
1886 - Mar 1945, Aug 1945-1954
[flag of French
                          Protectorate of Indochina c.1923-1945]
c.1923 - 9 Mar 1945

Map of French Indochina
Capital: Hanoi
(Saigon 1887- 1 Jan 1902,
1945-1954;
 Dalat 1939-1945)
Currency: 1887-1954
French Indochina

Piastre (ICFP); 1945 French
 Indochina Gumpyo Yen
 (ICFG)
Population: 21,599,582 (1935)
(incl. Kwangchowan)

17 Oct 1887                Union of French Indochina (Indo-Chine Française)
                             formed (Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina, Cambodia and
                             from  3 Oct 1893, Laos).
 5 Jan 1900 - 28 Feb 1946  Kouang-Tchéou-Wan (Guangzhouwan [Kwangchowan]) port in
                             China leased territory administratively joined to
                             French Indochina (and subordinated to Tonkin).
16 Jun 1940 -  9 Mar 1945  Administration loyal to Vichy France (nominal after 20 Aug 1944).
22 Sep 1940                Japanese troops based in Northern Indochina (in Hanoi and
                             Haiphong from 26 Sep 1940).
24 Jul 1941                Japanese troops based in Southern Indochina.
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation and administration (Futsuin).
22 Jul 1954                Division of Vietnam formalized by the Geneva Accords.
 9 Oct 1954                French evacuate Hanoi (from Saigon 20 May 1955).
28 Apr 1956                Last French forces left Vietnam.
21 Jul 1956                Disestablishment.

Governors-general
 9 Nov 1887 - 22 Apr 1888  Jean Antoine Ernest Constans       (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
                             (provisional)
22 Apr 1888 - 30 May 1889  Étienne Antione Guillaume Richaud  (b. 1841 - d. 1889)
                             (interim to 8 Sep 1888)
31 May 1889 - 13 Apr 1891  Jules Georges Piquet               (b. 1839 - d. 1923)
13 Apr 1891 - 26 Jun 1891  François Marie Léon Bideau (acting)(b. 1837 - d. 1894)
26 Jun 1891 - 29 Dec 1894  Jean Marie Antoine de Lanessan     (b. 1843 - d. 1919)
10 Mar 1894 - 26 Oct 1894  Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (b. 1848 - d. 1895)
                             (acting for Lanessan)
29 Dec 1894 - 15 Mar 1895  François Pierre Rodier (acting)    (b. 1854 - d. 1913) 
15 Mar 1895 - 10 Dec 1896  Paul Armand Rosseau                (b. 1835 - d. 1896)
21 Oct 1895 - 14 Mar 1896  Paul Julien Auguste Fourès         (b. 1853 - d. 1915)
                             (acting for Rosseau)
10 Dec 1896 - 13 Feb 1897  Paul Julien Auguste Fourès (acting)(s.a.)
13 Feb 1897 - 14 Mar 1902  Joseph Athanase Paul Doumer        (b. 1857 - d. 1932)
29 Sep 1898 - 24 Jan 1899  Paul Julien Auguste Fourès         (s.a.)
                             (acting for Doumer)
16 Feb 1901 - 20 Aug 1901  Édouard Alfred Marie Broni         (b. 1874 - d. 1928?)
                             (acting for Doumer)
14 Mar 1902 - 14 Oct 1902  Édouard Alfred Marie Broni (acting)(s.a.)
15 Oct 1902 - 28 Feb 1908  Jean-Baptiste Paul Beau            (b. 1857 - d. 1927)
28 Feb 1907 - 23 Sep 1908  Louis Alphonse Bonhoure (acting)   (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
24 Sep 1908 - 17 Feb 1911  Antony Wladislas Klobukowski       (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
13 Jan 1910 - 10 Jun 1910  Albert Jean George Marie Louis     (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
                             Picquié (acting for Klobukowski)
17 Feb 1911 - 14 Nov 1911  Louis Paul Luce (acting)           (b. 1856 - d. 1931)
15 Nov 1911 - 22 Nov 1913  Albert Pierre Sarraut (1st time)   (b. 1872 - d. 1962)
22 Nov 1913 -  3 Mar 1915  Joost van Vollenhouven (acting)    (b. 1877 - d. 1918)
 3 Mar 1915 - 22 May 1916  Ernest Nestor Roume                (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
23 May 1916 - 21 Jan 1917  Jean François dit Eugène Charles   (b. 1865 - d. 1946)
                             (acting)
22 Jan 1917 -  9 Dec 1919  Albert Pierre Sarraut (2nd time)   (s.a.)
22 May 1919 - 19 Feb 1920  Maurice Antoine François           (b. 1874 - d. 1945)
                             Montguillot (1st time)(acting)
20 Feb 1920 - 15 Apr 1922  Maurice Long                       (b. 1866 - d. 1923)
18 Nov 1920 - 31 Mar 1921  Joseph Maurice Le Gallen           (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
                             (acting for Long)
15 Apr 1922 -  9 Aug 1923  François Marius Baudoin (acting)   (b. 1867 - d. 1957)
 9 Aug 1923 - 27 Jul 1925  Martial Henri Merlin               (b. 1860 - d. 1935)
23 Apr 1925 - 18 Nov 1925  Maurice Antoine François           (s.a.)
                             Montguillot (2nd time)
18 Nov 1925 - 22 Aug 1928  Alexandre Varenne                  (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
 4 Oct 1926 - 16 May 1927  Pierre Marie Antoine Pasquier      (b. 1877 - d. 1934)
                             (acting for Varenne)
 1 Nov 1927 -  7 Aug 1928  Maurice Antoine François           (s.a.)
                             Montguillot (3rd time)
                             (acting for Varenne)
 7 Aug 1928 - 26 Dec 1928  Eugène Jean Louis René Robin       (b. 1872 - d. 1954)
                             (1st time)(acting)
26 Dec 1928 - 15 Jan 1934  Pierre Marie Antoine Pasquier      (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1930 - 30 Jun 1931  Eugène Jean Louis René Robin       (s.a.)
                             (acting for Pasquier)
15 Jan 1934 - 23 Jul 1934  Maurice Fernand Graffeuil          (b. 1882 - d. 1941)
                             (acting)
23 Jul 1934 - 13 Sep 1936  Eugène Jean Louis René Robin       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
13 Sep 1936 - 14 Jan 1937  Achille Louis Auguste Silvestre    (b. 1879 - d. 1937)
                             (acting)
14 Jan 1937 - 20 Aug 1939  Joseph Jules Brévié                (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
20 Aug 1939 - 25 Jun 1940  Georges Catroux (acting)           (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
25 Jun 1940 -  9 Mar 1945  Jean Decoux                        (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
                             (interim to 29 Aug 1940)
                             (Japanese prisoner 9 Mar - Aug 1945)
10 Sep 1944 -  9 Mar 1945  Eugène Mordant                     (b. 1885 - d. 1959)
                             ("Free" French delegate-general for Indochina)
                             (Japanese prisoner 9 Mar - Aug 1945)
Japanese Governor-general

 9 Mar 1945 - 28 Aug 1945  Yūitsu Tsuchihashi (acting)        (b. 1891 - d. 1975)
                             (commander of the Japanese 38th Army)
French Delegate of the Government of the Republic in Indochina
10 Apr 1945 - Sep 1945     Camille Ange Gabriel Sabattier     (b. 1892 - d. 1966)
                             (in opposition to Japanese occupation)
Commander of Allied (Chinese) Occupation Force (First Army) for Indochina

- above 16th parallel -
14 Sep 1945 - 14 May 1946  Lu Han (China)                     (b. 1895 - d. 1974)
Chairman of the Allied Control Commission and Commander
Allied Land Forces, French Indochina (ALFFIC)

