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Mozambique Traditional states


Note: This record is in three parts. (A) The last gasps of the Karanga empire (the "Empire of the Monomotapa"), with its spin-off Manyika (which is located in part in present-day Zimbabwe). (B) Coastal states. (C) The "Gaza State," amaGaza.


Karanga

bf.1420                    Karanga state founded.
1902                       Remnants of state extinguished by the Portuguese
                             colonial government.

Rulers¹
1803 - 1804                Cangara II
1804 - 1806                Mutiwapangome
1806                       Mutiwaora
1806 - 1807                Cipfumba
1807 - 1828?               Nyasoro
1828 - 1830                Cimininyambo (Kandeya II)
1830 - 1849?               Dzeka
1849 - 1868                Kataruza
1868 - 1870                Kandeya III
1870 - 1887                Dzuda
1887 - 1902                Cioko Dambamupute

 ¹The style of the ruler is Mambo, the usual one in this ethnic group; but he has had from 1420 an epithet, rendered Monomotapa by the Portuguese; there has been controversy concerning the "native" form; it is often read Mwene Mutapa, but the most critical sources give it as
Munhu Mutapa.


Manyika

bf.1494                    Manyika state established, originally subject to Karanga
1695                       Conquered by Cangamire; Nguruve lineage replaced by
                             Tembo-shumba lineage.

Rulers (title Mambo)
1796 - 1807                Cikanga Nyarumwe II (1st time)
1807 - 1813                Cikanga Nyangombe
1813 - 1818                Cikanga Nyamandoto II
1818 - 1822                Cikanga Nyarumwe II (2nd time)
1822                       Cikanga Juru or Mutasa Juru
1822? - 1845               Mutasa Mutemberwa
1845 - 1865                Mutasa Matidya Dasi
1865 - 1870                Mutasa Mvumbi
1870 - 1902                Mutasa Tendayi Katsatso "Cifambausiku"
1902 - 1911                Mutasa Cakanyuka
1911 - 1943                Mutasa Kadzima
1943 - 1957                Mutasa Cimuriwo
1957 - 1959                Mutasa Mashita Mukukudzi
1959 - 1965                Mutasa Makanda Gomwe
1965 -                     Mutasa Pafiwa



Coastal states

Angoshe

1485                       Angoshe sultanate established.
1910                       State extinguished by Portuguese colonial government.

Sultans
1795 - 1817                `Alawi ibn Muhsini
1817 - 1821                Hasan Camakama
1821 - 18..                `Alawi Mugosirima
18.. - 1849                Ahmadi ibn Sulayman "Bari Bwana Mkuu"
1849 - 1861                Hasani Usufu
1861 - 1877                Musa Muhammad Sahib "Musa Quanto"
1877 - 1884                Sulayman ibn Raja
1884 - 1889                Husayn Ibrahimu
1889 - 1910                Ibrahimu ibn Sulayman


Kitangonya

bf.1750                    Kitangonya sheikhdom established.
af.1906                    State extinguished by Portuguese colonial government.

Sheikhs
bf.1750 - c.1775            ....
c.1775 - 1804              Twakali Hija
1804 - 1817                Janfar Salim
1817 - 1850                Sulayman Bwana Hajj
1850 - 1873                `Ali Amisi Heri
1873 - 1875                `Abd al-Rahman Sa`id `Ali
1875 - 1878                Vacant
1878 - 1884                Ahmadi `Abd Allah
1884 - 1906                Mahmud Bwana Ahmadi
1906 - 19..                Sa`id ibn Amisi


Sankul

1753                       Sankul sheikhdom established.
1910                       State extinguished by Portuguese colonial government.

Sheikhs
1753 - 1797                ....
1797 - 1800                Mukusedi Muhammad Raja
1800 - 1804                Mutirua Muhammad
1804 - 1810                Hasan Raja
1810 - 1822                Molidi `Uthman
1822 - 1832                Mukusedi `Ali Muhammad Raja
1832 - 1841                Burehimu Usufu (regent to 1834)
1842 - 1862                Hasan Musa Mukusedi
1863 - 1874                Camakama Molidi
1875 - 1886                `Abd Allah Usufu ibn Hasan "Umkubu Muntu"
1886 - 1898                Hasan Molidi
1898 - 1910                Suali ibn `Ali Ibrahimu "Marave"



amaGaza

1825                       Sotshangane Nxumalo, grandson of Gaza Nxumalo, establishes
                             a polity and calls it amaGaza.
28 Dec 1895                State extinguished by Portuguese colonial government;
                             rebellion continued to 20 Jul 1897.

Rulers (title Nkosi)
1825 - 11 Oct 1858         Manukozi Sotshangane Nxumalo
11 Oct 1858 - 18..         Mawewe Nxumalo (1st time)
18.. - 18..                Mzila Nxumalo (1st time)
18.. - 1862                Mawewe Nxumalo (2nd time)
1862 - Aug 1884            Mzila Nxumalo (2nd time)
Aug 1884 - 28 Dec 1895     Mdungazwe Nggunggunyana Nxumalo
1896 - 20 Jul 1897         Magigane Nxumalo (in rebellion)






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