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Mozambique
 
[Portugal]
                 to 25 Jun 1975
 
[Proposed Portuguese Colonial
                                    Flag (1967)]
            1967  proposed colonial flag
 
[temporary Mozambique flag
                                    1974]
      5 Sep 1974 - 25 Jun 1975 (provisional)
 
[First
                                    official Mozambique flag 1975]
                 25 Jun 1975 - Apr 1983
 
[Mozambique provisional flag
                                    1983]
     Apr 1983 - 1 May 1983 (provisional) 
 
[Mozambique
                                    flag]
                 Adopted 1 May 1983
 
Map of Mozambique
Hear National Anthem
"Pátria Amada"
(Beloved Country)
Adopted 30 Apr 2002
Hear Former Anthem
"Viva, viva a FRELIMO"
(Alive, Alive FRELIMO!)
(25 Jun 1975-30 Apr 2002)
Constitution
(30 Nov 1990)
Capital: Maputo
(Lourenço Marques
1897-3 Feb 1976; Moçambique 1554-1897; Sofala 1512-1554;
 Kilwa 1501-1512)
Currency: Metical (MZN);
1922-1980 Mozambique
Escudo (MZE)

National Holiday: 25 Jun (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 24,096,669 (2013)
GDP: $28.1 billion (2013)
Exports: $3.92 billion (2013)
Imports: $7.06 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Makuana 15.3%,
Sena 8%, Makua 14.5%, Tswa 5.7%, Tsonga 8.6%, Lomwe 7.1%,
Chwabo 8.6% and others 31.8%), Europeans 0.06%,
Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 11,200 (2010)
Merchant marine: 2 ships (2010)
Religions: Catholic 28.4%, Protestant 27.7% (Zionist Christian
 15.5%, Evangelical Pentecostal 10.9%, Anglican 1.3%),
Muslim 17.9%, other 7.2%, none 18.7% (2007)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, C, CCM, CPLP, CTBT, CWC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Mozambique
Index
Chronology

 1 Mar 1498                Claimed for Portugal by Vasco da Gama.
1501                       Portuguese administration begins, Captaincy of
                             Sofala (subordinated to Goa).
 8 Sep 1507                Portuguese occupation of Mozambique Island; 
                             Captaincy of Sofala and Moçambique
                             (subordinated to Goa).
1531                       First Portuguese inland settlement at Sena.
1534                       Settlement at Quelimane founded.
1569                       Captaincy-general of Moçambique
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Moçambique along with Portugal a Spanish possession
1609                       Colony of Moçambique, Sofala, Ríos de Cuama, 
                             and Monomatapa (subordinated to Goa).
Mar 1721 - 27 Dec 1730     Dutch fort Lijdzaamheid at Delagoa Bay.
1752                       Colony of Moçambique, the Zambesi and Sofala.
Mar 1836                   Moçambique Colony (also called Portuguese 
                             East Africa).
10 Jan 1920                Treaty of Versailles cedes the Kionga Triangle, 
                             formerly part of German East Africa 
                             (Tanganyika), to Portuguese Moçambique.
11 Jun 1951                Overseas province of Portugal.
20 Sep 1974                Local administration begins.
25 Jun 1975                Independence from Portugal 
                             (People's Republic of Mozambique).
 1 Dec 1990                Republic of Mozambique

Traditional
States
RENAMO Govt.
(1975-1992)
Mozambique and Nyassa Company Territories
(1892-1942)
Dutch Fort
Lijdzaamheid

(1721-1730)
 Historical Maps
of Mozambique
 
 
 
 
 

Presidents of the Liberation Front of Mozambique (FRELIMO)
May 1970 -  19 Oct 1986    Samora Moisés Machel               (b. 1933 - d. 1986)
 6 Nov 1986 - 30 Nov 1990  Joaquim Alberto Chissanó           (b. 1939)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 30 Jul 1989)
 

Captains
1501 –  4 May 1505         Sancho de Tovar (1st time)         (b. c.1470 - d. c.1545) 
 4 May 1505 -  4 Mar 1506  Pedro de Anaia                     (b. c.1450 - d. 1506)
 4 Mar 1506 – Dec 1506     Manuel Fernandes (acting)
Dec 1506 -  8 Sep 1507     Nuno Vaz Pereira
 8 Sep 1507 - Feb 1508     Vasco Gomes de Abreu
Feb 1508 - 26 Aug 1509     Rui de Brito Patalim (acting)
26 Aug 1509 – 24 Jun 1512  António de Saldanha
24 Jun 1512 - 31 Mar 1515  Simão Miranda de Azevedo 
31 Mar 1515 – Jun 1515     Pero Vaz Soares (acting)

