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Comoros 
 
            24 Jun 1886 - 13 Jul 1963 
   
[1963 Comoros
                            flag]
         13 Jul 1963 - 12 Nov 1975
   
[1975 Comoros
                            flag]
          12 Nov 1975 - 1 Oct 1978
   
[1978 Comoros
                            flag]
              1 Oct 1978 - 7 Jun 1992 
   
[1992 Comoros
                            flag]
                 7 Jun 1992 - 3 Oct 1996
 
[Comoros flag
                            1996-2002]
          3 Oct 1996 - 7 Jan 2002
   
[Flag of Comoros]
                   Adopted 7 Jan 2002
   


Map of Comoros
Hear National Anthem
"Udzima wa ya Masiwa"
(The Union of the Great Islands)
Adopted 1978
Former National Anthem
1975-1978
Constitution
(7 Jan 2002; in French)
Capital: Moroni
(Dzaoudzi 1887-1962;
Chingoni 1841-1887)
Currency: Comoran Franc
(KMF); 1945-75 Madagascar-
Comores CFA Franc (XMCF);
 
1925-1945 Madagascar Franc
 (MGG)
National Holiday:  6 Jul (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 752,288 (2013)
GDP: $911 million (2013) 
Exports: $19.7 million (2013)
Imports: $208.8 million (2013)
Ethnic groups: Comorian (a mixture of Bantu, Arab, Malay,
and Malagasy peoples) 97.1%, Makoa 1.6%, French 0.4%,
Arab 0.1%, other (Antalote, Cafre, Oimatsaha, Sakalava)
0.8% (2000)
Total Police Force: 500 (2012)
Merchant marine: 149 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 98.4%, other 1.6% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AOSIS, APM, AU, CAEU (candidate), CCM, CEN-SAD, COMESA, CTBT (signatory), CWC, ESCR (signatory), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA (applicant), IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISESCO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Comoros Index
Chronology
1503                       Comoros discovered by Portuguese explorers.
25 Apr 1841                France annexes Mayotte (ratified 13 Jun 1843)
                             (Mayotte protectorate).
1886                       Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Ndzuwani (Anjouan), 
                             and Mwali (Mohéli) become French protectorates.
 5 Sep 1887                Renamed Protectorate of the Comoros.
 9 Apr 1908                Comoros a dependent territory of Madagascar.
25 Jul 1912                Annexed by France (joined with Mayotte as Mayotte 
                             and Dependencies); subordinated to Madagascar
                             (de facto 23 Feb 1914).
16 Jun 1940 - 1942         Administration loyal to Vichy France (from 1942,
                             under Free French).
25 Sep 1942 - 13 Oct 1946  British occupation (see Madagascar), French
                             administration continues.
27 Oct 1946                Comoros overseas territory of France.
22 Dec 1961                Autonomy (State of Comoros).
 6 Jul 1975                Independence (State of Comoros)(excluding Mayotte).
31 Dec 1975                France recognizes Comoros independence.
24 May 1978                Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros.
 3 Aug 1997 - 14 Apr 2002  Secession of Anjouan (Ndzuwani)(not internationally
                             recognized).
11 Aug 1997 - 1998         Secession of Mohéli (Mwali)(not internationally 
                             recognized).
23 Dec 2001                New constitution approved by referendum, creating
                             the Union of Comoros.
Grande Comore
  • Bambao
  • Itsandra
  • Mitsamihuli
  • Bajini
  • Hambu
  • Washili
  • Hamahame
  • Mbude
  • Hamamvu
  • Mbaku
  • La Dombe
  • Anjouan
    Moheli
     

    Administrators
    24 Jun 188625 Jul 1912  the Administrators of Mayotte
    25 Jul 1912 - 21 Feb 1913
      Gabriel Samuel Garnier-Mouton      (b. 1864 - d. 1914)
    21 Feb 1913 - 23 Feb 1914  Honoré Cartron                     (b. 1868 - d. 19..)
    23 Feb 1914 - 13 Oct 1946  province of Madagascar
    Administrators-superior
    24 Oct 1946 - 31 Dec 1948  Eugène Alain Charles Louis Alaniou (b. 1896 - d. 1969)
    31 Dec 1948 - Dec 1950     Roger Marie Adolphe Emmanuel Rémy  (b. 1897 - d. 1992)
                                 (acting)
    Dec 1950 - 21 Apr 1956     Pierre Léonard Alphonse Coudert    (b. 1900 - d. 1970)
    21 Apr 1956 - 30 Jun 1959  Georges Victor Maurice Arnaud      (b. 1919 - d. 1971)
                                 (acting to 11 Feb 1958)
    30 Jun 1959 - 14 Dec 1960  Georges Gabriel Joseph Savignac    (b. 1917 - d. 1987)
                                
