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Shan and Karenni States of Burma

Shan states: Hkamti Long (Kantigyi) - Hopong (Hopon) - Hsahtung (Thaton) - Hsamönghkam (Thamaingkan) - Hsawnghsup (Thaungdut) - Hsenwi (Theinni) (North Hsenwi - South Hsenwi) - Hsihkip (Thigyit) - Hsipaw (Thibaw) - Hsumhsai (Hsum Hsai) - Kehsi Mangsam (Kyithi Bansan) - Kengcheng (Kyaingchaing) - Kenghkam (Kyaingkan)Kenglön (Kyainglon) - Kengtawng - Kengtung (Kyaington) - Kokang (Ko Kang) - Kyawkku Hsiwan (Kyaukku) - Kyong (Kyon) - Laihka (Legya) - Lawksawk (Yatsauk) - Loi-ai (Lwe-e) - Loilong (Lwelong) - Loimaw (Lwemaw) - Manglön (Manglun) - Maw (Baw) - Mawkmai (Maukme) - Mawnang (Bawnin) - Mawsön (Bawzaing) - Mönghsu (Maingshu) and Möngsang (Maingsin) - Möngkawng (Mogaung) - Möngküng (Maingkaing) - Möngleng (Mohlaing) - Mönglong - Möngmao - Möngmit (Momeik) - Möngnai (Mone) - Möngnawng (Maingnaung) - Möngpai (Mobye) - Möngpan (Maingpan) - Möngpawn (Maingpun) - Möngping (Maingpyin) - Möngsit (Maingseik) - Möngtung (Maington) - Möngyang (Mohnyin) - Möngyawng - Namhkai (Nanke) - Namhkok (Nankok) - Namhkom (Nankon) - Namtok (Nantok) - Nawngmawn (Naungwun or Naungmon) - Pangmi (Pinhmi) - Pangtara (Pindara) - Poila (Pwehla) - Sakoi (Sagwe) - Samka (Saga) - Singaling Hkamti (Zingalein Kamti) - Tawnpeng (Taungbaing) - Wanmaw (Bhamo) - Wanyin (Banyin) - Wuntho - Yawnghwe (Nyaungywe) - Yengan (Ywangan) - Wa states: Wa - Karenni states: Bawlake - Kantarawadi - Kyebogyi - Nammekon - Naungpale -

Note
: "Burma" before 1948 consisted of the British colonial territory (covering the extinct kingdoms of "Burma," Talaing (Pegu), and Arakan, as well as some minor lands), together with two groups of states, whose status was similar to that of the Indian princely states: the Shan states and the Karenni states. "Shan" is a Burmese word, cognate with "Siam"; the Shan states are

ethnically Tai, closely related to the majority population of Thailand; for a time they, and nominally the Wa states (see below), formed the "Shan State" in independent Burma. The Karenni states formed for a time the "Kayah State" in independent Burma. On 29 Apr 1959, the Shan and Karenni rulers formally surrendered their remaining ruling powers to their respective state governments. Population data is given only for the states that still existed during the 1931 census.

Shan (Tai) states

Note: In the interest of comprehensiveness, a number of states are listed for which no record of rulers is available. The ruler of a major Shan (Tai) state is styled saohpa (Burmese: sawbwa); in minor states the ruler may be styled myoza or ngwegunhmu. From 1903, the saohpas of the four states of Hsipaw, Kengtung, Möngnai, and Yawnghwe were granted permanent hereditary salute of 9 guns. Burmese names of the states are given in parentheses. Unless specifically noted below, the remaining Shan states in 1948 were included in the Shan State.

Map of Shan States c.1910
Capital: Taunggyi
(Maing Thauk [Fort Stedman]
1888-1894)

Population (of Federated Shan States): 1,506,447 (1931),
1,617,000 (1941)


1887                       British protectorate over the Shan States (some states submitted
                             only by 1890), part of the British India.
 1 Oct 1922                Federated Shan States formed by U.K. (34 Northern and
                             Southern Shan states, not including the Wa states and outlying
                             Shan states) as sub-entity of the British Burma.
 1 Apr 1937                By the Burma Act,the Federated Shan States (and nominally the
                             Wa states) are administratively separated from Burma proper
                             and put under a secondary administrative circle.
Apr 1942 - 25 Sep 1943     Japanese occupation of western and northern part of the states
                             (de facto to Mar 1945).
May 1942 - Aug 1945        Thailand occupies the parts of Shan States east of Salween River
                            (Kengtung [Kyaington]and Möngpan), which are annexed by
                             Thailand on 18 Aug 1943 and named the Saharat Thai Doem.
25 Sep 1943 -  3 May 1945  Part of the State of Burma, except the Thai-annexed area.
 4 Jan 1948                Shan State formed (three outlying Shan states not included),
                             part of the independent Union of Burma.

British Superintendents for Northern Shan States (at Lashio)
May 1888 - 1891            Hugh Daly                          (b. 1860 - d. 1939)
Jul 1892 - 1893            James George Scott                 (b. 1851 - d. 1935)
Aug 1893 – 22 Sep 1893     W.A. Graham (acting for Scott)
22 Sep 1893 – 22 May 1894  Leslie Harry Saunders (acting)     (b. 1868 - d. 1926)
May 1894 - c.1896          Lawrence Edward Eliott (acting)    (b. 1859 - d. 1902)
c.1899 – Jun 1900          Henry George Ashworth Leveson      (b. 1869 - d. 1928)
Jun 1900 - 1903?           George Claudius Beresford Stirling (b. 1861 - d. 1929)
1903 – 16 Mar 1904         Godfrey Drage                      (b. 1868 - d. 1953)
190. - 16 Jul 1907         Douglas Gallon Robertson
1907? - 1920               Hugh Aylmer Thornton               (b. 1872 - d. 1962)
                             (acting to Sep 1909)
1920                       Edward Butterfield (acting)        (b. 1880 - d. 19..)
Apr 1920 –  7 Sep 1921     Edward Oliver Fowler               (b. 1869 - d. 19..)
 7 Sep 1921 – 18 Oct 1921  J.E. Baker
18 Oct 1921 – 28 Dec 1921  Ernest Frederick Baum              (b. 1881 - d. 19..)
28 Dec 1921 – c.1925       Henry Hallet Batten                (b. 1881 - d. 19..)
1925 - 1927                Frank Samuel Grose (1st time)      (b. 1881 - d. 1941)
                             (acting)
Oct 1927 - c.1931          Godfrey Eric Harvey                (b. 1889 - d. 1965)
Mar 1933 - Oct 1935?       Frank Samuel Grose (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Oct 1935? - c.1938         John Shaw                          (b. 1890 - d. 19..)
c.1940 - c.1941            Arthur William Porter              (b. 1887 - d. 19..)
British Superintendents for Southern Shan States
(at Ft. Stedman to 1894, then Taunggyi)
Jan 1888 - Mar 1902        Arthur Hedding Hildebrand          (b. 1843 - d. 1918)
 1 Nov 1897 – 1898         Bertram Sausmarez Carey            (b. 1861 - d. 1919)
                             (acting for Hildebrand)
 8 Mar 1902 - 1910         Sir James George Scott             (s.a.)
1904 -  1 Aug 1906         Bertram Sausmarez Carey            (s.a.)
                             (acting for Scott)
Mar 1910 - 1920?           George Claudius Beresford Stirling (s.a.)
Apr 1920 - 15 Jan 1921     Hugh Aylmer Thornton               (s.a.)
15 Jan 1921 - 24 Apr 1922  George Percy Andrew
24 Apr 1922 –  8 Jun 1922  William Raleigh Head               (b. 1880 - d. 1946)
 8 Jun 1922 – c.1925       William Fitzwilliam Grahame        (b. 1871 - d. 1935)
1925 - 1942                the British Resident Commissioners
                           for the Federated Shan States
British Resident Commissioners for the Federated Shan States
and Chairmen of the Shan Federated States Council (in Taunggyi)
May 1925 - 1931?           James Leslie McCallum              (b. 1879 - d. 1948)
                             (acting to May 1929)
c.1931                     Idwal Geoffrey Lloyd (acting)      (b. 1878 - d. 1946)
May 1931 - Mar 1937        John Clague                        (b. 1882 - d. 1958)
c.1936                     Harold Lacy Nichols                (b. 1884 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Clague)
1935? - 10 Sep 1937        Frank Samuel Grose                 (s.a.)
                             (acting for Clague)
11 Sep 1937 - 25 May 1938  Philip Christopher Fogarty         (b. 1885 - d. 1942)
                             (1st time)
26 May 1938 -  9 Jun 1938  Henry Hewat Craw (acting)          (b. 1882 - d. 1964)
 9 Jun 1938 - 1941         Philip Christopher Fogarty         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Nov 1941 – Jun? 1942       Charles Frederick Byrde Pearce     (b. 1892 - d. 1964)
Japanese High Commissioners for the Shan States
25 Nov 1942 -  6 Feb 1943  Saichiro Nakada
 7 Feb 1943 - 30 Jun 1943  Nagahide Tanifuji
 1 Jul 1943 - 23 Dec 1943  Nishimura Takuma                   (b. 1889 - d. 1951)
Thai Military governor in Kengtung (Kyaington) and Möngpan
Dec 1942 - 1945            Phin Choonhavan                    (b. 1891 - d. 1973)
British Resident in the Northern Shan States
1945 - 1948?               John Walter Leedham                (b. 1905 - d. 1992)
British Resident in the Southern Shan States

