World Statesmen.org HOME > return to Namibia >>

 







Namibia Traditional Polities


Note: All these polities may be more appropriately described as "tribes." They are classified here by ethnicity.


Damara
[Damara flag
                  (Namibia)]
                6 Jun 1864 - 22 Jun 1864
c.1415                     Traditional date for emergence of chiefdom.
1876 - 1880                Declared a protectorate by Cape Colony.
30 Nov 1894 - 1915         German protectorate.

Chiefs
c.1790                     Gaoseb
c.1815                     Hoeseb
c.1840                     Abraham Seibeb
c.1860 - 1894              Abraham Goreseb                    (d. 1894)
1894 - 1910                Cornelius Goreseb                  (b. 1844 - d. 1910)
1910 - 1953                Judas Goreseb                      (d. 1953)
1953 - 1977                David Goreseb                      (d. 1977)
Sep 1993 -                 Justus GaroŽb                      (b. 1942)



Nama (Khoi)

(1) Awa-Khoi ("Red Nation")

bf.1700                    Chiefdom established.

Paramount chiefs
1695 - 1710                Hab                                (d. 1710)
1710 - 1725                Khomab Hamab                       (d. 1725)
1725 - 1740                Khaub Gaib Khomaa
1740 - 1755                O-Naib Khaumab
1755 - 1770                Hanab O-Naimab
1770 - ....                Gaob Hanamab
c.1800                     Gomes (f)
1814 - 1824                Tsawub Gamab
1824 - 1840                Na-khom Gamab
1840 - 1867                Oasib Cornelis (Nakhomab)
1867 - 21 May 1878         Gorakhab Barnabas
1878 - 1881                Gabeb Petrus
1881 - 1905                Naresib Manasse
1922 - 18 Jul 1936         HoŽb Oasmab                        (d. 1936)
1936 -  8 May 1949         Noach Tsai-Tsaib                   (b. 1868 - d. 1949)
1949 - 1986                Matheus Kooper                     (d. 1986)
 3 Dec 1988 -              Petrus Simon Moses Kooper
 

(2) Aich-Ai ("Afrikaner")

1800                       Chiefdom established.
 8 Jan 1886                German protectorate.
10 Aug 1889                Chiefdom abolished by German protectorate authority.

Chiefs 
1800 - 1823                Jager Afrikaner                    (b. 17.. - d. 1823)
1823 - 18 Aug 1861         Jonker Afrikaner                   (b. 1785 - d. 1861)
                             (Hara-mŻb = /HŰa-/aramab)
1861 - 15 Jun 1863         Christian Afrikaner                (d. 1863)
Aug 1863 - 10 Aug 1889     Jan Jonker Afrikaner               (b. 1820 - d. 1889)
10 Sep 1996 -              Jeremiah Jagger
 

(3) !Gami-ánun ("Bondelswarts")
 

21 Aug 1890 - 1915         German protectorate.

Chiefs
c.1843                     Abraham
Mar 1869 -  3 Oct 1901     Wilhelm Christian                  (b. 18.. - d. 1902)
1902 - 25 Oct 1903         Abraham Christian                  (b. 18.. - d. 1903)
1903 -  5 Mar 1910         Johannes Christian                 (d. 1910)
1918 - 1919                Wilhelm Christian, Jr.
1919 - Mar 1920            Hendrik Sneeuwe
Mar 1920 - 1920            Timotheus Beukes
1920 - 1943                Jakobus Christian                  (b. 1880 - d. 1943)
1943 -  3 Mar 1953         Nathanel Christian                 (b. 1898 - d. 1953)
1953 - 1977                Wilhelm Christian
                           + Jakobus Christian 
                           (councillors)
20 May 1977 -              Anna Katrina Christian (f)

(4) Kou Goa ("Swartboois")