    (acting)
    14 Dec 1960 - 27 Feb 1962  Louis Joseph Édouard Saget         (b. 1915 - d. 2010)
    High Commissioners
    27 Feb 1962 - 22 May 1962  Louis Joseph Édouard Saget         (s.a.)
    22 May 1962 - 15 Feb 1963  Yves de Daruvar                    (b. 1921)
    15 Feb 1963 - 26 Jul 1966  Henri Joseph Marie Bernard         (b. 1920 - d. 2000)
    26 Jul 1966 - Nov 1969     Antoine Padoua Colombani           (b. 1919 - d. 2007)
    Nov 1969 - 1973            Jacques Mouradian                  (b. 1910 - d. 1992)
    1973 - 1974                Georges Poulet                     (b. 1914 - d. 2008)
    1974 - Jul 1975            Henri Charles Beaux                (b. 1922)
    Presidents
     6 Jul 1975 -  3 Aug 1975  Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane          (b. 1919 - d. 1989)  UDC
                                 (President of the Government to 7 Jul 1975, then Head of State)
                                 (1st time)
     3 Aug 1975 -  3 Jan 1976  Said Mohamed Jaffar                (b. 1918 - d. 1993)  FNU
                                 (chairman National Council of the Revolution to 
                                 10 Aug 1975, then chairman National Executive Council)
     3 Jan 1976 - 13 May 1978  Ali Soilih Mtsashiwa               (b. 1937 - d. 1978)  RDPC
                                 (Head of State to 28 Oct 1977)
    13 May 1978 - 23 May 1978  Said Atthoumani                                         FNU
                                 (chairman Politico-Military Directorate)
    23 May 1978 -  3 Oct 1978  Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane          (s.a.)               UDC
                                 (2nd time)
                               + Mohamed Ahmed                    (b. 1917 - d. 1984)  UDC
                                (co-chairmen [to 22 Jul 1978, 
                                 Politico-Military] Directorate)
     3 Oct 1978 - 26 Nov 1989  Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane          (s.a.)               UCP
                                 (chairman Directorate to 25 Oct 1978)
                                 (3rd time)
    26 Nov 1989 - 27 Nov 1989  Haribon Chebani (provisional)                           UCP
    27 Nov 1989 - 29 Sep 1995  Said Mohamed Djohar (1st time)     (b. 1918 - d. 2006)  UCP;1993 RDR
                                 (acting to 20 Mar 1990)
    29 Sep 1995 -  2 Oct 1995  Ayouba Combo                       (b.c.1953 - d. 2010) Mil
                                 (coordinator Transitional Military Committee) 
     2 Oct 1995 -  5 Oct 1995  Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim (1st time)(b. 1936 - d. 1998)  UNDC
                               + Said Ali Kemal                   (b. 1938)            CHUMA
                               (acting)
     5 Oct 1995 - 26 Jan 1996  Caabi El-Yachroutu Mohamed         (b. 1948?)           RDR
                                 (interim)
    26 Jan 1996 - 25 Mar 1996  Said Mohamed Djohar (2nd time)     (s.a.)               RDR
    25 Mar 1996 -  6 Nov 1998  Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim (2nd time)(s.a.)          UNDC:Oct 1996 RND
     6 Nov 1998 - 30 Apr 1999  Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde       (b. 1933 - d. 2004)  Non-party
                                 (interim)
    30 Apr 1999 - 21 Jan 2002  Azali Assoumani (1st time)         (b. 1959)            Mil
                                 (Chief of Staff of the National Development 
                                 Army to 6 May 1999, then Head of State)
    21 Jan 2002 - 26 May 2002  Hamada Madi "Boléro" (interim)     (b. 1965)            PRC
    26 May 2002 - 26 May 2006  Azali Assoumani (2nd time)         (s.a.)               CRC
    26 May 2006 - 26 May 2011  Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi       (b. 1958)            BM
    26 May 2011 -              Ikililou Dhoinine                  (b. 1962)            BM
     

