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Kazakhstan 
     
[Russian
                                    flag]
1824 - Dec 1917
 
[Alash-Orda military flag in
                                    1919 (possible
                                    reconstruction)(Kazakhstan)]
Alash-Orda Military Flag in 1919
(possible reconstruction)
 
[Flag of
                                    USSR]
  30 Dec 1922 - 25 Dec 1991
 
[Flag of
                                    Kazakh SSR, 1953-1992]
10 Dec 1991 - 4 Jun 1992
 
[Flag of
                                    Kazakhstan]
Adopted 4 Jun 1992
 

 
 Map of Kazakhstan  Hear National Anthem
"Mening Qazaqstanym"
(My Kazakhstan)
Adopted 6 Jan 2006
 Former National Anthem
"Qazaqstan Respüblïkasynyng Memlekettik Änurany)
(National Anthem of the

Republic of Kazakhstan)
1992 - 6 Jan 2006
 Constitution
(30 Aug 1995)
Capital: Nur-Sultan
(Astana 1998 - 23 Mar 2019;

Akmola 1997- 1998;
Almaty [Alma-Ata¹]
1929-10 Dec 1997;

Qyzylorda [
Kyzyl-Orda]
1925-1929;
Ak-Mechet'
[Aqmeshit] Feb-Apr 1925;
Orenburg 1920-1925;
Alash-qala [Semipalatinsk]
1917-1920)
Currency: Tenge (KZT);
1993 Kazakh Ruble (KZR);
1991-93 Russian Ruble (RUR)
National Holiday: 25 Oct (1990)
Republic Day 
Population: 18,744,548 (2018)
GDP: $478.6 billion (2017)
Exports: $49.3 billion (2017)
Imports: $31.9 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%,
 
Uzbek 2.8%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%,
  German 1.1%, other 4.5% (2009) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 39,000 (2018)
Former Nuclear Power: 1,400 weapons (1991-1995)
Merchant marine: 121 ships (2018)
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 70.2%, Christian 26.2%
 (Russian Orthodox 23.9%, other Christian 2.3%), Buddhist 0.1%,
other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), ADB, AIIB, ANT, APA, BTWC, CCTS, CES, CFE, CICA, CIS, CSTO, CTBT, CWC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI, ENMOD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISESCO, ISA (observer), ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, Moon, NAM (observer), NPT, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC (cooperation), OSCE, OST, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Kazakhstan
Index
Chronology

1465                       Kazakh Khanate founded (see below).
1584                       Yaitskiy Gorodok (from 1775, Ural'sk [
Oral]) founded
                             by Cossacks (see Ural Cossack Host).
1645                       Russians found Guryev (Atyrau).

1718                       Russians found Semipalatinsk (Semey).
Jul 1824 – 1864            Area of the former Khanate (Younger, Middle and
                             Elder Zhuzes, called by Russians as Little,
                             Middle and Great Kirghiz Hordes) gradually
                             annexed by Russia (see Kazakh Khanate below).

Oct 1864                   Russian boundary with China agreed.
1882 - 1917                Russian Governorate-general of the Steppe Kray
                             (Stepnoy kray); as of 1917 it covered Akmolinsk
                             and Semipalatinsk oblasti (including Kazakh areas
                             of former West Siberia governorate-general).
Nov 1916 - Jan 1917        Kazakh rebellion, most actively in Turgay and
                             Akmolinsk oblasti.
13 Dec 1917              
  Alash Autonomy (Alashskaya avtonomiya [Alash
                             Aütonom
ïyasy]) is declared  under the People's
                             Council
(Alash-Orda) at All-Kirghiz Congress in
                             Orenburg (it claimed authority within
a federal
                             Russian republic over the Kazakh - inhabited
                            
oblasti of Russia Akmolinsk, Bukey, Semipalatinsk,
                             Semirechye, Syr-Darya, Turgay,
and Ural).
Dec 1917                   Russian Civil War divides present-day Kazakhstan
                             into three parts - "White" Cossack: Semirechye
                             (see Semirechye Cossack Host), Turgay (see under
                             Orenburg Cossack Host), and Ural (see under Ural
                             Cossack Host); "White" Siberian: Akmolinsk and
                             Semipalatinsk, both related to the Provisional
                             Siberian Oblast Council; and "Red":
Syr-Darya
                            (
from 12 Nov 1917; part of Turkestan A.S.S.R.
                            
from 30 Apr 1918) and
from 15 Dec 1917, Bukey.
Jan 1918 – Mar 1918        Bolshevik forces take all of present-day Kazakhstan
                             (Akmolinsk [modern Astana] on
7 Jan 1918, and
                             Semipalatinsk [modern Semey]
on 16 Feb 1918),
                             Alash-Orda in early Feb 1918 is located at
                             Semipalatinsk.
Jun 1918 – Jul 1918        Provisional Government of Siberia (see under
                             Russian Civil War Polities) troops retake
                             the northern and central part of present-day
                             Kazakhstan (
Akmolinsk on 3 Jun 1918, and
                             Semipalatinsk on
11 Jun 1918).
18 Jun 1918                Alash-Orda returns to Semipalatinsk, recognizing
                             the authority of "Komuch" (from Jul 1918) then
                             the Provisional All-Russian Government (from Sep
                             1918)(see under Russian Civil War Polities).
 4 Nov 1918                Alash-Orda is declared dissolved by the Provisional
                             All-Russian Government, but de facto continues
                             mostly in Cossack-held (Ural, Orenburg, and
                             Semirechye) areas.
Aug 1919 – Dec 1919        Red Army advances against the "White" troops of
                             Kolchak, Supreme Ruler of Russia (on 28 Nov 1919
                            
taking Akmolinsk, Semipalatinsk on 2 Dec 1919);
                             on 21 Dec 1919, Alash-Orda submits to the Soviet
                             government.
 5 Mar 1920                Alash-Orda is dissolved by the Soviet government.
26 Aug 1920                Kirghiz
Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic (in
                             Kazakh: named
Kazakh Autonomous Socialist Soviet
                             Republic) within Russian S.F.S.R.
(see  Russia).
19 Apr 1925                Renamed Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of
                             Kazakhstan (confirmed by R.S.F.S.R. 15 Jun 1925).
Sep 1929 – Sep 1931        Several Kazakh rebellions, most actively Feb 1930 -
                             Apr 1930 in modern Aktobe and Kostanay regions.
 5 Dec 1936                Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (a constituent
                             republic of the Soviet Union).