Chiefs
.... - ....                Kanebeb
.... - ....                Tsauchap
.... - 1835                Haobeb
1835 - c.1864              Willem Swartbooi                   (b. 1790 - d. c.1864)
c.1864 - 1882              Abraham Swartbooi                  (d. 1882)
1882 - 1895                Cornelius Swartbooi
1895 - Mar 1898            David Swartbooi
Mar 1898 - 1905            Lazarus Swartbooi                  (d. 1905)
1986 -                     DaniŽl Luipert                     (b. 1937)


(5) Oorlam

(5-1) Gei-Khauan

20 Mar 1894 - 1915         German protectorate.

Chiefs
1814 - 13 Feb 1864         Amraal Lambert                     (b. c.1774 - d. 1864)
1865 - 1868                Lambert Lambert
1868 - 19 Mar 1894         Andreas Lambert                    (b. c.1844 - d. 1894)
1894 -  6 Apr 1896         Eduard Lambert                     (d. 1896)


(5-2) Hei-Khauan

Chiefs
1815? - c.1850             Dirk Isaak                         (d. c.1850)
c.1850 - 15 Apr 1869       Paul Goliath                       (b. c.1790 - d. 1869)
1873 - 12 Dec 1892         Jakobus Isaak                      (d. 1892)
1895 - c.1900              Diederik Goliath
c.1900 - 1925              Christian Goliath                  (d. 1925)
1925 - 1933                Andries Goliath                    (d. 1933)
1933 - 1938                Diederik Ruben Goliath             (b. 1895 - d. 1947)
1938 - 1956                Edward Isaak, Jr.                  (d. 1959)
                           + David Vries                      (d. 1956)
1956 - 1959                Edward Isaak, Jr.                  (s.a.)
1959                       Diederik Isaak
1959 - 197.                Diederik Isaak
                           + David Christian Goliath          (d. 1976)
1976 -                     Stephanus Goliath


(6) !Aman (Bethany)

21 Oct 1884 - 1915         German protectorate.

Chiefs
1804 - c.1825              Kobus Boois (Kobus Frederiks)      (d. c.1825)
c.1825 - 1842              Josef Frederiks I                  (d. c.1842)
c.1825 - 1846              Jan Boois (Jan Frederiks)          (d. 1846)
1847 - 12 Dec 1880         David Christian Frederiks          (d. 1880)
                             (Willem Frederiks = //N‚ixab) 
15 May 1881 - 20 Oct 1893  Josef Frederiks II                 (d. 1893)
                             (!Khorebe-gaib = //N‚ixamab) 
 3 Dec 1893 - 21 Dec 1906  Paul Frederiks                     (d. 1906)
1894 -  3 Mar 1906         Cornelius Frederiks                (d. 1907)
                             (in opposition)
1916 - 1922                Eduard Frederiks                   (d. 1922)
1922 - 1938                Josef Frederiks III                (d. 1938)
1938 - 1977                Simon Boois (Simon Frederiks)      (d. 1977)
1977 - 1984                Jan Samuel Herero
1984 -                     David Frederiks


(7) Witbooi

1815                       Witbooi lineage founds chiefdom in Cape Province.
1863                       Chiefdom moved to Namibia.

Chiefs
1815 - 31 Dec 1875         Kido Moses David Witbooi           (b. 1781 - d. 1875)
31 Dec 1875 - 22 Feb 1888  Moses Kido Witbooi                 (b. 1808 - d. 1888)
22 Feb 1888 - 29 Oct 1905  Hendrik Witbooi                    (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
1905 - 28 Oct 1928         Isaak Witbooi                      (b. 1865 - d. 1928)
1928 -  9 Jul 1955         David Witbooi                      (b. 1871 - d. 1955)
1955 - 18 Jan 1978         Hendrik Samuel Witbooi             (b. 1906 - d. 1978)
Jul 1978 - 13 Oct 2009     Hendrik Witbooi                    (b. 1934 - d. 2009)
13 Oct 2009 -              Christian Rooi (acting)