- below 16th parallel -
13 Sep 1945 - 28 Mar 1946  Douglas David Gracey (U.K.)        (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
High Commissioners of France in Indochina
23 Sep 1945 -  5 Oct 1945  Jean Henri Arsène Cédile (acting)  (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
 5 Oct 1945 -  1 Nov 1945  Philippe François Marie de         (b. 1902 - d. 1947)
                             Hauteclocque, dit Leclerc (acting)
 2 Nov 1945 - 27 Mar 1947  Georges Louis Marie Thierry        (b. 1889 - d. 1964)
                             d'Argenlieu       
27 Mar 1947 - 20 Oct 1948  Émile Bollaert (acting)            (b. 1890 - d. 1978)
20 Oct 1948 - 17 Dec 1950  Léon Marie Adolphe Pascal Pignon   (b. 1908 - d. 1976)
17 Dec 1950 - Dec 1951     Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de       (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
                             Lattre de Tassigny        
Dec 1951 - 11 Jan 1952     Georges Armand Léon Gautier        (b. 1901 - d. 1987)
                             (acting)
11 Jan 1952 - 18 Apr 1952  Raoul Albin Louis Salan (acting)   (b. 1899 - d. 1984)
18 Apr 1952 - 27 Apr 1953  Jean Letourneau                    (b. 1907 - d. 1986)
Commissioners-general of France in Indochina
27 Apr 1953 - 23 Jul 1953  Jean Letourneau                    (s.a.)
23 Jul 1953 -  4 Jun 1954  Maurice Ernest Dejean              (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
 4 Jun 1954 - Apr 1955     Paul Henri Romuald Ély             (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
Apr 1955 - 21 Jul 1956     Henri Hoppenot                     (b. 1891 - d. 1977)
 

Heads of the Japanese Observation Delegation, French Indochina
29 Jun 1940 - 28 Sep 1940  Issaku Nishihara                   (b. 1893 - d. 1945)
28 Sep 1940 - Oct 1941     Raishiro (Haikushiro) Sumida       (b. 1890 - d. 1979)
Nov 1941 - 1942            Isamu Chō                          (b. 1895 - d. 1945)
                             (head, Southern Army Special Agency)
Japanese Ambassadors Plenipotentiary to French Indochina
29 Jul 1941 - Nov 1944     Kenkichi Yoshizawa                 (b. 1874 - d. 1956)
24 Nov 1944 -  9 Mar 1945  Shun'ichi Matsumoto                (b. 1897 - d. 1987)
Director-general of the Governor-general's Government
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Takeshi Tsukamoto                  (b. 1896 - d. 19..) 
Japanese Military Commanders in Indochina

 7 Sep 1940 -  5 Jul 1941  Takuma Nishimura                   (b. 1889 - d. 1951)
                             (commander Indochina Expeditionary Army)
10 Nov 1942 - 22 Nov 1944  Viscount Kazumoto Machijiri        (b. 1889 - d. 1950)
                             (commander Indochina Garrison Army)
22 Nov 1944 - 28 Aug 1945  Yūitsu Tsuchihashi                 (s.a.) 
                             (commander Indochina Garrison Army to
                             20 Dec 1944, then Japanese 38th Army)


Annam - Tonkin

French Chargés d'Affaires (at Hué)
30 Jul 1875 - 13 Dec 1876  Pierre Paul Rheinart (1st time)    (b. 1840 - d. 1902)
                             (provisional)
14 Dec 1876 -  3 Jul 1879  Paul Louis Félix Philastre         (b. 1837 - d. 1907)

 3 Jul 1879 -  5 Oct 1880  Pierre Paul Rheinart (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 6 Oct 1880 - 17 Aug 1881  Louis Eugène Palasme de Champeaux  (b. 1840 - d. 1889)
18 Aug 1881 - 28 Mar 1883  Pierre Paul Rheinart (3rd time)    (s.a.)
23 Jul 1883 - 24 Dec 1885  François Jules Harmand             (b. 1845 - d. 1921)
                             (commissioner-general)
Residents-general
(at Hué)
11 Jun 1884 -  1 Oct 1884  Pierre Paul Rheinart (1st time)    (s.a.)
                             (provisional)
 1 Oct 1884 - 31 May 1885  Victor Gabriel Lemaire             (b. 1839 - d. 1907)
31 May 1885 - 31 Jan 1886  Philippe Marie André Roussel       (b. 1827 - d. 1887)
                             de Courcy
31 Jan 1886 -  8 Apr 1886  Charles Auguste Louis Warnet       (b. 1828 – d. 1913)
                             (interim)
 8 Apr 1886 - 11 Nov 1886  Paul Bert                          (b. 1833 - d. 1886)
11 Nov 1886 - 28 Jan 1887  Paulin François Alexandre Vial     (b. 1831 - d. 1907)
                             (interim)
29 Jan 1887 - 17 Nov 1887  Paul Louis Georges Bihourd         (b. 1846 - d. 1914)
17 Nov 1887 - 25 Jun 1888  Raoul Berger (interim)
25 Jun 1888 -  8 Sep 1888  Eusèbe Irénée Parreau (1st time)   (b. 1842 - d. 1922)
                             (interim)
 8 Sep 1888 - 10 Feb 1889  Pierre Paul Rheinhart (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Residents-general in Annam-Tonkin (at Hué)
10 Feb 1889 -  4 May 1889
  Pierre Paul Rheinhart              (s.a.)
 
4 May 1889 - 29 May 1889  Eusèbe Irénée Parreau (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)

Annam

Resident supérieurs in Annam (at Hué)
31 Jan 1886 - 17 May 1886  Charles Dillon                     (b. 1842 - d. 1889)
17 May 1886 -  4 May 1889  Séraphin Hector (1st time)         (b. 1846 - d. 1925)
                             (acting)
 
4 May 1889 - 10 May 1889  Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (s.a.)
                             (acting)
10 May 1889 - 27 Oct 1891  Séraphin Hector (2nd time)         (s.a.)
27 Oct 1891 - 11 Apr 1894  Ernest Albert Brière (1st time)    (b. 1848 - d. 1904)
11 Apr 1894 - 27 Nov 1894  Léon Jules Pol Boulloche (1st time)(b. 1859 - d. 1922)
                             (acting)
28 Nov 1894 - 26 Apr 1895  Charles Fdéric Baille (acting)   (b. 1848 - d. 1910)
27 Apr 1895 -  1 Jan 1897  Ernest Albert Brière (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1897 -  7 Mar 1898  Jean Calixte Alexis Auvergne       (b. 1859 - d. 1942) 
                             (1st time) (acting)
 7 Mar 1898 - 1900         Léon Jules Pol Boulloche (2nd time)(s.a.)
22 Feb 1900 - 1902         Jean Calixte Alexis Auvergne       (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time) (acting to 9 May 1901)
1902 - 1903                Louis Paul Luce (acting)           (b. 1856 - d. 1931)
1903 - Aug 1904            Jean Calixte Alexis Auvergne       (s.a.) 
                             (3rd time)
23
Jun 1904 - 20 Apr 1906  Bernard Pierre Oscar Moulié        (b. 1857 - d. 19..)
                            