Jun 1515 – 31 Jul 1515     Sancho de Tovar (2nd time) 
31 Jul 1515 -  1 Jul 1518  Cristóvão de Távora
 1 Jul 1518 - Jul 1522     Sancho de Tovar (3rd time) 
Jul 1522 - Oct 1525        Diogo de Sepúlveda
Oct 1525 - 20 Feb 1528     Lopo de Almeida                    (b. c.1490 - d. 15..)
20 Feb 1528 - Mar 1529     António da Silveira de Meneses 
Mar 1529 - 20 Oct 1530     João da Costa (acting)
20 Oct 1530 - 1538         Vicente Pegado
1538 - 1541                Aleixo de Sousa Chichorro
1541 - 1543                João de Sepúlveda
1543 - 1548                Jorge Telo
1548 - 1551                Fernão de Sousa de Távora 
1551 - 1554                Diogo de Mesquita                  (b. c.1510 - d. 15..)
1554 - 1557                Diogo de Sousa                     (b. c.1520 - d. 15..)
1557 - 1560                Sebastião de Sá
1560 - 1564                Pantaleão de Sá                    (b. c.1510 - d. 15..)
1564                       Belchior Botelho (acting)
1564 - 1567                Jerónimo Barreto
1567 - Aug 1569            Pedro Barreto Rolim
Aug 1569 - 16 May 1570     Vasco Fernandes Homem (acting)
Captains-major