Ovambo

(1) Ondonga

Chiefs (title Ohamba)
1650 - 1690                Nembulung lyNgwendha
1690 - 1700                Shindongo sha Namutenya gwa Nguti
1700 - c.1750              Nangombe ya Mvula
c.1750 - c.1820            Nembungu lyAmutundu                (d. c.1820)
c.1820 - 31 Jul 1857       Nangolo dAmutenya                  (b. 1790 - d. 1857)
1857 - 1859                Shipanga shAmukwiita               (d. 1862)
1859 -  7 Dec 1874         Shikongo sha Kalulu                (d. 1874)
1874 -  5 Dec 1883         Kambonde I kaNankwaya              (d. 1883)
1883 - 24 Sep 1884         Iitana yaNekwiyu                   (d. 1884)
27 Sep 1884 - 22 Jun 1909  Kambonde II kaMpingana             (b. c.1865 - d. 1909)
                             (in western Ondonga)
1884 - 14 Apr 1908         Nehale lya Mpingana                (d. 1908)
                             (in eastern Ondonga)
1909 -  8 Aug 1912         Kambonde III kaNgula               (d. 1912)
1912 - 1941                Martin Nambala yaKadhikwa          (d. 1941)
1942 - 23 Sep 1960         Kambonde IV kaNamene               (d. 1960)
1960 - 1967                Martin Ashikoto
1967 -  6 Oct 1970         Paulus Elifas                      (b. 1920 - d. 1970)
1972 - 16 Aug 1975         Filemon Elifas                     (b. 1932 - d. 1975)
28 Aug 1975 -              Immanuel Kauluma Elifas


(2) Ongandjera

Kings
1858 - 1862                Amunyela gwa Tshaningwa            (d. 1862)
1862                       Ekandjo lya Kadhila
1862                       Nakashwa -Queen
1862 - 1878                Tsheya tshUutshona                 (d. 1878)
1878 - 1887                Iiyambo yIileka                    (d. 1887)
1887 - 1930                Tshaanika Tsha Natshilongo         (d. 1930)
1930 - 1936                Sheya shaAmukwa                    (d. 1936)
1936 - 1948                Tshaanika shIipinge                (d. 1948)
1948 - 1971                Vacant
1971 -                     Japhet Malenga Munkundi


(3) Uukwaluudhi

Kings 
.... - ....                Amukwa yAmunyela
.... - ....                Nakawiila
.... - ....                Kamongwa
.... - ....                Natshilongo shIikombo
.... - ....                Shikwa shAmupindi (Kayambu)
.... - ....                Niilenge yaShipula
.... - c.1850              Uushona uEndjila
c.1850 - 1902              Shikongo shIipinge                 (d. 1902)
1902 - 1908                Niilenga yAmukwa                   (d. 1908)
1908 - 1909                Iita ya Nalitoke                   (d. 1909)
1909 - 1959                Mwaala gwa Nashilongo              (d. 1959)
1959 -                     Hosea Shikongo Taapopi Shitaatala


(4) Uukwambi

Kings
.... - ....                Nakwedhi
.... - ....                Nuyoma wAmitako
.... - ....                Neyema
.... - ....                Niigogo yaNatsheya
.... - ....                Mbulungundju

.... - ....                Nakano
.... - 1750                Mukwambi                           (d. 1750)
1750 - 1780                Nakantu kaNakwedhi
1780 - 1800                Nuukata waTshiinga
1800 - 18..                Iilonga yaNyango
.... - 1860                Tshikesho
1860                       Tshikongo
1860 - 1862                Nuyoma wIipumbu
1862 - 1863                Iipumbu ya Nangaku
1863                       Tshikesho tshEelu                  (d. 1863)
1863 - 1875                Nuyoma
1875 - 1907                Negumbo lya Kandenge               (d. 1907)
1907 - 1932                Iipumbu ya Tshilongo               (d. 1959)
1932 - 1991                Vacant
1991 -                     Herman Iipumbu