1945? - 1948               Arthur William Humphrey Breakey    (b. 1909 - d. ....)
Directors of the Frontier Areas Administration
(in Rangoon)
Jun 1945 – 15 Aug 1945     Charles Frederick Byrde Pearce     (s.a.)
16 Aug 1945 – 17 Oct 1945  Frank Siegfried Vernon Donnison    (b. 1898 - d. 1993)
                             (acting)
Oct 1945 - Jan 1947        Henry Noel Cochrane Stevenson      (b. 1903 - d. 1984)
Jan 1947 - 1948            John Lamb Leyden                   (b. 1904 - d. 1988)

Hkamti Long (Kantigyi)

Capital: Putao
Population: 5,349 (1931)

1948                       Part of the Kachin State.


Rulers (title Saohpa)
c.1860 - c.1862            ...
c.1862 - 1910              San Nwe Cho                        (b. 1837 - d. 1910)
1910 - 1915                San Nwe No                         (b. 1855 - d. 1915)
13 Aug 1915 - af.1926      Sao Hpa Hkan                       (b. c.1854 - d. 19..)


Hopong (Hopon)

Capital: Hopong
Population: 11,617 (1931)

c.1783                     Hopong (Hopon) state founded.

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu; from 1946, Saohpa)
c.1783 - 1808              ....
1808 - 1818                Hkun Kya
1818 - 1833                Hkun Sin
1833 - 1845                Hkun Nan
1845 - 1851                Hkun Lin
1851 - 1858                Hkun Hti
1858 - 1875                Maung Nyom
1875 - 1885                Hkun Hsuriya
1885                       Hkun Hseng
1885 (6 months)            Hkun O
Rulers (title Myoza)
1885 - 1893                Hkun Wara
1893 - 1900                Hkun Tse
1900 - 1952/59             Sao Hkun Law                       (b. 1895 - d. 19..)
1900 - 1902                Hkun Htawn -Regent                 (b. 18.. - d. 1902)
Sep 1903 - 1904            .... (f) -Regent
1904 - 1914                Nan Keng Hkam -Regent              (b. 1875 - d. 19..)


Hsahtung (Thaton)

Capital: Hsihseng
Population: 11,965 (1931)

c.1781                     Hsahtung (Thaton) state founded.

Rulers
(title Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
c.1781 - ....              Hkun San U [1st ruler]
.... - ....                Maung Myat Aung
.... - ....                Maung Naing
.... - 1837                Maung Pyu                          (d. 1837)
1837 - 1852                Hpaw Di                            (d. 1852)
1852 - 1873                Hkun Wara                      
1873 - 1896                Hkun O                             (d. 1896)
1896 - 1905                Hkun Law                           (b. 1874 - d. 1905)
18 Sep 1905 - 1930         Hkun Hseng                         (b. c.1876 - d. 1930)
1930 - 1946                Sao Hkun Kyi                       (b. 1901 - d. 1946)
1946 - 1959                Sao Aung Myint                     (b. 1934)
1946 - 1957                Phu -Regent



Hsamönghkam (Thamaingkan)

Capital: Hsamönghkam
Population: 21,760 (1931)

c.1759                     Hsamönghkam state founded.

Rulers (title Myoza; 6 Nov 1848-1899 Ngwegunhmu; from 1946, Saohpa)
1759 - c.1807              Maung Pon
1807 - 1825                Maung Shwe Pon
1825 - 1834                Maung Shwe E (1st time)
1834 - 1842                Maung Me (1st time)                  (d. 1848)
1842 - 1847                Maung Shwe E (2nd time)
1847 - 1848                Maung Me (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
 6 Nov 1848 - 1867         Maung Shwe Min (1st time)            (d. 1886)
1867                       Maung Lin (1st time)
1867 - c.1874              Maung Tha U
c.1875 - 1876              Maung Kyi
c.1875 - 1876              Maung Shwe Ni -Regent
1876 - c.1877              Maung Lin (2nd time)
c.1877 - 1885              Maung Su Ka
1885 - 1886                Maung Shwe Min (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1886 - 1923                Min Maung Hpo                        (b. 1854 - d. 1923)
1923 - 1959                Sao Htun E                           (b. 1914 - d. 1985)
1923 - 1926                Sao Hkun Hti, Myoza of Mawnang-Regent(b. 1886 - d. 1926)
1926 - 1937                Sao San Mya, Myoza of Poila -Regent  (b. 1894 - d. 1939)


Hsawnghsup (Thaungdut)

Capital: Hsawnghsup
Population: 7,239 (1931)

1948                       Part of the Sagaing Division.

Rulers (title Saohpa to 1760, from 1806)
c.1757 - 1760              Sao Kan Po [first ruler)            (d. 1760)
1760 -  ....               Sao Sa
.... -  ....               Sao Pon
.... - 1782                Sao Ti Kyaing
1782 - 1813                Sao Haw Nga
1813 - 1827                Sao Leik Kan
1827 - 1834                Sao Aung Ba -Regent
1834 - 22 Oct 1880         Sao Shwe Maung
1880 - 1893                Ni Kan
1893 - 1899                Sao Kin Mun  
1899 - af.1926             Sao Tun                              (b. 1860 - d. 19..)
1929 - 19..                Sao Kun Saung


Hsenwi (Theinni)

bf.650                     Legendary foundation of Hsenwi (ritual name: Sivirattha).
Mar 1888                   State split into North Hsenwi (by the 1920's usually called
                             Hsenwi) and South Hsenwi (by the 1920's usually called
                             Mongyai, after its capital).
 

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1686 - 1721                Hso Hung Hpa  
1721                       Se U III -Regent (2nd time)
1721 - 1724                Han Hpa Hko Hkam Hung -Regent
1724 - 1730                Hpawng Mong Long Hsung Wat   
1730                       Mong Hkam -Regent
1730                       Hkam Hong -Regent (1st time) 
1730 - 1746                Sao Hkam Hsawng Hpa
1746                       Hkam Hong -Regent (2nd time)
1746 - c.1747              Sao Hkun Hseng Hong
c.1747 - 1750              Mahadevi Wing Hsup Pang -Regent
1750                       Hkam Hong -Regent (3rd time)
1750 - 1751                Sao Mang Te
1751 - 1752                Hkam Hong -Regent (4th time)
1752 - 1761                Vacant
1761 - 1767                Hkun Hseng Awng Tun
1767 - 1770                Myauk Win Hmu -Regent
1770 - 1772                Sayawadi Wun
1772 - 1773                Sety-taw Wun
1773 - 1775                U Teng Pong Nya
1775 - 1775                Vacant
1778 - 1800                Sao Hswe Cheng (= Kon)
1800                       Hsup Pang -Regent
1800 - 1815                Sao Hsö Kaw
1815 - 1819                Mogaung Wun -Regent
1819 - 1821                Sao Naw Möng
1821 - 1824                Hkun Hkam Hkawt
1824 - 1827                Sao Hkam Pak
1827 - 1831                Sao Hkam Nan
1831 - 1838                Sao Hkun Maung Lek
1838 - 1845                Sao Hkam Leng (= Hsö Hkan Hpa)    (d. 1847)
1845 - 1848                Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (1st time)      (d. 1864)
1848 - 1853                Vacant
1853 - 1855                Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (2nd time)
1855 - 1858                Vacant
1858 - 1860                Sao Hpa Mawng Hpa (1st time)      (d. 1891)
1860 - 1863                Vacant
1863 - 1864                Sao Hpa Mawng Hpa (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1864 - 1866                Shwe Pyi Bo
1866 - 1867                U Ma Nga
1867 - 1869                Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (3rd time)      (s.a.)
1869 - 1873                Vacant
1873 - 1874                Win Hmu
1874 - 1875                Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (4th time)      (s.a.)
1875 - 1876                Natsu Letya
1876 - 1879                Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (5th time)      (s.a.)
1879 - Mar 1888            Hkun Hsang Tone Hung              (b. 1852 - d. 1915)


North Hsenwi (Hsenwi)

Capital: Hsenwi
Population: 243,499 (1931)

Rulers (title Saohpa)
Mar 1888 - Dec 1915        Hkun Hsang Tone Hung              (s.a.)
1915 - 1959                Sao Hom Hpa                       (b. 1906 - d. 1963)
1915 - Jul 1927            .... -Regent

South Hsenwi (Mongyai)

Capital: Mongyai
Population: 82,672 (1931)

Rulers (title Saohpa)
Mar 1888 - 1913            Sao Naw Möng                      (b. 1855 - d. 1913)
1913 - 1946                Sao Song                          (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
1946 - 29 May 1959         Sao Hsu Hom                       (b. 1917 - d. 1989)



Hsihkip (Thigyit)

c.1600                     Hsihkip state founded.
1886                       State incorporated into Yawnghwe.

