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States of Burma 1948-1988

States: Chin - Kachin - Karen (Kayin) - Kayah (Karenni) - Mon - Rakhine - Shan State -

Note
s
: At independence on 4 Jan 1948, four autonomous national states (pranynai) were created: Kachin, Karen, Karenni (later Kayah), and Shan along with the Chin special division which was also granted autonomy. Effective local autonomy was ended on 2 Mar 1962 and the constitution of 3 Jan 1974 formally abolished federal autonomy and created three additional states: Chin, Mon, and Rakhine. In 1988, the elected state councils were abolished. In addition to the states, ethnic rebel political authorities that for a time exercised control over most of respective ethnic area (Karen, Karenni, Kachin) are recorded.

Burmese names are often seen prefixed with U (i.e., U Nu, U Ne Win), Chin names with Pu. This simply means Mr. and therefore this prefix is not included in this record.

Party abbreviations: AFPFL = Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (leftist, nationalist, pro-independence, 1944-1962); KIO = Kachin Independence Organization (Kachin autonomist, federalist, banned to 1994, est. 1960); KNO = Karenni National Organization (Karenni autonomist, federalist, banned from 1948, 1947-1957); KNU = Karen National Union (Karen autonomist, federalist, separatist 1949-2012, banned 1949-2012, est.5 Feb 1947); PSPB = Party of the Socialist Program of Burma ("Lanzin", socialist, 1962-88, only legal party 23 Mar 1964 - 18 Sep 1988); Mil = Military

Chin

 4 Jan 1948                Chin special division
 2 Mar 1962                Autonomy abolished.
 3 Jan 1974                Chin state

Ministers for Chin Affairs
1948                       Vum Ko Hau                                              AFPFL
1948
- 1952                Vum Thu Maung                      (b. 1900 - d. ....)  AFPFL
1952 - 195               Shein Htang                                             AFPFL
1954 - 1958                Za Hre Lian (1st time)                                  AFPFL
Oct 1958 - Jan 1959        Thang Lian
Jan 1959 - Dec 1959        Ral Hmung
1960 - 1962                Za Hre Lian (2nd time)
Chairmen of the Security and Administrative Committee

Mar 1962 - 1972            Son Khaw (Kho) Lian                                     Mil/PSPB
1972 - 1974                Khen Za Hmung                                           Mil/PSPB
Chairmen of State People's Council
1974 - 1978                Kap Cung Nung                                           Mil/PSPB
1978 - 1982                Kim Ngin                                                Mil/PSPB
1982 - 1986                Khai Mung Mang                                          Mil/PSPB
1986 - 1988                Son Khaw Vum                                            Mil/PSPB



Karen (Kayin)

[Kawthoolei
                          (Karen) state flag 1937-1964 (Burma)]
Flag of Kawthoolei

 4 Jan 1948                Karen state (postponed, until 27 Dec 1951 a special division).
31 Jan 1949                Karen rebellion begun, rebels occupy Toungoo (to 19 Mar 1950),
                             and Mandalay (13 Mar - 24 Apr 1949), and attempted siege of
                             Rangoon (to May 1949).
14 Jun 1949 - 19 Mar 1950  Karen rebels proclaimed their own separate state (Kawthoolei)
                             with its capital at Toungoo (rebels were based in Papun next
                             to Thai border
Jul 1950 - Mar 1955, afterwards continued as
                             guerillas until ceasefire in Jan 2012).
 2 Mar 1962                Renamed Kawthule state, autonomy abolished.
 1 Jan 1974                Renamed Kayen state.
18 Jun 1989                English spelling changed to Kayin state.

Ministers for Karen Affairs
1948                       Saw San Po Thin                    (b.c.1900-d.af.1951)
AFPFL
1948 - 1952                Mahn Ba Saing                      (b. 1907 - d.af.1961)AFPFL
Ministers and Heads of Karen State
Mar 1952 - Mar 1953        Claribel Ba Maung Chain (f)        (b. 1905 - d. 1994)  AFPFL
1953 - Jun 1955            Aung Pa                                                 AFPFL
Jun 1955 - Jun 1958        Saw Hla Tun (1st time)             (b. 1906 - d. ....)  AFPFL
Jun 1958 - 1958            Saw Lu Lu                          (d. af.1960)
1958 - Mar 1962            Saw Hla Tun (2nd time)             (s.a.)
Chairman of the Supreme State Council

Mar 1962 - Mar 1974        Saw Hla Tun                        (s.a.)               PSPB
Chairmen of State People's Council
1974 - 19..                ....
bf.1987 - 1988             Saw Aung Pwint                                          PSPB

Prime ministers of the Kawthoolei Government (from 15 Jul 1950, Governing Body)
(in rebellion)
14 Jun 1949 - 12 Aug 1950  Saw Ba U Gyi                       (b. 1905 - d. 1950)  KNU
Sep 1950 1950            Saw Joshua Poo Nyo (interim)                            KNU
1950 - Dec 1954            Sgaw Ler Taw                       (b. 1914 - d. 1989)  KNU
                             (acting [from 19 Jan 1951, for Hunter])
19 Jan 1951 - Mar 1964     Saw Hunter Tha Hmwe                (b. 1905 - d. 1980)  KNU
                             (from Dec 1954, chairman of Revolutionary Council)