    Vice president of the Government Council
    13 Aug 1957 -  1 Jan 1962  Mohamed Ahmed                      (s.a.)               UNR
    Presidents of the Government Council
     1 Jan 1962 - 16 Mar 1970  Said Mohamed Cheikh                (b. 1904 - d. 1970)UDSR;1968:UDC
     2 Apr 1970 - 16 Jul 1972  Said Ibrahim Ben Ali               (b. 1911 - d. 1975)  RDPC
    16 Jul 1972 - 26 Dec 1972  Said Mohamed Jaffar                (s.a.)               RDPC
    26 Dec 1972 -  6 Jul 1975  Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane          (s.a.)               UDC
    Prime ministers
     7 Jan 1976 - 22 Dec 1978  Abdallah Mohamed                   (b. 19.. - d. 2000)  UDC
    22 Dec 1978 -  8 Feb 1982  Salim Ben Ali                      (b. 1918? - d. 2002) UCP
     8 Feb 1982 - 31 Dec 1984  Ali Mroudjae                       (b. 1939)            UCP
    31 Dec 1984 -  7 Jan 1992  Post abolished
     7 Jan 1992 - 15 Jul 1992  Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim           (s.a.)               RND
     1 Jan 1993 - 26 May 1993  Ibrahim Abderamane Halidi          (b. 1954)            UDD
    26 May 1993 - 19 Jun 1993  Said Ali Mohamed                   (b. 1946)            RND
    20 Jun 1993 -  2 Jan 1994  Ahmed Ben Cheikh Attoumane         (b. 1938)            RDR
     2 Jan 1994 - 14 Oct 1994  Mohamed Abdou Madi                 (b. 1956)            RDR
    14 Oct 1994 - 29 Apr 1995  Halifa Houmadi                     (b. 1948)            RDR
    29 Apr 1995 - 27 Mar 1996  Caabi El-Yachroutu Mohamed         (s.a.)               RDR 
    27 Mar 1996 - 27 Dec 1996  Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde       (s.a.)               Non-party
    27 Dec 1996 -  9 Sep 1997  Ahmed Abdou                        (b. 1936)            RND 
     7 Dec 1997 - 30 May 1998  Nourdine Bourhane                  (b. 1958)            Non-party
    30 May 1998 - 22 Nov 1998  Vacant
    22 Nov 1998 - 30 Apr 1999  Abbas Djoussouf                    (b. 1942 - d. 2010)  FRN
    30 Apr 1999 -  2 Dec 1999  Vacant 
     2 Dec 1999 - 29 Nov 2000  Bianrifi Tarmidi                   (b. 1958)            Non-party
    29 Nov 2000 - 15 Apr 2002  Hamada Madi "Boléro"               (s.a.)               PRC
    15 Apr 2002                Post abolished

    Territorial Disputes: Claims French-administered Mayotte and challenges France's and Madagascar's claims to Banc du Geyser, a drying reef in the Mozambique Channel; in May 2008, African Union forces were called in to assist the Comoros military recapture Anjouan Island from rebels who seized it in 2001.

    Party abbreviations: BM = Baobab Movement (presidential coalition, supports Sambi & Dhoinine, est.2009); CRC = Convention pour le Renouveau des Comores (Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros, federalist, Assoumani personalist, est.2002); FNJ = Front National pour la Justice (National Front for Justice, Islamic fundamentalist, est.c.1989); FRN = Forum pour le Redressement National (Forum for National Recovery, anti-RDR alliance of parties, federalist, est.Jan 1994); PCP = Parti Comorien du Peuple (Comorian People's Party, pro-Sambi, est.2012); PRC = Parti Républicain des Comores (Republican Party of the Comoros, est.1998); RDR = Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et le Renouveau (Rally for Democracy and Renewal, est.1993); RND = Rassemblement National pour le Développement (National Rally for Development, conservative traditionalist, former UNDC, est.Oct 1996); Mil = Military;
    - Former parties: CHUMA = Chama cha Uwananya na Upradzima/Parti de la Fraternité et de l'Unité des îles (Fraternity and Unity Party of the Islands); FNU = Front National Uni (United National Front, anti-Abdallah, 1974-1978?); FNUK-Unikom = Front National Uni des Komores-Uni Komoro (United National Front of Comoros-Union Komoro, anti-Soilih, est.1982); PUIC = Parti pour l'Indépendance et l'Unité des Comores (Party for Independence and Unity for the Comoros, formed by RDPC and UDC in 1973); RDPC = Rassemblement Démocratique des Peuples Comoriens (Democratic Assembly of the Comorian Peopleconservative-progressive, called 'Les Blancs' [Whites], 1968-1982); UCP = Union Comorienne pour le Progrès (Comorian Union for Progress, "Udzima", 1982-1993, only legal party 1982-91, merged into UNDC); UDC = Union Démocratique des Comores (Comoros Democratic Union, called 'Les Verts' [Greens], 1968-1982); UDD = Union des Démocrates pour le Développement (Union of Democrats for Development); UDSR = Union Démocratique et Socialiste de la Résistance (Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance, French liberal, socialist, 1945-1964); UNDC = Union Nationale pour la Démocratie aux Comores (National Union for Democracy in Comoros, 1992-1996, then RND); UNR = Union pour la Nouvelle République (Union for the New Republic, French Gaullist, conservative, 1956-1967)