Rulers (title Myoza)
.... - ....                Hkun Kaw Tha
c.1782                     Hkun Hla Baw
1800?                      Hkun Chok
18.. - 18..                Hkun Hpe
18.. - 18..                Hkun Daw
18.. - 18..                Maung Paw
18.. - 18..                Maung Paik
18.. - 18..                Hkun Hmom
18.. - 18..                Hkam Lin -Regent
184. - 184.                Hkun Nyun
184. - 1848                Twet Kye -Regent
1848 - 1851                Hkun Ywe
1851 - 1862                Hkun Ton
1863 - 1870                Son Hkun Hpon
1870 - 1886                Maung Hnya



Hsipaw (Thibaw)

Capital: Hsipaw
Population: 148,731 (1931)

58 BC                      Legendary foundation of Hsipaw (ritual name: Dutavadi).
1938 - 1942                Administered by Burma.
1945 - 1947                Administered by Burma. 

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1675 - 1702                Hso Wai Hpa
1702 - 1714                Sao Okka Wara
1714 - 1718                Sao Okka Seya
1718 - 1722                Sao Sam Myo
1722 - 1752                Sao Hkun Neng
1752 - 1767                Sao Sawra Tawta
1767 - 1788                Sao Myat San Te
1788 - 1809                Sao Hswe Kya
1809 - 1843                Sao Hkun Hkwi
1843 - 1853                Sao Hkun Paw
1853 - 1858                Sao Kya Htun                       (d. 1866)
1858 - 1866                Hkun Myat Thade
1866 -  8 May 1902         Sao Kya Hkeng (deposed 1882-86)    (d. 1902)
                             (from Mar 1886, Sao Hkun Hseng)
 8 May 1902 - May 1928     Sao Hke                            (b. 1872 - d. 1928)
                             (from 2 Jan 1928, Sir Sao Hke)
1928 - Jul 1938            Sao Ohn Kya                        (b. 1893 - d. 1938)
1938 - 1959                Sao Kya Seng                       (b. 1924 - d. 1962)
1942 - 1945                Sao O -Regent



Hsumhsai (Hsum Hsai)

1911                       Incorporated into Hsipaw.

Rulers (title Saohpa)
.... - 1846                ....
Rulers (title Hseng)
1846 - 18..                ....
18.. - 1886                Maung Pwe
Rulers (title Myoza)
1886 - 1887                Soi Kong Kyawk Teng -Regent
30 Nov 1887 - 1894         Hkun Meik  
1894 - Jan 1897            Vacant
Jan 1897 - ....            Maung Kun Hmon



Kehsi Mangsam (Kyithi Bansan)

Capital: Kehsi Mangsam
Population: 21,809 (1931)

Rulers (title Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
1860 - 1881                Hkun Yawt
1881 - 1914                Hkun Yawt Hseng                    (b. 1844 - d. 1914)
1914 - 1922                Hkun Long                          (b. 1881 - d. 1922)
1922 - 1948                Sao Hkun Lu                        (b. 1889 - d. 1948)
1948 - 1959                Sao Shwe Hmon                      (b. 1907 - d. 1975)


Kengcheng (Kyaingchaing)

1892                       State incorporated into Kengtung.
1896                       Given to Siam by British.

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu; by c.1880 Myoza)
18.. - 1881                Sao Kawng Tai                      (d. 1885)
1881 - 1882                Sao Hsiri
1882 - 1892                Hkun Hsang                         (b. 1862 - d. 19..)



Kenghkam (Kyaingkan)

1811                       Kenghkam state founded.
1870 - 1874                State incorporated into Möngnai.
1878 - 1882                State incorporated into Möngnai.
1919                       State incorporated into Möngnai.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1811 - 1854                Bodaw Sao Hkam Yi
1855 - 1864                Sao Hkun Mwe
1864 - 1870                Naw Hkam Leng
1870 - 1870                incorporated into Möngnai
1874 - 1878                Sao Hkun Long
1878 - 1882                incorporated into Möngnai
1882 - c.1889              Sao Naw Süng
c.1889 - 1905              Hkun Un                            (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
1905 - 1919                Hkun Nawng Hkam                    (b. 1891 - d. 1919)
1905 - 1914                Sao Nang Tid Hti La (f) -Regent    (b. c.1872 - d. 19..)


Kenglön (Kyainglon)

1926                       State incorporated into Kehsi Mangsam.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1857 - 1873                Maung Pwin (= Hkun Pwin)           (d. 1873)
1873 - 1874                Naw Hkam U
1874 - 1885                Hkun Tawa
1885 - 1888                Hkun Tawn                          (b. c.1842 - d. ....)
1888 - 1926                Hkun Mong                          (b. 1844 - d. 1926)



Kengtawng

bf.1882                    Incorporated into Möngnai.

Rulers
.... - ....                ....



Kengtung (Kyaington)

Capital: Kengtung
Population: 225,894 (1931)

....                       Kengtung state (ritual name: Khemarattha) founded in
                             legendary antiquity.
1802 - 18..                Occupied by Lan Na (Chhiangmay)(now in Thailand).
18.. - 1813                Occupied by Burma.
18 Aug 1943 - Aug 1945     Annexed to Thailand

Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja)
.... - ....                Sao Awk
.... - 1730                Sao Möng Lek                       (b. 1646 - d. 1730)
1730 - c.1735              Sao Maung Hkawn (1st time)         (b. 1706 - d. 17..)
c.1735 - 1739              Vacant
1739 - 1742                Sao Maung Hkawn (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1742 - 1786                Sao Möng Hsam                      (b. 1744 - d. 1786)
1787 - 1802                Sao Kawng Tai I (1st time)         (b. 1769 - d. 1813)
1814 - 1815                Sao Kawng Tai I (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1815 - 1857                Sao Maha Hkanan                    (b. 1781 - d. 1857)
1857 - 1876                Sao Maha Pawn                      (b. 1814 - d. 1876)
1877 - 1881                Sao Hseng                          (b. 1818 - d. 1881)
1881 - 1885                Sao Kawng Tai II                   (b. 1829 - d. 1885)
1886 - 1895                Sao Kawn Kham Hpu                  (b. 1874 - d. 1895)
 7 May 1895 - 21 Jul 1935  Sao Kawn Kyaw Intaleng             (b. 1874 - d. 1935)
                             (administrator to 9 Feb 1897)
21 Jul 1935 - Aug 1935     Sao Kaung Tai                      (b. 1899 - d. 1935)
1935 - 1959                Sao Sai Long                       (b. 1927 - d. 1997)
1935 - 1942                V.G. Roberts -Regent
1943 - 1945                Sao Hprom Lue -Regent              (b. 1895 – d. 19..)
1946 - 1947                Sao Sai Mong -Regent               (b. 1913 - d. 1987)


Kokang (Ko Kang)

Capital: Kokang
 (Ko Kang)
Population: 40,000 (1941)

1739                       Kho Kan state established
1795                       Renamed Ko Kang.
1840                       Accepted the sovereignty of Hsenwi, became a district within
                             the state of Hsenwi (from 1888 North Hsenwi), but remained,
                             in effect, an autonomous sub-state under the Chinese Yang
                             dynasty.
1894                       Part of China by the British-Chinese boundary convention.
 4 Feb 1897                Under British protection after China relinquishes jurisdiction.
12 Aug 1947                Recognized as a separate Shan state.

