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New Zealand
 
[United Tribes of New
                                    Zealand flag (U.K. gazetted version,
                                    5 pointed stars as made and used)
                                    1835-1840 (New Zealand)]             
   28 Oct 1835 - 6 Feb 1840 as Gazetted and Used
          Flag of United Tribes of New Zealand
[United Tribes of New
                                    Zealand 1835 flag (as used by Maori
                                    chiefs, 8 pointed stars, black
                                    fimbrication] 1835-1840 (New
                                    Zealand)])
     28 Oct 1835 - 6 Feb 1840 as used by Maori
          Flag of United Tribes of New Zealand

[Union
                                    Jack]
                     6 Feb 1840 - 6 Dec 1902
 
[NZ
                                    blue ensign 1867-1869]
       10 Jan 1867 - 23 Oct 1869  Merchant Ensign
 
 
[New
                                    Zealand 1 Jan 1900 - 9 Jun 1902
                                    Merchant Ensign]
       10 Jan 1867 - 23 Oct 1869  Merchant Ensign

[ National
                                    Flag of New Zealand ]
        23 Oct 1869 - 1 Jan 1900 Merchant Ensign
               Officially Adopted  6 Dec 1902
Map of New Zealand
Hear Co-National Anthem
"God Defend New Zealand"
(Atua Manaakitia mai Aotearoa)
Adopted 1940 (co-national
anthem from 21 Nov 1977)

Hear Co-National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen"
(E te Atua tohungia te Kuini)
Constitution
(1 Jan 1987)
Capital: Wellington
(Auckland 1841-Feb 1865;
Old Russell 1840-1841)
Currency: New Zealand
Dollar (NZD); 1907-1967
New Zealand Pound (NZP)
National Holiday: 6 Feb (1840)
Waitangi Day
Population: 4,365,113 (2013)
GDP: $136 billion (2013)
Exports: $37.84 billion (2013)
Imports: $37.35 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: European 71.2%, Maori 14.1%, Asian 11.3%,
Pacific peoples 7.6%, Middle Eastern, Latin American,
African 1.1%, other 1.6%, not stated or unidentified 5.4% (2013)
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because people were able to identify more than one ethnic group.
Total Active Armed Forces: 9,702 (2010)
Merchant marine: 15 ships (2010)
Religions: Christian 44.3% (Catholic 11.6%, Anglican 10.8%,
 Presbyterian and Congregational 7.8%, Methodist, 2.4%,
 Pentecostal 1.8%, other 9.9%), Hindu 2.1%, Buddhist 1.4%,
 Maori Christian 1.3%, Islam 1.1%, other religion 1.4%
 (incl. Judaism, Spiritualism and New Age religions, Baha'i,
 Asian religions other than Buddhism), no religion 38.5%,
not stated/unidentified 8.2%, objected answering 4.1% (2013)
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because people were able to identify more than one religion.
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AG, AIIB (signatory), ANT (consultative), ANZUS (U.S. suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 Aug 1986), APEC, APM, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BTWC, C, CCM, CP, CWC, EAS, EBRD, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NPT, NTBT, NSG, OECD, OPCW, PA (observer), PC, PCA, PIF, SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
New Zealand
Index
Chronology

13 Dec 1642                Discovered by Dutch Capt. Abel Tasman and
                             named Staten Landt, later known as Nieuw Zeeland.
 8 Oct 1769 - 28 Feb 1777  Circumnavigated and claimed for Britain by 
                             Capt. James Cook.
1792                       British settlement begins.
28 Oct 1835                Maori declare independence
                             (Confederation of the United Tribes)
                             under British protectorate.
30 Jan 1840                New Zealand officially a British possession as
                             part of New South Wales (see under Australian
                             colonies).
21 May 1840                British sovereignty proclaimed over all of New
                             Zealand- over the North Island on the basis of
                             cession by the Treaty of Waitangi and the
                             southern islands by right of discovery; over
                             Stewart Island on 5 Jun 1840, and over the South
                             Island on 17 Jun 1840.
 3 May 1841                New Zealand a separate colony.
 1 Nov 1842                Chatham, Bounty, Antipodes, and Auckland Islands 
                             and Campbell Island are annexed.
 6 Jun 1887                Kermadec Islands annexed.
26 Sep 1907                Dominion of New Zealand.
11 Dec 1931                Statute of Westminster grants full sovereignty
                             to the British dominions.
25 Nov 1947                New Zealand ratifies the Statute of Westminster.
 