 
1 Jul 1990                Kazakh is designated as the state language (from
                             transition from Cyrillic to a Latin script to be
                             by 2025 by of 25 Dec 2017).
25 Oct 1990
               State sovereignty declared.
10 Dec 1991                Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan as alternative
                             polity style is endorsed by the constitution on
                             5 Sep 1995).

16 Dec 1991                Independence declared.
26 Dec 1991                Final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.).

Kazakhstan
Administrative
Divisions

Kazakh S.S.R.
(1920-1991)
Kazakh
Khanates

(1680-1849)
Inner Kirghiz
Horde
(1801-1858)

Semirechye Cossacks
(1917-1920)
Ural Cossacks
(1699-1723,
1917-1920)

Historical Maps
of Kazakhstan
 

Note: In Kazakhstan until 1991 persons were commonly known by the Russian forms of their names. Therefore, in this record until 1991 Russian name forms are given first, with Kazakh forms in parentheses. After 1991, the Kazakh forms are given first instead, with Russian equivalents in parentheses. Both forms are transliterated using a modified BGN/PCGN romanization system.

Governors-general of West Siberia kray (at Omsk)
 3 Aug 1822 -  6 Aug 1827  Pyotr Mikhaylovich Kaptsevich      (b. 1772 - d. 1840)
 6 Aug 1827 - 10 Oct 1834  Ivan Aleksandrovich Velyaminov     (b. 1771 - d. 1837)
10 Oct 1834 -  9 Feb 1836  Nikolay Semyonovich Sulima         (b. 1777 - d. 1840)
 9 Feb 1836 - 10 Jan 1851  Knyaz' Pyotr Dmitriyevich Gorchakov(b. 1789 - d. 1868)
10 Feb 1851 - 25 Jan 1861  Gustav Khristianovich Gasfort      (b. 1794 - d. 1874)
                             (Gasford)
25 Jan 1861 -  9 Nov 1866  Aleksandr Osipovich Dyugamel'      (b. 1801 - d. 1880)
 9 Nov 1866 - 13 Jan 1875  Aleksandr Pavlovich Khrushchev     (b. 1806 - d. 1875) 
                             (Khrushchyov)
13 Jan 1875 -  3 Mar 1881  Nikolay Gennadyevich Kaznakov      (b. 1823 - d. 1885)
 3 Mar 1881 - 30 May 1882  Grigoriy Vasilyevich Meshcherinov  (b. 1827 - d. 1901)
Governors-general of the Steppe kray
(at Omsk)
 6 Jun 1882 -  5 Nov 1889  Gerasim Alekseyevich Kolpakovskiy  (b. 1819 - d. 1896)
 5 Nov 1889 - 18 Jul 1900  Baron Maksim Antonovich Taube      (b. 1826 - d. 1910)
27 Apr 1901 -  8 May 1906  Nikolay Nikolayevich Sukhotin      (b. 1847 - d. 1918)
 8 May 1906 - 21 Jun 1908  Ivan Pavlovich Nadarov             (b. 1851 - d. 1922)
21 Jun 1908 -  6 Jun 1915  Yevgeniy Ottovich Shmit            (b. 1845 - d. 1915)
 6 Jun 1915 - 17 Mar 1917  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Sukhomlinov (b. 1850 - d. 1918)
Governors of Semirechye oblast
(at Vernyy [now Almaty])
26 Jul 1867 -  1 Jun 1882  Gerasim
Alekseyevich Kolpakovskiy  (s.a.)
10 Jun 1882 -  2 Jun 1887  Aleksey Yakovlevich Fride          (b. 1838 - d. 1896)
27 Jun 1887 -  4 Nov 1899  Grigoriy
Ivanovich Ivanov          (b. 1841 - d. 1913)
 5 Nov 1899 - 10 Aug 1907  Mikhail Yefremovich Ionov          (b. 1846 - d. 1924)
10 Aug 1907 -  5 Dec 1908  Vasiliy Ivanovich Pokotilo         (b. 1856 - d. af.1919)
 5 Dec 1908 -  4 Nov 1916  Mikhail
Aleksandrovich Fol'baum    (b. 1866 - d. 1916)
                          
(from 20 Sep 1916, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sokolov-Sokolinskiy)
 4 Nov 1916 - 1917         Aleksey Ivanovich Alekseyev        (b. 1866 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
Emir
Nov 1916 - Jan 1917        Äbdighapar Zhanbosynuly            (b. 1870 - d. 1919)
                             (Abdulgafar Zhanbosynov)
                             (in rebellion; in Turgay and Akmolinsk oblasts)
Commissars of the Steppe Kray
(at Omsk; with rights of governor-general)
21 Mar 1917 - Apr 1917     Innokentiy Pavlovich Laptev        (b. 1873 - d. 1917)  Non-party?
Apr 1917 - Sep 1917        Ivan Petrovich Zakonov             (b. 1867 - d.af.1920)NSP
Sep 1917 - Dec 1917        Aleksandr Yefremovich Novosyolov   (b. 1884 - d. 1918)  PSR
Chairman of the All-Kirghiz People's Council (Alash-Orda)

13 Dec 1917 -  5 Mar 1920  Älïkhan Nurmukhameduly Bökeykhan   (b. 1866 - d. 1937)  AP
                             (Alikhan Nurmukhamedovich Bukeykhanov)
General Khan
 8 Mar 1930 - 20 Mar 1930  Ayzharqyn Qanayuly (in rebellion)  (b. 1855 - d. 1930)
                             (Ayzharkyn Kanayev)
Presidents

10 Dec 1991 - 20 Mar 2019  Nursultan Äbishuly Nazarbaev       (b. 1940)         KPK;1991 Ind;
                             (from 15 Jun 2010) "Elbasy"                          1999: OTAN
                             (Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev "Elbasy")
20 Mar 2019 -              Qasym-Zhomart Kemeluly Toqaev      (b. 1953)            OTAN
                             (Kasym-Zhomart Kemelevich Tokayev)

Prime ministers
10 Dec 1991 - 12 Oct 1994  Sergey Aleksandrovïch Tereshchenko (b. 1951)            Ind
                            