Rulers 
1739 - 1758                Yang Shien Tsai (Cai)              (b. 1685 - d. 1758)
1758 - 1795                Yang Wei Shin (Xing)               (d. 1795)
Rulers (title Heng)
1795 - 1840                Yang Yon Gen                       (b. 1770 - d. 1840)
1840 - 1874                Yang Guo Hwa                       (b. 1814 - d. 1874)
1874 - 1916                Yang Guo Zhen (Hkun Lu Kwan)       (b. 1840 - d. 1919)
Rulers (title Myoza)
1916 - 17 Jan 1927         Yang Chun Yon                      (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
                             (= Yang Shwin, Yong Tzu Ye)
17 Jan 1927 - 25 Aug 1947  Sao Yang Wen Pin                   (b. 1897 - d. 1949)
                            (arrested by Nationalist Chinese
                             1943-1944; in India exile 1944 - Oct 1945)
1944 - 1945                Yang Wen Tsan -Regent              (b. 1904 - d. 1997)
Rulers (title Saopha)
25 Aug 1947 - 1949         Sao Yang Wen Pi                    (s.a.)
1949 - 17 May 1959         Sao Edward Yang Kyein Tsai         (b. 1918 - d. 1971)



Kyawkku Hsiwan (Kyaukku)

c.1600                     Kyawkku Hsiwan state founded.
1928                       Incorporated into Polia.


Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
.... - ....                Nga San Bon
.... - ....                Nga San Mya
.... - 1783                Nga San Ma
1783 - 1820                Nga Kaw Tha
1820 - 1821                Nga Thi Ri
1821 - 1843                Nga Chit Win
1844 - 1852                Nga Shwe Maung I (1st time)
1852 - 1856                Nga Shwe Yit -Regent
1856 - 1863                Nga Shwe Maung I (2nd time)
1863 - 1865                Nga Yan Kon -Regent
1865 - 1873                Nga San
1873 - 1874                Nga Shwe Maung II -Regent
1874 - 1876                Nga Tha U -Regent
1876 - 1877                Nga Tun -Regent
1877 - 1881                Nga Pai Su (Nga Pyan)
1881 - 1924                Maung Nga Thaing                    (b. 1873 - d. 1924)
1924 – 1928                Hkun Han


Kyong (Kyon)

Capital: Kyong
Population: 2,571 (1931)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu; 1917?-1946 Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
.... - ....                Maung Aung Hla
....  - 1867               Maung San Nyun
1867 - af.1908             Min Maung Po                       (b. 1841 - d. 19..)
c.1910                     Maung Kaing
1917 – 1946                Pho Tin                            (b. 1873 - d. 1946)
1946 – 1959                Sao Hkun Saung                     (b. 1904 - d. ....)


Laihka (Legya)

Capital: Laihka
Population: 36,319 (1931)

1505                       Laihka state (ritual name: Hansavadi) founded.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1734 - 1794                Khun Lek
1794 - 1803                Law Na

1803 - 1807                La Hkam
1807 - 18..                Hkun Lek
Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Mahawunths Thiri Thudamaraza)
18.. - 1854                Hkun Lek
1854 - 1856                Shwe Ok Hka (= Shwe Taung Kyaw)
1856 - 1860                Hkun Long
1860 - 1862                Sao Hkam Mawng (1st time)
1862 - 1866                Hkun Hkawt
1866 - 1868                .... (f)
1868 - 1879                Sao Hkam Mawng (2nd time)
1879 - 1882                Vacant
1882 - 1917                Sao Hkun Lai                        (b. 1858 - d. 1917)
1917 - 1931                Sao Hkun Mawng
19.. - 1926                Maung Hla Gyi -Regent
1931 – 1959                Sao Num                             (b. 1906 - d. 1986)



Lawksawk (Yatsauk)

Capital: Lawksawk
Population: 30,102 (1931)

1630                       Lawksawk state founded (old name Rathawadi).
1881 - 1886                Occupied by Yawnghwe.

Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Maha Thiriwuntha Thudama)
1680 - 1707                Pai Hkam
1707 - 1729                Shwe Gyaw
1729 - 1753                Hkun Shwe Tha
1753 - Jul 1760            Tha Pun Minaung
1760 - 1763                Maung Gyi
1763 - Jul 1790            Shwe Yi
Jul 1790 - 1791            Vacant
1791 - 1792                Maung Kywet                        (d. 1792)
1791 - 1811                Hkun Sam Lik
1811 - 1812                Vacant
May 1812 - 1813            On Gaing                           (d. 1834)
1813 - 1850                Hkun Shwe Ek                       (d. 1850)
1850 - Dec 1854            Vacant
Dec 1854 - 1856            Lai Hka                            (d. 1856)
1856 - 1881                Sao Waing (1st time)               (b. 1846 - d. 1896)
1881 - 1886                Sai Pwin -Regent
1886 - Jan 1887            Sao Waing (2nd time)               (s.a.)
Jan 1887 - Oct 1887        Bo Saing -Regent
 9 Oct 1887 - 1900         Hkun Nu                            (b. 18.. - d. 1900)
1900 - 1946                Sao Hkun Hsok                      (b. 1863 - d. 1946)
1946 - 1959                Sao Hkun Hsar                      (b. 1895 - d. 1961)



Loi-ai (Lwe-e)

1930                       Incorporated into Hsamönghkam.

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
.... - ....                Maung Baung [1st ruler]
.... - ....                Maung Maing
.... - 1814                Paw Kyi
1814 - 1834                Maung Shwe
1834 - 1864                Kaw Thaw
1864 - 1868                Maung Kaing                        (d. 1870)
1868 - 1869                Nga Meik -Regent
1869 - 1870                Nga Hpo -Regent
1870 - Oct 1903            Hkun Shwe Kyn                      (b. 18.. - d. 1903)
Oct 1903 - 1913            Maung Po Kinm                      (b. 1876 - d. 1913)
1913 - 1929                Maung Sao Maung                    (b. 1904 - d. ....)
1913 - 1925                Chit Pa -Regent                    (b. 1853 - d. 19..)


Loilong (Lwelong)

Capital: Pinlaung
Population: 37,163 (1931)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu; from 1946, Saohpa)
1779 - 1794                Laten
1794 - 1799                La Tein
1799 - 1812                Latu
1812 - 18..                Ba Tin -Regent (1st time)
1812 - 18..                Shwe Ni
18.. - 18..                Ba Tin -Regent (2nd time)
18.. - 18..                Shwe Aung
18.. - 18..                Ba Tin -Regent (3rd time)
18.. - 18..                Nga Po
.... - 1854                Hkun Na                            (d. 1854)
1854 - 1856                Hkun San Da                        (d. 1856)
1856 - 1880                Hkun Pu (La Mu)                    (d. 1882)
Rulers (title Myoza)
1880 - 1882                Hkun Pu                            (s.a.)
1882 - 1938                Sao Hkun Hkam Chok                 (b. 1874 - d. 1938)
1883 - 1895                Hkun Tangye -Regent
1938 - 1959                Sao Moe Kyaw                       (b. 1917)
1938 - 1940                Sao Myat Htun -Regent


Loimaw (Lwemaw)

c.1800                     Loimaw state founded.
1928                       Incorporated into Yawnghwe.

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
.... - ....                Muang Hpo Sao (1st time)           (d. 1844)
.... - 1834                Maung Hpo Gok                      (d. 1837)
1834 - 1844                Maung Hpo Sao (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1844 - 1847                Maung Lok                          (d. 1847)
1847                       Maung Shwe Daung
1847 - 1874                Maung Shwe Pyi (1st time)          (b. 1830 - d. 1902)
1847 - 1853                Maung Tok Gyi -Regent              (d. 1853)
1853 - Aug 1855            Twet Min -Regent                   (d. 1855)
1874 - 1876                Vacant
1876 - 1877                Maung Kya
1877 - 1878                Vacant
12 Feb 1878 - 1880         Maung Meik
1880 - 1886                Maung Chit
1886                       Maung At                           (d. 1897)
1886 - 1902                Maung Shwe Pyi (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1902 - 1925                Hkun Kyaw                          (b. 1861 - d. 1925)
c.1926                     Council (4 members)


Manglön (Manglun)

Capital: Takut
Population: 38,304 (1931)

1814                       Manglön state founded (ritual name: Jambularattha).
1870 - 1892                Divided into East and West 
Manglön.