(acting (for Auvergne to 29 Aug 1904])
1906 - Jul 1908            Ernest Fernand Lévecque            (b. 1852 - d. 1927)
Jul 1908 - 1910            Élie Jean-Henri Groleau            (b. 1859 - d. 1932)
1910 -  1 Jan 1912         Henri Victor Sestier               (b. 1857 - d. 1918)
 1 Jan 1912 - 15 May 1913  Georges Marie Joseph Mahé          (b. 1860 - d. 1926)
16 May 1913 - 16 May 1916  Jean-François dit Eugène Charles   (b. 1865 - d. 1946)
                             (1st time)(acting to 17 May 1914)
16 May 1916 - 27 Jan 1917  Henri Le Marchant de Trigon        (b. 1867 - d. 1918)
                             (interim)
27 Jan 1917 - May 1919     Jean-François dit Eugène Charles   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 
7 Jun 1919 -  5 May 1921  Honoré Louis Joseph Tissot         (b. 1868 - d. 1940)
                             (interim)

 5 May 1921 - 13 Feb 1927  Pierre Marie Antonie Pasquier      (s.a.)
20 May 1922 - 11 Sep 1922  Jules Friès (acting for Pasquier)  (b. 1874 - d. 1957)
13 Jan 1924 - 28 Sep 1924  Aristide Eugène Le Fol             (b. 1878 - d. 1967)
                             (acting for Pasquier)
 
1 Oct 1926 - 13 Feb 1927  Jean Charles Joseph d'Elloy        (b. 1872 - d. 1944)
                             (interim)
13 Feb 1927 -  5 Jan 1929  Jules Friès                        (s.a.)
 
5 Jan 1929 - 11 Jun 1931  Aristide Eugène Le Fol             (s.a.)
23 May 1929 - 28 Feb 1930  Pierre Charles Edmond Jabouille    (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
                             (acting for Le Fol)
11 Jun 1931 - 25 Feb 1933  Yves Charles Châtel                (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
                             (acting to 21 Nov 1931)
25 Feb 1933 - 27 Jul 1934  Léon Emmanuel Thibaudeau (interim) (b. 1883 - d. 1946)

27 Jul 1934 - 25 May 1941  Maurice Fernand Graffeuil          (b. 1882 - d. 1941)
15 May 1936 - 16 Apr 1937  Eugène Guillemain                  (b. 1885 - d. 1974)
                             (acting for Graffeuil)
18 Jun 1941 - 23 Aug 1944  Émile Louis François Grandjean     (b. 1888 - d. 1986)
23 Aug 1944 -  9 Mar 1945  Jean Maurice Norbert Haelewyn      (b. 1901 - d. 1945)
                             (Japanese prisoner 9 Mar - 23 Aug 1945)
Japanese Supreme Adviser
to Annam
Mar 1945 - Aug 1945        Masayuki Yokoyama                  (b. 1892 - d. 1978)
French Commissioners of the Republic in Central Vietnam
24 Aug 1945 - 1947         Jean Henri Arsène Cédile           (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
1947 - 20 May 1947         Georges Édouard Jules Marie        (b. 1898 - d. 1977)
                             Saint-Mleux (interim)
20 May 1947 -  8 Aug 1949  Henri Pierre Joseph Marie Lebris   (b. 1886 - d. 1962)
                             (interim)
 8 Aug 1949 - 22 Aug 1949  Claude L
éon Raoul Vally (acting)   (b. 1897 - d. 1971)
22 Aug 1949 - 1951         Henri Augustin Lorillot           
(b. 1901 - d. 1985)
                            (provisional)(commissioner of the Republic and
                             commander of French forces in Central Vietnam)
1951 - 27 Apr 1953         Georges Émile LeBlanc              (b. 1896 - d. 1989)


Tonkin

Resident supérieurs in Tonkin (at Hanoi; subordinated to Resident-superior in Annam to 1888)
 8 Apr 1886 - Nov 1886     Paulin François Alexandre Vial     (s.a.)
20 Nov 1886 - 29 Jan 1887  Jean Thomas Raoul Bonnal (1st time)(b. 1847 - d. 1925)
1887 - 1888                Antony Wladislas Klobukowski       (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
                             (acting)
29 Apr 1888 - 10 May 1889  Eusèbe Irénée Parreau              (b. 1842 - d. 1922)
29 May 1889 -  6 Apr 1890  Ernest Albert Brière (1st time)    (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1890 -  3 Feb 1891  Jean Thomas Raoul Bonnal (2nd time)(s.a.)
                             (acting)
 3 Feb 1891 - 27 Oct 1891  Ernest Albert Brière (2nd time)    (s.a.)
27 Oct 1891 - 20 Jul 1893  Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
20 Jul 1893 - 30 Mar 1895  François Pierre Rodier             (b. 1854 - d. 1913)
                             (acting to 15 Oct 1894)
30 Mar 1895 - 13 May 1895  Louis Paul Luce (acting)           (b. 1856 - d. 1931)
13 May 1895 - 18 Jun 1895  Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
18 Jul 1895 -  9 Mar 1897  Paul Julien Auguste Fourès         (s.a.)
                            
(1st time)
1897                       Léon Jules Pol Boulloche           (b. 1859 - d. 1922)

26 Jul 1897 - 30 Aug 1905  Paul Julien Auguste Fourès         (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)
30 Aug 1905 -  2 Apr 1907
  Élie Jean Henri Groleau (acting)   (b. 1859 - d. 1932)
Apr 1907 - Jul 1907        Louis Alphonse Bonhoure            (b. 1865 - d. 1909)
Jul 1907 - Apr 1909        Louis Jules Morel                  (b. 1853 - d. 1911)
Apr 1909 - Sep 1909        Marie Joseph Ulderic de Miribel    (b. 1858 - d. 1911)
                             (acting)
Sep 1909 - Aug 1912        Paul Simoni                        (b. 1863 - d. 1931)
20 Aug 1912 - 15 Dec 1912  Jean-François dit Eugène Charles   (b. 1865 - d. 1946)
                             (acting)
16 Dec 1912 -  8 Jun 1915  Léon Louis Jean Georges Destenay   (b. 1861 - d. 1915)
 8 Jun 1915 - 1917         Maurice Joseph Le Gallen           (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
 
4 Dec 1917 - 1919         Jean Baptiste Édouard Bourcier     (b. 1870 - d. 1941) 
                             de Saint-Chaffray
22 Aug 1919 - 1921         Louis Félix Marie Edouard Rivet    (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
                             (acting)
27 Feb 1921 - 1924         Maurice Antoine François           (s.a.)

                             Monguillot
 5 Jul 1924 - 10 Nov 1924  Jean Adrien Gaston Poulin (acting) (b. 1869 - d. 1924)
13 Nov 1924 -  2 Dec 1925  Jean Félix Krautheimer (acting)    (b. 1874 - d. 1943)
 
2 Dec 1925 - 1930         Eugène Jean Louis René Robin       (b. 1872 - d. 1954)
28 Feb 1927 -  7 Aug 1928  Maurice Fernand Graffeuil          (b. 1882 - d. 1941)
                             (acting for Robin)
 7 Aug 1928 - 26 Dec 1928  Jules Marie Douguet                (b. 1880 - d. 1956)
                             (acting for Robin)
25 Nov 1930 - 1937         Auguste Eugène Ludovic Tholance    (b. 1878 - d. 1938)

28 Aug 1932 -  3 May 1933  Pierre André Michel Pagès          (b. 1893 - d. 1980)
                            (acting for Tholance)
27 Jul 1933 - 10 Sep 1933  Joseph Jules Bride                 (b. 1871 - d. 1963)
                             (acting for Tholance)
13 Apr 1937 - 1937         Pierre Abel Delsalle (acting)      (b. 1886 - d. 1955)
1937 - 1939                Yves Charles Châtel               
(b. 1865 - d. 1944)
 8 Feb 1939 - 25 Aug 1939  Maurice
Émile Henry de Tastes      (b. 1883 - d. 1940)
                             (acting)
25 Aug 1939 - 16 Nov 1940  Henri Georges Rivoal (acting)      (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
16 Nov 1940 - 18 Jun 1941  Émile Louis François Grandjean     (b. 1888 - d. 1986)

                            
(interim to 11 Dec 1940)
18 Jun 1941 - 21 Nov 1942  Édouard André Delsalle
            (b. 1893 - d. 1945)
21 Nov 1942 - 23 Aug 1944  Jean-Marie Norbert Haelewyn        (b. 1901 - d. 1945)
                            