1 Nov 1983                Legally defined as a part of the "Realm of New
                             Zealand" (in official use from 1953).
 1 Jan 1987                Official use of the term "Dominion" ended (New
                             Zealand [= from 1 Aug 1987, Aotearoa]).

Provinces
(1848-1877)
Maori
Kingitanga
Ngati Tuwharetoa
Chatham Islands
Treaty of Waitangi
 (6 Feb 1840 -
31 Dec 1999)
 
 
 
 
 

Kings/Queens
26 Sep 1907 -              the Kings/Queens of the United Kingdom

British Residents
10 May 1833 - 30 Jan 1840  James Busby                        (b. 1802 - d. 1871)
                           - jointly with - 
1834 - 30 Jan 1840         Thomas McDonnell (co-resident)     (b. 1788 - d. 1864)
Lieutenant governor
30 Jan 1840 -  3 Jan 1841  William Hobson                     (b. 1792 - d. 1842)
Governors2 (from 26 Sep 1907, representing the British monarch as head of state)
 3 Jan 1841 - 10 Sep 1842  William Hobson                     (s.a.)
                             (acting to 3 May 1841)
10 Sep 1842 - 26 Dec 1843  Willoughby J. Shortland (acting)   (b. 1804 - d. 1869)
26 Dec 1843 - 18 Nov 1845  Robert FitzRoy                     (b. 1805 - d. 1865)
18 Nov 1845 - 31 Dec 1853  George Grey (1st time)             (b. 1812 - d. 1898)
                             (from 27 Apr 1848, Sir George Grey)
                             (governor-in-chief 1 Jan 1848 - 7 Mar 1853)
 3 Jan 1854 -  6 Sep 1855  Robert Henry Wynyard (1st time)    (b. 1802 - d. 1864)
                             (acting)
 6 Sep 1855 -  3 Oct 1861  Thomas Gore Browne                 (b. 1807 - d. 1887)
 3 Oct 1861 -  4 Dec 1861  Robert Henry Wynyard (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 4 Dec 1861 -  5 Feb 1868  Sir George Grey (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 5 Feb 1868 - 19 Mar 1873  Sir George Ferguson Bowen          (b. 1821 - d. 1899)
21 Mar 1873 - 14 Jun 1873  Sir George Alfred Arney (acting)   (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
14 Jun 1873 -  3 Dec 1874  Sir James Fergusson                (b. 1832 - d. 1907)
 3 Dec 1874 - 21 Feb 1879  George Augustus Constantine Phipps,(b. 1819 - d. 1890)
                             Marquess of Normanby
21 Feb 1879 - 27 Mar 1879  James Prendergast (1st time)       (b. 1826 - d. 1921)
                             (acting)
27 Mar 1879 -  9 Sep 1880  Sir Hercules George Robert         (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
                             Robinson (acting to 17 Apr 1879) 
 9 Sep 1880 - 29 Nov 1880  James Prendergast (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting for Robinson)
29 Nov 1880 - 24 Jun 1882  Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon         (b. 1829 - d. 1912)
24 Jun 1882 - 20 Jan 1883  James Prendergast (3rd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting)
20 Jan 1883 - 23 Mar 1889  Sir William Jervois                (b. 1821 - d. 1897)
23 Mar 1889 -  2 May 1889  James Prendergast (4th time)       (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
 2 May 1889 - 25 Feb 1892  William Hillier, Earl of Onslow    (b. 1853 - d. 1911)
25 Feb 1892 -  6 Jun 1892  James Prendergast (5th time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 7 Jun 1892 -  8 Feb 1897  David Boyle, Earl of Glasgow       (b. 1833 - d. 1915)
 8 Feb 1897 -  9 Aug 1897  James Prendergast (6th time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting)
10 Aug 1897 - 20 Jun 1904  Uchter John Mark Knox,             (b. 1856 - d. 1933)
                             Earl of Ranfurly 
20 Jun 1904 -  8 Jun 1910  William Lee Plunket, Baron         (b. 1864 - d. 1920)
                             Plunket of Newton in County Cork
 8 Jun 1910 - 22 Jun 1910  Sir Robert Stout (1st time)        (b. 1844 - d. 1930) 
                             (administrator)
22 Jun 1910 -  3 Dec 1912  John Poynder Dickson-Poynder,      (b. 1866 - d. 1936)
                             Baron Islington, of Islington in
                             the County of London
 3 Dec 1912 - 19 Dec 1912  Sir Robert Stout                   (s.a.) 
                             (acting for Baron Islington)
19 Dec 1912 - 28 Jun 1917  Arthur William de Brito Savile     (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
                             Foljambe, Earl of Liverpool
Governors-general2 (representing the British monarch as head of state)
28 Jun 1917 -  8 Jul 1920  Arthur William de Brito Savile     (s.a.)
                             Foljambe, Earl of Liverpool 
 8 Jul 1920 - 27 Sep 1920  Sir Robert Stout (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                             (administrator) 
27 Sep 1920 - 13 Dec 1924  John Rushworth, Viscount Jellicoe  (b. 1859 - d. 1935)
                             of Scapa in the County of Orkney
13 Dec 1924 -  8 Feb 1930  Sir Charles Fergusson              (b. 1865 - d. 1951)
 8 Feb 1930 - 19 Mar 1930  Sir Michael Myers (1st time)       (b. 1873 - d. 1950) 
                             (administrator)
19 Mar 1930 - 15 Mar 1935  Charles Bathurst, Baron Bledisloe  (b. 1867 - d. 1958)
                             of Lydney and Aylburton in the
                             County of Gloucester