16 May 1570 - 31 May 1573  Francisco Barreto                  (b. 1520 - d. 1573)
 1 Jun 1573 - 13 Mar 1577  Vasco Fernandes Homem (interim)
31 Mar 1577 - 1577         Fernando de Monroi
1577                       Simão de Silveira (acting)
1577 - 1583                Pedro de Castro
1583 - 1586                Nuno Velho Pereira 
1586 - 1589                Jorge Telo de Meneses 
1589 - 1591                Lourenço de Brito 
1591 - 1595                Pedro de Sousa
1595 - 1598                Nuno da Cunha Ataíde
1598 - 1600                Álvaro Abranches
1600 - 1604                Vasco de Mascarenhas               (b. c.1605 - d. 1678)
1604 - 1607                Sebastião de Macedo
1607 - 1609                Estêvão de Ataíde 
Captains-general 
1609 - 1611                Nuno Álvares Pereira (1st time)
1611 – 1612                Estêvão de Ataíde
1612 – 1612                Diogo Simões de Madeira          
1612 - 1614                João de Azevedo  
1614 - Mar 1619            Rui de Melo e Sampaio
1616 – 1617                Salvador Vaz Guerra
                             (acting for Sampaio)     
Mar 1619 - 1623            Nuno Álvares Pereira (2nd time)
1623                       Nuno da Cunha (acting) 
1623 - 1624                Lopo de Almeida (acting)
28 Feb 1624 - 1628         Diogo de Sousa de Meneses 
                             (1st time)
1628 - Jun 1631            Nuno Álvares Pereira (3rd time)
Jun 1631 - 1632            Cristóvão de Brito de Vasconcelos 
                             (acting)
1632 - 1633                Diogo de Sousa de Meneses  
                             (2nd time)
1633 - 1635                Filipe de Mascarenhas              (b. 1580 - d. 19..)
1635 - Oct 1638            Lourenço de Soutomaior
Oct 1638 - 1639            Francisco de Soutomaior (1st time)
1639 - Mar 1640            Diogo de Vasconcelos
Mar 1640 - Feb 1641        Francisco de Soutomaior (2nd time)
1640 - 1641                António de Brito Pacheco 
1641 - 1642                Francisco da Silveira 
1642                       Domingos Gouveia Coutinho
1642 - Feb 1643            Luís Rego de Negreiros (acting)
Feb 1643 - 1646            Júlio Moniz da Silva
1646 – 1649                Fernão Dias Baião      
1649 - 1652                Álvaro de Sousa de Távora
1652 - 1653                Francisco de Mascarenhas           (d. 1699)
1653 - 1657                Francisco de Lima
1657 - 1661                Manuel Corte Real de Sampaio       (b. c.1630 - d. ....) 
1661 - 1664                Manuel de Mascarenhas 
1664 - 1667                António de Melo e Castro           (b. c.1625 - d. ....)
1667 - 1670                Inácio Sarmento de Carvalho        (b. c.1616 - d. 1676)
1670 - 1673                João de Sousa Freire (1st time)
1673 - 1675                Simão Gomes da Silva  
1675                       André Pinto da Fonseca
1675 - 1676                Manuel da Silva Aguiar (acting)
1676 - 1681                João de Sousa Freire (2nd time)
1681 - 1682                Diogo de Abreu
1682 - 1683                Gaspar de Sousa Lacerda
1683 - 1686                Caetano de Melo e Castro           (d. 1718)
1686 - 1689                Miguel de Almeida                  (b. c.1640 - d. 1691)
1689 - 1692                Manuel dos Santos Pinto
1692 - 1693                Tomé de Sousa Correia
1693 - 1694                Francisco Correia de Mesquita
                             (acting)
1694 - 1696                Estêvão José da Gama               (b. 1666 - d. 1695)
1696                       Francisco José da Costa            (b. 1699 – d. 1701)
1696 – 1699                Luis de Melo Sampaio   
1699 – 1701                Jacome de Morais Sarmento
1701 - 1704                João Rodrigues da Costa
                             (1st time)
1704 - 1707                João Fernandes de Almeida
1707 - 1709                Luís de Brito Freire 
1709 - 1712                Luís de Gonçalves da Câmara
                             Coutinho
27 Feb 1712 - 20 Aug 1714  João Fernandes de Almeida  
                             (2nd time)
1714 - 1716                Francisco de Mascarenhas
1716 - 1719                Francisco de Souto-Maior           (b. c.1700 - d. 17..)
1719 - 1722                Francisco de Alarcão e Souto-Maoir
1722 - 1723                Álvaro Caetano de Castro e Melo
1723 -  1 Mar 1724         Dionísio Manuel Viegas (1st time)
                             (acting)
 1 Mar 1724 - 1726         António João de Sequeira e Faria 
1726 - 1731                António Cardim Fróis
1731 - 11 Aug 1732         António Casco de Melo
11 Aug 1732 - 1733         Dionísio Manuel Viegas (2nd time)
                             (acting)
1733 - 1737                José Barbosa Leal
1737 - 1740                Nicolau Tolentino de Almeida
1740 - 1743                Lourenço de Noronha e Tavora       (b. c.1690 - d. 17..)
1743 - 1746                Pedro do Rêgo Barreto da Gama 
                             e Castro
1746 - 1750                Caetano Correia da Sá
21 Feb 1750 - 14 Mar 1758  Francisco de Melo e Castro         (b. 1702 - d. 17..)
14 Mar 1758 -  6 Apr 1758  João Manuel de Melo                (d. 1758)
 7 Apr 1758 – Aug 1758     David Marques Pereira (acting)
Aug 1758 -  6 Jan 1763     Pedro de Saldanha e Albuquerque    (d. 1783)
                             (1st time) 
 6 Jan 1763 - 17 Aug 1765  João Pereira da Silva Barba Alardo (b. 1709 - d. 17..)
17 Aug 1765 -  2 Jun 1779  Baltazar Manuel Pereira do Lago    (b. 1725 - d. 1779)
 4 Jun 1779 - 26 Aug 1779  Provisional Administration
                           - Frei João Nogueira da Cruz
                           - Diogo Guerreiro Aboim
                           - Pedro da Costa Soares
26 Aug 1779 - 16 Dec 1779  Provisional Administration
                           - Frei José Vitorino de São José
                           - Diogo Guerreiro Aboim

                           - Vicente Caetano da Maia e        (b. 1735 - d. 1789)
                               Vasconcelos
16 Dec 1779 -  7 May 1781  José de Vasconcelos e Almeida
 7 May 1781 - 21 Aug 1782  Vicente Caetano da Maria e         (s.a.) 
                             Vasconcelos (acting)
21 Aug 1782 - 24 Nov 1783  Pedro de Saldanha e Albuquerque    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
25 Nov 1783 - 11 Mar 1786  Provisional Administration
                           - Frei Amaro José de São Tomás