(interim to 16 Mar 1943)
23 Aug 1944 -  9 Mar 1945  Paul Louis Gabriel Chauvet (acting)(b. 1904 - d. 2007)

                             (Japanese prisoner 9 Mar - Aug 1945)
Japanese Adviser to the Imperial Delegate
of Tonkin
Mar 1945 - Aug 1945        Kumao Nishimura                    (b. 1899 - d. 1980)
Vietnamese Imperial Delegates in Tonkin
17 Apr 1945 - 17 Aug 1945  Phan Ke Toai                       (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
17 Aug 1945 - 25 Aug 1945  Nguyen Xuan Chu                    (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
Commander of Allied Occupation Force (Chinese First Army) for Indochina
14 Sep 1945 - 14 May 1946  Lu Han (China)                     (b. 1895 - d. 1974)
French Commissioners of the Republic in Tonkin

18 Aug 1945 -  4 Oct 1945  Pierre Messmer (acting)            (b. 1916 - d. 2007)
 4 Oct
1945 - 1946         Jean Roger Sainteny                (b. 1907 - d. 1978)
                             (delegate of the high commissioner for Tonkin and North Annam)
11 Apr 1946 - Jul 1946     Jean Étienne Valluy (acting)       (b. 1899 - d. 1970)
Jul 1946 - 27 Sep 1946     Jean Crépin (acting)               (b. 1908 - d. 1996)
27 Sep 1946 - Jan 1947     Louis Constant Morlière (acting)   (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
Jan 1947 - Feb 1947        Pierre Louis Debès (acting)        (b. 1900 - d. 1947)
18 Feb 1947 -  2 Dec 1947  Miguel Joaquim de Pereyra (acting) (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
                            
(delegate of the high commissioner for Tonkin and North Annam)
 
2 Dec 1947 -  8 Aug 1949  Yves Jean Digo                     (b. 1897 - d. 1974)
                             (acting to 20 Mar 1948)
 
8 Aug 1949 - 28 Nov 1949  Raymond Gilbert Félix Koch (acting)(b. 1896 - d. 1978)
28 Nov 1949 - 10 Nov 1950  Marcel Jean Marie Alessandri       (b. 1895 - d. 1968)

                             (commissioner of the Republic in North Vietnam)
10 Nov 1950 - 
6 Jan 1951  Pierre Georges Jacques Marie Boyer (b. 1896 - d. 1976)
                             de La Tour du Moulin  
 
6 Jan 1951 -  7 Feb 1951  Raoul Albin Louis Salan (interim)  (b. 1899 - d. 1984)
 
7 Feb 1951 - 27 Apr 1953  François Jean Antonin Marie Amédée (b. 1897 - d. 1955)
                             Gonzales de Linarès
High Commissioner of the Republic in Vietnam

27 Apr 1953 - 1954?       
Georges Armand Léon Gautier        (b. 1901 - d. 1987)   

Vietnamese Crown Representatives (Kinh Luoc Bac Ky) for Tonkin
1880 - 1883                Nguyen Huu Do                      (b. 1813 - d. 1888)
1890 - 1897                Hoang Cao Khai                     (b. 1850 - d. 1933)


French Cochinchina
 

[France]
18 Feb 1859 - 9 Mar 1945

Map of Cochinchina
Capital: Saigon
(Tourane 1858-1860)
Currency: 1862-1954
French Indochina
Piastre (ICFP); 1941-44
French Indochina Military Yen (ICF)
Population: 4,616,000 (1936)

1698 - 1770                Nam Ky region gradually annexed to Vietnam from Cambodia.
 1 Sep 1858                French occupy Da Nang (renamed Tourane).
18 Feb 1859                French occupy Saigon (Sai Gon) and three southern Vietnamese
                             provinces
(Bien Hoa, Gia Dinh and Dinh Tuong) and from 28 Nov
                             1861, Con Son
(Paulo Condor [Grande-Condore]) Island.
 5 Jun 1862                Southern region made a French colony (Cochinchine) by the
                             First Treaty of Saigon (confirmed by the Treaty of Hué on
                             14 Apr 1863).
20-24 Jun 1867             France occupies An Giang, Ha Tien and Vinh Long provinces, adding
                             them to Cochinchina. 
15 Mar 1874                Vietnam recognizes the full sovereignty of France over Cochinchina
                             and adds to it the three provinces occupied in 1867 (by Second
                             Treaty of Saigon).
25 Aug 1883                Binh Thuan province added to Cochinchina by the Harmand (Hue)
                             Treaty (ratified 1 Jan 1884). 
16 Nov 1887                Becomes a territory within the Union of French Indochina.
21 Dec 1933                Spratly Islands are annexed to French Cochinchina.
28 Jul 1941                Japanese troops based in French Cochinchina (de facto occupation).
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation (see under Indochina). 
15 Aug 1945                Japan transfers Cochinchina, renamed Nam Bo, to Empire of Vietnam.
 6 Sep 1945 - 28 Mar 1946  British occupation (s.a.)
23 Apr 1949                Territorial Assembly of Cochinchina approved unification with
                             Vietnam.
 
4 Jun 1949                Cochinchina formally becomes part of (South) Vietnam in accordance
                             with a law passed by the National Assembly of France.

Commander-in-chief of the Naval Division of Réunion and Indo-Chine, and
Commander-in-chief of the Expeditionary Corps of the Chinese Seas

 1 Sep 1858 -  1 Nov 1859  Charles Rigault de Genouilly       (b. 1807 - d. 1873)
Commander-in-chief of the Naval Division of the Chinese Seas
 1 Nov 1859 -  6 Feb 1861  Théogène François Page             (b. 1807 - d. 1867)
Governors
- in Tourane (Da Nang) -
 1 Sep 1858 - 18 Feb 1859  Charles Rigault de Genouilly       (s.a.)
19 Oct 1859 - 23 Mar 1860  Théogène François Page             (s.a.)
- in Saigon -
18 Feb 1859 - 1859         Charles Rigault de Genouilly       (s.a.)
Mar 1859 -  1 Apr 1860     Jean Bernard Jauréguiberry (acting)(b. 1815 - d. 1887)
 1 Apr 1860 -  6 Feb 1861  Théogène François Page             (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1860 -  6 Feb 1861  Joseph Hyacinthe Louis Jules       (b. 1813 - d. 1878)
                             d'Ariès (acting for Page)
 6 Feb 1861 - 30 Nov 1861  Léonard Victor Joseph Charner      (b. 1797 - d. 1869)
30 Nov 1861 - 16 Oct 1863  Louis Adolphe Bonard               (b. 1805 - d. 1867)
16 Oct 1863 - 31 Mar 1865  Pierre Paul Marie de La Grandière  (b. 1807 - d. 1876)
                             (1st time)
 1 Apr 1865 - 28 Nov 1865  Pierre Gustave Roze (interim)      (b. 1812 - d. 1883)
28 Nov 1865 -  4 Apr 1868  Pierre Paul Marie de La Grandière  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 4 Apr 1868 - 10 Dec 1869  Marie Gustave Hector Ohier         (b. 1814 - d. 1870)
                             (acting)
10 Dec 1869 -  9 Jan 1870  Joseph Faron (interim)             (b. 1819 - d. 1881)
 9 Jan 1870 -  1 Apr 1871  Alphonse Jean Claude René Théodore (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
                             de Cornulier-Lucinière
 1 Apr 1871 - 16 Mar 1872  Marie Jules Dupré (1st time)       (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
16 Mar 1872 - 16 Dec 1872  Charles Joseph Basher d'Arbaud     (b. 1816 - d. 1876)
                             (acting)
16 Dec 1872 - 15 Mar 1874  Marie Jules Dupré (2nd time)       (s.a.)
16 Mar 1874 - 30 Nov 1874  Jules François Émile Krantz        (b. 1821 - d. 1914)
                             (acting)
30 Nov 1874 - 31 Jan 1876  Victor Auguste, baron Duperré      (b. 1825 - d. 1900)
                             (1st time)
 1 Feb 1876 -  6 Jul 1876  Henri Gaëtan Ernest Bossant        (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
                             (acting)
 7 Jul 1876 - 16 Oct 1877  Victor Auguste, baron Duperré      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
16 Oct 1877 -  7 Jul 1879  Louis Charles Georges Jules Lafont (b. 1824 - d. 1908)
 7 Jul 1879 -  7 Nov 1882  Charles Le Myre de Vilers          (b. 1833 - d. 1918)
 4 Mar 1881 - 31 Oct 1881  Arthur de Trentinian               (b. 1822 - d. 1885)
                             (acting for de Vilers
 7 Nov 1882 - 27 Jul 1885  Charles Antoine François Thomson   (b. 1845 - d. 1898)
27 Jul 1885 - 19 Jun 1886  Charles Auguste Frédéric Bégin     (b. 1835 - d. 1901)
20 Jun 1886 - 22 Oct 1887  Ange Michel Filippini              (b. 1834 - d. 1887)
23 Oct 1887 -  2 Nov 1887  Marie Jacques Noël Pardon (acting) (b. 1854 - d. 1910)
 3 Nov 1887 - 15 Nov 1887  Jules Georges Piquet (acting)      (b. 1839 - d. 1928)
Lieutenant-governors (subordinated to the Governors-general of Indochina)
16 Nov 1887 - 13 Jan 1888  Jean Antoine Ernest Constans       (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
13 Jan 1888 -  2 Aug 1888  Auguste Eugène Navelle             (b. 1846 - d. 19..)
Directors of Local Service