    Ngazidja (Grande Comore)

     
    [Flag of Ngazidja
                          Sultan (Comoros) 1886-1892]
               1886 - 1892
    [Flag of Grand
                          Comore (Comoros)
                    Adopted 7 Apr 2002
    Map of Grande Comore
    Capital: Moroni Local Anthem
    "Uwatwaniya Ndo
     Djukumu"

    Population: 320,338 (2008)
    233,533 (1991)
    Constitution
    (7 Apr 2002-20 Mar 2010;
    in French)

    1886                       The ruler of Bambao unifies the island (the local rulers
                                 retaining their titles) into the State of Ngazidja.
    24 Jun 1886                Ngazidja a French protectorate.
     6 Jan 1892                Local sultanates suppressed.
    1911                       Annexed by France (officially ratified 23 Feb 1914).
     6 Jul 1975                Part of independent Comoros.
     7 Apr 2002                New constitution approved by referendum, establishing
                                 Grande Comore as an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros
                                 (Autonomous Island of Grand Comore).

    Note: Some rulers of Bambao and of Itsandra acquired the paramount-ruler style tibe
    These are marked (tibe #), where # indicates the order in which they held it.

    Bambao

    Sultans (also styled mfalme [plural wafalme])
    .... - ....                 Ngoma Mrahafu
    .... - ....                 Mwasi Pirusa
    .... - ....                 Fum Mbavu Inkwaba
    .... - ....                 Mwenye Mji wa Mwenye Mambo
    .... - ....                 Inye wa Mantsi
    .... - ....                 Mwenye Mji wa Mwanze
    .... - ....                 Tambavu mna Muhame wa Saidi
    .... - ....                 Tambavu Inkwaba
    .... - ....                 Fum Nau wa Kori Dozi (tibe i)
    .... - ....                 Mwenye Mji wa Mvunza Panga
    .... - ....                 Mla Nau (tibe ii)
    .... - ....                 Fozi Wa
    .... - ....                 Suja Oma Inkwaba
    .... - ....                 Nyau wa Faume (f)
    .... - ....                 Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba (1st time)
    .... - ....                 Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (1st time)  (b. c.1793 - d. 1875) 
                                  (tibe iv)
    .... - ....                 Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba (2nd time)
    .... - ....                 Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (2nd time)  (s.a.)
    .... - ....                 Saidi Bakari
    .... - ....                 Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (3rd time)  (s.a.)
    .... - ....                 Mwenye Mambo
    .... - ....                 Ju Mamba
    .... - ....                 Mohamed bin Ahmed (1st time)
    18.. - 18..                 Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (4th time)  (s.a.)
                                  (tibe x)
    18.. - 18..                 Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza (1st time)
    1874?                       Mohamed bin Ahmed (2nd time)
    18.. - 18..                 Mwenye Mji (1st time)
    18.. - 18..                 Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza (2nd time)
    18.. - 18..                 Saidi Bakari bin Ahmed (1st time)
    18.. - 18..                 Mwenye Mji (2nd time)
    18.. - 18..                 Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza (3rd time)
    18.. - 18..                 Saidi Bakari bin Ahmed (2nd time)
    18.. - 1886                 Saidi Ali bin Saidi Omar (tibe xv) (b. c.1856 - d. 1915)


