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Botswana
 
[Flag of the United
                            Kingdom]
                   21 May 1884 - 30 Sep 1966
 
[High
                            Commissioner in and for South Africa flag
                            1907-1931]
         1907 - 1931  flag of the High Commissioner
 
[flag of the
                            High Commissioner for Basutoland, the
                            Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland
                            1931-1966]
   1931 - 30 Sep 1966  flag of the High Commissioner 
 
[Flag of Botswana]
               Adopted 30 Sep 1966
 


Map of Botswana
Hear National Anthem
"Fatshe leno la rona"
(Blessed Be This Noble Land)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 30 Sep 1966
Constitution
(30 Sep 1966)
Capital: Gaborone
(Gaberones 1965-1969;
Mafeking 1885-1965)
Currency: Pula (BWP);
1961-1976 South African
Rand (ZAR)
National Holiday: 30 Sep (1966) 
Independence Day
(Botswana Day)
Population: 2,127,825 (2013)
GDP: $34 billion (2013)
Exports: $7.56 billion (2013)
Imports: $7.38 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Tswana (or Setswana) 66.8%, Kalanga 14.8%,
Ndebele 1.7%, Herero 1.4%, San (Bushman) 1.3%,
white 1.3% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 10,500 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%,
 unspecified 0.4%, none 20.6% (2001)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, C, CCM, CTBT, CWC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Botswana Index
Chronology

21 May 1884                British protectorate (Bechuanaland).
 1 Sep 1885                Area south of the Molopo River becomes a 
                             crown colony (see under South Africa).
 9 May 1891 -  3 Oct 1963  Part of the High Commission Territories.
 1 Aug 1964                Bechuanaland colony
 3 Mar 1965                Self-rule achieved.
30 Sep 1966                Independence from Britain (Republic of Botswana).

Traditional
States
Tati Concessions
(1893-1911)
High Commission
Territory of
Southern Africa

(1884-1964)
 


Deputy Commissioners

Apr 1884 - 30 Jul 1884     John Mackenzie (1st time)          (b. 1835 - d. 1899)
30 Jul 1884 - Sep 1884     Cecil John Rhodes (acting)         (b. 1853 - d. 1902)
1884 - Jan 1885            John Mackenzie (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Special Commissioners

23 Jan 1885 - 24 Sep 1885  Sir Charles Warren                 (b. 1840 - d. 1927)
24 Sep 1885 - 30 Sep 1885  Frederick Carrington               (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
Deputy Commissioners
30 Sep 1885 -  9 May 1891  Sidney Godolphin Alexander         (b. 1837 - d. 1901)
                             Shippard (from 21 Jun 1887, Sir 
                             Sidney Godolphin Alexander Shippard)
Resident Commissioners
(subordinated to the High Commissioner for Southern Africa to 3 Oct 1963)
 9 May 1891 - 19 Nov 1895  Sir Sidney Godolphin Alexander     (s.a.)
                             Shippard 
19 Nov 1895 - 21 Dec 1897  Francis James Newton               (b. 1857 - d. 1948)
21 Dec 1897 - 1900         Hamilton John Goold-Adams          (b. 1858 - d. 1920)
Aug 1900 - 28 Sep 1900     William Henry Surmon (acting)      (b. 1835 - d. 1900)
Jan 1901 - 1906            Sir Ralph Champneys Williams       (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
1906 - 1916                Francis William Panzera            (b. 1851 - d. 1917)
1916 - 1917                Edward Charles Frederick Garraway  (b. 1865 - d. 1932)
1917 - 1920                James Comyn MacGregor (1st time)   (b. 1861 - d. 1935)
1920                       Jules E. Ellenberger (1st time)    (b. 1871 - d. 1973)
                             (acting)
1920 - 1923                James Comyn MacGregor (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1923 - 1926                Jules E. Ellenberger (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1926                       Rowland Mortimer Daniel (1st time) (b. 1873 - d. 1957)
                             (acting)
1926 - 1927                Jules E. Ellenberger (3rd time)    (s.a.)
1927 - 1930                Rowland Mortimer Daniel (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
1930 - 1937                Charles Fernand Rey                (b. 1877 - d. 1968)
                             (from 1 Jan 1932, Sir Charles Fernand Rey) 
1937 - 1942                Charles Noble Arden-Clarke         (b. 1898 - d. 1962)
1942 - 1946                Aubrey Denzil Forsyth Thomson      (b. 1897 - d. 1982)
1946 - 1950                Anthony Sillery                    (b. 1903 - d. 1976)
1950 - 1953                Edward Betham Beetham              (b. 1905 - d. 1979)
1953 - 1955                William Forbes Mackenzie           (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
1955 - 1959                Martin Osterfield Wray             (b. 1912 - d. 1991)
1959 - 1963                Sir John Primatt Redcliffe Maud    (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
1963 -  1 Aug 1964         Robert Peter Fawcus                (b. 1915 - d. 2003)
                             (from 13 Jun 1964, Sir Robert Peter Fawcus) 
Commissioners