15 Mar 1935 - 12 Apr 1935  Sir Michael Myers (2nd time)       (s.a.) 
                             (administrator)
12 Apr 1935 -  3 Feb 1941  George Monckton-Arundell,          (b. 1882 - d. 1943)
                             Viscount Galway 
 3 Feb 1941 - 22 Feb 1941  Sir Michael Myers (3rd time)       (s.a.) 
                             (administrator)
22 Feb 1941 -  6 Jun 1946  Sir Cyril Louis Norton Newall      (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
 6 Jun 1946 - 17 Jun 1946  Sir Michael Myers (4th time)       (s.a.) 
                             (administrator)
17 Jun 1946 - 15 Aug 1952  Sir Bernard Cyril Freyberg         (b. 1889 - d. 1963)
                            (from 16 Oct 1951, Bernard Cyril Freyberg,
                             Baron Freyberg of Wellington New Zealand
                             and of Munstead in the County of Surrey)

15 Aug 1952 -  2 Dec 1952  Sir Humphrey Francis O'Leary       (b. 1886 - d. 1953)
                             (administrator)
 2 Dec 1952 - 25 Jul 1957  Sir Charles Willoughby Moke Norrie (b. 1893 - d. 1977)
25 Jul 1957 -  5 Sep 1957  Sir Harold Eric Barrowclough       (b. 1894 - d. 1972)
                             (1st time)(administrator)
 5 Sep 1957 - 13 Sep 1962  Charles John Lyttelton,            (b. 1909 - d. 1962)
                             Viscount Cobham 
13 Sep 1962 -  9 Nov 1962  Sir Harold Eric Barrowclough       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(administrator)
 9 Nov 1962 - 20 Oct 1967  Sir Bernard Edward Fergusson       (b. 1911 - d. 1980)
20 Oct 1967 -  1 Dec 1967  Sir Herbert Richard Churton Wild   (b. 1912 - d. 1978)
                             (1st time)(administrator)
 1 Dec 1967 -  7 Sep 1972  Sir Arthur Espie Porritt           (b. 1900 - d. 1994)
 7 Sep 1972 - 27 Sep 1972  Sir Herbert Richard Churton Wild   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(administrator)
27 Sep 1972 -  5 Oct 1977  Sir Edward Denis Blundell          (b. 1907 - d. 1984)
 5 Oct 1977 - 26 Oct 1977  Sir Herbert Richard Churton Wild   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(administrator)
26 Oct 1977 - 25 Oct 1980  Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake           (b. 1904 - d. 1983)
25 Oct 1980 -  6 Nov 1980  Sir Ronald Davison (administrator) (b. 1920 - d. 2015)
 6 Nov 1980 - 22 Nov 1985  Sir David Stuart Beattie           (b. 1924 - d. 2001)
22 Nov 1985 - 20 Nov 1990  Sir Paul Alfred Reeves             (b. 1932 - d. 2011)
20 Nov 1990 - 21 Mar 1996  Dame Catherine Anne Tizard (f)     (b. 1931)
21 Mar 1996 - 21 Mar 2001  Sir Michael Hardie Boys            (b. 1931)
22 Mar 2001 -  4 Apr 2001  Dame Sian Elias (f) (1st time)     (b. 1949)
                             (administrator)
 4 Apr 2001 -  4 Aug 2006  Dame Silvia Rose Cartwright (f)    (b. 1943) 
 4 Aug 2006 - 23 Aug 2006  Dame Sian Elias (f) (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (administrator)
23 Aug 2006 - 23 Aug 2011  Anand Satyanand                    (b. 1944)
                             (from 27 Mar 2009, Sir Anand Satyanand