(Sergey Aleksandrovich Tereshchenko)
12 Oct 1994 - 10 Oct 1997  Äkezhan Maghzhanuly Qazhygeldïn
    (b. 1952)            PPU
                             (Akezhan Magzhanovich Kazhygeldin) 
10 Oct 1997 -  1 Oct 1999  Nurlan Ötepuly Balghymbaev         (b. 1947 - d. 2015)  PPU
                            
(Nurlan Otepovich Balgymbayev)
 1 Oct 1999 - 28 Jan 2002  Qasym-Zhomart Kemeluly Toqaev      (s.a.)               OTAN
                             (Kasym-Zhomart Kemelevich Tokayev)
                             (acting to 12 Oct 1999)
28 Jan 2002 - 13 Jun 2003  Ïmanghalï Nurghalïuly              (b. 1956)            OTAN
                            
Tasmaghambetov
                             (
Imangali Nurgaliyevich Tasmagambetov)
13 Jun 2003 - 10 Jan 2007  Danïal Kenzhetayuly Akhmetov       (b. 1954)            OTAN
                             (
Danial Kenzhetayevich Akhmetov)
10 Jan 2007 - 
24 Sep 2012  Kärim Qazhymqanuly Mäsimov         (b. 1965)            OTAN
                             (
Karim Kazhimkanovich Masimov)
                             (
1st time)
24 Sep 2012 -  2 Apr 2014  Serik Nyghmetuly Akhmetov
          (b. 1958)            OTAN
                             (
Serik Nygmetovich Akhmetov)
 2 Apr 2014 -  8 Sep 2016  K
ärim Qazhymqanuly Mäsimov         (s.a.)               OTAN
                             (2nd time)
 8 Sep 2016 -
21 Feb 2019  Baqytzhan Äbdiruly Saghyntaev      (b. 1963)            OTAN
                             (
Bakytzhan Abdirovich Sagyntayev)
                             (
acting to 9 Sep 2016)
21 Feb 2019 -              Asqar Uzaqbayuly
Mamïn             (b. 1965)            OTAN
                             (
Askar Uzakpayevich Mamin)
                             (
acting to 25 Feb 2019)

 ¹formally Almaty since 20 Apr 1978, but with the former Russian form, Alma-Ata, widely persisting and in semi-official legal use to 15 Sep 1995.

Territorial Disputes: In Jan 2019, the Kyrgyz Republic ratified the demarcation agreement of the Kazakh-Kyrgyz border; the demarcation of the Kazakh-Uzbek borders is ongoing; the ongoing demarcation with Russia began in 2007; demarcation with China completed in 2002; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea.

Party abbreviations: OTAN = Partiya "Nur Otan" ("Light of Fatherland Party" Party, secular, centrist, pro-Nazarbaev, named Otan [Fatherland] 1 Mar 1999-22 Dec 2006, then 22 Dec 2006-18 Oct 2013 named Narodno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya "Nur Otan" [People's Democratic Party "Light of Fatherland"], est.1 Mar 1999); Ind = Independent; 
- Former parties: AP = Alash Partiyasy (Alash Party, Kazakh moderate nationalist party of Alash Autonomy, to 1919 anti-Bolshevik, 1917-1920); KPK = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Kazakhstana (Communist Party of Kazakhstan, Marxist-Leninist communist, former KPK-B, 13 Oct 1952-7 Sep 1991); NSP = Narodno-Sotsialisticheskaya Partiya (People's Socialist Party, center-left, 1905-1920); PPU = Partiya Narodnogo Yedinstva Kazakhstana (Party of People's Unity of Kazakhstan, liberal nationalist, pro-Nazarbaev, 1993-1 Mar 1999, merged into OTAN); PSRPartiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries, "SRs", democratic socialist, agrarian socialist, split Aug 1917 into Left [became PLSR] and Right wings, Jan 1902-1923)



Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
 
[Flag of Kirghiz ASSR
                          c.1920-1924]
c.1920 - 20 Sep 1924
 
[Flag of USSR]
20 Sep 1924 - 26 Mar 1937
 
[Flag of Kazakh
                          SSR 1937-1940]
26 Mar 1937 - 10 Nov 1940
 
[Flag of Kazakh
                          SSR 1940-1953]
10 Nov 1940 - 24 Jan 1953

[Flag of Kazakh
                          SSR 1953-1992]
24 Jan 1953 - 4 Jun 1992

Capital: Alma-Ata (Almaty)
(Orenburg 26 Aug 1920 -
9 Feb 1925;
Ak-Mechet' [Aqmeshit] 9 Feb 1925 -
19 Apr 1925; Kyzyl-Orda [
Qyzylorda]
19 Apr 1925 - 1929)
Hear SSR Anthem
"Qazaq Kenges Sotsïalïstik
 Respüblïkasynyng Memlekettik
  Änurany"/
"Gosudarstvennyy Gimn
 Kazakhskoy S.S.R."
(State Anthem of Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic)
(1945-1992)
Constitution
(20 Apr 1978; in Russian)
Population: 14,684,000 (1980)

26 Aug 1920                Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic (in Kazakh:
                             named Kazakh Autonomous Socialist
Soviet Republic)
                             within the Russian S.F.S.R
. (see under Russia).
19 Apr 1925                Renamed
Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan
                             (name change confirmed by R.S.F.S.R. on 15 Jun 1925).

 5 Dec 1936                Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (a constituent republic of
                             the Soviet Union).
 
1 Jul 1990                Kazakh is designated as the state language.
25 Oct 1990
               State sovereignty declared.
10 Dec 1991                Republic of Kazakhstan (independence declared 16 Dec 1991).

Note: Russian names with Kazakh in parentheses until 1 Jul 1990, then Kazakh names with Russian in parentheses using a modified BGN/PCGN romanization system.