                           - António José de Morais Durão
                           - Vicente Caetano da Maia e        (s.a.)
                               Vasconcelos
11 Mar 1786 - 19 Mar 1793  António Manuel de Melo e Castro
19 Mar 1793 - 27 Aug 1797  Diogo de Sousa Coutinho
27 Aug 1797 - 10 Sep 1801  Francisco Guedes de Carvalho       (b. 1757 - d. 1833)
                             Meneses da Costa
Sep 1801 - Aug 1805        Isidro de Almeida de Sousa e Sá
Aug 1805 - Dec 1807        Francisco de Paula de Albuquerque  (b. 1759 - d. 1807)
                             do Amaral Cardoso
Dec 1807 - 14 Aug 1809     Provisional Administration
                           - Vasco José da Bona Morte Lobo,   (b. 1757 - d. 1822)
                               bispo de Olba 
                           - Agostinho Bernardo Delgado Pinto
                           - Elias José Pereira Ramos
14 Aug 1809 - Aug 1812     António Manuel de Melo e Castro    (b. 17.. - d. 1812)
                             de Mendonça 
Aug 1812 - Feb 1817        Marcos Caetano de Abreu e Meneses
 2 Feb 1817 - Sep 1818     José Francisco de Paula Cavalcanti (d. 1818) 
                             de Albuquerque
Sep 1818 - Nov 1819        Provisional Administration
                           - José Nicolau Pegado
                           - Francisco Carlos da Costa Lacé
                           - Amaro Guedes da Silva
Nov 1819 - Jun 1821        João da Costa M. Brito Sanches
Jun 1821 - Sep 1821        Bartolomeu dos Mártires de Maia    (b. 1764 - d. 1828)
                             (president of Provisional Administtration)
Sep 1821 – Jan 1825        João Manuel da Silva
                             (
to Jun 1824, president of Governing Junta)
20 Jan 1825 - Aug 1829     Sebastião Xavier Botelho           (b. 1768 - d. 1840)
Aug 1829 - 28 Jan 1832     Paulo José Miguel de Brito         (d. 1832)
28 Jan 1832 – Mar 1834
     Joaquim Xavier Diniz Costa
                             (president of
Provisional Administration)
Mar 1834 - Mar 1836        José Gregório Pegado
                             (military governor)
Mar 1836 - Mar 1837        Custódio José Vaz
                             (president of P
rovisional Administration)
Governors-general
Mar 1837 - Oct 1837        António José de Melo de Saldanha   (b. 1803 - d. 1883)
                             e Castro