23 Aug 2011 - 31 Aug 2011  Dame Sian Elias (f) (3rd time)     (s.a.)
                             (administrator)
31 Aug 2011 - 31 Aug 2016  Sir Jeremiah "Jerry" Mateparae
     (b. 1954)
31 Aug 2016 - 28 Sep 2016  Dame Sian Elias (f) (4th time)     (s.a.)
                             (
administrator)
28 Sep 2016 -              Dame Patricia "Patsy" Reddy (f)    (b. 1954)

Prime ministers2
 7 May 1856 - 20 May 1856  Henry Sewell                       (b. 1807 - d. 1879)  Non-party
20 May 1856 -  2 Jun 1856  William Fox (1st time)             (b. 1812 - d. 1893)  Non-party
 2 Jun 1856 - 12 Jul 1861  Edward William Stafford (1st time) (b. 1819 - d. 1901)  Non-party
12 Jul 1861 -  6 Aug 1862  William Fox (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Non-party
 6 Aug 1862 - 30 Oct 1863  Alfred Domett                      (b. 1811 - d. 1887)  Non-party
30 Oct 1863 - 24 Nov 1864  Frederick Whitaker (1st time)      (b. 1812 - d. 1891)  Non-party
24 Nov 1864 - 16 Oct 1865  Frederick Aloysius Weld            (b. 1823 - d. 1891)  Non-party
16 Oct 1865 - 28 Jun 1869  Edward William Stafford (2nd time) (s.a.)               Non-party
28 Jun 1869 - 10 Sep 1872  William Fox (3rd time)             (s.a.)               Non-party
10 Sep 1872 - 11 Oct 1872  Edward William Stafford (3rd time) (s.a.)               Non-party
11 Oct 1872 -  3 Mar 1873  George Marsden Waterhouse          (b. 1824 - d. 1906)  Non-party
 3 Mar 1873 -  8 Apr 1873  William Fox (4th time)             (s.a.)               Non-party
 8 Apr 1873 -  6 Jul 1875  Julius Vogel (1st time)            (b. 1835 - d. 1899)  Non-party
                             (from 28 May 1875, Sir Julius Vogel)
 6 Jul 1875 - 15 Feb 1876  Daniel Pollen                      (b. 1813 - d. 1896)  Non-party
15 Feb 1876 -  1 Sep 1876  Sir Julius Vogel (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Non-party
 1 Sep 1876 - 13 Oct 1877  Harry Atkinson (1st time)          (b. 1831 - d. 1892)  Non-party
13 Oct 1877 -  8 Oct 1879  Sir George Grey                    (s.a.)               Non-party
 8 Oct 1879 - 21 Apr 1882  John Hall                          (b. 1824 - d. 1907)  Non-party
21 Apr 1882 - 25 Sep 1883  Frederick Whitaker (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Non-party
25 Sep 1883 - 16 Aug 1884  Harry Atkinson (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Non-party
16 Aug 1884 - 28 Aug 1884  Robert Stout (1st time)            (s.a.)               Non-party
28 Aug 1884 -  3 Sep 1884  Harry Atkinson (3rd time)          (s.a.)               Non-party
 3 Sep 1884 -  8 Oct 1887  Robert Stout (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (from 29 May 1886, Sir Robert Stout) 
 8 Oct 1887 - 24 Jan 1891  Harry Atkinson (4th time)          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (from 28 Jan 1888, Sir Harry Atkinson)