    Itsandra

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                 Fey Owa Mbaya
    .... - ....                 Fey Mwenza
    .... - ....                 Fey Jumbe
    .... - ....                 Ju Mwamba Pirusa
    .... - ....                 Zombe Ilingo
    .... - ....                 Nguzo wa Inehili
    .... - ....                 Tibe wa Kanzu
    .... - ....                 Mkongo
    .... - ....                 Mna Musa Hibu
    .... - ....                 Muhammadi Saidi
    .... - ....                 Mvunza Panga
    .... - ....                 Fey Beja wa Wabeja (f)
    .... - ....                 Fum Nau wa Kori Dozi (tibe i)
    .... - ....                 Fey Fumu (1st time) (tibe iii)
    .... - ....                 Bwana Fumu (1st time) (tibe v)
    .... - ....                 Fey Fumu (2nd time) (tibe vi)
    .... - ....                 Bwana Fumu (2nd time) (tibe vii)
    .... - ....                 Fey Fumu (3rd time) (tibe viii)
    .... - ....                 Fum Mbavu (tibe ix)
    .... - ....                 Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (1st time)   (d. 1883)
                                  (tibe xi)
    .... - ....                 Tibe Bamba (1st time) (tibe xii)
    .... - ....                 Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                                  (tibe xiii)
    .... - ....                 Tibe Bamba (2nd time) (tibe xiv)
    .... - ....                 Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (3rd time)   (s.a.)
    .... - ....                 Tibe Bamba (3rd time) 
    .... - ....                 Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (4th time)   (s.a.)
    .... - ....                 Tibe Bamba (4th time)
    .... - ....                 Kalega


    Mitsamihuli

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                  Mahame Msahi
    .... - ....                  Fozi wa Mahame
    .... - ....                  Mbantsi
    .... - ....                  Ju Mambu Madi wa Musa Fumu
    .... - ....                  Jumbe Fumu Mfaume wa Domba (1st time)
                                 - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                  Kori Dazi
    .... - ....                  Jumbe Fumu Mfaume wa Domba (2nd time)
    .... - ....                  Tambavu wa Jumbe Fumu
    .... - ....                  Fozi Wa
    .... - ....                  Suja Fumu Mbamba
                                 - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                  Mba Fumu wa Jumbe Fumu
    .... - ....                  Msa Fumu wa Tambwe
                                 - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                  Jumbe Fumu wa Jumbe Mfumu
    .... - ....                  Mbandhi wa Bwana Haji
                                 - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                  Abdallah bin Ahmed
    .... - 1886?                 Bwana Fumu


    Bajini

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                  Mwenye Bamba I
    .... - ....                  Bamba Jumbe
    .... - ....                  Tambe Mbafu wa Fum Nau
    .... - ....                  Ju Mamba Oma wa Mla Nau
                                 - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                  Mwambatsi
    .... - ....                  Mwenye Bamba II
    .... - ....                  Bamba Oma
                                 - jointly with the following two -
    .... - ....                  Suja Oma wa Tambwe
    .... - ....                  Shekani
    .... - ....                  Fumu Oma
                                 - jointly with following -
    .... - 1884                  Oma wa Dari                        (d. 1884)
    188. - 188.                  Ja Mhaba (f)
    188. - 188.                  Hashimu bin Ahmed (1st time)       (d. 1889)
    188. - 188.                  Hadija bint Ahmed (f)
    188. - 1886                  Hashimu bin Ahmed (2nd time)       (s.a.)
    1889                         Hashimu bin Ahmed (3rd time)       (s.a.)


    Hambu

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                Beja Mbuyuni
    .... - ....                Nau wa Migira
    .... - ....                Nau wa Moro
    .... - ....                Fumu Nau
    .... - ....                Yasi Azi
    .... - ....                Demani Mtango
    .... - ....                Fumu Jimba wa Idimani
    .... - ....                Madi Jimbwa wa Tangwe
                               - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                Dari wa Mla Nau
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu wa Suja Oma Inkwaba
    .... - ....                Suja Oma wa Tambwe
    .... - ....                Mrunda Mijo
                               - jointly with the following two -
    .... - ....                Fey Mwando wa Tambwe
    .... - ....                Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba
    .... - ....                Tambwe wa Hinye
    .... - ....                Abudu bin Mohamed bin Sultani
                               - jointly with following -
    .... - ....                Bamba Oma wa Oma


