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Namibia 
 
[German West African Company]
                  9 Mar 1883 - 1889
 
[German
                                    Empire 1870-1919 (Germany)]
                   1889 - 9 Jul 1915
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                       9 Jul 1915 - 28 Jun 1919
 
[South
                                    Africa Red Ensign, 1919-1928]
                   28 Jun 1919 - 31 May 1928
 
[flag
                                    of South Africa, 1928-1994]
           31 May 1928 - 21 Mar 1990
 
[SWAPO flag, UN Recognized flag
                                    of Namibia 1966-1990]
  26 Oct 1966 - 21 Mar 1990 UN Recognized flag
 
[flag of Namibia]
                Adopted 21 Mar 1990




Map of Namibia
Hear National Anthem
"Namibia, Land of the Brave"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 21 Mar 1991
Constitution
(12 Mar 1990)
Capital: Windhoek
(Grootfontein May- Jul 1915;
Otjimbigwe 1884-1891)
Currency: Namibian Dollar
(NAD), 1961-1993 South
African Rand
(ZAR); 1920-1961
 South African Pound (ZAP);
 1915-20 Southwest African
 Mark  (NAM); 1914-15 German
Southwest Africa Mark (NAP)
National Holiday: 21 Mar (1990)
Independence Day
Population: 2,182,852 (2013)
GDP: $17.79 billion (2013)
Exports: $5.12 billion (2013)
Imports: $7.08 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups:  Ovambo 34.4%, mixed black/white 14.5%
Kavangos 9.1%, Herero 5.5%, white 6%, Damara 7%,
Nama 4.4%, Caprivian 4%,  San [Bushmen] and
Bergdama 7%, Kwambi 3.7%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%,
other 1.5% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 9,200 (2010)
Merchant marine: 1 ship (2010) 
Religions: Protestant  (mostly Lutheran) 47.5%,
Roman Catholic 17.7%, African Christian 10.8%,
traditional beliefs 6%, other 18% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, C, CCM (signatory), CPLP (associate observer), CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID (signatory), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Namibia Index
Chronology

 9 Apr 1883                Agent of Adolf Lüderitz purchases Angra Pequeña 
                             (Lüderitz), taking possession on 12 May 1883.
24 Apr 1884                German South West Africa protectorate.
30 Apr 1885 - 1889         Under Deutsch Kolonialgesell-schaft für 
                             Südwest-Africa (German South West Africa
                             Colonial Company) rule.
14 Sep 1892                German South West Africa crown colony.
 9 Jul 1915                Occupation by South Africa, German forces
                             surrender; fully occupied by 16 Aug 1915.
17 Dec 1920                South West Africa a League of Nations mandate
                             (administered by South Africa).
11 Dec 1946                South Africa rejects a UN Trusteeship for South 
                             West Africa.
24 Aug 1954                South Africa announces mandate has lapsed and
                             that "the territory and South Africa are one
                             political entity."
27 Oct 1966                United Nations General Assembly terminates the 
                             mandate and puts South West Africa under direct
                             UN responsibility; South Africa does not 
                             recognize this and continues to exercise de 
                             facto authority.
19 May 1967                United Nations Council for Namibia created, it
                             functioned as a policy-making organ of the UN
                             General Assembly and as the legal administering
                             authority of the trust territory.
12 Jun 1968                South West Africa formally renamed Namibia by UN
                             (not recognized by South Africa).
 2 Oct 1968 - Jul 1980     Homelands similar to those in South Africa 
                             established.
30 Jan 1970                UN declares South Africa in "illegal occupation"
                             of Namibia.
20 Dec 1976 - 21 Mar 1990  SWAPO granted observer status by United Nations.
21 Mar 1990                Independence from South Africa 
                             (Republic of Namibia).
 1 Mar 1994                Walvis Bay and Penguin Islands formally
                             transferred to Namibia.