Secretaries of the Kirghiz (Kazakhstan) Regional Bureau of the Central Committee
of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
30 Apr 1920 - Sep 1920     Stanislav Stanislavovich Pestkovskiy    (b. 1882 - d. 1937)
                             (Stanïslav Stanïslavovïch Pestkovskïy)
Sep 1920 - 10 Jan 1921     Ivan Alekseyevich Akulov                (b. 1888 - d. 1937)

                            
(Ïvan Alekseevïch Akülov)
27 Jan 1921 - 11 Jun 1921  Mukhamed-Kafi Murzagaliyev              (b. 1887 - d. 1941)

                             (Mukhamed-Khafïz Myrzaghalïev)
Secretaries of the Kirghiz
(Kazakhstan) Regional Committee of the Russian
Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

Jun 1921 - Jul 1921        Mukhamedkhafiy Murzagaliyev             (s.a.)
Jul 1921 - Aug 1921        Mariya Mikhaylovna Kostelovskaya (f)    (b. 1878 - d. 1964)

                            
(Marïya Mïkhaylovna Kostelovskaya)
Sep 1921 - Oct 1924        Georgiy Alekseyevich Korostelyev        (b. 1885 - d. 1932)

                            
(Georgïy Alekseyevïch Korostelev)
Oct 1924 - 19 Feb 1925     Viktor Ivanovich Naneyshvili            (b. 1878 - d. 1940)

                            
(Vïktor Ïvanovïch Naneïshvïlï)
Secretaries of the Kazakh Regional Committee of the
Russian Communist Party
(Bolsheviks)
(from 31 Dec 1925, All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks])

19 Feb 1925 - Jun 1925     Viktor Ivanovich Naneyshvili            (s.a.)
12 Sep 1925 - Feb 1933     Filipp Isayevich Goloshchyokin          (b. 1876 - d. 1941)
                            
(Fïlïpp Ïsaevïch Goloshchekïn)
Feb 1933 - 23 Apr 1937     Levon Isayevich Mirzoyan                (b. 1897 - d. 1939)

                            
(Levon Ïsaevïch Mïrzoyan)
First Secretaries of the
Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
of Kazakhstan (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of
Kazakhstan)

23 Apr 1937 -  3 May 1938  Levon Isayevich Mirzoyan                (s.a.)

 3 May 1938 - May 1945     Nikolay Aleksandrovich Skvortsov        (b. 1899 - d. 1974)
                            
(Nïkolay Aleksandrovïch Skvortsov)
May 1945 - 22 Jun 1946     Gennadiy Andreyevich Borkov             (b. 1905 - d. 1983)
                             (Gennadïy Andreevïch Borkov)
22 Jun 1946 -  6 Mar 1954  Dzhumabay Shayakhmetovich Shayakhmetov  (b. 1902 - d. 1966)

                            
(Zhumabay Shayakhmetuly Shayakhmetov)
 6 Mar 1954 -  7 May 1955  Panteleimon Kondratyevich Ponomarenko   (b. 1902 - d. 1984)

                            
(Panteleïmon Kondratevïch Ponomarenko)
 7 May 1955 -  6 Mar 1956  Leonid I
lyich Brezhnev                  (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
                            
(Leonïd Ïlïch Brezhnev)
 6 Mar 1956 - 26 Dec 1957  Ivan Dmitriyevich Yakovlev              (b. 1910 - d. 1999)

                            
(Ïvan Dmïtrovïch Yakovlev)
26 Dec 1957 - 19 Jan 1960  Nikolay I
lyich Belyayev                 (b. 1903 - d. 1966)
                            
(Nïkolay Ïlïch Belyaev)
19 Jan 1960 - 26 Dec 1962  Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Konayev         (b. 1912 - d. 1993)

                             (Dinmukhammed Akhmeduly Qonaev)
                             (1st time) 

26 Dec 1962 -  7 Dec 1964  Ismail Abdurasulovich Yusupov           (b. 1914 - d. 2005)
                            
(Ïsmaïl Abdrasüluly Yusüpov)
 7 Dec 1964 - 16 Dec 1986  Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Konayev         (s.a.)

                             (2nd time)
16 Dec 1986 - 22 Jun 1989  Gennadiy Vasilyevich Kolbin             (b. 1927 - d. 1998)
                            
(Gennadïy Vasïlevïch Kolbïn)
22 Jun 1989 - 28 Aug 1991  Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev         (b. 1940)
                             (Nursultan Äbishuly Nazarbaev)

Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee 
 
7 Aug 1919 - 15 Sep 1920  Stanislav Stanislavovich Pestkovskiy    (s.a.)               RKP
                             (Stanïslav Stanïslavovïch Pestkovskïy)
                             (appointed 24 Jul 1919)

Aug 1920 - Sep 1920        Sakypkerey Zharmavich Argynshayev       (b. 1887 - d. 1938)  RKP
                            
(Saqypkerey Zharmauly Arghynshaev)
                             (acting for absent chairman)
15 Sep 1920
- 13 Oct 1920  Viktor Alekseyevich Radus-Zen'kovich    (b. 1877 - d. 1967)  RKP 

                             (Vïktor Alekseevïch Radüs-Zenkovïch)
                             (arrived at seat of government, Orenburg 15 Sep 1920)

Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee

13 Oct 1920 - 19 Apr 1925  Seytkali Mendeshevich Mendeshev         (b. 1882 - d. 1938)  RKP
                            
(Seyitqalï Mengdeshuly Mengdeshev)
19 Apr 1925 - 
3 Apr 1927  Dzhalau Mynbayevich Mynbayev            (b. 1892 - d. 1929)  RKP;
                            
(Zhalaü Myngbayuly Myngbaev)                            1925: VKP
 
3 Apr 1927 -  9 Jan 1935  Yel'tay Yernazarovich Yernazarov
       (b. 1887 - d. 1945)  VKP
                             (Tyshkanbayev) 
                             (Eltay Yernazaruly Ernazarov
[Tyshqanbaev])
 9 Jan 1935 - Jun? 1937    Uzakbay Dzhel'dirbayevich Kulumbetov    (b. 1891 - d. 1938)  VKP;

                            
(Uzaqbay Zhelderbayuly Qulymbetov)                    1937: KPK-B
Jun? 1937 - 28 Oct 1937    Alibi Togzhanovich Dzhangil'din         (b. 1884 - d. 1953)  KPK-B
                             (Älibï Toqzhanuly Zhankeldïn)
                           +
Andrey Mikhaylovich Zavorit'ko        (b. 1893 - d. 1955)  KPK-B
                             (Zavarit'ko)
                             (Andrey Mïkhaylovïch Zavor
ït'ko [Zavarït'ko])
                           (acting)