24 Jan 1891 - 27 Apr 1893  John Ballance                      (b. 1839 - d. 1893)  Lib
 1 May 1893 - 10 Jun 1906  Richard John Seddon                (b. 1845 - d. 1906)  Lib
21 Jun 1906 -  6 Aug 1906  William Hall-Jones (acting)        (b. 1851 - d. 1936)  Lib
 6 Aug 1906 - 28 Mar 1912  Joseph George Ward (1st time)      (b. 1856 - d. 1930)  Lib
                             (from 20 Jun 1911, Sir Joseph George Ward) 
28 Mar 1912 - 10 Jul 1912  Thomas Mackenzie                   (b. 1854 - d. 1930)  Lib
10 Jul 1912 - 10 May 1925  William Ferguson Massey            (b. 1856 - d. 1925)  Ref
14 May 1925 - 30 May 1925  Sir Francis Henry Dillon Bell      (b. 1851 - d. 1936)  Ref
30 May 1925 - 10 Dec 1928  Joseph Gordon Coates               (b. 1878 - d. 1943)  Ref
10 Dec 1928 - 28 May 1930  Sir Joseph George Ward (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Uni
28 May 1930 -  5 Dec 1935  George William Forbes              (b. 1869 - d. 1947)  Uni
 5 Dec 1935 - 27 Mar 1940  Michael Joseph Savage              (b. 1872 - d. 1940)  Lab
27 Mar 1940 - 13 Dec 1949  Peter Fraser                       (b. 1884 - d. 1950)  Lab
                             (acting to 1 Apr 1940)
13 Dec 1949 - 26 Sep 1957  Sidney George Holland              (b. 1893 - d. 1961)  Nat
26 Sep 1957 - 12 Dec 1957  Keith Jacka Holyoake (1st time)    (s.a.)               Nat
12 Dec 1957 - 26 Nov 1960  Walter Nash                        (b. 1882 - d. 1968)  Lab
26 Nov 1960 -  7 Feb 1972  Keith Jacka Holyoake (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Nat
                             (from 13 Jun 1970, Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake)
 7 Feb 1972 -  8 Dec 1972  John Ross Marshall                 (b. 1912 - d. 1988)  Nat
 8 Dec 1972 - 31 Aug 1974  Norman Eric Kirk                   (b. 1923 - d. 1974)  Lab
 1 Sep 1974 -  6 Sep 1974  Hugh Watt (acting)                 (b. 1912 - d. 1980)  Lab
 6 Sep 1974 - 12 Dec 1975  Wallace Edward Rowling             (b. 1927 - d. 1995)  Lab
12 Dec 1975 - 26 Jul 1984  Robert David Muldoon               (b. 1921 - d. 1992)  Nat
                             (from 31 Dec 1983, Sir Robert David Muldoon) 
26 Jul 1984 -  8 Aug 1989  David Russell Lange                (b. 1942 - d. 2005)  Lab
 8 Aug 1989 -  4 Sep 1990  Geoffrey Palmer                    (b. 1942)            Lab
 4 Sep 1990 -  2 Nov 1990  Michael "Mike" Kenneth Moore       (b. 1949)            Lab
 2 Nov 1990 -  8 Dec 1997  James "Jim" Brendan Bolger         (b. 1935)            Nat
 8 Dec 1997 - 10 Dec 1999  Jennifer "Jenny" Mary Shipley (f)  (b. 1952)            Nat
10 Dec 1999 - 19 Nov 2008  Helen Elizabeth Clark (f)          (b. 1950)            Lab
19 Nov 2008 -              John Phillip Key                   (b. 1961)            Nat