Traditional
States
Former
Homelands
Caprivi Strip
(1909-1990)
Upingtonia/
Lijdensrust

(1885-1887)
  Walvis Bay
(1878-1994)
Historical Maps
of Namibia
Map of Namibia
1920-1994
 
 
 

UN Commissioners (not recognized by South Africa)
27 Oct 1966 - 13 Jun 1967  Anton Vratusa (Yugoslavia)         (b. 1915)
13 Jun 1967 -  1 Dec 1969  Konstantinos Stavropoulos (Greece) (b. 1905 - d. 1984)
                             (acting)
 1 Dec 1969 - 18 Dec 1973  Agha Abdul Hamid (Pakistan)        (b. 1912)
                             (acting)
18 Dec 1973 -  1 Jan 1977  Sean MacBride (Ireland)            (b. 1904 - d. 1988) 
 1 Jan 1977 -  1 Apr 1982  Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari       (b. 1937) 
                             (Finland)
 1 Apr 1982 -  1 Jul 1987  Brajesh Chandra Mishra (India)     (b. 1928 - d. 2012)
 1 Jul 1987 - 21 Dec 1988  Bernt Carlsson (Sweden)            (b. 1938 - d. 1988)
UN Special Representative
 1 Apr 1989 - 21 Mar 1990  Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari       (s.a.) 
                             (Finland)

Magistrates
 9 Apr 1883 - 12 May 1883  Heinrich Vogelsang (acting)        (b. 1862 - d. 1914)
12 May 1883 -  7 Oct 1884  Franz Adolf Eduard Lüderitz        (b. 1834 - d. 1886)
Reichskommissare (Imperial commissioners)
 7 Oct 1884 - May 1885     Gustav Nachtigal                   (b. 1834 - d. 1885)
May 1885 - Aug 1890        Heinrich Ernst Göring (acting)     (b. 1839 - d. 1913)
Aug 1890 - Mar 1891        Louis Nels (acting)                (b. 1855 - d. 1910)
Mar 1891 - Nov 1893        Curt von François                  (b. 1852 - d. 1931)
Landeshauptleute (administrators)
Nov 1893 - 15 Mar 1894     Curt von François                  (s.a.)
15 Mar 1894 - 18 Apr 1898  Theodor von Leutwein               (b. 1849 - d. 1921)
                             (acting to 27 Jun 1895)
Governors
18 Apr 1898 - 19 Aug 1905  Theodor von Leutwein               (s.a.)
19 Aug 1905 - Nov 1905     Adrian Dietrich Lothar von Trotha  (b. 1848 - d. 1920)
                             (acting)
Nov 1905 - 20 May 1907     Friedrich von Lindequist           (b. 1862 - d. 1945)
20 May 1907 - 20 Jun 1910  Bruno von Schuckmann               (b. 1857 - d. 1919)
28 Aug 1910 -  9 Jul 1915  Theodor Seitz                      (b. 1863 - d. 1949)
Military governors
 9 Jul 1915 - 11 Jul 1915  Louis Botha                        (b. 1862 - d. 1919) 
11 Jul 1915 - 30 Oct 1915  Percival Scott Beves               (b. 1868 - d. 1924)
Administrators
31 Oct 1915 -  1 Oct 1920  Sir Edmond Howard Lacam Gorges     (b. 1872 - d. 1924)
 1 Oct 1920 -  1 Apr 1926  Gysbert Reitz Hofmeyr              (b. 1871 - d. 1942)
 1 Apr 1926 -  1 Apr 1933  Albertus Johannes Werth            (b. 1888 - d. 1948)
 1 Apr 1933 -  1 Apr 1943  David Gideon Conradie              (b. 1879 - d. 1966)
 1 Apr 1943 -  6 Dec 1951  Petrus Imker Hoogenhout            (b. 1884 - d. 1970)
 6 Dec 1951 -  1 Dec 1953  Albertus Johannes Roux van Rhijn   (b. 1890 - d. 1971)
 1 Dec 1953 -  1 Dec 1963  Daniel Thomas du Plessis Viljoen   (b. 1892 - d. 1972)
 1 Dec 1963 -  1 Nov 1968  Wentzel Christoffel du Plessis     (b. 1904)
 1 Nov 1968 -  1 Nov 1971  Johannes Gert Hendrik van der Wath (b. 1903 - d. 1986)
 1 Nov 1971 -  1 Sep 1977  Barend Johannes van der Walt       (b. 1914)
Administrators-general
 1 Sep 1977 -  7 Aug 1979  Marthinus T. Steyn                 (b. 1920 - d. 1998)
 7 Aug 1979 -  4 Sep 1980  Gerrit Viljoen                     (b. 1926 - d. 2009)
 4 Sep 1980 -  1 Feb 1983  Danie Hough                        (b. 1937)
 1 Feb 1983 -  1 Jul 1985  Willie van Niekerk                 (b. 1937)
 1 Jul 1985 - 21 Mar 1990  Louis Pienaar                      (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
Presidents 
21 Mar 1990 - 21 Mar 2005  Samuel Daniel Shafiishuna Nujoma   (b. 1929)             SWAPO
21 Mar 2005                Hifikepunye Lucas Pohamba          (b. 1935)             SWAPO