28 Oct 1937 - 15 Jul 1938  Nurbapa Umirzakov (Nurbapa Ömirzaqov)   (b. 1907 - d. 1947)  KPK-B

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

16 Jul 1938 - 20 Mar 1947  Abdisamet Kazakbayev                    (b. 1898 - d. 1959)  KPK-B
                            
(Äbdisämet Qazaqbaev)
20 Mar 1947 - 23 Mar 1954  Daniyal Kerimbayevich Kerimbayev        (b. 1909 - d. 1982)  KPK-B

                            
(Danïyal Kerimbayuly Kerimbaev)
23 Mar 1954 - 31 Mar 1955  Nurtas Dandibayevich Undasynov          (b. 1904 - d. 1989)  KPK

                             (Ondasunov)
                             (Nurtas Dändibayuly Ongdasynov)
31 Mar 1955 - 20 Jan 1960  Dzhumabek Akhmetovich Tashenev          (b. 1915 - d. 1986)  KPK

                            
(Zhumabek Akhmetuly Täshenov)
20 Jan 1960 - 25 Aug 1960  Fazyl Karimovich Karibzhanov            (b. 1912 - d. 1960)  KPK

                             (Fazyl Kärimuly Käribzhanov)
25 Aug 1960 -  3 Jan 1961  Kapitolina Nikolayevna Kryukova (f)     (b. 1914 - d. 2002)  KPK

                             (Kapïtolïna Nïkolaevna Kryukova)
                             (acting)

 3 Jan 1961 -  5 Apr 1965  Isagali Sharipovich Sharipov            (b. 1905 - d. 1976)  KPK
                            
(Ïsaghalï Shäripuly Shäripov)
 5 Apr 1965 - 19 Dec 1978  Sabir Bilyalovich Niyazbekov            (b. 1912 - d. 1989)  KPK
                             (Sabyr Biläluly Nïazbekov)
19 Dec 1978 - 14 Dec 1979  Isatay Abdukarimovich Abdukarimov       (b. 1923 - d. 2001)  KPK

                             (Ïsatay Äbdikärimuly Äbdikärimov)
14 Dec 1979 - 22 Feb 1984  Sattar Nurmashevich Imashev             (b. 1925 - d. 1984)  KPK

                             (Sattar Nurmashuly Ïmashev)
22 Feb 1984 - 22 Mar 1984  Andrey Pavlovich Plotnikov (acting)     (b. 1912 - d. 1991)  KPK

                            
(Andrey Pavlovïch Plotnïkov)
22 Mar 1984 - 27 Sep 1985  Bayken Ashimovich Ashimov               (b. 1917 - d. 2010)  KPK

                            
(Bäyken Äshimuly Äshimov)
27 Sep 1985 -  9 Feb 1988  Salamat Mukashevich Mukashev            (b. 1927 - d. 2004)  KPK
                             (Salamat Muqashuly Muqashev)
 9 Feb 1988 -  6 Dec 1988  Zakash Kamalidenovich Kamalidenov       (b. 1936 - d. 2017)  KPK
                             (Zaqash Kamalïdenuly Kamalïdenov)
 6 Dec 1988 - 10 Mar 1989  Vera Vasilyevna Sidorova (f) (acting)   (b. 1934)            KPK 
                             (Vera Vasïl'evna Sïdorova)
10 Mar 1989 - 22 Feb 1990  Makhtay Ramazanovich Sagdiyev           (b. 1929 - d. 2012)  KPK
                             (Maqtay Ramazanuly Saghdïev)
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet

22 Feb 1990 - 24 Apr 1990  Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev         (s.a.)               KPK
                             (Nursultan Äbishuly Nazarbaev)
President
24 Apr 1990 - 10 Dec 1991  Nursultan Äbishuly Nazarbaev            (s.a.)               KPK
                             (Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev)


Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
12 Oct 1920 - Oct 1921     Viktor Alekseyevich Radus-Zen'kovich    (s.a.)               RKP
                             (Vïktor Alekseevïch Radüs-Zenkovïch)
Oct 1921 - Sep 1922        Mukhamed-Kafi Murzagaliyev              (s.a.)               RKP
                             (Mukhamed-Khafïz Myrzaghalïev)
Sep 1922 - Oct 1924        Saken Seyfollayevich Seyfullin          (b. 1894 - d. 1938)  RKP
                             (Säken Seyfollauly Seyfüllïn)
Oct 1924 - May 1928        Nygmet Nurmakovich Nurmakov             (b. 1895 - d. 1937) RKP/VKP
                             (Nyghmet Nurmaquly Nurmaqov)
May 1928 - 24 May 1938     Uraz Dzhanzakovich Isayev               (b. 1899 - d. 1938)  VKP
                             (Oraz Zhanuzaquly Ïsaev)
24 May 1938 - 17 Jul 1938  Ibragim Tausiyevich Tazhiyev            (b. 1904 - d. 1960)  KPK-B
                             (Ybrayym Taüsiquly Tazhïev)
17 Jul 1938 - 15 Mar 1946  Nurtas Dandibayevich Undasynov          (s.a.)               KPK-B
                             (Ondasunov)
                             (Nurtas Dändibayuly Ongdasynov)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

15 Mar 1946 - 24 Mar 1954  Nurtas Dandibayevich Undavaysov         (s.a.)               KPK-B
                             (Ondasunov)
24 Mar 1954 - 31 Mar 1955  Yelubay Bazimovich Taybekov             (b. 1901 - d. 1991)  KPK

                            
(Elübay Bazïmuly Taybekov)
31 Mar 1955 - 20 Jan 1960  Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Konayev         (s.a.)               KPK

                             (Dinmukhammed Akhmeduly Qonaev)
                             (1st time)

20 Jan 1960 -  6 Jan 1961  Zhumabek Akhmetovich Tashenov           (s.a.)               KPK
                            
(Zhumabek Akhmetuly Täshenov)
 6 Jan 1961 - 13 Sep 1962  Sal'ken Daulenovich Daulenov            (s.a.)               KPK

                             (Sälken Däülenuly Däülenov)
13 Sep 1962 - 26 Dec 1962  Masimkhan Beysebayevich Beysebayev      (b. 1908 - d. 1987)  KPK

                             (Mäsimkhan Beysebayuly Beysebaev)
                             (1st time) 