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1814 - 1822                Hsö Hkam (= Ta Awng)               (d. 1822)
1822 - 1852                Sao Hkun Sang (= Khun Sing)        (d. 1852)
1852 - 1853                Uyaraza (Upayaza)                  (d. 1854)
1853 - 1860                Naw Hpa (Nawpha)                   (d. 1860)
1860 - 1919                Sao Tön Hsang (= Tun Sang)         (b. 1831 - d. 1919)
                             (1870-1892, in East Manglön)
1870 - 1877                Hsang Kyaw (in West Manglön)
1877 - 1892                Sao Maha (in West Manglön)
1919 - 1946                Sao Hka Nan                        (b. 1892 - d. 1946)
1946 - 1959                Sao Hman Lek                       (b. 1922)


Maw (Baw)

Capital: Myogyi
Population: 6,775 (1931)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
.... - ....                Ko Thien Shin [1st ruler]
.... - ....                Thudewa
.... - ....                .... [12 rulers]
.... - ....                Maung Chwin
17.. - 1873                Maung Kya O
1873 - ....                Maung Yit -Regent
1873 - 1907                Maung Nyo Hlaing                   (b. 1860 - d. 1921) 
.... - 1882                Maung On Gaing -Regent
Rulers (title Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
1907 - 1921                Maung Nyo Hlaing                   (s.a.) 
1921 – 1945                Sao Hkun Nawng                     (d. 1945)
1921 - 1928                MMaung Thu Daw, Ngwegunhmu of      (b. 1878 – d. 19..)
                             Yengan -Regent  
1928 - 1937                .... -Regent
1945 - 1959                Sao Hkun Aung                      (d. 1970) 


Mawkmai (Maukme)

Capital: Mawkmai
Population: 38,796 (1931)

1767                       Mawkmai state founded (ritual name: Lokavadi).

Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Mahawuntha Thiriraza)
1767 - c.1800              Hsai Khaio
1800 - 1818                Hsai Kyaw
1818 - 1824                Awk Hkun
1824 - 1831                Let To
1831 - 1844                Hkam U
1844 - 1867                Ko Lan (1st time)                  (d. 1887)
1867 - 1868                Hkum Hmôm I
1868 - 1887                Ko Lan (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
1887 - 1888                Hkun Hmôm II (1st time)            (b. c.1864 - d. 1899)
Mar 1888 - 1888            Hkun Noi Kyu
1888 - 1899                Hkun Hmôm II (2nd time)
1899 - 30 Nov 1906         Hkun Htun Peng                     (b. 1883 - d. 1906)
1899 - 1904                Hkun Ne -Regent (1st time)         (b. 1865 - d. 19..)
30 Nov 1906 - 1915         Sao Hkun Leng                      (b. 1898 - d. 1915)
30 Nov 1906 - 1909         Hkun Ne -Regent (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1915 - 1952/59             Sao Hkun Hkawng                    (b. 1885 - d. 19..)


Mawnang (Bawnin)

Capital: Mawnang
Population: 3,331 (1931)

1931                       Incorporated into Hsamonghkam.

Rulers (title Myoza)
.... - ....                Hkam Hon [1st ruler]
.... - ....                Nam Hkam Lin
.... - ....                Maung Ne Dun
.... - ....                Maung Kut
.... - ....                Maung Kye
.... - ....                Maung La
.... - ....                Sao Ta
.... - 1736                Maung Saung
1736 - 1752                Ye Tut
1752 - 1766                Tha Son
1766 - c.1767              Maung Myat (1st time)
c.1767 - 1774              Vacant
1774 - ....                Maung Myat (2nd time)
.... - ....                Naw Hkam Lin
.... - ....                Maung Kaung
.... - ....                Maung Pot
.... - ....                Maung Maung
.... - 1883                Hkun Hkam
1883 - 1886                Hkun Shwe Hkam -Regent
1886 - Apr 1907            Sao Hkim                           (b. 1851 - d. 1907)
Apr 1907 - 1926            Sao Hkun Hti                       (b. 1886 - d. 1926)
c.1928                     Sao San Mya, Myoza of              (b. 1894 - d. 1939)
                             Poila -Administrator  

Mawsön (Bawzaing)

c.1429                     Mawsön (Bawzaing) state founded.
1921                       Incorporated into Yawnghwe.

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)

.... - 1784                Maung Nwe
1784 - ....                Maung Pwe
.... - ....                Maung Kyaw
.... - ....                Maung Waing
.... - 1878                Maung Nyun
1878 -  4 Nov 1921         Maung Kya Ywet                     (b. 1851 - d. 1921)


Mönghsu (Maingshu) and Möngsang (Maingsin)

Capital: Mönghsu
Population: 16,410 (1931)

1857                       Mönghsu and Möngsang states, in personal union, founded (from
                             c.1910 usually considered a single state, named Mönghsu).

Rulers (title Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
1857 - 1879                Hkun Mon
1879 - 1901                Hkun Maha
1901 - 1917                Sao Hkun Kyaw                      (b. 1845 - d. 1917)
1917 - 19..                Hkun Sao                           (b. 1845 - d. 19..)
1920 - 1952                Sao Hkun Htun                      (b. 1873 - d. 1952)
1952 - 1959                Sao Hman Hpa                       (b. 1922)


Möngkawng (Mogaung)

58 BC                      Legendary foundation of Möngkawng state
                             (ritual name: Udiri Pale).
1479 - 1483                Occupied by China.
1495 - 1495                Occupied by China.
1651 - 1742                Occupied by Burma.
1771 - 1775                Occupied by Burma.
1796                       Incorporated into Burma.

Ruler (title Saohpa)
1663 - 1673                Sui Yaw
1673 - 1729                Sui Kyek
1729 - 1739                Hum
1739 - 1748
               Haw Seing (1st time)                (d. 1777)
1748 - 1765                Haw Kam
1765 - 1768                Haw Seing (2nd time)                (s.a.)
1768 - 1771
               Maung Kiaw
1771 - 1775                Maung Piu                           (d. 1775)
1775 - 1785                Vacant
1785 - 1796                Yaw Pan Kyung



Möngküng (Maingkaing)

Capital: Möngküng
Population: 37,208 (1931)

1835                       Möngküng state founded (ritual name: Langkavadi).

Ruler (title Myoza 1835-54, 1863-73; Saohpa 1854-63, from 1873)
1835 - 1860                Hkun Long                          (d. 1860)
1860 - 1863                Hkun Long II
1863 - 1873                Gu Na                              (d. 1873)
1873 - 1879                Hkun San Kwan
1879 - 1927                Sao Hkun Mong                      (b. 1873 - d. 1927)
1879 - 1883                Heng Hkon Sang -Regent
1928 - 1932                Sao Num                            (b. 1903 - d. 1932)
1932 - 1959                Sao Kyi                            (b. 1903 - d. ....)


Möngleng (Mohlaing)

bf.1910                    Incorporated into Hsipaw.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1840?                      Kya U
18.. - 1887                Hkam Leng



Mönglong

af.1894/bf.1910            Incorporated into Hsipaw.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1813? - 1842               Hsö Han Hpa
1842 - 1854                Hsö San Hpa (= Hkun Hsa)
1854 - 1866                Hsö Kawn Kyawng
1866 - 18..                Hkun Nyon
18.. - 1880                Hkun Yawt
1880 - 188.                Heng Nga Maung
188. - 1888                Hkun Saing (= Hsawng)
1888 - 1894                Hkun Hsa
1894 - ....                Sao Hke



Möngmao

568                        Möngmao state founded.
af.1604                    State extinguished.



Möngmit (Momeik)

Capital: Möngmit
Population: 59,865 (1931)

bf.1000                    Möngmit state founded (ritual name: Gandalarattha).

Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Gantalarahta Maha Thiriwuntha Raza)
1830? - 1837               Maung Hmaing
1837 - 1840                Maung E Pu (1st time)
1840 - 1850                ....
1850 - 1851                Maung E Pu (2nd time)
1851 - 1858                Hkun Te
1858 - 1861                Haw Kyin
1861 - 1862                Kaw San -Regent
1862 - 1867                Maung Yo
1867 - 1874                Hkam Mo
1874 - 1883                Kan Ho                             (d. 1883)
1883 - 1936                Sao Kin Maung Gye                  (b. 1883 - d. 1936)
1883 - 1887                Sao Maung -Regent (1st time)       (b. 1848 - d. 1929)
Apr 1887 - Apr 1889        Hkan U -Regent                     (b. 18.. - d. 1903)
Apr 1889 -  2 Feb 1892     Sao Maung -Regent (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1892 – 1906                .... -Regent
Feb 1936 - 1959            Sao Hkun Hkio                      (b. 1912 - d. 1990)


Möngnai (Mone)

Capital: Möngnai
Population: 55,791 (1931)

bf.1800                    Möngnai state founded (ritual name: Saturambha).