Chairman of the Council of Ministers

 1 Jul 1980 - 18 Jan 1983  Dirk Frederick Mudge               (b. 1928)             RP/DTA
Chief Executive Officer
19 Jan 1983 - 17 Jun 1985  Jan F. Greebe
Chairmen of the Transitional Government of National Unity
17 Jun 1985 - 16 Sep 1985  Dawid Bezuidenhout (1st time)      (b. 1935 - d. 1998)   LP
17 Sep 1985 - 16 Dec 1985  Hans Diergaardt                    (b. 1927 - d. 1998)   RFP
17 Dec 1985 - 16 Mar 1986  Moses Katjikuru Katjiuongua        (b. 1942 - d. 2011)   SWANU
                             (1st time)
17 Mar 1986 - 16 Jun 1986  Fanuel Jariretundu Kozonguizi      (b. 1932 - d. 1995)   DTA 
17 Jun 1986 - 16 Sep 1986  Andrew Matjila (1st time)          (b. 1932)             DTA 
17 Sep 1986 - 16 Dec 1986  Dirk Frederick Mudge (1st time)    (s.a.)                DTA
17 Dec 1986 - 31 Jan 1987  Ebenezer van Zijl                  (b. 1931 - d. 2009)   NPSWA
 1 Feb 1987 - 30 Apr 1987  Andreas Shipanga (1st time)        (b. 1931 - d. 2012)   SWAPO-D
 1 May 1987 - 31 Jul 1987  Dawid Bezuidenhout (2nd time)      (s.a.)                LP
 1 Aug 1987 - 17 Jan 1988  Johannes "Jan" de Wet              (b. 1927 - d. 2011)   NPSWA
18 Jan 1988 - 17 Apr 1988  Moses Katjikuru Katjiuongua        (s.a.)                SWANU
                             (2nd time)
18 Apr 1988 - 17 Jul 1988  Andrew Matjila (2nd time)          (s.a.)                DTA 
18 Jul 1988 - 17 Oct 1988  Dirk Frederick Mudge (2nd time)    (s.a.)                DTA
18 Oct 1988 - Dec 1988     Andreas Shipanga (2nd time)        (s.a.)                SWAPO-D
Dec 1988 - Jan 1989        Andrew Matjila (3rd time)          (s.a.)                DTA 
Jan 1989 - 28 Feb 1989     Harry Daniel Booysen               (b. 1943)             LP
28 Feb 1989 - 21 Mar 1990  Vacant
Prime ministers
21 Mar 1990 - 28 Aug 2002  Hage Gottfried Geingob (1st time)  (b. 1941)             SWAPO
28 Aug 2002 - 21 Mar 2005  Theo-Ben Gurirab                   (b. 1939)             SWAPO
21 Mar 2005 -  4 Dec 2012  Nahas Gideon Angula                (b. 1943)             SWAPO
 4 Dec 2012 -             
Hage Gottfried Geingob (2nd time)  (s.a.)                SWAPO 