[Tino Rangatiratanga
                  Maori flag (New Zealand)(Aotearoa)]
    'Tino Rangatiratanga' Maori flag 
Adopted 14 Dec 2009 "as a flag of New Zealand"

 The style of the ruler:
(a) 26 Sep 1907 - 12 May 1927: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India";
(b) 12 May 1927 - 6 Feb 1952: "By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India" (the title "Emperor of India" was dropped as of 15 Aug 1947 by retroactive proclamation dated 22 Jun 1948);
(c) 6 Feb 1952 - 29 May 1953: "By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas Queen, Defender of the Faith";
(d) 29 May 1953 - 6 Feb 1974: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(e) from 6 Feb 1974: "By the Grace of God, Queen of New Zealand and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith; and from 1 Aug 1987 (in Māori): I raro i te Maru o Te Atua, te Kuini o Aotearoa me ana ake Rohe me ana Whenua, te Upoko o Ngā Herenga ki Ingarangi, te Kaiwaowao o te Whakapono.

 2full title:
(a) 26 Sep 1907 - 27 Nov 1907: "Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over the Colony of New Zealand and its Dependencies";
(b) 27 Nov 1907 - 28 Jun 1917: "Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over the Dominion of New Zealand";
(c) 28 Jun 1917 - 1 Nov 1983: "Governor-general and Commander-in-Chief in and over the Dominion of New Zealand";
(d) from 1 Nov 1983: "Governor-general and Commander-in-Chief in and over the Realm of New Zealand; and from 1 Aug 1987 (in Māori): Kāwana-Tianara o te Whenua o Aotearoa.

 3The titles premier and first minister were variously applied to each of the principal ministers until 1869, when premier became customary. Although the title prime minister was first used formally in the Schedule of the Civil List Act of 1873, no one used the title officially until Richard John Seddon, beginning in 1893. In 1906 William Hall-Jones was the first person to be officially appointed to such a position. James Edward FitzGerald and 
Thomas Spencer Forsaith are regarded by some historians as having headed up Governments from the dates 14 Jun 1854 to 2 Aug 1854 and 31 Aug 1854 to 2 Sep 1854 respectively. However, neither held the post of Colonial Secretary which normally denoted the Head of Government back then, and both of them served prior to the introduction of responsible self-government 
thus most historians regard Sewell as the first Prime minister or Head of Government.

Territorial Dispute: Antarctic territorial claim (Ross Dependency) is not recognized by the United Nations, U.S., Russia, or by other countries (other than Australia, France, Norway and 
U.K.).

Party abbreviations: Lab = Labour Party (social-democratic, center-left, est.1916); Nat = National Party (conservative, center-right, merger of Ref and UP, est.1936);
- Former parties: Lib = Liberal Party (liberal, centrist, 1891-1927); Ref = New Zealand Political Reform League ("Reform Party", conservative, center-right, 1905-1935); Uni = United Party (liberal conservative, center-right, 1927-1936)



Maori community

Kīngitanga (Maori King Movement)

[(reconstructed) flag of Maori King
                          Potatau Te Wherowhero c.1859-1860]
                     c.1859 - 25 Jun 1860
[Flag of Maori
                          Queen Te Ata-i c.1966- 2006]
                        c.1966 - 15 Aug 2006

Note: The first two kings were leaders of the revolt against the colony; after the second king's surrender he and his successors maintained a symbolic and prestigious community leadership to this day.

 2 May 1859                Kingship established (included the area south of Auckland,
                             encompassing Lake Taupo and to the edge of the Taranaki region.
                             Tribes in this area include Waikato [the King's tribe], Ngāti
                             Maniapoto, Ngāti Hauā, Ngāti Raukawa, and Ngāti Tūwharetoa; The
                             King also had kāwana (governors) representing other tribes
                             outside his territory - these seem to have covered most of New
                             Zealand but did not hold universal authority in their regions).
1863/64                    Colonial government conquers the Waikato region and took the
                             King's capital (Ngāruawāhia), the King retreated south of the
                             Puniu River into Ngāti Maniapoto territory and remained head
                             of a reduced 'King Country').
12 Aug 1881                Surrender to the New Zealand government, royalty continues.
12 Apr 1894                Constitution promulgated by Kīngitanga for "Aotearoa", recognizing
                             the Te Kauhanganui (parliament) under a Ngā Tumuaki o te
                             Kīngitanga
(presidents of the King Movement, as premiers of
                             the great council).