Rulers (title Myoza)
c.1802 - 1848              Maung Shwe Paw
1848 - 1850                Maung Yit
1850 - 1851                U Po Ka
1852                       U Shwe Kyu
Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Mahawunthiri Pawara Thudamaraza)
1852 - 1875                Hkun Nu Nom
1875 - 1882                Hkun Kyi (1st time)                (b. 1847 - d. 1914)
1882 - 1888                Twet Nga Lu (usurper)              (d. 1888)
1888 - 1914                Hkun Kyi (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 6 May 1914 - 1928         Sao Hkun Kyaw Sam                  (b. 1861 - d. 1928)
1928 - 1949                Sao Hkun Kyaw Ho                   (b. 1888 - d. 1949)
1949 - 1959                Sao Pye                            (b. 1914 - d. af.1968)


Möngnawng (Maingnaung)

Capital: Möngnawng
Population: 42,990 (1931)

Rulers (title Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
1851 - 1866                Heng Awn                           (d. 1866)
1866 - 1868                Hkun Hkang                         (d. 1868)
1868 -  9 Aug 1906         Hkun Tun                           (b. 1858 - d. 1906)
 9 Aug 1906 - 1919         Sao Hkun Long                      (b. 1851 - d. 19..)
1919 - 1954                Sao Hkun Hsar                      (b. 1876 - d. 1954)
1954 - 1959                Sao Ohn Maung                      (b. 1915 - d. 1974)


Möngpai (Mobye) 
 


Capital: Möngpai
Population: 21,637 (1931)

Rulers
1685 - 1692                Maing Yin                         (d. 1692)
1692 - 1759                Vacant
1759 - c.1763              Nga Hte Mang

Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Mahawuntha Thiridamaraza)
c.1763 - 1766              Thi Gyit
1766 - 17..                Ye Kyan Dewa (1st time)
17.. - 1783                .... 
1783 - 1803                Ye Kyan Dewa (2nd time)
1803 - 1805                Hkun Pya
1805 - 1808                Hkan Maung
1808 - 1820                Hkan Hlaing (1st time)            (d. 1836)
1820 - 1823                Nga Kyi -Regent
1823 - Jul 1836            Hkan Hlaing (2nd time) 
Jul 1836 - 1890            Hkun Yon                          (b. 18.. - d. 1900)
1890 - 30 Dec 1907         Hkun Hsuriya                      (b. 1852 - d. 1907)
1890 - 1900                Hkun Yon -Regent                  (s.a.)
26 May 1908 - 1952/59      Sao Hkun Ping Nya                 (b. 1881 - d. 19..)



Möngpan (Maingpan)

Capital: Möngpan
Population: 20,712 (1931)

1637                       Möngpan state founded (ritual name: Dhannavadi).
18 Aug 1943 - Aug 1945     Part of the state annexed to Thailand.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1637 - ....                Tawk La
.... - ....                Twak Hkam
.... - ....                Twak Twe    
.... - ....                Op La    
.... - ....                Hkun Som
.... - ....                Shwe Tong
.... - ....                Sai U
.... - ....                Sai Nyo
.... - 1809                Naw Hkam                           (d. 1809)
1809 - 1823                Mana Ne Myo                        (d. 1823)
1823 - 1858                Maung Shwe Hkam                    (d. 1858)
1858 - 1867                Hkun Tun U                         (d. 1886)
Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Mahawuntha Thirdamaraza)
1867 - 1886                Hkun Tun U                         (s.a.)
1886 - 1918                Hkun Num Leng                      (b. 1869 - d. 1918)
1918 - 1947                Sao Hkun On                        (b. 1887 - d. 1947)
1947 - 1959                Sao Shwe Kyi                       (b. 1921 - d. 2007)


Möngpawn (Maingpun)

Capital: Möngpawn
Population: 14,359 (1931)

1816                       Möngpawn state founded (ritual name: Rajjavadi).

Rulers
1816 - 1860                Hkun Lek                           (d. 1860)
1860 - 1882                Hkun Hti                           (b. 1847 - d. 1928)
Rulers (title Myoza; from 1887, Saohpa)
1882 - 1928                Sao Hkun Hti                       (s.a.)
1928 - 19 Jul 1947         Sao Sam Htun                       (b. 1907 - d. 1947)
20 Jul 1947 - 1959         Sao Hso Hom                        (b. 1936)



Möngping (Maingpyin)

af.1842                    State incorporated into Lawksawk.

Rulers
1835 - 1842                Hkam Hlaing
1842 - ....                Hkam Kaw



Möngsit (Maingseik)

Capital: Möngsit
Population: 6,458 (1931)

13 Feb 1935                Incorporated into Mawkmai.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1816 - 18..                ....
18.. - 1857                Sao Haw Pik
1857 - 18..                Hkun Kyaw San
18.. - 1873                Hkun Lu
1873 - 1876                Nang Li (f)
1873 - 1876                Hkam Yi -Regent (1st time)
1876 - 1880                Sao Leng Leong
1880 - 1883                Hkam Yi -Regent (2nd time)
1883 - af.1908             Hkam Pwin                          (b. 1861 - d. ....)
19.. - 1935                Sao Hkun Pawng                     (d. 1935)


Möngtung (Maington)

1886 - 1888                Occupied by Hsenwi.
bf.1910                    Incorporated into Hsipaw

Rulers (title Myoza)
.... - ....                Hkun Sang Kang
.... - ....                Hkun Kyaw Htam
.... - 1886                Hkun Hsa
1888 - 1896                Hkun Lun
1896 - 19..                Haw Yawt



Möngyang (Mohnyin)

bf.1400                    Möngyang state established.
1579 - 1584                Occupied by Burma.
af.1604                    Incorporated into Burma.



Möngyawng

17..                       Möngyawng state founded.
... - 1814                 Siamese occupation.
1815                       State incorporated into Kengtung.

Rulers (title Myoza)
c.17.. - 17..              Tao Luk
17.. - 17..                Tao Ngam  
17.. - 17..                Sunabnta
17.. - 17..                Sulang Ka Wutti
17.. - ....                Inta Wasai
.... - ....                ....
.... - ....                Hsai Ya Kuman I
.... - ....                Hsen Sulin (= Surin Pumintha)
.... - ....                Hsai Ya Kuman II
.... - ....                Sao Yawt
1814 - 1815                Maha Hkanan
1815                       Buddha Wong



Namhkai (Nanke)

1917                       Incorporated into Loilong.

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
1808 - 1852                Nga Dammaa                         (d. 1852)
1852 - 1867                Hkun Pe                            (d. 1867)
1867 - 1874                Hkun Pan (1st time)                (d. 1891)
1874 - 1875                Nga Meik -Regent
1875 - 1876                Nga Po
-Regent
1876 - 27 Jun 1888         Hkun Hwaing
Jul 1888 -  5 Jan 1891     Hkun Pan (2nd time)                (s.a.)
Jan 1891 - 1916            Hkun Kye                           (b. 1862 - d. 1916)



Namhkok (Nankok)

Capital: Namhkok
Population: 6,153 (1931)

1744                       Namhkok state founded.

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu; 1887-1946 Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
1744 -  ....               Hkun Myat I
.... - ....                Hkun Kaw
.... - ....                Hkun Hkam I
.... - ....                Hkun Mawng
.... - ....                Hkun Pok (1st time)
.... - ....                Hkun Awng Hkam
.... - ....                Hkun Pok (2nd time)
.... - c.1897              Hkun Hkam II
c.1897 - 1900              Hkun Hseng
1900 - 1915                Hkun Myat II                        (b. 1889 - d. 1915)
1900 - 10 Aug 1906         Hkun Num Uk -Regent                 (b. 1882 - d. 19..)
1915 - 1931                Sao Hkun Pwang                      (n. 1898 - d. 1982)
1931 - 1946                Sao Sam Htun, Saohpa of Möngpawn    (b. 1907 - d. 1947)
1946 - 1950                Sao Htun Yin, Saohpa of Nawngmawn   (b. 1912 - d. 1950)
1950 - 1959                Sao Hkun Phu, Saohpa of Nawngmawn


Namhkom (Nankon)

1881                       State incorporated into Kyawkku.

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
17.. - 1783                Maung Su Daung                     (d. 1783)
1783 - ....                Maung San
.... - ....                Maung Shwe Tok
.... - 1857                Maung Tun                          (d. 1857)
1857 - 1881                Maung Pyan



Namtok (Nantok)

1771                       Namtok state founded.
1821 - 1824                Karenni (Kayah) occupation.
1931                       State incorporated into Loilong.