    Washili

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                Mohama Mdume wa Beja
    .... - ....                Fey Zinda wa Mawana
    .... - ....                Fey Zinda wa Makasara
    .... - ....                Tambwe Msa Fumu
                               - jointly with following-
    .... - ....                Tambwe wa Habadi
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu wa Mlala Bwani
    c.1760 - ....              Tambwe No Fumu wa Mla Nau          (b. 1735 - d. 1815)
    .... - ....                Ju Mwamba Mwenye Majini
    .... - ....                Mba Fumu wa Suja Fumu Bamba
                               - jointly with following-
    .... - ....                Shekhe Salim
    .... - ....                Mavunzanga
    .... - ....                Tibe Mle
    .... - ....                Abudu


    Hamahame

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                Nye Hila
    .... - ....                Haji wa No Fumu
    .... - ....                Suja Oma Mshinda Kodo
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu Madi
    .... - ....                Bwana Haji Musa
    .... - ....                Simai
    .... - ....                Dari Oma
    .... - ....                Fumu Oma wa Nasiri
    .... - ....                Suja Oma wa Fumu
    .... - ....                Mba Fumu wa Bwana Haji
    .... - ....                Suja Oma Bwana


    Mbude

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                Msa Mwinza
    .... - ....                Bamba
    .... - ....                Lwali
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu wa Tambwe
    .... - ....                Dari Mbamba
    .... - ....                Mwandhi Oma wa Jumbe Fumu
    .... - ....                Bamba Oma wa Suja Funu
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu Mna Mango
    .... - ....                Bamba wa Madi Jimba
    .... - ....                Jumbe Fumu wa Sinai


    Hamamvu

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... - ....                ....


    Mbaku

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... -  ....                Bwana Fumu


    La Dombe

    Sultans (also styled mfalme)
    .... -  ....                Febeja Mambwe


    Ngazidja (Grande Comore)

    Sultani tibe
    1886 - 1911                Saidi Ali bin Saidi Omar           (s.a.)
                                (in exile from 19 Sep 1893 [Diégo-Suarez;
                                 from 1897, Réunion])
    Presidents
    29 May 2002 - 30 May 2007  Abdou Soulé Elbak                  (b. 1954)            FNJ
    30 May 2007 - 30 Jun 2007  Soudjay Hamadi (interim)
    30 Jun 2007 - 23 May 2009  Mohamed Abdouloihabi
                  (b. 1959)            MP-Union
    Governors
    23 May 2009 - 23 May 2011
     Mohamed Abdouloihabi               (s.a.)               MP-Union
    23 May 2011 -              Mouigni Baraka Said Soilihi        (b. 1968)            MO


    French Residents

    (subordinated to the administrators of Mayotte)
    Nov 1886 - Dec 1887        Louis Edmond Weber                 (b. 1855 - d. ....)
    Jan 1888 - Nov 1888        Jules Lecorney                     (b. 1860 - d. ....)
    Nov 1888 - Nov 1889        Claude Jean Henri Pupier           (b. 1860 - d. ....)
    Nov 1889 - Jun 1896        Henry Joseph Léon Humblot          (b. 1852 - d. 1914)
    Jun 1896 - Nov 1897        Eugène Louis Frédéric Decazes      (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
    Nov 1897 - Apr 1899        Charles Henri Olivier Pobéguin     (b. 1856 - d. 1951)
    Apr 1899 - Sep 1899        Emilien Célestin Nicolas du        (b. 1871 - d. ....)
                                 Plantier 
    Sep 1899 - Dec 1899        Jean Louis Edmond Alby             (b. 1865 - d. 1948)
    Dec 1899 - Apr 1900        Bellemare
    Apr 1900 - Aug 1900        Évariste Paul Sallefranque         (b. 1873 - d. 19..)
    Aug 1900 - Jul 1901        Gratian
    Jul 1901 - Aug 1902        Veisseyre
    Aug 1902 - Apr 1903        René Pierre
    May 1903 - Sep 1903        Mainguy
    Sep 1903 - Oct 1903        Louis Lemaire
    Oct 1903 - Apr 1904        Massol
    May 1904 - Dec 1904        Feuillard
    Jan 1905 - Jun 1907        Carten
    Jun 1907 - Jun 1909        Pierre Martin (1st time)
    Jun 1909 - May 1911        Ernest Philippe François Lachat    (b. 1876 - d. 1950)
    May 1911 - 1912            Pierre Martin (2nd time)