 3 Aug 1888 - 25 Aug 1888  Auguste Eugène Navelle (acting)    (s.a.)
25 Aug 1888 - 16 May 1889  Paul Louis Maxime Céloron de       (b. 1831 - d. 1889)
                             Blainville                
Lieutenant-governors (subordinated to the Governors-general of Indochina)
21 May 1889 -  9 Aug 1889  Augustin Julien Fourès (1st time)  (b. 1853 - d. 1915)
                             (acting)
 9 Aug 1889 - 11 Sep 1892  Henri Éloi Danel                   (b. 1850 - d. 1900)
11 Sep 1892 - 25 Mar 1894  Augustin Julien Fourès (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting to 21 Oct 1892)
25 Mar 1894 - 15 Sep 1894  Auguste Eugène Navelle (acting)    (s.a.)
15 Sep 1895 - 18 Jul 1895  Augustin Julien Fourès (3rd time)  (s.a.)
18 Jul 1895 - 22 Mar 1896  Alexandre Antoine Étienne Gustave  (b. 1851 - d. 1907) 
                             Ducos (1st time)
22 Mar 1896 - 19 Nov 1896  Gustave Guillaume Sandret (acting) (b. 1852 - d. 1909)
19 Nov 1896 -  9 May 1897  Alexandre Antoine Étienne Gustave  (s.a.) 
                             Ducos (2nd time) 
10 May 1897 -  1 Jan 1898  Ange Eugène Nicolai (acting)       (b. 1845 - d. 1908)
 1 Jan 1898 - 11 Apr 1899  Édouard Picanon (1st time)         (b. 1854 - d. 1939)
11 Apr 1899 -  1 Nov 1900  Ferdinand Georges Jules Bocquet    (b. 1849 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
 1 Nov 1900 - 28 Jul 1901  Édouard Picanon (2nd time)         (s.a.)
28 Jul 1901 -  3 Sep 1901  Louis Paul Luce (acting)           (b. 1856 - d. 1931)
 5 Sep 1901 - 18 Sep 1902  Henri Félix de Lamothe             (b. 1843 - d. 1926)
18 Sep 1902 - 10 Mar 1906  François Pierre Rodier             (b. 1854 - d. 1913)
                             (1st time)
10 Mar 1906 - Feb 1907     Olivier Charles Arthur de Lalande  (b. 1853 - d. 1910) 
                             de Calan (acting)
Feb 1907 - 13 Jul 1907     François Pierre Rodier             (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
13 Jul 1907 - 28 Feb 1908  Louis Alphonse Bonhoure (1st time) (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
28 Feb 1908 - 24 Sep 1908  Ernest Antoine Outrey (1st time)   (b. 1863 - d. 1941)
                             (acting)
24 Sep 1908 -  9 Jan 1909  Louis Alphonse Bonhoure (2nd time) (s.a.)
 9 Jan 1909 - 16 Jun 1909  Ernest Antoine Outrey (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                            
(acting)
16 Jun 1909 - Dec 1911     Jules Maurice Gourbeil             (b. 1867 - d. 1948)
Governors (subordinated to the Governors-general of Indochina)
Dec 1911 - 22 Mar 1912     Jules Maurice Gourbeil (1st time)  (s.a.)
22 Mar 1912 - 13 Dec 1912  Léon Louis Jean George Destenay    (b. 1861 - d. 1915)
                            
(acting)
13 Dec 1912 - Jan 1914     Jules Maurice Gourbeil (2nd time)  (s.a.)
31 Jan 1914 -  7 Jul 1914  Maurice Joseph Le Gallen (1st time)(b. 1873 - d. 1956)
                             (acting)
 7 Jul 1914 - 25 Apr 1916  Jules Maurice Gourbeil (3rd time)  (s.a.)
25 Apr 1916 -  9 Oct 1917  Louis Félix Marie Édouard Rivet    (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
                             (acting)
 9 Oct 1917 - 22 Jun 1920  Maurice Joseph Le Gallen (2nd time)(s.a.)
22 Jun 1918 - 20 Feb 1920  Georges René Gaston Maspéro        (b. 1872 - d. 1942)
                             (acting for Le Gallen)
20 Feb 1920 - 12 Nov 1920  Maurice Joseph Le Gallen (3rd time)(s.a.)
                             (acting)
12 Nov 1920 - 14 Feb 1922  Paul Achille Michel Quesnel        (b. 1871 - d. 1945)
                             (acting to 18 Nov 1920)
14 Feb 1922 - 19 Apr 1926  Maurice Cognacq                    (b. 1870 - d. 1949)
                             (acting to 12 Apr 1922)
24 May 1924 - 17 Dec 1924  Auguste Eugène Ludovic Tholance    (b. 1878 - d. 1938)
                             (acting for Cognacq)   
19 Apr 1926 - 30 Dec 1926  Aristide Eugène Le Fol (acting)    (b. 1878 - d. 1967)
30 Dec 1926 - 12 Jan 1929  Paul Marie Alexis Joseph Blanchard (b. 1872 - d. 19..) 
                             de la Brosse
12 Jan 1929 -  6 Mar 1929  Eugène Henri Roger Eutrope         (b. 1881 - d. 1953)
                             (interim)
 6 Mar 1929 - 20 May 1934  Jean Félix Krautheimer             (b. 1874 - d. 1943)
21 Nov 1931 - 11 Nov 1932  Eugéne Henri Eutrope               (s.a.)
                             (acting for Krautheimer) 
20 May 1934 - 12 May 1939  Pierre André Michel Pagès          (b. 1893 - d. 1980)
 1 Mar 1936 - 12 Oct 1936  Henri Georges Rivoal               (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
                             (acting for Pagès)
12 May 1939 - 16 Nov 1940  René Veber                         (b. 1888 - d. 1972)
16 Nov 1940 - 21 Nov 1942  Henri Georges Rivoal               (s.a.)
                             (acting to 11 Dec 1940)
21 Nov 1942 -  9 Mar 1945  Ernest Thimothée Hoeffel           (b. 1900 - d. 1952)
                            