Rulers
1771 - 1816                Maung Shwe Tha
1816 - 1824                Maung Yi
Rulers (title Ngegunhmu)
1824 - 18..                Maung Yi
18.. - 18..                Hkun Taw
18.. - 18..                Hkun Pwe
18.. - 18..                Hkun Pwang
18.. - 18..                Hkun Hmam
18.. -  9 Oct 1892         Hkun Pu                            (d. 1892)
1892 - c.1931              Hkun Maung                         (b. 1866 - d. c.1931)


Nawngmawn (Naungwun or Naungmon)

Capital: Nawngmawn
Population: 2,673 (1931)

1602                       Nawngmawn state founded.

Rulers (title Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
.... - 1866                Hkun Hpu
1866 - 1870                .... -Regent
1870 - 1894                Hkun Wa                            (d. 1894)
1894 - 1930                Sao Hkun Htun Ok                   (b. 1882 - d. 1930)
1894 - 1902                .... -Regent
1931 - 1946                Sao Sam Htun, Saohpa of Möngpawn   (b. 1907 - d. 1947)
1946 - 1950                Sao Htun Yin                       (b. 1912 - d. 1950)
1950 - 1959                Sao Hkun Phu


Pangmi (Pinhmi)

Capital: Pangmi
Population: 2,789 (1931)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu; 1938-1946 Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
.... - ....                Maung Hke
.... - ....                Maung San Myat
.... - ....                Maung U
.... - 1870                Hkun Yeik                          (d. 1870)
1870 - 1901                Hkun Shwe Daung                    (b. 18.. - d. 1901)
1901 - 1934                Maung Hkun Min Nyunt               (b. 1871 - d. 1934)
1934 - 1959                Maung Hkun Po Min


Pangtara (Pindara)

Capital: Pangtara
Population: 13,139 (1931)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu; 1911?-1946 Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
.... - ....                Maung Ne Htun [1st ruler]
.... - ....                Maung Aung Kyu
.... - ....                Maung Myit
.... - 1783                Maung Pyi Sao                      (d. 1783)
1783 - 1796                Maung Shwe Bwin                    (d. 1796)
1796 - 1802                Maung Than
1802 - 1809                Maung Pe I
1809 - 1819                Maung Khan U
1819 - 1843                Maung Shwe Min
1843 - 184.                Mi Thit (f)
184. - 184.                Mi Sit (f)
184. - 1850                Maung Hpo Eik
1850 - 1851                Maung Shwe Thi -Regent
1851 - 1857                Maung Myat Hpu
1857 - 1859                Maung Pe II
1859 - 1860                Maung Lun Ya (1st time)            (d. 1882?)
1860 - 1861                Maung Hpo -Regent
1862 - 1868                Maung Than (1st time) -Regent
1868 - 1869                Maung Lun Ya (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1869 - 1871                Maung Than (2nd time)
1871 - 1872                Maung Kyaw Hla -Regent
1872 - 1873                Maung Nyo -Regent
1873 - 1875                Maung Tha U -Regent
1875 - 1876                Maung Htu -Regent
1876 - 1877                U Hlaing -Regent
1877 - 1878                Maung Lun Ya (3rd time)            (s.a.)
1878 - 1880                Maung San Waing -Regent
1880 - 1882                Maung Lun Ya (4th time)            (s.a.)
1882 -  6 Jan 1897         Maung Hpo Hkin                     (d. 1897)
1897 - 1936                Maung Hkun San Nyo                 (b. 1890 - d. 1936)
1897 - 1911                O Un -Regent
1936 - 1959                Sao Win Kyi                        (b. 1924)
1936 - 1942                J.C. Poulton -Regent



Poila (Pwehla)

Capital: Poila
Population: 14,052 (1931)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)
1751 - ....                Baiknaya Bo [1st ruler]
.... - ....                Maung Ywe
.... - ....                Maung U
.... - ....                Maung Wun
.... - 1839                Maung Kaung
1839 - 1855                Maung Kyok
1855 - 1863                Maung Law Ma
1863 - 1875                Maung Po Thein
1875 - 1886                Maung Ywe
1886 -  1 Jan 1903         Maung Sao Nyunt                    (b. 1858 - d. 1919)
Rulers (title Myoza
; from 1946, Saohpa)
 1 Jan 1903 - 1919         Maung Sao Nyunt                    (s.a.)
1919 - 1939                Sao San Mya                        (b. 1894 - d. 1939)
1939 - 1959                Sao Htun Sein                      (b. 1921)
1939 - 1942                J.C. Poulton -Regent


Sakoi (Sagwe)

Capital: Sakoi
Population: 2,272 (1931)

1783                       Sakoi (Sagwe) state founded.

Rulers (title Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
1783 - ....                Paw Hmaing 
.... - ....                Hkun Sai
.... - ....                Bu Hkam
.... - ....                Awng Hkam
.... - ....                Hkun Kyin
.... - ....                Hkun Htung                         (d. 1878)
1878 - 1913                Hkun Htun                          (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
1913 - 1959                Sao Hkun Nyunt                     (b. 1880 - d. 19..)



Samka (Saga)

Capital: Samka
Population: 12,907 (1931)

1636                       Samka state founded.
1872 - 1873                Occupied by Hsenwi.

Rulers (title Myoza)
1636 - ....                Pyinmya Bala (Banya Bayan)
.... - ....                Hkun Lu
.... - ...                 Hkun Sring
.... - ...                 Naw Maing
.... - ...                 Ne Dun                             (d. c.1774)
c.1774                     Hkun Pyu
.... - 1838                Hkun Ye                            (d. 1838)
1838 - 1858                Hkun Sun (1st time)
1858 - 1860                Hkun Noi (1st time)                (d. 1883)
1860 - 1872                Hkun Sun (2nd time)
 5 Nov 1873 - 1876         Sao Sein Bu (1st time)             (b. 1856 - d. 1909)
1876 - 1876                Maung Pu -Regent                   (d. 1876)
1876 - 1883                Hkun Noi (2nd time)                (s.a.)
1883 - 1885                Hkun Pwin
30 Dec 1885 - 1897         Sao Sein Bu (2nd time)             (s.a.)
Rulers (title Saohpa)
1897 - 1909                Sao Sein Bu                        (s.a.)
1909 - 1959                Sao Hkun Kyi                       (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
1909 - 1915                Maung Nge -Regent



Singaling Hkamti (Zingalein Kamti)

Capital: Hkamti
Population: 2,157 (1931)

1820                       Singaling Hkamti state founded.
1948                       Part of the Sagaing Division.

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1820 - 1844                Sao Nyi Kaung
1844 - 1853                Sao Ai
1853 - 1882                Sao Hi
1882 - 1887                Vacant
1887 - 1892                Sao Ni Taung                     (b. 1861 - d. 1892)
1892 - 1893                Sao E -Regent (1st time)         (b. 1856 - d. 1927)
1892 - 1894                Sao Hon (= Po Hlaung)            (b. 1887 - d. 1894)
1894 - 1898                Ma Pu (f)                        (d. c.1898)
1894 - 1898                Sao E -Regent (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1898 - 1927                Sao E                            (s.a.)
1927 - 1933                Maung Ba Thein
1933 – af.1947             Sao Mya Sein


Tawnpeng (Taungbaing)

Capital: Namhsan
Population: 58,398 (1931)

1753                       Tawnpeng state founded (ritual name: Pappatasara).

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1753 - 1760                Ta Dwe Ba                           (b. 1681 - d. 1760)
1760 - 1764                Ba Hkun Mya                         (b. 1690 - d. 1764)
1764 - 1775                Ba Hkun Saing                       (b. 1700 - d. 1775)
1775 - 1781                Ba Dwe Taw                          (b. 1701 - d. 1781)
1781                       Ba Loi Lio                          (b. 1745 - d. 1810)
1781 - 1819                Ba Hkun Kein Möng                   (d. 1819)
1819 - 1837                Ba Hkun Hso                         (b. 1748 - d. 1837)
1837 - 1846                Ba Hkun Tan Möng                    (b. 1770 - d. 1846)
1847 -  4 Sep 1858         Shwe Ok Hka (= Shwe Taung Kyaw)
1858 - 1861                Hkun Hsa (= Ba Hkam Hkun Shinye)    (b. 1774 - d. 1865)
1861                       Hkun Gya                            (d. 1861)
1861 - 1865                Hkun Aung Hla                       (d. 1865)
1865 - 1880                Hkam Kwan
1880 - 1887                Hkun Hkam Möng (= Hkam Mon)         (b. 1821 - d. 1887)
1888 - 1895                Hkam Tan Möng (= Hkun Kyan)         (d. 1895)
1895 - 1926                Hkun Hseng Awn                      (b. 1871 - d. 1926)
Aug 1926 - 1959            Sao Hkun Pan Sein                   (b. 1894 - d. 1975)


Wanmaw (Bhamo)

1470                       Wanmaw state founded.
1669 - 1685                Occupied by Burma.
1767 - 1770                Occupied by Burma.
1772                       Incorporated into Burma. 