Kayah (Karenni)

[Possible Flag of Karenni Rebels c.1948
                          (Burma)]
Possible Flag of Karenni Rebels c.1948

 4 Jan 1948                Karenni state
24 Sep 1948 29 Dec 1948  Karenni rebels occupied Loikaw (Karenni rebellion begun 9 Aug
                             1948).
25 Feb 1949 12 Jan 1950  Karen and Karenni rebels re-occupy Loikaw (by c.1955 Karenni
                             rebellion is reduced to guerilla activity that continued until
                             a ceasefire in Mar 2012).
14 Jan 1952                Renamed Kayah state
 2 Mar 1962                Autonomy abolished.

Minister and Head of Karenni (from 1952, Kayah) State 
 4 Jun 1948 - 1962         Saw Mun Na (Sao Wunna)             (d. 1978)            AFPFL
Chairman of the Supreme State Council

Mar 1962 - Mar 1974        A Mya Lay
Chairmen of State People's Council
1974 - 19..                ....
19.. - 1988?               Kyaw Din                                                PSPB

Chairmen of United Karenni Independent States Council (in rebellion from 1948)
11 Sep 1946 -  8 Sep 1948  Bee Tu Reh                         (d. 1948)            KNO
Sep 1948 -  1 Feb 1957     Saw Shwe (acting)                  (d. 1957)            KNO



Kachin

[Flag of Kachin
                          Rebels (Burma)]
Flag of Kachin Rebels

 4 Jan 1948                Kachin state
15 Jan 1961                Kachin rebellion begins (during 1970's - 1980's the rebels
                             controlled two-thirds of the state, but no major towns; on
                             24 Feb 1994, a ceasefire was signed, by that time the rebel
                             controlled area was reduced to one-third of the state).
 2 Mar 1962                Autonomy abolished.

Ministers and Heads of Kachin State 
Jan 1948
- 1953            Sama Duwa Sinwa Nawng              (b. 1914 - d. 1971)  AFPFL
                             (1st time)        
1953 - 1956                Lahpai Zau Lawn (1st time)                              AFPFL     
1956 - 1958                Zan Hta Sin                                             AFPFL
1958 - 1959                Wabaw Zau Rip (1st time)
1959 - 1960                Lahpai Zau Lawn (2nd time)
1960 - 1962                Sama Duwa Sinwa Nawng              (s.a.)               AFPFL
                             (2nd time)
1962                       Wabaw Zau Rip (2nd time)
Chairman of the Supreme State Council

Mar 1962 - Mar 1974        Ding Ratang                                             PSPB
Chairmen of State People's Council
1974 - 1981                Hpauyu Hka                                              Mil/PSPB
1981 - 1983                Bawm Ying                                               PSPB
1983 - 1985                Labang La                                               Mil/PSPB
1985 - 1988                Maran Zau Yaw                                           Mil/PSPB

Chairmen of Kachin Independence Council (in rebellion)
Jan 1961 -  6 Aug 1975     Lahtaw Zau Seng                    (b. 1928 - d. 1975)  KIO
1965 - Dec 1973            Lahtaw Zau Tu                      (d. 1975)            KIO
                             (acting for Lahtaw Zau Seng)
Dec 1973 - Jan 1976        Lamung Tu Jai                      (b. 1930)            KIO
                             (acting [to 6 Aug 1975, for Lahtaw Zau Seng])
Jan 1976 -  8 Aug 1994     Maran Brang Seng                   (b. 1930 - d. 1995)  KIO
                             (not the last)


Mon

 3 Jan 1974                Mon state created from portions of Thaninthayi division
                             and Bago division.

Chairmen of State People's Council
1974 - 1988                ....



Rakhine (Arakan)

 3 Jan 1974                Rakhine state created from Arakan division.

Chairmen of State People's Council
1974 - 1978                ....
1978 - 1982                Kyaw Maung                                              PSPB
1982 - 1988                ....



Shan State

[Shan State flag
                        (Burma)]
Adopted 7 Feb 1947

 4 Jan 1948                Shan State
13 Aug 1949 23 Nov 1949  Karen rebels occupied Taunggyi
 2 Mar 1962                Autonomy abolished.

Ministers and Heads of Shan State 
1948 - Nov 1958            Sao Hkun Hkio, Saopha of Mongmit   (b. 1912 - d. 1990)  AFPFL

 7 Nov 1958 - 1962         Sao Hom Hpa, Saopha of Hsenwi      (b. 1906 - d. 1963)
Chairman of the Supreme State Council

Mar 1962 - Mar 1974        Tun Aye                            (b. 1917 - d. 2001)  PSPB
Chairmen of State People's Council
1974 - 19..                ....
c.1983                     Tun Yin Law                                             Mil/PSPB
198. - 1988                Ba Than                                                 PSPB





Ben Cahoon