                             (president of Governing Council)
Oct 1837 - Mar 1838        João Carlos Augusto de Oeynhausen  (b. 1776 - d. 1838)
                             e Gravenburg, marquês de Aracaty
Mar 1838 - 25 Mar 1840     António de Ramalho de Sá           (d. 1860)
                             (president of Governing Council)
25 Mar 1840 - May 1841     Joaquim Pereira Marinho            (b. 1782 - d. 1854)
May 1841 - 15 Feb 1843     João da Costa Xavier
15 Feb 1843 - May 1847     Rodrigo Luciano de Abreu e Lima    (b. c.1815 - d. ....)
May 1847 - Oct 1851        Domingos Fortunato de Vale
Oct 1851 - Apr 1854        Joaquim Pinto de Magalhães         (b. 1819 - d. 1892)
Apr 1854 - Sep 1857        Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
                             (acting)
Sep 1857 - Feb 1864        João Tavares de Almeida            (b. 1816 - d. 1877)
Feb 1864 - Apr 1864        Candido Maximo Montes
                             (president of Governing Council)
Apr 1864 - Oct 1867        António do Canto e Castro
1865                       Ant
ónio de Sousa Teixeira
                             (acting for Canto e Castro)
Oct 1867 - 31 Aug 1868     António Augusto de Almeida         (b. 1804 - d. 1868) 
                             Portugal Correia de Lacerda
Sep 1868 - Feb 1869        Manuel Nicolau de Pontes Ataíde    (b. 1822 - d. ....)
                             e Azevedo
                             (president of Governing Council)
Feb 1869 - Apr 1869        António Tavares d'Almeida          (b. 1820 - d. 1901)
Apr 1869 - 29 Dec 1869     Fernando da Costa Leal             (b. 1825 - d. 1869) 
Dec 1869 - Jun 1870        Ernesto Kopke da Fonseca e Gouveia (b. 1839 - d. 1915)
                             (president of Governing Council)
Jun 1870 - Aug 1870        Inácio Augusto Alves (acting)
Aug 1870 - Dec 1873        José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral    (b. 1808 - d. 1873)
Dec 1873 - Aug 1874        José Manuel Crispiniano da Fonseca (b. c.1840 - d. ....)
                             (president of Governing Council)
Aug 1874 - Dec 1877        José Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses  (b. 1814 - d. 1879)
Dec 1877 - Jan 1880        Francisco Maria da Cunha           (b. 1832 - d. 1909)
Jan 1880 - Aug 1881        Augusto César Rodrigues Sarmento   (b. 1835 - d. ....)
                             (acting)
Aug 1881 - Feb 1882        Carlos Eugénio Correia da Silva,   (b. 1834 - d. 1905)
                             visconde de Paco d'Arcos
Feb 1882 - Apr 1882        José de Almeida d'Ávila (acting)   (b. 1843 - d. 1901)
Apr 1882 - Apr 1885        Agostinho Coelho                   (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
Apr 1885 - Jul 1885        Henrique José Reed da Silva        (b. 1854 - d. 1930)
                             (president of Governing Council)
Jul 1885 - Mar 1889        Augusto Vidal de Castilho Barreto  (b. 1841 - d. 1912)
                             e Noronha
Mar 1889 - Jul 1889        José Joaquim d'Almeida (acting)
Jul 1889 - Jul 1890        José Antonio de Brissac das        (b. 1846 - d. 1902)
                             Neves Ferreira
Jul 1890 -  2 Jul 1891     Joaquim José Machado (1st time)    (b. 1847 - d. 1925)
 2 Jul 1891 - 1893         Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade    (b. 1851 - d. 1900)
1893 – May 1893            Antonio José Enes
(1st time)       (b. 1848 - d. 1901)
                             (acting)
May 1893 - 13 Jan 1894     Francisco Teixeira da Silva        (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
Jan 1894 - Jul 1894        Joaquim da Graça Correia e Lança   (b. 1856 - d. 1900)
                             (1st time) (acting)
Jul 1894 - Jan 1895        Fernando de Magalhães e Meneses    (b. 1840 - d. 1899)
Jan 1895 - Dec 1895        António José Enes -Commissioner    (b. 1848 - d. 1901)
                             (2nd time)
Jan 1896 - Mar 1896        Joaquim da Graça Correia e Lança   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
Mar 1896 - Nov 1897        Joaquim Mousinho de Albuquerque    (b. 1855 - d. 1902)
Nov 1897 - Aug 1898        Baltasar Freire Cabral (acting)    (b. 1867 - d. 1924)
Aug 1898 - Dec 1898        Carlos Alberto Schultz Xavier
Dec 1898 - Mar 1900        Álvaro António da Costa Ferreira   (b. 1853 - d. 1933)
Mar 1900 - May 1900        Júlio José Marques
da Costa
May 1900 - Oct 1900        Joaquim José Machado (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Oct 1900 - Dec 1902        Manuel Rafael Gorjão               (b. 1846 - d. 1918)