26 Dec 1962 -  7 Dec 1964  Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Konayev         (s.a.)               KPK
                             (2nd time)
 7 Dec 1964 - 31 Mar 1970  Masimkhan Beysebayevich Beysebayev      (s.a.)               KPK
                             (2nd time)
31 Mar 1970 - 22 Mar 1984  Bayken Ashimovich Ashimov               (s.a.)               KPK
                             (Bäyken Äshimuly Äshimov)
22 Mar 1984 - 27 Jul 1989  Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev         (s.a.)               KPK

                             (Nursultan Äbishuly Nazarbaev)
27 Jul 1989 - 16 Oct 1991  Uzakbay Karamanovich Karamanov          (b. 1937 - d. 2017)  KPK

                             (Uzaqbay Qaramanuly Qaramanov)
16 Oct 1991 - 10 Dec 1991 
Sergey Aleksandrovïch Tereshchenko      (b. 1951)         Non-party
                             (
Sergey Aleksandrovich Tereshchenko)

Party abbreviation: KPK = Kazakhstan Kommunistіk Partiyasy/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Kazakhstana (Communist Party of Kazakhstan, Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former KPK, 13 Oct 1952-7 Sep 1991);
- Former parties:
KPK-B = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Kazakhstana (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Kazakhstan, Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, 23 Apr 1937-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPK); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], communist, former RSDRP-B, state party, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party); VKP = Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RKP, 31 Dec 1925-13 Oct 1952, renamed Communist Party of the Soviet Union)



Kazakh Khanates

1459                       Zhanibek (Jänibek) and Kerey (Giray), sultans of Abulhair
                             (khan of Ak Ordu and Tyumen), moved with their adherents
                             (called "Kazakh Horde") to Zhetysu (territory to the outh of
                             Lake Balkhash).
1465                       Kazakh Khanate founded.
1469                       Kazakhs capture of most of the territory of modern day Kazakhstan,
                             except its western (to Greater Nogai Horde), northern (to Tyumen,
                             then Siberian khanate) and south-eastern (to Chagataid Khanate
                             of Mogholistan) parts.
1718                       After death of Qayyp Khan, several khans are elected in different
                             parts of the Khanate; by then the Kazakh Khanate is divided into
                             three parts called Zhuz (the "side") – Elder Zhuz (Uly Zhuz) in
                             eastern and southern parts of the khanate; Middle Zhuz (Orta
                             Zhuz) in central and northern parts of khanate; and Younger
                             Zhuz (Kishi Zhuz) in western part of khanate); each of them
                             ruled by several Khans, the principal khans in Middle Zhuz
                             until 1781 (by Russia until 1771) recognized as Kazakh Senior
                             Khans.
1723 – 1755                Elder Zhuz under Dzungarian suzerainty.
Oct 1731                   Younger Zhuz (called by Russians as Little Kirghiz Horde) accepts
                             Russian protectorate; only its northern part were effectively
                             under protectorate of Russia.
Jul 1732                   Middle Zhuz (called by Russians as Middle Kirghiz Horde) accepts
                             Russian suzerainty (effectively only the northern part); latter
                             Kazakh agreements with Dzungaria (1735 – 1755) and China (Jul
                             1757 – 1824) resulted in joint or alternating suzerainty.
Jul 1757 – 1825            Elder Zhuz (effectively only the eastern part) under suzerainty
                             of China, renewed in 1772 (Chinese rule ceased as result of
                             annexation of Elder Zhuz by Kokand).
1798 – 1806                Turkistan, the former Kazakh capital (1598-1798), under rule of
                             Tashkent (afterwards recognized the Bukharan rule, followed in
                             1808 by annexation to Kokand).
11 Mar 1801                Some of the Kazakhs of Younger Zhuz are resettled to the
                             right bank of the Ural river headed by Bokey (Bukey), forming
                             the Inner Kirghiz Horde [see below]).
Jul 1824                   Middle Zhuz and Younger Zhuz annexed by Russia, Khans' authority
                             eliminated, Akmolinsk (Astana/Aqmola) founded (in 1830);
                             Middle Zhuz becomes Siberian Kirghiz Divisions (okruga)(subject
                             to the governor of Omsk), Younger Zhuz becomes Trans-Ural Kirghiz
                             Divisions (otdely)(subject to the governor of Orenburg), both
                             continued to be treated by Russia through the Ministry of
                             Foreign Affairs.
Sep 1841 - Apr 1847        Kazakh rebellion against Russian and Kokand rule, mostly in
                             Middle Zhuz.
1847 - 1864                Elder Zhuz (called by Russians as Great Kirghiz Horde) gradually
                             annexed from Kokand by Russia (to Jun 1854 part of the Siberian
                             Kirghiz Divisions)- in 1854 Vernyy (Almaty), in 1864 Turkistan;
                             the area ceded by Kokand in Jan 1868.
Jun 1854                   Siberian Kirghiz Divisions abolished, the former Middle Zhuz and
                             most of former Elder Zhuz fully incorporated into Russia.
Apr 1859                   Trans-Ural Kirghiz Divisions abolished, the former Younger Zhuz
                             fully incorporated into Russia.