 

Chairmen of the Executive Committee
- White -
1977 - 31 May 1980         Abraham Hermanus du Plessis        (b. 1914)             NPSWA
 1 Jun 1980 - 30 Apr 1988  Jacobus Willem "Kosie" Pretorius   (b. 1935)             NPSWA
 1 May 1988 - May 1989     Johannes "Jan" de Wet              (s.a.)                NPSWA
- Coloured - 
14 Nov 1980 -  9 Mar 1984  Leonard J. Barnes                  (b. 1933)             LP
12 Mar 1984 - 17 Jun 1985  Dawid Bezuidenhout                 (s.a.)                LP
18 Jun 1985 - 29 Feb 1988  Willem A.A. Phillips               (b. 1930 - d. 1999)   LP
 1 Mar 1988 - May 1989     Raymond Reginald Diergaardt        (b. 1957)            LP:1989 UDF

Territorial Disputes: Concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river.

Party abbreviations: DTA = Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (SWAPO opposition, merger of LP, RP, Christian Democratic Union, etc., est.1977); SWANU = South West Africa National Union (social democratic, nationalist, mainly Herero, est.1959); SWAPO = SWAPO Party of Namibia (social democratic, abandoned marxism 1989, formerly South West Africa People's Organization, est.1960);
- Former parties: LP = Labour Party (South West African Labour Party, est.1973, merged into DTA); NP = National Party (white); RFP = Rehoboth Freedom Party (Baaster nationalist); RP = Republican Party (white, conservative, 1977, 2003-2010, merged into DTA); NPSWA = National Party of South West Africa (white, pro-apartheid, aligned with S. Afr. National Party, 1924-1927, 1939-1989); SWAPO-D = South West African People's Organization - Democrats (split from SWAPO, 1978-1989); UDF = United Democratic Front of Namibia (mainly Damara, est.1989)



Caprivi Strip

 1 Jul 1890                Ceded to Germany by Britain (called German Barotseland or
                             German Zambeziland).
22 Jan 1909                Named the Caprivi Zipfel (Caprivi Strip).
27 Jan 1909                Fully incorporated into German South West Africa.
21 Sep 1914                Occupied by British forces.
24 Nov 1914 -  1 Jan 1921  Administered by British Resident Commissioner for Bechuanaland
                             on behalf of the government of South Afica.
31 Dec 1919                Divided into East Caprivi (at Katima Mulilo) and West Caprivi.
 1 Jan 1921 -  1 Sep 1929  Administered by the British High Commissioners for Southern
                             Africa (see under Botswana) on behalf of the government of
                             South Africa.
Aug 1939 - 1976            Administered directly by the government of South Africa's
                             Department of Native Affairs.
26 Jul 1940                Caprivi Strip declared a "native reserve" by South Africa.
May 1972 - May 1989        East Caprivi (from 1 Apr 1976, Lozi) homeland established.
21 Mar 1990                Part of independent Namibia. 

German District Commissioners
17 Feb 1909 - 24 Jan 1910  Kurt Streitwolf                    (b. 1871 - d. 1954)
24 Jan 1910 - 16 Jan 1911  Hans Richard Kaufmann              (b. 1878 - d. 1914)
16 Jan 1911 - 22 Sep 1914  Victor Günter Egbert von           (b. 1873 - d. 1934)
                             Frankenberg und Proschlitz
British Military Administrators
Oct 1914 - 1915            H.V. Eason
1915 - 1917                W. Surmon
1917 - 1918                F. Garbett
1918 -  1 Jan 1921         H. Neale
Deputy magistrates 
 1 Jan 1921 - c.1924       H. Neale
c.1924 - 1939              ...
c.1939                     Edward H.M. Drury
Magistrates for Eastern Caprivi Strip and Native Commissioners