Dec 1902 - Feb 1905        Thomas António García Rosado       (b. 1864 - d. 1937)
Feb 1905 - Oct 1906        João António de Azevedo Coutinho   (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
                             Fragoso de Sequeira
Oct 1906 - 26 Oct 1910     Alfredo Augusto Freire de Andrade  (b. 1859 - d. 1929)
26 Oct 1910 – Nov 1910     Pedro Luis de Bellegarde da Silva  (b. 1853 - d. 1917?)
Nov 1910 - May 1911        José de Freitas Ribeiro (acting)   (b. 1868 - d. 1929)
May 1911 - Feb 1912        José Francisco de Azevedo e Silva  (b. 1858 - d. 1936)
Feb 1912 - Mar 1913        José Alfredo Mendes de Magalhães   (b. 1870 - d. 1957)
Mar 1913 - Apr 1914        Augusto Ferreira dos Santos        (b. 1870 - d. 1944)
Apr 1914 - May 1915        Joaquim José Machado (3rd time)    (s.a.)
May 1915 - Oct 1915        Alfredo Baptista Coelho            (b. 1865 - d. 1952)
Oct 1915 - Apr 1918        Álvaro Xavier de Castro            (b. 1878 - d. 1928)
Apr 1918 - Apr 1919        Pedro Francisco Massano do Amorim  (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
Apr 1919 - Mar 1921        Manuel Luiz Moreira da Fonseca 
                             (1st time)(acting)
High Commissioners and Governors-general
Mar 1921 - Sep 1923        Manuel de Brito Camacho            (b. 1862 - d. 1934)
Sep 1923 - Nov 1924        Manuel Luiz Moreira da Fonseca
                             (2nd time)(acting)
Nov 1924 - May 1926        Víctor Hugo de Azevedo Coutinho    (b. 1871 - d. 1955)
May 1926 - Nov 1926        Artur Ivens Ferraz (acting)        (b. 1870 - d. 1933)
Nov 1926 -
Apr 1938        José Ricardo Pereira Cabral        (b. 1879 - d. 1956)
Apr 1938 - 
Mar 1940        José Nicolau Nunes de Oliveira     (b. 1890 - d. 1954)
Mar 1940 – 1946            José Tristão de Bettencourt        (b. 1880 - d. 1954)
1946 – 1947                Paulo Augusto do Rego (acting)
 3 Feb 1947 - Dec 1948     Luis de Sousa e Vasconcelos e      (b. 1897 - d. 19..)
                             Funchal 
Dec 1948 - 1958            Gabriel Maurício Teixeira          (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
1958                       Juvenal de Carvalho (acting)
1958 - 1961                Pedro Correia de Barros            (b. 1911 - d. 1968)
1961 - 1964                Manuel Maria Sarmento Rodrigues    (b. 1899 - d. 1979)
1964 - 1968                José Augusto da Costa Almeida      (b. 1912 - d. 1998)
1968 – 12 Jul 1968         Alvaro de G. e Melo (acting)
12 Jul 1968 - 1970         Baltazar Rebelo de Sousa           (b. 1921 - d. 2002)
1970 - 1971                Eduardo Arantes e Oliveira         (b. 1907 - d. 1982)
1971 – 1972                Manuel Marques de Abrantes Amaral  (b. 1914)  
1972 - 27 Apr 1974         Manuel Pimentel Pereira dos Santos (b. 1919 - d. 2006)
27 Apr 1974 - 11 Jun 1974  David Teixeira Ferreira (acting)
11 Jun 1974 - 17 Aug 1974  Henrique Soares de Melo
19 Aug 1974 - 12 Sep 1974  Jorge Augusto da Cunha Ferro       (b. 1928 - d. 1992)
                             Ribeiro (acting)
12 Sep 1974 - 25 Jun 1975  Vítor Manuel Pereira Trigueiros
   (b. 1932)
                             Crespo                  
Presidents
25 Jun 1975 - 19 Oct 1986  Samora Moisés Machel               (s.a.)               FRELIMO 
19 Oct 1986 -  6 Nov 1986  Political Bureau of the Central 
                           Committee of FRELIMO (acting)
                           - Marcelino dos Santos             (b. 1929)            FRELIMO 
                           - Joaquim Alberto Chissano         (s.a.)               FRELIMO 
                           - Alberto Joaquim Chipande         (b. 1939)            FRELIMO 
                           - Armando Emílio Nuno Guebuza      (b. 1943)            FRELIMO 
                           - Jorge "Domingo" Rebelo Pinto     (b. 1940)            FRELIMO 
                               Chikoty
                           - Mariano de Araújo Matsinhe       (b. 1953)            FRELIMO 
                           - Sebastião Chinguane Marcos Mabote(b. 1941 - d. 2001)  FRELIMO 
                           - Jacinto Soares Veloso            (b. 1937)            FRELIMO 
                           - Mário Fernandes da Graça Machungo(b. 1940)            FRELIMO
                           - José Óscar Monteiro da Silva     (b. 1942?)           FRELIMO
 6 Nov 1986 -  2 Feb 2005  Joaquim Alberto Chissanó           (s.a.)               FRELIMO 
 2 Feb 2005 -              Armando Emílio Nuno Guebuza        (s.a.)               FRELIMO 