    Party abbreviations: FNJ = Front National pour la Justice (National Front for Justice, Islamic fundamentalist, est.c.1989); MO = Mouvement Orange (Orange Movement); MP-Union = Mouvement Présidentielle-Union (Presidential Movement-Union)



    Ndzuwani (Anjouan)
    [Pre-1833 Anjouan flag (Comoros)]
                           to 1833
     
    [Anjouan merchant flag 1833 - 1891
                          (Comoros)]
                         1833 - 1891
     
    [Anjouan (Ndzuwani) flag 1997-2012
                          (Comoros)]
                    3 Aug 1997 - 2002; 
                 10 Mar 2002 - Feb 2012
     
    [Anjouan (Ndzuwani) flag from
                                    2012 (Comoros)]
                     Adopted Feb 2012
     


    Map of Anjouan
    Hear Local Anthem
    Text of Anthem
    Constitution
    (10 Mar 2002-Feb 2012;
    in French)

    ------------------------
    Former Constitution
    (25 Feb 1998 - 2002; in French)
    Capital: Mutsamudu
    (formerly Domoni)
    Currency: Comoran Franc
    (KMF) 
    Former Holiday: 3 Aug (1997)
    Independence Day
    Population: 265,538 (2008)
    188,953 (1991)
    1500                       Ndzuwani sultanate founded.
    21 Apr 1886                French protectorate of Comoros.
    25 Jul 1912                Annexed by France.
     3 Aug 1997                Secession from Comoros (State of Anjouan)(not internationally
                                 recognized).
    26 Oct 1997                Referendum endorses independence.
    10 Mar 2002                New constitution approved by referendum, establishing
                                 Anjouan as an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros.
                                 (Autonomous Island of Anjouan).

    Sultans (also styled Phany)
    c.1676 - c.1711            Alimah III (f)
    c.1711 - 1741              Salim                              (d. 1741)
    1741 - 1782                Saidi Ahamd
    1782 - 1788                Abdallah I (1st time)
    1788 - 1792                Halimah (f)
    1792 - 1796                Abdallah I (2nd time)
    1796 - 1816                Alawi bin Husain "Mwinye Fani"
    1816 - 1832                Abdallah II bin Alawi (1st time)   (d. 1836)
    1832 - 1833                Ali bin Salim
    1833 - 1836                Abdallah II bin Alawi (2nd time)   (s.a.)
    1836 - 1837                Saidi Alawi bin Abdallah           (d. 1842)
    1837 - 1852                Salim bin Alawi
    1852 -  2 Feb 1891         Saidi Abdallah bin Salim           (d. 1891)
    Feb 1891 -  2 Apr 1891     Salim bin Abdallah
     2 Apr 1891 - 14 Apr 1892  Saidi Omar bin Saidi Hasan         (d. 1892)
    14 Apr 1892 - 25 Jul 1912  Saidi Mohamed bin Saidi Omar       (b. 18.. - d. 1931)
    French Residents (subordinated to the administrators of Mayotte)
     2 Aug 1886 - Nov 1888     Théodore Troupel                   (b. 1852 - d. 1897)
    Nov 1888 - 30 May 1895     Louis Auguste Bertrand Ormières    (b. 1851 - d. 1914)
    1892 - 189.                Jean Baptiste Castaing             (b. 1864 - d. 1915)
                                 (acting for Ormières)
    President
     5 Aug 1997 -  1 Aug 1999  Foundi Abdallah Ibrahim            (b. 1922?)           MPA
    Heads of state 
     1 Aug 1999 -  9 Aug 2001  Said Abeid Abderemane              (b. 1941)            Mil
                                 (National Coordinator to 22 Aug 1999)
    10 Aug 2001 - 25 Aug 2001  Presidium
                               - Halidi Charif                                         Mil
                               - Mohamed Bacar                    (b. 1962)            Mil
                               - Hassan Ali Toilha                                     Mil
    25 Aug 2001 - 14 Apr 2002  Mohamed Bacar                      (s.a.)               Mil
    24 Sep 2001 - 25 Sep 2001  Ahmed Aboubacar Foundi                                  Mil
                                 (premier chef d'autorité de l'île, in rebellion)
    Presidents
    14 Apr 2002 - 28 Apr 2007  Mohamed Bacar (1st time)           (s.a.)               MPA
    28 Apr 2007 - 11 May 2007  Kaambi Houmadi (interim)
    11 May 2007 - 14 Jun 2007  Dhoihirou Halidi (interim)         (b. 1965)
    14 Jun 2007 - 25 Mar 2008  Mohamed Bacar (2nd time)           (s.a.)               MPA
    26 Mar 2008 - 31 Mar 2008  Ikililou Dhoinine (provisional)    (b. 1962)
    31 Mar 2008 -  7 Jul 2008  Lailizamane Abdou Cheik (interim)  (b. 1959?)
     7 Jul 2008 - 23 May 2009  Moussa Toybou                      (b. 1962)            Non-party
    Governors
    23 May 2009 - 
    23 May 2011  Moussa Toybou                      (s.a.)               SNDD
    23 May 2011 -              Anissi Chamsidine