25 Oct 1939 - 12 Jan 1953  Leslie French Watts Trollope       (b. 1903 - d. 1956)
 1 Jan 1945 - 31 Dec 1945  C.E. Kruger (acting)
13 Jan 1953 -  6 Dec 1956  A.B. Colenbrander
 7 Dec 1956 - 13 Jan 1959  M.J. Verceuil
14 Jan 1959 -  5 Apr 1961  D.J. Wium
 6 Apr 1961 - 25 Aug 1963  N.W.D. Boshoff
26 Aug 1963 - 29 Oct 1963  A.B. Colenbrander
30 Oct 1963 -  1 Apr 1968  C.E. Kruger
 2 Apr 1968 - 31 Jul 1971  P.N. Hansmeyer
 1 Aug 1971 - 31 Jan 1972  J.J. Rossouw
 1 Feb 1972 - 23 Mar 1972  E.L. Gregory
Mar 1972 - 1976            Evert Frederick Potgieter
                             (commissioner-general)



Upingtonia/Lijdensrust

[Upingtonia/Lijdensrust flag
                1886-1887 (Namibia)]
                 1886 - Jun 1887
 
Map of Upingtonia/
Lijdenrust
Capital: Grootfontein
Population: N/A

20 Oct 1885                "Republic Upingtonia" settler polity founded.
1886                       Name changed to Lijdensrust (Lydenrust); accepts 
                             German protection.
Jun 1887                   Republic dissolved.

President
20 Oct 1885 - Jun 1887     George Diederik P. Prinsloo        (b. 1820 - d. 1888)



Walvis Bay
 
[Flag of the United
                          Kingdom]
               12 Mar 1878 - 7 Aug 1884
 
[Old flag of
                          South Africa]
       31 May 1928 - 28 Feb 1994


Map of Walvis Bay

Capital: Walvis Bay
(Walvisbaai)

Currency: 1961-1994
 South African Rand

(ZAR); 1878-1961 South
African Pound (ZAP)

Population: 9,687 (1985)

 8 Dec 1487                Discovered and claimed for Portugal by Bartholomeu Diaz,
                             named Bahia da Santa Maria da Conceicão (Conception Bay).
16th cent.                 Known as Bahia das Bahleas (Whales Bay).
26 Feb 1793                Claimed for Netherlands (Walvisch Baye) by F.R. Duminy.
1795                       Occupied for Britain by Capt. T. Alexander aboard the Star,
                             but the area is not annexed (Whale Bay).
18 Jul 1817                U.K. relinquishes claim to coastal areas north of 18th parallel.
21 Jun 1861                Ichobe Island annexed for Britain.
12 Aug 1861                Penguin Islands annexed for Britain (Hollamsbird, Mercury, Seal,
                             Penguin, Halifax, Possession, Albatross Rock, Pomona, 
                             Sinclair, Long, and Plumb Pudding islands).
 9 May 1864                Britain disallows annexation of all the islands.
 5 May 1866                The 12 shore islands re-annexed (officially 27 Feb 1867).
1874                       Ichaboe and the Penguin Islands annexed to Cape Colony.
12 Mar 1878                Walvis Bay annexed by Britain (Walvis Bay protectorate, 
                             annexation confirmed 14 Dec 1878).
 7 Aug 1884                Incorporated into Cape Colony (see South Africa).
31 May 1910                Part of Cape within Union of South Africa.
23 May 1911                Final border alignment with German South West Africa.
 1 Oct 1922                Administration assigned to South West Africa Mandate.
16 Mar 1931                Municipal status (suspended 12 Dec 1940 - 15 Apr 1948).
 1 Sep 1977                Re-integrated into Cape province (within South Africa).
 4 Nov 1977                South African claim to Walvis Bay and Penguin islands declared
                             "null and void" and are named "integral parts of Namibia"
                             by the UN (formally 28 Jul 1978).
15 Jan 1993 - 28 Feb 1994  Under joint Namibian-South African administration.
 1 Mar 1994                Walvis Bay exclave ceded to Namibia by South Africa.