Prime ministers
20 Sep 1974 - 25 Jun 1975  Joaquim Alberto Chissanó           (s.a.)               FRELIMO
25 Jun 1975 - 12 Jul 1986  Post abolished
17 Jul 1986 - 16 Dec 1994  Mário Fernandes da Graça Machungo  (s.a.)               FRELIMO 
16 Dec 1994 - 17 Feb 2004  Pascoal Manuel Mocumbi             (b. 1941)            FRELIMO 
17 Feb 2004 - 16 Jan 2010  Luisa Dias Diogo (f)               (b. 1958)            FRELIMO
16 Jan 2010 
 8 Oct 2012  Aires Bonifacio Baptista Al      (b. 1955)            FRELIMO 
 8 Oct 2012 -              Alberto Clementino António Vaquina
(b. 1961)            FRELIMO
 

Territorial Dispute: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration.

Party abbreviation: FRELIMO = Frente da Libertação de Moçambique (Liberation Front of Mozambique, democratic socialist, formerly Marxist-Leninist 1977-89, est.1962)



Alternative government: National Resistance Government of Mozambique

[RENAMO former flag
                (Mozambique)]
 Adopted 1975/76 RENAMO Flag

Mar 1976                   Civil war begins against the central government. 
1981                       RENAMO occupies most of the interior of Mozambique.
 7 Aug 1992                Truce signed with the government of Mozambique.
 9 Oct 1992                Accord with the government, civil war ended.

Chairmen
1976 - 17 Oct 1979         André Matade Matsangaissa          (b. 1950 - d. 1979)  MNR
Oct 1979 - 1987            Afonso Macacho Marceta Dhlakama    (b. 1953)        MNR;1981 RENAMO
President of National Council
1987 -  9 Oct 1992         Afonso Macacho Marceta Dhlakama    (s.a.)               RENAMO

Party abbreviation: RENAMO = Resistência Nacional Moçambicana (Mozambican National Resistance, conservative, anti-communist, 1976-1981 as Movimento Nacional da Resistencia de Mocambique [Mozambique National Resistance] MNR, est.1975)



Company Territories


Mozambique Company Territories of Manica and Sofala

31 Jul 1891                Royal decree confirming the creation of Companhia de Moçambique
                             (Mozambique Company), a chartered company receiving full
                             administrative and economic jurisdiction over the Mozambican
                             territories of Manica and Sofala.
 5 May 1892                Constitution of the company established.
Jul 1892                   Manica and Sofala transferred from colonial to company
                             administration.
18 Jul 1942                Charter revoked, Manica and Sofala restored to direct
                             Portuguese colonial rule.

Governors
Jul 1892 - 15 Oct 1894     Joaquim José Machado (1st time)    (b. 1847 — d. 1925)
15 Oct 1894 - 17 Jul 1895  Francisco de Menezes de Meireles   (b. 1850 — d. 1915) 
                             do Canto e Castro  (1st time)
17 Jul 1895 - 20 Jul 1895  Guilherme de Oliveira Arriaga      (b. 1858 - d. 1942)
20 Jul 1895 - 11 Jan 1897  Joaquim José Machado (2nd time)    (s.a.)
11 Jan 1897 - 15 Jan 1897  Henrique César da Silva Barahona   (b. 1860 - d. 1953)
                             e Costa
15 Jan 1897 - 19 Nov 1897  Francisco de Meneses de Meireles   (s.a.) 
                             do Canto e Castro  (2nd time)
19 Nov 1897 -  4 Dec 1899  Manuel Rafael Gorjão Henriques     (b. 1846 — d. 1918)
 4 Dec 1899 -  1 May 1901  Francisco de Meneses de Meireles   (s.a.)  
                             do Canto e Castro (3rd time)
 1 May 1901 - 24 Jul 1903  Teófilo José da Trindade (1st time)(b. 1856 - d. 1936)
24 Jul 1903 - 14 May 1904  Alberto Celestino Ferreira Pinto   (b. 1866 - d. 1932)
                             Basto (1st time)
14 May 1904 -  1 Sep 1905  Teófilo José da Trindade (2nd time)(s.a.)
 1 Sep 1905 - 26 Aug 1909  Alberto Celestino Ferreira Pinto   (s.a.)
                             Basto (2nd time)
26 Aug 1909 -  8 Aug 1910  ....
 8 Aug 1910 - 15 Nov 1910  Alberto Celestino Ferreira Pinto   (s.a.)
                             Basto (3rd time)
16 Nov 1910 -  7 Mar 1913  João Pery de Lind (1st time)       (b. 1861 - d. 1930)
 7 Mar 1913 - 21 Jun 1914  ....
21 Jun 1914 - 16 Jun 1919  João Pery de Lind (2nd time)       (s.a.)
16 Jun 1919 - 26 Aug 1920  ....
26 Aug 1920 -  7 Jul 1921  João Pery de Lind (3rd time)       (s.a.)
 7 Jul 1921 - 22 Apr 1923  José Augusto Alves Roçadas         (b. 1865 - d. 1926)
14 Jun 1923 - 16 Mar 1925  Pedro Francisco Massano de Amorim  (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
13 Oct 1925 - 16 May 1927  Henrique Monteiro Correia da Silva (b. 1878 - d. 1935)
16 May 1927 - 25 May 1929  ....
25 May 1929 -  6 Aug 1932  Carlos de Almeida Pereira (1st time)
 6 Aug 1932 - 27 Feb 1933  ....
27 Feb 1933 -  8 Jun 1933  Carlos de Almeida Pereira (2nd time)
28 Sep 1933 -  8 Apr 1942  Luis António de Magalhães Correia  (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
13 May 1942 - 18 Jul 1942  Alexandre Alberto de Sousa Pinto   (b. 1880 - d. 1982)