Kazakh Senior Khans (title Ulugh Khan) (formal long names in parentheses)
1680 - 1715                Taüke Khan                         (b. c.1635 - d. 1715)
                             (Taüakkul Muhammad Bahadur Khan)
1715 - 1718                Qayyp Khan                         (b. c.1655 - d. 1718)
                             (Gha´ip Muhammad Khan)
1718 - 1729                Bolat Khan                         (d. 1729)
                             (khan in most of Middle Zhuz;
                             did not reside in capital)
1718 - Aug 1748            Äbilqayyr Khan                     (b. 1693 - d. 1748)
                             (Abu al-Gha´ir Muhammad Ghazi Bahadur Khan)
                             (khan in most of Younger Zhuz and part of Middle Zhuz;
                             resided in capital 1719 - 1725, formally not styled
                             as Senior Khan; in 1740 also khan of Khorazm)
1729 - 1737                Sameke Khan                        (b. c.1660 - d. 1737)
                             (Shah Muhammad Khan)
                             (khan in most of Middle Zhuz; resided
                             in capital; not recognized and not
                             styled as Senior Khan)
1739 - 1771                Äbilmämbet Khan                    (b. c.1690 - d. 1771)
                             (Abu al-Muhammad Khan)
                             (khan in most of Middle and Elder Zhuzes;
                             resided in capital 1743 - 1758 and from 1762)
1771 - May 1781            Abylay Khan                        (b. 1711 - d. 1781)
                             (Abu al-Mansur Muhammad Bahadur Khan)
                             (khan in most of Middle and Elder Zhuzes;
                             formally not styled as Senior Khan)
Khans in Elder Zhuz (post-1781, in Turkistan)
1781/84 - 1798             Taüke Khan                         (d. 1798?)
1781/85 - 1815             Adil Khan (in Taraz)               (d. 1815)
                             (the Chinese tributary)
1810? - 1816               Toghay Khan                        (d. 1826)
                             (in rebellion against Kokand)
Aug 1858 - 1859            Aliken Khan
                             (in rebellion against Kokand)
Khans in Middle Zhuz (post-1781)
- in the northern part of Zhuz (the Russian-recognized) -
Aug 1781 - Dec 1819        Wali Khan                          (b. 1741 - d. 1819)
1816 - 1819                Bokey Khan                         (b. c.1737 - d. 1819)
                             (jointly with above)
1819 - 1821                Diwan (the council) (acting)
1821 - Jul 1824            Ghubaydolla Khan                   (b. 1770 - d. 1861)
1824 – 1854                Senior Sultans of 2 (finally 8)
                           Siberian Kirghiz Divisions
                             (title: Agha Sultan)
- in the southern part of Zhuz (in Turkistan, to 1781 shared the city with senior khans) -
1758 - 1798                Yesym (Ishim) Khan                 (d. 1798?)
1771 - 1798                Bolat Khan                         (d. 1798?)
                             (jointly with above)
- in the eastern part of Zhuz (the Chinese tributaries) -
1771 - 1783                Abilpeyyz Khan                     (d. 1783)
1783 - 1799                Qanqozha Khan                      (b. c.1746 - d. 1799)
1799 - 1824                Toghym Khan                        (d. 1824)
Khans in Younger Zhuz (post-1781)
- in the northern part of Zhuz (the Russian-recognized) -
Oct 1748 - Jun 1786        Nuraly Khan                        (b. 1714 - d. 1790)
                             (Nur Muhammad `Ali Bahadur Khan)
                             (also khan of Khorazm 1741-1742)
1786 - 1790                Diwan (the council) (acting)
1790 - 1791                Yesym (Ishim) Khan (1st time)      (b. 1739 - d. 1797)
                             (not confirmed by Russia)
Aug 1791 - Aug 1794        Yeraly Khan                        (b. c.1720 - d. 1794)
Oct 1795 - Apr 1797        Yesym (Ishim) Khan (2nd time)      (s.a.) 
Nov 1797 - Oct 1805        Ayshwaq Khan                       (b. 1720 - d. 1810)
Oct 1805 - 15 Nov 1809     Zhantore Khan                      (b. 1759 - d. 1809)
1809 - 1812                Diwan (the council) (acting)
May 1812 - May 1824        Sherghazy Khan I                   (b. 1767 - d. 1845)  
1824 – 1859                Senior Sultans of 3 Trans-Ural
                           Kirghiz Divisions
                             (title: Agha Sultan)
- in the southern part of Zhuz (not recognized by Russia) -
Nov 1748 - 1771            Batyr Khan                         (d. 1771)
                             (also khan of Khorazm in 1728)
1786 - 1791                Qayyp Khan                         (b. c.1730 - d. 1791)
                             (also khan of Khorazm 1747-1757)
1794 - 1806                Abilghazy Khan                     (d. 1815)
                             (also khan of Khorazm 1768-1769)
1806 - 1816                Qaratay Khan                       (b. c.1746 - d. 1826)
Apr 1816 - Aug 1821        Arynghazy Khan                     (b. 1783 - d. 1833)
- on the Lower Syr-darya River (the Khivan tributaries) -
1818 - 1819                Sherghazy Khan II                  (d. 1819)
Jan 1820 - 1827            Zhanghazy Khan                     (b. 1802 - d. 1852)
Aug 1827 - 1830            Sherghazy Khan I                   (s.a.)
1830 - 1836                Ardu Khan                          (d. 1836)
1837 - 1844                Sauqym Khan                        (d. 1844)
1845 - 1849                Yelekey (Irmuhammad) Khan          (b. 1819 - d. 1868)

Khan 
Sep 1841 - Apr 1847        Kenesary Khan (in rebellion)       (b. 1802 - d. 1847)


Inner Kirghiz Horde

11 Mar 1801                Inner Kirghiz Horde (also called Bukey Horde), split from the
                             Younger Zhuz, under Russian protections, is assigned territory
                             within Russian Astrakhan Governorate east of Astrakhan.
20 Jun 1812                Khanate of Inner Kirghiz Horde.
1838                       Ceased to be treated by Russia through the Ministry of Foreign
                             Affairs.
Jul 1847                   Post of Khan is abolished and Inner Horde is ruled by a
                             provisional council.
Jan 1858                   Autonomy effectively ended, the Horde exists as subdivision of
                             Astrakhan Governorate until 14 Jul 1917.
Khans
11 Mar 1801 - 21 May 1815  Bokey (Bukey) Khan                   (b. c.1742 - d. 1815)
                             (senior sultan [title: Agha Sultan] to 20 Jun 1812)
21 May 1815 - 22 Jun 1823  Shyghay -Regent                      (b. c.1751 - d. 1825)        
                             (provisional governor)
22 Jun 1823 - 11 Aug 1845  Zhangir Kerey Khan                   (b. 1801 - d. 1845)
11 Aug 1845 - Jul 1847     Sakhib Kerey Khan                    (b. 1830 - d. 1847)
                             (did not take the office)
1845 – Jan 1858            Adil –Regent                         (d. 1858)
                             (provisional governor)


Ural Cossack Host

[Russian flag]
to 1920
[Ural Cossacks possible reconstruction of
                          flag in exile 1932
Ural Cossack in exile 1932 (reconstruction)
1584                       Yaik Cossack Host formed at Yaitskiy Gorodok (from 1775, Ural'sk
                             [Oral]), ruled by
  an elected Ataman.
1717 - 1723                Autonomy effectively ended by Russia (1717 the Host included in
                             the
Astrakhan Governorate, 1721 ceased to be treated by Russia
                             through the
Collegiate of Foreign Affairs, 1723 Ataman becomes
                             an appointed position).