(interim to 16 Mar 1943)
                             (Japanese prisoner 9 Mar-Aug 1945)
Japanese Governor
(subordinated to the Japanese Governor-general of Indochina)
 
9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Fujio Minoda
                      (b. 1894 - d. 19..)
Vietnamese Imperial Delegate in the South
15 Aug 1945 - 25 Aug 1945  Nguyen Van Sam                     (b. 1898 - d. 1947)  VQD
Chairman of the Provisional Southern Executive Committee
25 Aug 1945 - 22 Sep 1945  Tran Van Giau                      (b. 1911 - d. 2010)  DCSD
Commander-in-Chief Allied Land Forces, French Indochina
13 Sep 1945 - 28 Mar 1946  Douglas David Gracey (U.K.)        (b. 1894 - d. 1964)  Mil
Chairman of the Allied Control Commission
in French Indochina
13 Sep 1945 - 28 Mar 1946  Douglas David Gracey (U.K.)        (s.a.)               Mil
French Commissioners of the Republic in Cochinchina
24 Aug 1945 - 20 May 1947  Jean Henri Arsène Cédile           (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
                             (commissioner of the Republic for Cochinchina and South Annam)
20 May 1947 -  6 Aug 1947  Robert Jean Dufour (acting)        (b. 1896 - d. 1974)

 6
Aug 1947 -  6 Jun 1949  Pierre Boyer De La Tour du Moulin  (b. 1896 - d. 1976)
                             (interim)

President of the Council of the South (Cochinchina)
21 Jul 1945 - 25 Aug 1945  Tran Van An                        (b. 1906 - d. 2002)  VPDH  


South Vietnam
 
[Cochinchina,
                          1946-1948 (South Vietnam)]
15 Jul 1946 - 2 Jun 1948
[Cochinchina
                          flag Variant 1946-1948 (South Vietnam)]
1946 - 2 Jun 1948 Variant
[South Vietnam,
                          1948-1975 (Vietnam)]
2 Jun 1948 - 30 Apr 1975
[South Vietnam,
                          1975-1976 (Vietnam)]
30 Apr 1975 - 2 Jul 1976
Map of South Vietnam
Hear National Anthem
"Tiêng Goi Công Dân"
(Call to the Citizens)
(2 Jun 1948-30 Apr 1975)
Hear National (NLF)  Anthem
"Giài phóng mièn Nam"
(Liberate the South)
(30 Apr 1975 - 2 Jul 1976)
Constitutions
(1 Apr 1967 - 30 Apr 1975;
20 Oct 1964 - 1967;
16 Aug 1964 - 1964;
26 Oct 1956 - 4 Nov 1963)
Capital: Saigon
(from 30 Apr 1975,
Ho Chi Minh City)
Currency: 1975-1978 Viet Nam
 South Dong (VNS);

1954-75 South Vietnam
Dong
 (VNR);
1946-54 French
 Indochina
Piastre (ICFP)
National Holiday:
26 Oct (1955)

Constitution Day
(1967 renamed Republic Day)
----------------------------------
in Mar/Apr
(10th day of 3 month in
the lunar calendar)
"
Gio to Hùng Vương"
(Hung King's Temple Day)
Population: 19,370,000 (1973)
GDP: $ N/A
Exports:  $40 million (1965)
Imports: $300 million (1965)
Ethnic groups: Vietnamese 80%, Chinese, Montagnard,
Khmer, Cham, Malay, others 20% (1970)
Total Armed Forces (ARVAN): 1,000,000 (1971)
U.S. Forces: 525, 000 (1968)
Merchant marine: 39 ships (1974)
Religions: majority Buddhist, Roman Catholic 10%,
Cao Dai, Hoa Hao, animists, others (1970)
International Organizations/Treaties (1946-1976): ACCT, ADB, ASPAC, BTWC (signatory), CP, FAO, G-77 (to 1975), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, LORCS, NAM (from 1975), NPT, SEATO (observer), UN (observer 1952-76), UNCTAD, UNDP, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

 1 Jun 1946                Republic of Cochinchina (Cong hoa Nam Ky)(literally, "Republic
                             of the Southern
Part", in French: République de Cochinchine).
                             Also in official use 1948-1949:
South Vietnam (Nam phan Viet
                             Nam
, literally "Southern Region of Vietnam", in French:
                            
Sud Viêt Nam
/République autonome de Cochinchine).

27 Oct 1946 -  9 Dec 1955  (South) Vietnam a member of the French Union (Union
                             Française).

23 May 1948                Vietnam (Viet Nam)
 
4 Jun 1949                Cochinchina formally becomes part of Vietnam (South).
14 Jun 1949                State of Vietnam (Quoc gia Viet Nam),
a French associated state.
21 Jul 1954                Division formalized by Geneva Accords.
26 Oct 1955                Republic of Vietnam (Viet Nam Cong hoa)(aka South Vietnam).
27 Jan 1973                Paris Peace Accords signed.
30 Apr 1975                Republic of South Vietnam (Cong hoa Mien Nam Viet Nam), NFL
                             forces
occupy Saigon.
 2 Jul 1976                Unification with North Vietnam as Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Chairmen of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Cochinchina
 1 Jun 1946 - 10 Nov 1946  Nguyen Van Thin                    (b. 1888 - d. 1946)  IDP
15 Nov 1946 -  7 Dec 1946  Nguyen Van Xuan                    (b. 1892 - d. 1989)  Mil
 7 Dec 1946 -  8 Oct 1947  Le Van Hoach                       (b. 1896 - d. 1978)  Non-party
President of the Provisional Government of South Vietnam
 8 Oct 1947 - 23 May 1948  Nguyen Van Xuan                    (s.a.)               Mil

President of the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam
23 May 1948 - 14 Jun 1949  Nguyen Van Xuan                    (s.a.)               Mil
Heads of State
14 Jun 1949 - 26 Oct 1955  duc Bao Dai                        (b. 1913 - d. 1997)  Non-party
                             (= Nguyen Vinh Thuy)
30 Apr 1955 - 26 Oct 1955  Ngo Dinh Diem (acting for Bao Dai) (b. 1901 - d. 1963)  CL+NRM
                            
(= Jean-Baptiste Ngo Dinh Diem)
26 Oct 1955                Ngo Dinh Diem                      (s.a.)              
CL+NRM
President

26 Oct 1955 -  2 Nov 1963  Ngo Dinh Diem                      (s.a.)               CL+NRM
Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee
 2 Nov 1963 - 30 Jan 1964  Duong Van Minh (1st time)          (b. 1916 - d. 2001)  Mil

Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Council
30 Jan 1964 -  8 Feb 1964  Nguyen Khanh (1st time)            (b. 1927 - d. 2013)  Mil 

Head of State
 
8 Feb 1964 - 16 Aug 1964  Duong Van Minh (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Mil 

President (Chairman)
16 Aug 1964 - 27 Aug 1964  Nguyen Khanh (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Mil

Chairman of the Provisional Leadership Committee
27 Aug 1964 -  8 Sep 1964 
Provisional Leadership Committee
                           - Nguyen Khanh                     (s.a.)               Mil
                           - Duong Van Minh                   (s.a.)               Mil

                           - Tran Thien Khiem                 (b. 1925)            Mil
 8 Sep 1964 - 26 Oct 1964  Duong Van Minh (3rd time)          (s.a.)               Mil
Head of State
26 Oct 1964 - 14 Jun 1965  Phan Khac Suu                      (b. 1905 - d. 1970)  Non-party

Chairman of the Committee for the Direction of the State
(literally Committee for State Leadership)
14 Jun 1965 -  1 Sep 1967  Nguyen Van Thieu                   (b. 1924 - d. 2001)  Mil