Nyassa Company Territories of Cabo Delgado and Niassa


 9 Mar 1893                Royal decree confirming the creation of the Companhia do Niassa
                             (Nyassa Company), a chartered company receiving full
                             administrative and economic jurisdiction over the Mozambican
                             territories of Cabo Delgado and Niassa.
Oct 1894                   Cabo Delgado and Niassa transferred from colonial to company
                             administration.
27 Oct 1929                Charter revoked, Cabo Delgado and Niassa restored to direct
                             Portuguese colonial rule.

Governors
27 Oct 1894 - 189.         Joaquim Sanches de Rolão Preto
                             (1st time)
189. -  8 Jul 1896         ....
 8 Jul 1896 - 29 Sep 1896  Joaquim Sanches de Rolão Preto
                             (2nd time)
29 Sep 1896 - 11 Dec 1897  Francisco António Leopoldino       (b. 1859 - d. c.1927)
                             Gonçalves
11 Dec 1897 - 24 Dec 1899  ....
24 Dec 1899 - 21 Aug 1901  João Abel Antunes de Mesquita      (b. 1848 - d. 19..)
                             Guimarães
12 Dec 1902 - Mar 1904     Ernesto Jardim de Vilhena          (b. 1876 - d. 1967)
Mar 1904 - 17 Jul 1905     ....
17 Jul 1905 - 18 Aug 1908  João dos Santos Pires Viegas
18 Aug 1908 - 21 Feb 1912  ....
21 Feb 1912 - Mar 1913     Tomás António de Oliveira Mata     (b. 1878 - d. 19..)
                             e Dias (1st time)
Mar 1913 - 10 Jun 1914     ....
10 Jun 1914 - 12 Jul 1915  Tomás António de Oliveira Mata     (s.a.)
                             e Dias (2nd time)
1915 - 19..                Abílio de Lobão Soeiro             (b. 1860 - d. 1924)
1920 - 192.                Joaquim da Silva Torres
 1 Jul 1922 - 192.         João Henrique Pinheiro
30 Mar 1924 - 1929         Carlos Fernandes Brou


Ft. Lijdzaamheid (Delagoa Bay)

Mar 1721                   Dutch East India Company founds Fort and Factory Lijdzaamheid
                             (Lydsaamheid) at Delagoa Bay at site of modern Maputo
                             (subordinated to Cape Colony).
Apr 1722 - 28 Aug 1722     Pirates led by Taylor occupy the settlement.
27 Dec 1730                Post is abandoned.

Opperhoofden (Chief factors)
Mar 1721 - May 1721        Willem van Taak
May 1721 - 1722            Casparus Swertner
Apr 1722 - 28 Aug 1722     Taylor -Pirate rule
1722 - May 1724            Jean Michel
Jun 1724 - 1726            Jan van de Capelle (1st time)
1726 -  8 Jan 1727         Jan de Koning                      (d. 1727) 
 8 Jan 1727 - 27 Dec 1730  Jan van de Capelle (2nd time)





© Ben Cahoon