 1 Aug 1964 - 1965         Sir Robert Peter Fawcus            (s.a.)
1965 - 30 Sep 1966         Hugh Selby Norman-Walker           (b. 1916 - d. 1985)
                             (from 1 Jan 1966, Sir Hugh Selby Norman-Walker)
Presidents
30 Sep 1966 - 13 Jul 1980  Sir Seretse Khama                  (b. 1921 - d. 1980)  BDP
13 Jul 1980 - 31 Mar 1998  Quett Ketumile Masire              (b. 1925)            BDP
                            (from 4 Dec 1991, Sir Ketumile Masire)
                            (acting to 18 Jul 1980)
 1 Apr 1998 - 31 Mar 2008  Festus Gontebanye Mogae            (b. 1939)            BDP
 1 Apr 2008 -              Seretse Khama Ian Khama
           (b. 1953)            BDP

Prime minister
 3 Mar 1965 - 30 Sep 1966  Seretse Khama                      (s.a.)               BDP
                             (from 23 Sep 1966, Sir Seretse Khama) 

Assistant Commissioners for the Northern Protectorate
(at Old Palapye, from 1903/04 at Francistown)
1892 - 1895                John Smith Moffat                  (b. 1835 - d. 1918)
1895 - 1901                John Anchitel Ashburnham           (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
1902 - 1906                Francis William Panzera            (s.a.)
1907 - 1923                Rowland Mortimer Daniel            (s.a.) 
Assistant Commissioners for the Southern Protectorate (at Fort Gaberones)
1892 - 1900?               William Henry Surmon               (s.a.)              
1900? - 1923               Jules E. Ellenberger               (s.a.)

International Disputes: None; Namibia has long supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River at Kazungula crossing, thereby de facto recognizing the short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary

Party abbreviations: BDP = Botswana Democratic Party (conservative, traditionalist, to 1966  named Bechuanaland Democratic Party, est.1961); BPP = Botswana People's Party (progressive, to 1966 named Bechuanaland People's Party, est.1960)


Tati Concessions
 
Map of the Tati Concessions
Headquarters: Francistow
(Old Palapye 1891-1903)

1866                       Gold is discovered in the Tati River area, then part of the
                             Matabeleland.
15 Nov 1888                Concession granted by Lobengula to the Tati Concession Mining and
                             Exploration Company Limited (from 14 Mar 1895, Tati Concessions
                             Limited; and from 1917, Tati Company Limited).
21 Jan 1893                Tati Land is detached from Matabeleland and placed under the
                             the jurisdiction of the Resident Commissioners of
                             Bechuanaland Protectorate (s.a.) under Tati Concessions Ltd.
                             under control.
21 Jan 1911                Part of Bechuanaland colony as Tati District, with the
                             Tati Company having complete ownership over the district.
1969                       Tati Company control over Northeast District ended.
  
Special Justices of the Peace

1891 - 1897?               Hamilton John Goold-Adams             (b. 1858 - d. 1920)
1898 - Sep 1899            H.J.R. Kinsman      
21 Sep 1899 - 1903         Umfreville Percy Swinburne            (b. 1868 - d. 1931)
Assistant Commissioners and Magistrates
1903 - 1906                Francis William Panzera               (b. 1851 - d. 1917)
1906 - 1926                Rowland Mortimer Daniel               (b. 1873 - d. 1957)
                             (from 1923, only magistrate
)
1928 - 1929                G.B. Moseley (acting)
District Commissioners
1930 - 1932                G.E. Nettelton
1933                       William E. Mangan (1st time)
1934                       Allan L. Cuzen
1935 - 1942                William E. Mangan (2nd time)
1943 - 1944                John Wilfred Potts
1945 - 1946                Alistair J.T.M. Macrae (acting)
1946 - 1947                John W. Joyce
1948 - 1950                Rowland Alan Robertson Bent
1950 - 1951                Thomas G. Moore   
1952 - 1954                John Forster Millard                  (b. 1911 - d. 2004)  
                             (senior district officer
)
1953 - 1956                George J.L. Atkinson                  (b. 1923 - d. 1990)
1956 - 1958                John Forster Millard
                             (divisional commissioner north)