Presidents
 1 Sep 1967 - 21 Apr 1975  Nguyen Van Thieu                   (b. 1923 - d. 2001)Mil;1968 NSDF
21 Apr 1975 - 28 Apr 1975  Tran Van Huong                     (b. 1903 - d. 1982)  Non-party 

28 Apr 1975 - 30 Apr 1975  Duong Van Minh (4th time) (acting) (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam
30 Apr 1975 -  2 Jul 1976  Huynh Tan Phat                     (b. 1913 - d. 1989)  NLF
                             (in rebellion from 8 Jun 1969)

Chief of the Provisory Government 
26 Mar 1946 - 30 May 1946  Nguyen Van Thin                    (s.a.)               IDP
Prime ministers
13 Jun 1949 - 21 Jan 1950  Bao Dai                            (s.a.)               Non-party
21 Jan 1950 - 26 Apr 1950  Nguyen Phan Long                   (b. 1888 - d. 1960)  DLH
27 Apr 1950 -  6 Jun 1952  Tran Van Huu                       (b. 1896 - d. 1984)  Non-party
 6 Jun 1952 - 17 Dec 1953  Nguyen Van Tam                     (b. 1895 - d. 1990)  VNQ
12 Jan 1954 - 16 Jun 1954  Prince Nguyen Phuoc Buu Loc        (b. 1914 - d. 1990)  Non-party
16 Jun 1954 - 26 Jun 1954  Phan Huy Quat (1st time)(acting)   (b. 1909 - d. 1979)  DVP
26 Jun 1954 - 26 Oct 1955  Ngo Dinh Diem                      (s.a.)               NRM
26 Oct 1955 -  4 Nov 1963  Post abolished
 4 Nov 1963 - 30 Jan 1964  Nguyen Ngoc Tho                    (b. 1908 - d. 1976)  Non-party
 8 Feb 1964 - 29 Aug 1964  Nguyen Khanh (1st time)            (s.a.)               Mil
29 Aug 1964 -  3 Sep 1964  Nguyen Xuan Oanh (1st time)        (b. 1921 - d. 2003)  Non-party
                             (acting)
 3 Sep 1964 -  4 Nov 1964  Nguyen Khanh (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Mil
 4 Nov 1964 - 28 Jan 1965  Tran Van Huong (1st time)          (s.a.)               Mil
28 Jan 1965 - 15 Feb 1965  Nguyen Xuan Oanh (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting)
16 Feb 1965 -  8 Jun 1965  Phan Huy Quat (2nd time)           (s.a.)               DVP
19 Jun 1965 - 31 Oct 1967  Nguyen Cao Ky                      (b. 1930 - d. 2011)  Mil
31 Oct 1967 - 17 May 1968  Nguyen Van Loc                     (b. 1922 - d. 1992)  Mil
28 May 1968 -  1 Sep 1969  Tran Van Huong (2nd time)          (s.a.)               NSDF
 1 Sep 1969 -  4 Apr 1975  Tran Thiem Khiem                   (s.a.)               DVP+NSDF
 4 Apr 1975 - 24 Apr 1975  Nguyen Ba Can                      (b. 1930 - d. 2009)  DC
28 Apr 1975 - 30 Apr 1975  Vu Van Mau                         (b. 1914 - d. 1998)  NRF
Chairman of the Presidium of the Consultative Council
30 Apr 1975 -  2 Jul 1976  Nguyen Huu Tho                     (b. 1910 - d. 1996)  NLF
                             (in rebellion from 8 Jun 1969)

French High Commissioners (at Saigon)
14 Aug 1945 - 27 Apr 1953  the High Commissioners of French Indochina
French Commissioners of the Republic in (South) Vietnam
 6 Jun 1949
- 21 Nov 1949  Pierre Boyer De La Tour du Moulin  (b. 1896 - d. 1976)
                             (interim)
21 Nov 1949 - 31 Jul 1951  Charles Marie Chanson              (b. 1902 - d. 1951)
 1 Aug 1951 - 27 Sep 1951  Raoul Albert Louis Salan           (b. 1899 - d. 1984)
                             (acting)
27 Sep 1951 - 27 Apr 1953  Paul Louis Bondis                  (b. 1895 - d. 1986)
Commissioners-general

27 Apr 1953 - 21 Jul 1956  the Commissioners-general of French Indochina

Commanders of U.S. Military Assistance Command in Vietnam (MACV)
 8 Feb 1962 - 20 Jun 1964  Paul Donal Harkins                 (b. 1904 - d. 1984)
20 Jun 1964 - 22 Mar 1968  William Childs Westmoreland        (b. 1914 - d. 2005)
22 Mar 1968 - 30 Jun 1972  Creighton Williams Abrams, Jr.     (b. 1914 - d. 1974)
30 Jun 1972 - 29 Mar 1973  Frederick Carlton Weyand           (b. 1916 - d. 2010)

Party abbreviationsCL = Can Lao Nhan Vi Cach Mang Dang (Personalist Labor Revolutionary Party, "Can Lao", personalist, anti-communist, 1954-1963); DC = Dan Chu Dang (Democratic Party, 1973-1975); DLH = Dan Lap Hien/Parti Constitutionnaliste (Constitutional Party, 1923-1939); DVP = Dai-Viet Quoc Dan Dang (Nationalist Party of Greater Vietnam, "Dai Viet", nationalist, anti-communist, 1939-1975); IDP = Parti Democrate Indochinois (Indochinese Democratic Party, 1937-1947); NLF = Mat tran Dan toc Giai phong mien Nam Viet Nam (National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, "Vietcong", communist, 1960-1977); NRF = Luc Luong Hoa Giai Hoa Hop Dan Toc (National Reconciliation Force, pacificist, Buddhist, 1974-1975); NRM = Phong Trao Cach Mang Quoc (National Revolutionary Movement, pro-Dinh Diem party, 1954-1963); NSDF = National Social Democratic Front (anti-communist, center-right, Nguyen Van Thieu led coalition of 6 parties: Greater Union Force, Social Humanist Party [successor to CL], Revolutionary Dai Viet, the Social Democratic Party, United Vietnam Kuomintang, and People's Alliance for Social Revolution, 1968-1975); VNQ = Viet-Nam Quoc Dan Dang (Vietnam Nationalist Party, "Viet Quoc", democratic socialist, 1927-1975); VPDH = Viet-Nam Phục quoc Dong minh Hoi (League for the National Restoration of Vietnam, constitutional monarchist, 1939-1951); VQD = Viet-Nam Quoc gia Doc lap Dang (Vietnam National Independence Party, Vietnamese nationalist,10 Mar 1945 - Aug 1945); Mil = Military


Alternative Government: Provisional Revolutionary Government of Republic of South Vietnam

[National Liberation
                        Front of Vietnam ("Viet-Cong") (South
                        Vietnam) 1963-1975]
8 Jun 1969 - 30 Apr 1975
(from 1963 in use by NLF)

 8 Jun 1969                Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of
                             South Vietnam established, in rebellion against the
                             Republic of Vietnam (Saigon) government.
30 Apr 1975                NLF assumes control of South Vietnam.

Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam
 8 Jun 1969 - 30 Apr 1975  Huynh Tat Phat                       (b. 1913 - d. 1989)  NLF

Chairman of the Presidium of the Consultative Council
 8 Jun 1969 - 30 Apr 1975  Nguyen Huu Tho                       (b. 1910 - d. 1996)  NLF

Party abbreviation: NLF = Mat tran Dan toc Giai phong mien Nam Viet Nam (National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, "Vietcong", South Vietname insurgent communist, 1960-1977)



North Vietnam
 
[North Vietnam
                          1945-1955 (Vietnam)]
29 Sep 1945 - 30 Nov 1955
[North Vietnam
                          1955-1976 (Vietnam)]
Adopted 30 Nov 1955
Map of North Vietnam Hear National Anthem
"Tiên Quân Ca"
(Marching to the Front)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 9 Nov 1946
(in use from 13 Aug 1945)
Constitutions
(1 Jul 1960-1980;
9 Nov 1946 - 1960)
Capital: Hanoi Currency: 1958-1978 North Vietnam New Dong (VDD);
 1953-1958 North Vietnam
 Piastre Dong (VDD); 1946-1953
Viet Minh Piastre Dong
Viet (VDP)
National Holiday: 2 Sep (1945)
Independence Day
Population: 23,930,000
 (1973 est.)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $50-60 million (1965)
Imports: $110-220 million (1965)
Ethnic groups: Vietnamese, Chinese, Thai
Total Armed Forces (NVA): N/A
Merchant marine: 5 ships (1974)
Religions: Buddhist, Roman Catholic, atheist
International Organizations/Treaties (1946-1976): ACCT, Comecon (observer 1956-1978), ICRM, LORCS, UN (observer 1975-76), WFTU, WHO, WMO

27 Aug 1945                Provisional Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
 
2 Sep 1945                Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Viet Nam dan chu cong hoa),
                             Vietnam is proclaimed independent and sovereign state).
 9 Sep 1945 -  6 Mar 1946  Allied (Chinese) occupation (see under
French Indochina).
 2 Jul 1976                Unification with South Vietnam as
Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Chairman of the Central Committee of the Indochinese Communist Party
(from 19 Feb 1951, Vietnam Workers' Party)

Oct 1930 -  2 Sep 1969     Ho Chi Minh                        (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
                           
(= Nguyen Sinh Cung [changed to Nguyen Tat Thanh],
                            pseudonyms Nguyen Ai Quoc, Ly Thuy)

First Secretaries
of the Central Committee of the Vietnam Workers' Party
(top party post from 2 Sep 1969)

May 1941 -  1 Nov 1956     Truong Chinh                       (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
 1 Nov 1956 - 10 Sep 1960  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)
10 Sep 1960 - 20 Dec 1976  Le Duan                            (b. 1908 - d. 1986) 

Chairman of the Provisional Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
27 Aug 1945 -  2 Mar 1946  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)               DCSD
Chairman of the Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
 
2 Mar 1946 - 19 Aug 1948  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)               DCSD
State Presidents
of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
19 Aug 1948 -  2 Sep 1969  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)            DCSD;1951 DLDV
 3 Sep 1969 -  2 Jul 1976  Ton Duc Thang                      (b. 1888 - d. 1980)  DLDV
                             (acting to 23 Sep 1969)

Prime ministers
30 Aug 1945 - 20 Sep 1955  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)            DCSD;1951 DLDV
20 Sep 1955 -  2 Jul 1976  Pham Van Dong                      (b. 1908 - d. 2000)  DLDV

Party abbreviation: DCSV = Dang Cong san Viet-Nam (Communist Party of Vietnam, Marxist-Lenninst communist, only legal party in North Vietnam; original name Vietnamese Communist Party [Dang Cong san Viet Nam][DCSV] Feb 1930-Oct 1930, successive names were: Indochinese Communist Party [Dong Duong Cong san Dang][DCSD], Oct 1930-Feb 1951, which was officially dissolved 11 Nov 1945 and merged into League for the Independence of Vietnam [Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi] "Viet Minh", although DCSD continued in secret to 1951; Vietnam Workers's Party [Dang Lao Dong Viet Nam][DLDV] Feb 1951-Dec 1976; and from 20 Dec 1976 renamed DCSV)


Socialist Republic of Vietnam


 2 Jul 1976                Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Cong hoa xa hoi chu nghia Viet Nam),
                             unification of Vietnam.

First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Vietnam Workers' Party
 2 Jul 1976 - 20 Dec 1976  Le Duan                            (b. 1908 - d. 1986) 
General Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam
20 Dec 1976 - 10 Jul 1986  Le Duan                            (s.a.)
14 Jul 1986 - 18 Dec 1986  Truong Chinh (= Dang Xuan Khu)     (b. 1908 - d. 1988)
18 Dec 1986 - 27 Jun 1991  Nguyen Van Linh                    (b. 1915 - d. 1998)
27 Jun 1991 - 29 Dec 1997  Do Muoi (= Nguyen Duy Cong)        (b. 1917 - d. 2018)
29 Dec 1997 - 22 Apr 2001  Le Kha Phieu                       (b. 1931 - d. 2020)
22 Apr 2001 - 19 Jan 2011  Nong Duc Manh                      (b. 1940)
19 Jan 2011 -         &nbbsp;    Nguyen Phu Trong                   (b. 1944)


State Presidents
 2 Jul 1976 - 30 Mar 1980  Ton Duc Thang                      (s.a.)            DLDV;1976 DCSV
30 Mar 1980 -  4 Jul 1981  Nguyen Huu Tho (acting)            (b. 1910 - d. 1996)  DCSV
Chairmen of the Council of State
 4 Jul 1981 - 18 Jun 1987  Truong Chinh                       (s.a.)               DCSV
18 Jun 1987 - 23 Sep 1992  Vo Chi Cong (= Vo Toan)            (b. 1913 - d. 2011)  DCSV
State Presidents
23 Sep 1992 - 24 Sep 1997  Le Duc Anh                         (b. 1920 - d. 2019)  DCSV
24 Sep 1997 - 27 Jun 2006  Tran Duc Luong                     (b. 1937)            DCSV
27 Jun 2006 - 25 Jul 2011  Nguyen Minh Triet                  (b. 1942)            DCSV 
25 Jul 2011 -  2 Apr 2016  Truong Tan Sang                    (b. 1949)            DCSV
 2 Apr 2016 - 21 Sep 2018  Tran Dai Quang                     (b. 1956 - d. 2018)  DCSV
21 Sep 2018 - 23 Oct 2018  Dang Thi Ngoc Thinh (f) (acting)   (b. 1959)            DCSV
23 Oct 2018 -         &nbbsp;    Nguyen Phu Trong                   (s.a.)               DCSV

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
 2 Jul 1976 - 18 Jun 1987  Pham Van Dong                      (s.a.)            DLDV;1976 DCSV
18 Jun 1987 - 10 Mar 1988  Pham Hung                          (b. 1912 - d. 1988)  DCSV
10 Mar 1988 - 22 Jun 1988  Vo Van Kiet (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1922 - d. 2008)  DCSV
22 Jun 1988 -  8 Aug 1991  Do Muoi                            (s.a.)               DCSV
 8 Aug 1991 - 24 Sep 1992  Vo Van Kiet (2nd time)             (s.a.)               DCSV
Prime ministers
24 Sep 1992 - 25 Sep 1997  Vo Van Kiet                        (s.a.)               DCSV
25 Sep 1997 - 27 Jun 2006  Phan Van Khai                      (b. 1933 - d. 2018)  DCSV
27 Jun 2006 -  7 Apr 2016  Nguyen Tan Dung                    (b. 1949)            DCSV
 7 Apr 2016 -              Nguyen Xuan Phuc                   (b. 1954)            DCSV

Territorial Disputes: Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of Asian swine fever; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area and establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; China occupies the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending beyond as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in Mar 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Economic Exclusion Zone negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary; in May 2018, Russia's RosneftVietnam unit started drilling at a block southeast of Vietnam which is within the area outlined by China's nine-dash line and Beijing issued a warning.

Party abbreviation: DCSV = Dang Cong san Viet Nam (Communist Party of Vietnam, communist, 
authoritarian, government party, to 20 Dec 1976 named Vietnam Workers's Party [Dang Lao Dong Viet Nam], est.1930)








© Ben Cahoon