Kings
 2 May 1859 - 25 Jun 1860  Potatau I Te Wherowhero              (b. c.1800 - d. 1860)
27 Jun 1860 - 26 Aug 1894  Tukaroto Matutaera Te Pukepuke Te    (b. c.1825 - d. 1894)
                             Paue Te Karato Te-a-Potatau II Te
                             Wherowhero (from Aug 1864, Tawhiao
                             Potatau Te Wherowhero "Te A") 
14 Sep 1894 -  9 Nov 1912  Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te            (b. 1855 - d. 1912)
                             Wherowhero 
24 Nov 1912 -  1 Oct 1933  Te Rata Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te    (b. 1880 - d. 1933)
                             Wherowhero 
 8 Oct 1933 - 18 May 1966  Koroki Te Rata Mahuta Tawhiao        (b. 1909 - d. 1966)
                             Potatau Te Wherowhero 
Queen
23 May 1966 - 15 Aug 2006  Te Ata-i Rangi-Kahu Koroki Te        (b. 1931 - d. 2006)
                             Rata Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te
                             Wherowhero (from 30 Dec 1969, Dame
                             Te Ata-i Rangi-Kahu Koroki Te Rata
                            
Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero)
King
21 Aug 2006 -              Tuheitia Paki                        (b. 1955)

King Makers (Ngā Tangata Whakawaahi Kīngi)
 
2 Jun 1858 - 27 Dec 1866  Wīremu Tāmihana Tarapīpipi Te Waharoa(b. c.1805 - d. 1866)
27 Dec 1866 -  2 May 1892  Tupu Atanatiu Taingākawa Te Waharoa  (b. 1844? - d. 1929)
Presidents of the King Movement (Ngā Tumuaki o te Kīngitanga)(Premiers of the Great Council)
 2 May 1892 - 24 Jun 1929  Tupu Atanatiu Taingākawa Te Waharoa  (s.a.)
24 Jun 1929 - 10 May 1941  Tarapīpipi Taingākawa Te Waharoa     (b. 187. - d. 1941)
10 May 1941 - 1953         Wīremu (Tawhe Tarapīpipi) Tāmihana   (b. 1897? - d. 1953)
1953 - 1968                Te Waharoa Tarapīpipi Tāmehana       (b. 1903? - d. 1968)
                             (Tāmihana)
1968 - 1972                Tahiwaru Tarapīpipi Tāmehana         (b. 1908? - d. 1972)
                             (Tāmihana)
1972 - 1974                Ranginui Wiripoai Tāmehana Thompson  (b. 1910? - d. 1974)
1974 - 2000                Wiripoai Tarapīpipi Tāmehana         (b. 193. - d. 2000)
2000 -                     Anaru Tarapīpipi Wiripoai Te Awaitaia
                             Thompson 


Te Kotahitanga

17 Jun 1892                Maori parliament movement (Te Kotahitanga o te Tiriti o
                             Waitangi) established (not recognized by New Zealand or
                             directly affiliated with the "King Movement").
May 1895                   Attempt to unite the Te Kotahitanga and Te Kīngitanga parliaments
                             fail.
1902                       Final meeting of the Kotahitanga parliament is held
at
                             Waiōmatatini, its role is largely superseded by Māori councils.
14 Jan 1904                Following the death Hamuera Tamahau Mahupuku no one replaces
                             him and the movement collapses.

Premiers of the Great Council
17 Jun 1892 - 1893         Hamiora Mangakahia (1st time)        (b. 1838? - d. 1918)
1893 - 1895                Te Whatahoro Jury                    (b. 1841 - d. 1923)
1895 - 1898                Hamiora Mangakahia (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1898 - 14 Jun 1904         Hamuera Tamahau Mahupuku             (b. c.1840 - d. 1904)


Ngāti Tūwharetoa

[Ngati Tuwharetoa
                flag (New Zealand)(Aotearoa)]]

Note: This is probably the most important Maori traditional polity that remained 
unaffiliated with the "King Movement."

c.1750                     Chiefdom established.