1958 - 1959                Arthur N.W. Matthews
1959 - 1960                Charles Eustice Clark  
1960 - 1963                Roy S. King (district officer)
1960 - 1964                Norman Bruce Rutherford
                             (from 1963, senior district officer
)
1963 - 1964                Philippus Laurens Steenkamp
1964                       Phineas P.M. Makepe  
1964                       Alexander C. Campbell    
1963 - 1965                Robert Gilkes (district officer)

Chairman of the Tati Concession Mining and Exploration
Company Limited (from 14 Mar 1895, Tati Concessions Limited;
and from 1917, Tati Company Limited)
c.1900 - c.1902            Alexander O. Murray
c.1905 - c.1910            E.H. Flux
c.1914 - 1940?             Andrew Dodds Fairbairn                (b. 1859 - d. 1940)
c.1940s                    T.P. Patterson



High
Commission Territories 

 
[Flag of the United
                          Kingdom]
                       18 Mar 1884 - 1907
[High
                          Commissioner in and for South Africa flag
                          1907-1931]
          1907 - 1931  flag of the High Commissioner
[flag of the
                          High Commissioner for Basutoland, the
                          Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland
                          1931-1964]
     1931 - 31 Jul 1964  flag of the High Commissioner 

18 Mar 1884                High Commission Territory of Southern Africa 
                             (Bechuanaland and Basutoland).
 6 Sep 1902                Addition of Swaziland.
 3 Oct 1963                Swaziland and Bechuanaland no longer subordinated to
                             the High Commissioner.
 1 Aug 1964                Abolished.

High Commissioners for Southern Africa
27 Jan 1847 -  6 Mar 1901  the governors of the Cape Colony
 5 May 1897 -  1 Apr 1905  Alfred Milner, Viscount Milner     (b. 1854 - d. 1925)
 2 Apr 1905 - 31 May 1910  William Waldegrave Palmer,
         (b. 1859 - d. 1942)
                             Earl of Selborne
31 May 1910 - 11 Dec 1923  the governors-general of South Africa
11 Dec 1923 - 21 Jan 1924  Sir Rudolf Bentinck (acting)       (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
21 Jan 1924 -  6 Apr 1931  the governors-general of South Africa
 6 Apr 1931 -  6 Jan 1935  Sir Herbert James Stanley          (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
 1 Aug 1933 -  1 Dec 1933  Edward Ratcliffe Garth Russell     (b. 1880 - d. 1957)
                             Evans (acting for Stanley)

 7 Jan 1935 -  3 Jan 1940  Sir William Henry Clark            (b. 1876 - d. 1952)
 3 Jan 1940 - 24 May 1941  Sir Walter Clarence Huggard        (b. 1883 - d. 1957)
                             (1st time)(acting)
24 May 1941 - 13 May 1944  William George Arthur Ormsby-Gore, (b. 1885 - d. 1964)
                             Baron Harlech
13 May 1944 - 23 Jun 1944  Harold Eddey Priestman (acting)    (b. 1888 - d. 1956)
23 Jun 1944 - 27 Oct 1944  Sir Walter Clarence Huggard        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
27 Oct 1944 -  1 Oct 1951  Sir Evelyn Baring                  (b. 1903 - d. 1973)
 2 Oct 1951 -  2 Feb 1955  Sir John Helier Le Rougetel        (b. 1894 - d. 1975)
 4 Mar 1955 - Dec 1958     Sir Percivale Liesching            (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
15 Jan 1959 - 1963         Sir John Primatt Redcliffe Maud    (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
1963 - 31 Jul 1964         Sir Hugh Southern Stephenson       (b. 1906 - d. 1972)





Ben Cahoon