(5) Uukwangali

Queens (title Hompa
c.1750                     Mate I
1750 - 1775                Nankali 
1785 - 1800                Simbara                            (d. 1800)
1800 - 1818                Mate II                            (d. 1818)
Kings (title Hompa)
1818 - 1822                Siremo                             (d. 1822)
1822 - 1833                Mpepo                              (d. 1833)
1833 - 1870                Sikongo                            (d. 1870)
1870 - 1880                Mpasi                              (d. 1880)
1880 - 1886                Mpande -Queen                      (d. 1886)
1886 - 1910                Himarua                            (d. 1910)
1910 - 1924                Kandjimi Hawanga                   (d. 1924)
1924 - 1926                Mbuna                              (d. 1926)
1926 - 1941                Kanuni -Queen (1st time)           (d. 1971)
1941 - 1958                Sivute                             (d. 1958)
1958 - 1971                Kanuni -Queen (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1971 - 12 Apr 1977         Mbandu                             (d. 1977)
12 Apr 1977 -              Daniel Sitendu Mpasi


(6) Uukwanyama

c.1550                     Traditional date for emergence of chiefdom.

Chiefs (title Ohamba)
.... - ....                Kambunga kaMuheya
.... - ....                Mushinoi uaKanene
.... - ....                Kavonga kaHaidongo 
.... - ....                Heita yMuvale
.... - ....                Hautolonde uaNdja 
17.. - c.1799              Shimbilinga shaNailambi            (d. c.1799)
c.1799 - 1807              Haihambo yaMukwanuli
1807 - 1811                Hamangulu yaNahambo                (d. 1811)
c.1811 - 1858              Haimbili yaHaufiku                 (d. 1858)
1858 - 1859                Haikukutu yaShinangola             (d. 1859)
1859 - 1862                Sefeni shaMukuyu                   (d. 1862)
1862 - 1882                Mweshipandeka sha Shaningika       (d. 1882)
1882 - 1884                Namadi ya Mweihanyeka              (d. 1884)
1884 - 1904                Ueyulu ya Hedimbi                  (d. 1904)
1904 - 1911                Nande                              (d. 1911)
1911 -  6 Feb 1917         Mandume ya Ndemufayo               (b. c.1894 - d. 1917)
1917 - 1998                Vacant
 6 Feb 1998 -  2 Nov 2005  Cornelius Mwetupunga Shelungu      (b. 1916? - d. 2005)
12 Nov 2005 -              Martha Mwadinomho ya Nelumbu (f)   (b. 1928?)



Herero

bf.1700                    Ovaherero chiefdom established; styled Ehirovaherero.
1876 - 1880                Declared a protectorate by Cape Colony.
21 Oct 1885 - 30 Oct 1888  German protectorate.
21 Oct 1890 - 1915         German protectorate.
1915                       Tribe partly exterminated, partly exiled by German
                             protectorate authority.
 1 Jun 1925                Paramount chief re-installed.

Paramount chiefs (title Okahandja Herero)
c.1750 - ....              Mutjise ua Mbunga
17.. - 17..                Tjirue ua Mutjise
17.. - ....                Mukuejuva
.... - 18..                Mbondo
18.. - 18..                Peraa
18.. - 18..                Ndomo
1842 - Dec 1861            Tjamuaha ua Tjirue                 (b. c.1790 - d. 1861)
Dec 1861 -  5 Oct 1890     Maharero ua Tjamuaha               (b. 1820 - d. 1890)
1891 - 1915                Samuel Maharero                    (b. 1856 - d. 1923)
                             (continues in exile to 14 Mar 1923)
1923 - 11 Sep 1952         Frederick Maharero                 (b. 1875 - d. 1952)
                             (in exile in Bechuanaland Dec 1924 - 1952)
 1 Jun 1925 - 18 Jul 1970  Petrus Hosea Kutako                (b. 1870 - d. 1970)
                             (recognizes Frederick Maharero as paramount chief)
20 Jul 1970 - 27 Mar 1978  Clemens Mutuurunge Kapuuo          (b. 1923 - d. 1978)
 7 Jun 1978 -              Kuaima Isaac Riruako               (b. 1935)