Paramount chiefs (title Ariki Nui)
17.. - ....                Te Rangituamatotoru
.... - ....                Te Wakaiti
.... - c.1820              Herea Te Rangimaheuheu               (b. c.1750 - d. c.1820)
                             (later, Herea Te Heuheu Tukino I) 
c.1820 -  7 May 1846       Mananui Te Heuheu Tukino II          (b. 1780 - d. 1846)
1846 - Oct 1862            Iwikau Te Heuheu Tukino III          (b. 1790 - d. 1862)
1862 - 30 Jul 1888         Horonuku Te Heuheu Tukino IV         (b. 1821 - d. 1888)
1888 -  1 Jun 1921         Tureiti Te Heuheu Tukino V           (b. 1865 - d. 1921)
1921 - 27 Apr 1944         Hoani Te Heuheu Tukino VI            (b. 1897 - d. 1944)
1944 - 31 Jul 1997         Hepi Te Heuheu Tukino VII            (b. 1919 - d. 1997)
                            
(from 1 Jan 1979, Sir Hepi Te Heuheu Tukino VII)
 5 Aug 1997 -              Tumu Te Heuheu Tukino VIII           (b. 1942?)
                             (from 31 Dec 2004, Sir Tumu Te Heuheu Tukino VIII)



Chatham Islands

[ Chatham Islands (New
              Zealand) unofficial local flag]
                Unofficial Local Flag

Map of Chatham Islands
Capital: Waitangi
Population: 600 (2013)

29 Nov 1791                Discovered by Lt. William Broughton on HMS Chatham and
                             claimed for U.K., named after John Pitt, Earl of Chatham.
19 Nov 1835                British mercenary ship arrives carrying armed Maori who
                             proceed to attack the native Moriori.
 1 Nov 1842                Rēkohu annexed to New Zealand as the Chatham Islands.
 
8 Nov 1901                Chatham Islands County
 1 Nov 1995                Chatham Islands Territory

Resident Magistrates

1855 - 1863                Archibald Watson Shand               (b. 1808 - d. 1878)
1863 - 1869                William Esdaile Thomas               (b. 1826 - d. 1891)
1869 - 1872                Robert Joseph Lanauze                (b. 1832? - d. 1893)
1872                       Felix Edward Wakefield               (b. 1845 - d. 1924)
1873 - 1891                Samuel Deighton                      (b. 1821 - d. 1900)
1891 - 1897                Frederick John William Gascoyne      (b. 1837 - d. 1926)
                             (Gascoigne)                      
Sep 1898 - 1905            Robert Stone Florance                (b. 1856 - d. 1928)
1905 - 1906                Hugh Walter Pigeon                   (b. 1874 - d. 1926)
1906 - 1919                George Homer Gibson                  (b. 1863? - d. 1936)
Apr 1919 - 1920            George Redpath                       (b. 1892 d. 1951)
1921 - 1922                Geoffrey Sherbourne Clayton          (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
1922 - 1923                Walter Scott Alexander               (b. 1879? - d. 1923)
1923 - 1925                Edward Pohau Ellison                 (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
1925 - 1930?               Herbert Greenwood                    (b. 1869? - d. 1937)
1930 - 1949                Ryan Holmes                          (b. 1876? - d. 1949)
Resident Commissioners and Magistrates
1950 - 1952                Geoffrey Nevill                      (b. 1901 - d. 1972)
1952 - 1958                John "Jack" Kenneth Patterson        (b. 1914 - d. 2003)
1958 - 1972                Donald "Don" Stewart Reid            (b. 1916 - d. 2002)
Commissioners
1972 - 1979                Edward Joseph Lynskey                (b. 1909 - d. 1982)
1979 - c.1984              William "Bill" James Sewell
Mayors of the Chatham Islands Council
1992 - 31 Jan 2010         Patrick "Pat" F. Smith
 1 Feb 2010 -              Alfred W. Preece (acting to Oct 2010)


General Managers
of the Chatham Islands Council
199. - 2002                Terrence "Terry" C. Melville
Jan 2002 -                 Owen Pickles                         (b. c.1955)




Ben Cahoon