1772                       Cossack rebellion.
1773 – 1774                Cossacks participate in the Pugachev's rebellion.
1775                       Renamed Ural Cossack Host, Yaitskiy Gorodok renamed Ural'sk (Oral).
16 Nov 1917                Ataman of the Ural Cossack Host does not recognize the Soviet
                             government and
assumes supreme authority in the Ural oblast.
16 Jan 1918                Bolshevik forces take Ural'sk, the Cossacks submit.
29 Mar 1918                Ural Cossacks re-take Ural'sk and proclaim oblast autonomy within
                             federal
Russian republic; recognized authority of "Komuch" (from
                             Jul 1918) and Provisional All-Russian Government (from Sep 1918)
                             (see under Russian Civil War Polities).

Dec 1918                   Ural Cossacks recognize the authority of Kolchak, the Supreme
                             Ruler of
Russia; autonomy continues de facto.
24 Jan 1919                Red Army retakes Ural'sk, the Cossack capital is moved to Guryev
                             (modern Atyrau).

 5 Jan 1920                Ural Cossack Host evacuate Guryev and reached first (in Feb
                             1920) Fort
Aleksandrovskiy (modern Fort Shevchenko),
                             and then (in Apr 1920) Persia.


Atamans of the Yaik (from 1775, Ural) Cossack Host
1699 – 1700                Osip Vasilyevich Belousov            (b. 1623 - d. af.1723)
                             (1st time)

1700 – 1702                Fyodor Petrovich Semennikov          (d. 1717)
                             (1st time)

1702 – 1704                Osip Vasilyevich Belousov            (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1704 – 1705                Vakhromey Sergeyev
1705 – 1706                Fyodor Petrovich Semennikov          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1706 – 1707                Matvey Mironovich Mironov            (b. 1650 - d. af.1723)
                             (1st time)
 
1707 – 1713                Fyodor Petrovich Semennikov          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)

1713 – 1715                Matvey Mironovich Mironov            (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1715 – 1716                Fyodor Petrovich Semennikov          (s.a.)
                             (4th time)

1716 – 1718                Grigoriy Merkuryevich Merkuryev      (b. 1666 - d. 1741)
                             (1st time)

1718 – 1719                Stepan Ivanovich Filimonov           (d. bf.1723)
1719 – 1720                Nikita Trifonovich Borodin           (b. 1648 - d. af.1732)
1720                       Fyodor Ivanovich Arapov              (b. 1637 - d. af.1723)
1720 – 1722                Ivan Ivanovich Shcherbakov           (b. 1648 - d. af.1723)
1722                       Gerasim Vasilyevich Pogodayev        (d. af.1723)
1722 – 1723                Grigoriy Merkuryevich Merkuryev      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1723                       Vasiliy Yakovlevich Urakchintsev     (d. af.1725)
1723 – 1917                Russian appointed Atamans
1772                       Vasiliy Semyonovich Trifonov         (d. af.1783)
                             (in rebellion)
1774                       Nikita Afanasyevich Kargin           (b. 1719 - d. 1774)
                             (in rebellion)
Atamans of the Ural Cossack Host and (to 24 Mar 1919) Chairmen of the Host Government
16 Nov 1917 – Jan 1918     Vasiliy Patrikeyevich Martynov       (b. 1863 – d. 1920)
31 Jan 1918 – 24 Mar 1919  Guryan Makarovich Fomichev           (b. 1881 – d. 1920)
                             (chairman of the Host Government)
24 Mar 1919 –  4 Apr 1920  Vladimir Sergeyevich Tolstov         (b. 1884 – d. 1956)  
                             (continued in exile in Persia; in Basra, Iraq 1920-21;
                             in Vladivostok 1921-22; in Australia 1923-1956)


Semirechye Cossack Host

[Russian flag]
1867 - 1920

1867                       Semirechye Cossack Host formed at Vernyy (modern Almaty).
14 Nov 1917                Ataman of the Semirechye Cossack Host does not recognize the Soviet
                             government
and assumes supreme authority in the Semirechye
                             oblast (the
Cossack Assembly proclaims autonomy within a federal
                             Russian republic
in Mar 1918).
 3 Mar 1918                Bolshevik forces take Vernyy, the Cossacks retreat to the Chinese
                             border.

15 Jun 1918                Semirechye Cossacks recognize the authority of the Provisional
                             Siberian
Government and then (from Sep 1918) of the Provisional
                             All-Russian
Government (see under Russian Civil War Polities).
21 Jul 1918                Siberian troops and Cossacks take Sergiopol (modern Ayagoz);
                             Semirechye
divided between a "White" North and a "Red" South
                             (from 30 Apr 1918, part of
the Turkestan A.S.S.R.) for almost
                             two years.

Nov 1918                   Semirechye Cossacks under the direct authority of Kolchak, the
                             Supreme Ruler of
Russia (autonomy is abolished).
12 Jan 1920                Red Army retakes Sergiopol. The Cossacks (from 6 Jan 1920
                             nominally under
Semyonov, Supreme Authority of the East of
                             Russia) move to Lepsinsk
(modern Lepsi) and on 7 Apr 1920 are
                             evacuated to China.


Atamans of the Semirechye Cossack Host and (to Nov 1918) Chairmen of the Host Government
14 Nov 1917 – Dec 1917     Andrey Ivanovich Kiyashko            (b. 1857 – d. 1917)
Dec 1917 – 26 Feb 1918     Nikolay Sergeyevich Shcherbakov
                             (acting)
(chairman of the Host Government)
26 Feb 1918 – Oct 1919     Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Ionov         (b. 1880 – d. 1950)
                             (arrested by Bolsheviks Mar 1918 – Apr 1918;
                            
in China exile Jun – Jul 1918)
                            
(1st time)
19 Nov 1919 – Apr 1920     Nikolay Petrovich Shcherbakov        (b. 1879 – d. 1922)
                             (acting)(did not claim autonomy)
                             (
in exile in China to 15 Sep 1922)
Chief Administrator of Semirechye Kray (with rights of governor-general)
 6 Jan 1920 –  2 Apr 1920  Aleksandr Ilyich Dutov               (b. 1879 - d. 1921)
                             (ataman of Orenburg Cossack Host)
Ataman of Semirechye Cossack Host
1922 - 1950                Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Ionov         (s.a.)
                             (in exile in Vladivostok to 1922, then in
                            
New Zealand, Montreal, and finally New York)
                             (2nd time)






© Ben Cahoon