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1685 - 1706                Sao Pi Hpa
1706 - 1719                Sao Tun Hpa
1719 - 1720                Hpo U
1720 - 1727                Sao Mong Hpa
1727 - 1734                Sao Tung Ngai  I                    (d. 1734)
1734 - 1735                Vacant
1735 - 1742                KitHaw
1742 - 1770                Sao Tung Ngai II
1770 - c.1772              Sao Myut Aung                       (b. 1690 - d. c.1772) 



Wanyin (Banyin)

Capital: Wanyin
Population: 10,238 (1931)

1862 - 1865                Incorporated into Nawngwawn.

Ruler
1825 - 1862                ....
1865 - 1874                Hkun Sao                            (d. 1893)

Rulers (title Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
1874 - 1893                Hkun Sao                            (s.a.)
1893 - Jul 1897            Hkun Long                           (d. 1897)
1897 - 1903                Hkun Yon                            (b. 1871 - d. 19..)
1903 - af.1908             Hkun Ung                            (b. 1872 - d. 19..)
1918 - 1945                Sao Hkun Wai                        (b. 1895 - d. 1945)
1945 - 1959                Sao Sein Nyunt



Wuntho

bf.1200                    Wuntho state founded.
 7 Feb 1891                State incorporated into British Burma.

Rulers (title Saohpa)
1698 - 1703                Maung Sun
1703 - 1714                Kyaung Pyn
1714 - 1736                Myat Kaung
1736 - 1753                Vacant
1751 - 1756                Talaings
1756 - 1778                Aung Nyo
1778 - 1796                Maung Tin                          (d. 1796)
1796 - 1798                Maung Taw Zan                      (d. 1798)
1798 - 1827                Maung Tha Ywe
                             (administrator to 1802)
1827 - 1830                Maung Shwe
1830 - 1833                Maung Pe Nge
1833 - 1849                Shwe Thi
1849 - 1851                San Tit
1852 - 1878                Mama Shwe Tha                      (d. af.1891)
                             (from 1866, Mahawuntho Thohonbwa)
1878 -  7 Feb 1891         Maung Aung Myat                    (b. 1857 - d. af.1909)



Yawnghwe (Nyaungywe)

Capital: Yawnghwe
Population: 126,513 (1931)

1359                       Yawnghwe state founded (ritual name: Kambosarattha).

Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsarahta Thiri Pawaramahawuntha Thudamaraza) 
1695 - 1733                Hkam Leng
1733 - 1737                Htawk Sha Sa
1737 - 1746                Hsi Ton Sa
1746 - 1758                Hke Hsa Wa
1758                       Naw Mong I
1758 - 1761                Yawt Hkam
1761 - 1762                Hpong Hpa Ka-sa
1762 - 1815                Sao Yun
1815 - 1818                Sao Se U I
1818 - 1821                Naw Mong II
1821 - 1852                Sao Se U II
1852 - 1858                Sao Se Hom                         (d. 1858)
1858 - 1864                Sao Naw Hpa
23 Oct 1864 - 1885         Sao Maung (1st time)               (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
1886 - 1897                Sao Ohn                            (d. 1897)
1897 - Dec 1926            Sao Maung (2nd time)               (s.a.)
                             (from 1916, Sir Sao Maung)
Sep 1927 - 1959            Sao Shwe Thaik                     (b. 1896 - d. 1962)



Yengan (Ywangan)

Capital: Yengan
Population: 8,672 (1931)

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu; 1928-1946 Myoza; from 1946, Saohpa)
c.1857 - 1860              Maung Htun Lin                     (d. c.1864)
1861 - 1886                Maung Nyo Sein                     (d. 1886)
1886 - 1928                Maung Thu Daw                      (b. 1878 - d. 1928)
1886 (10 days)             Mi Thaung (f) -Regent
1886 (25 days)             Maung Chit + Heng Yin Yo -Regents
1887 - May 1898            Ohn Bin -Regent
1928 - 1956                Sao Hla Paw                        (b. 1882 - d. 1956)
1956 - 1959                Sao Hkun Yi                        (b. 1912 - d. 1982
)



Wa states

Capital: N/A
Population: 83,000 (1941)

....                       Undetermined number of Wa village chiefdoms and their confederacies.
1894                       Part of China by the British-Chinese boundary convention.    
 4 Feb 1897                China relinquishes jurisdiction in favor of the British, the Wa
                             states remained "unadministered" by the British.
1925                       Nominally placed under the British administration of the Shan states.
 4 Jan 1948                Included in the Shan State upon independence of Burma.
1960's                     Effectively ended by Communist insurgency.

Chiefs of Ving Ngun, leading the Ngeklet confederacy (the most prominent Wa rulers)
c.1947                     Jao Maha
c.196.                     Sao Maha



Karenni states

Map of Karenni States c.1917
Capital: Loikaw Population (of Karenni States): 58,761 (1931),
70,000 (1941)

21 Jun 1875                Recognized as independent by the British-Burmese treaty.
23 Jan 1892                British "feudatory" states, not included in the British India/Burma
                             (Kantarawadi state already from 28 Jan 1889).
10 Oct 1922                Placed under the British administration of the Shan states.
Apr 1942 - 25 Sep 1943     Japanese occupation (de facto to Mar 1945).
25 Sep 1943 -  3 May 1945  Part of the State of Burma.
 4 Jan 1948                Karenni State formed, part of independent Union of Burma.

Bawlake

Capital: Bawlake
Population: 13,802 (1931)

Rulers
1810? - 1850?              Po Bya Hla
1850? - 1872               La Kye
1872 - 23 Jan 1892         Paban                              (b. 1857 - d. 1916)
Rulers (title Myoza)
23 Jan 1892 - 1916         Paban                              (s.a.)
1916 - af.1940             Sao Hkun Nge                       (b. 1894 - d. 19..)
1942 - af.1946             Sao Nge Du                         (d. af.1988)
bf.1946 - af.1947          Bee Tu Reh -Administrator          (d. 1948)


Kantarawadi (Eastern Karenni)

Capital: Sawlon
Population: 30,677 (1931)

Rulers
1837?                      Maung Pon (= Pe Baw)
1845?                      Papaw Kyi
1850?                      Sao Lasa
c.1850 - 1866              Sao Pyatin
1866 - 1868                Sao Law Paw                        (d. 1930)
Rulers (title Myoza)
1868 - Dec 1888            Sao Law Paw                        (s.a.)
28 Jan 1889 -  3 Jan 1903  Sao Lawi I                         (b. 1852 - d. 1907)
Rulers (title Sawbwa, in Karenni Sawphyar)
 
1 Jan 1903 -  8 Jul 1907  Sao Lawi I                         (s.a.)
 
2 Dec 1907 - 1909         Sao Hkun Nan                       (b. 1880 - d. 1909)
22 Apr 1910 - 1930         Sao Hkun Li                        (b. 1891 - d. 1930)
1930 - 1959                Sao Lawi II                        (b. 1920 - d. 1987)
1930 - 1945                Sao Wunna -Regent                  (d. 1978)


Kyebogyi

Capital: Kyebogyi
Population: 14,282 (1931)

Rulers (title from 1892, Myoza)
1845 - 1868                ....
1868 - af.1875             Hkun Te
1890 - 27 Jan 1908         Hkun U                             (b. 18.. - d. 1908)
12 Jun 1908 - 1926         Hkun Sao                           (b. 1857 - d. 1926)
1926 - 1933                Hkun Bya                           (d. 1933)
1933 - af.1935             Hkun Hsu -Administrator
bf.1945 - af.1947          Sao Shwe -Administrator            (d. 1957)


Nammekon


bf.1926                    Incorporated into Kyebogyi.

Rulers (title from 1892, Myoza)
c.1860 - 1892              Po Bya                             (d. 1892)
1892 - 189.                Hkun Pya -Administrator
1899 - 1902                Hkun Baw                           (b. 1870 - d. af.1902)
1903 - af.1911             Pra To                             (b. 1863 - d. 19..)


Naungpale

bf.1926                    Incorporated into Kyebogyi.

Rulers
1845 - 23 Jan 1892         ....

Rulers (title Myoza)
23 Jan 1892 - 1897         ....
 8 Jul 1897 - 1916         Hkun Che                           (b. 1857 - d. 1916)
1916 - 19..                ....






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