Kavango

Gciriku

Chiefs (title Hompa)
18.. - 1879                Muhera                             (d. 1879)
1879 - 1927                Nyangana
1924 - 1944                Shampapi
1944 - 1985                Shashipapo
15 Mar 1985 - 1999         Sebastian Kamwanga 
14 May 1999 -              Kassian Shiyambi


Mbukushu 

Kings (title Fumu)
bf.1850                    Sinyungu
bf.1850                    Dinyando
bf.1850                    Sihurera
bf.1850                    Kasimana
bf.1850                    Mashambo
bf.1850                    Mbungu
bf.1850                    Rukonga -Queen
bf.1850                    Diyeve I
1850 - 1895                Dimbu I
                            (also called Ndara or Libebe)
1895 - 1915                Diyeve II
1915 - 1929                Disho I
1929 - 1939                Dimbu II
1939 - 1947                Disho II
1947 - 1969                Max Makushe
1970s - 1980s              Frans Dimbare

                           - jointly with -
1970s - 1980s              Alfons Majavero  

1991 -                     Erwin Mambo Munika



Baster (Rehoboth)
 
[Old Baster flag (Namibia) 1872-1915]              1872 - 1915

[Baster (Rehoboth) Flag (Namibia)]                  to 21 Mar 1990

1868                       Start of the Baster migration from northern Cape colony.
 1 Jan 1872                Constitution proclaimed.
15 Sep 1885 - 1915         German protectorate.
 2 Nov 1915                South Africa recognizes self-government.
 1 Dec 1924                Nicolaas van Wijk proclaims the independent Republic Rehoboth.
10 Dec 1924                South African government abolishes self-government.
 5 Apr 1925                Direct South African rule.
Mar 1976                   Self-government restored.

21 Mar 1990                Namibia abolishes self-government (Diergaardt proclaims
                             independence of Basterland which is not recognized).

Captains
1868 - 1905                Hermanus van Wyk                   (b. 1835 - d. 1905)
1905 - 25 Apr 1924         Cornelius van Wyk                  (d. 1924)
26 Apr 1924 -  5 Apr 1925  Albert Mouton
Apr 1924 -  5 Apr 1925     Nicolaas van Wijk (in opposition)
 5 Apr 1925 - 1976         Post abolished
Jun 1977 - 1979            Benjamin "Ben" J. Africa           (b. 1938 - d. 199.)
1979 - 12 Feb 1998         Johannes "Hans" Diergaardt         (b. 1927 - d. 1998)
12 Feb 1998 - Jan 1999     David Jacobus "Dap" Izaaks (acting)(b. 1933 - d. 2005)
12 Jan 1999 -              John Charles Alexander McNab       (b. 1938)


Caprivi Strip

Fwe

Chiefs
1863 - 1914                Simata Kabende Mamili              (b. 18.. - d. 1914)
1914 - 1931                Lifasi Simata Mamili
1931 - 1944                Simata Lifasi Mamili               (d. 1944)
1944 - 1971                Simasiku Simata Mamili             (d. 1971)
1971 - 1987                Richard Muhinda Mamili             (b. 1932 - d. 1987)
1987 - 1999                Boniface Bebi Mamili               (b. 1947?)
1999 -                     George Simasiku Mamili


Masubia (Subiya)

Chiefs (title Munitenge)
.... - 1845
               Liswani
1845 - 1876                Nkonkwena                      
1876?- 1909                Ntolwa (f)

1900 - 1945                Chikamatondo (regent to 4 May 1909)

1945 - 1996                Munitenge Joshua M
oraliswani
1996 -                     
Munitenge Kisco Liswani III







© Ben Cahoon