Captain
12 Mar 1878 - 1878         Richard C. Dyer                    (b. 1825 - d. 1918)
British Resident Magistrates
 1 Jun 1878 - 1880         D. Erskine
1879 - Jan 1880            W.E. Manning (acting for Erskine)
1880 - Nov 1880            William Coates Palgrave            (b. 1833 - d. 1897)
Nov 1880 - 1882            Benjamin d'Urban Musgrave
Aug 1882 - 13 Jun 1883     E.J. Whindus
Magistrates
13 Jun 1883 - 1885?        J.S. Simpson
1885 - 1889                Emile S. Rolland
1889 - 1901                John James Cleverly (1st time)     (b. 1856 - d. 1906)
                             (acting to Jul 1890)
1902 - 1903                Frank H. Guthrie
1903 - Aug 1905            John James Cleverly (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Aug 1905 - 1909?           David Eadie
1909 - 1915?               J.M. Richards
1915 - 1920                .... (magistrate for Swakopmund)
1920 - 18 Mar 1925         K.R. Thomas
                             (magistrate for Swakopmund and Walvis)
Magistrate and Chairman of Village Management Board 
18 Mar 1925 - 16 Mar 1931  K.R. Thomas
Mayors 
16 Mar 1931 - 1932         S. Blyth
1932 - 1934                W.G. Neate
1934 - 1940                Thomas Perris Hall                 (b. 1889 - d. 19..) 
1940                       E.O. Bull
12 Dec 1940 - 15 Apr 1948  Municipal status suspended
                           (under magistrates for Swakopmund)

29 Apr 1948 - 12 Sep 1949  J. Christie
23 Sep 1949 - 12 Sep 1950  F. Davel
13 Sep 1950 -  6 Sep 1951  Joseph C. Harries (1st time)       (b. 1888 - d. 1959)
 7 Sep 1951 -  8 Feb 1952  A.C. Stafford
 9 Feb 1952 - 16 Sep 1953  W.J. Hamilton
17 Sep 1953 - 31 Aug 1954  Joseph C. Harries (2nd time)       (s.a.)
31 Aug 1954 - 21 Mar 1955  H. St. J. Reid
22 Mar 1955 - 31 May 1955  W.A. Bester
14 Sep 1955 - 27 Aug 1958  William Austin Willis (1st time)   (b. 1914 - d. 1986)
27 Aug 1958 - 1960?        Peter van Aarde
1960? - 1963?              William Austin Willis (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 4 Jul 1963 - 11 Mar 1970  M.C. Botma
16 Mar 1970 - 14 Mar 1974  Heleon "Leon" Hendrikus Laubscher  (b. 1929)
                             (1st time)
14 Mar 1974 - 12 Mar 1975  Nelis N. Dreyer
14 Mar 1974 - 10 Mar 1977  Heleon "Leon" Hendrikus Laubscher  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
11 Mar 1977 – 16 Mar 1978  Nico Retief (1st time)
17 Mar 1978 – 28 Mar 1980  A. Prinsloo
28 Mar 1980 – 27 Mar 1980  Hester E.M. Deissler (f)(1st time)
28 Mar 1980 – 17 Mar 1983  Nico Retief (2nd time)
18 Mar 1983 –  1 Nov 1988  Christo L. de Jager
 2 Nov 1988 –  6 Dec 1989  Hester E.M. Deissler (f)(2nd time)
 7 Dec 1989 –  4 Oct 1991  Nico Retief (3rd time)
25 Oct 1991 – 29 Oct 1992  Ronald N. "Buddy" Bramwell
30 Oct 1992 –  8 Nov 1993  J.N. "Koot" Blaauw
 9 Nov 1993 – 22 Aug 1994  Bryce Edwards                      (b. 1950 - d. 2012)
Chief Executive Officers of Joint Administrative Authority (in Pretoria)
15 Jan 1993 - 28 Feb 1994  Nangolo Mbumba (Namibia)           (b. 1941)
                           + Carl von Hirschberg              (b. 1926)
                              (South Africa)







©  Ben Cahoon