    Prime ministers
     8 Mar 1998 -  7 Jul 1998  Chamasse Said Omar                 (b. 1935?)
    19 Jul 1998 - Dec 1998     Abdou Mohamed Mhindi

    Dec 1998 - Jan 1999        Abdou Mohammed Hussain

    Party abbreviations: MPA = Mouvement Populaire Anjouanais (Anjouan People's Movement, Anjouan separatist, est.1997); SNDD = Solidarité Nationale pour la Démocratie et le Développement (National Solidarity for Democracy and Development, est.2009 by Toybou); Mil = Military



    Mwali (Moheli)
    [Moheli
                            merhcant flag 1830-1871 (Comoros)]
                      c.1830 - 1871
       
    [Moheli merhcant flag 1871-1886
                            (Comoros)]
                         1871 - 1891
       
    [Moheli (Mwali)
                            flag 1997-2003 (Comoros)]
                   11 Aug 1997 - 2003
       
    [Moheli (Mwali)
                            flag, 2003 (Comoros)]
                         Adopted 2003
       
    [Moheli (Mwali)
                            rerported flag variant, 2002-2003]
                     2002 - 2003 Variant
     
     
    Map of Moheli
    Hear Local Anthem
    Text of Anthem
    Constitution
    (10 Mar 2002; in French)
    Capital: Fomboni
    Currency: Comoran Franc
    (KMF) 
    Former Holiday: 11Aug (1997)
    Independence Day
    Population: 41,054 (2008)
    24,331 (1991)
    1830                       Migrants from Madagascar establish Mwali as a 
                                 separate sultanate; previously Mwali was subject to Anjouan.
    26 Apr 1886                French protectorate.
    1889                       The residency of Mohéli was suppressed. The Sultanate became
                                 dependent of the Residents of Anjouan.
    1909                       Annexed by France.
    1912                       Sultanate abolished by colonial authority, part of Comoros.
    11 Aug 1997                Secession from Comoros (Democratic Republic of Mwali)
                                 (not internationally recognized).
    10 Mar 2002                New constitution approved by referendum, establishing
                                 Moheli as an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros
                                 (Autonomous Island of Moheli).

    Sultans
    1830 - 1842                Ramanetaka (later Abderremane)     (d. 1842)
    1842 - 1865                Raketaka Jombe Sudy (f)(1st time)  (b. c.1836 - d. 1878)
                                 (from 1851, Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane)
    1842 - 26 May 1849         Regency
                               - Rovao (f)
                               - Tsivandini (to 1847)
    Sep 1865 - 1874            Mohamed bin Saidi Hamadi Makadara  (b. c.1859 - d. 1874)
    Sep 1865 - 1868            Jumbe Fatima bint                  (s.a.)
                                 Abderremane (f) -Regent (1st time) 
    1868 - Jan 1871            Joseph Lambert, duc                (b. 1824 - d. 1873)
                                 d'Imerina -Regent
    Jan 1871 - 1874            Jumbe Fatima bint                  (s.a.)
                                 Abderremane (f) -Regent (2nd time) 
    1874 - 1878                Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane (f)  (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    1878 - 1885                Abderremane bin Saidi Hamadi       (b. c.1860 - d. 1885)
                                 Makadara
    1885 - 1886                Mohammed Shekhe                    (b. c.1830 - d. ....)
    1886 - 1888                Marjani bin Abudu Shekhe           (b. c.1851 - d. ....)
    1888 - 1909                Salima Machamba bint Saidi Hamadi  (b. 1874 - d. 1964)
                                 Makadara (f)(did not take office) 
    1888 - 1889                Regents
                               - Fadeli bin Othman
                               - Balia Juma (f)
                               - Abudu Tsivandini
    1889 - 1897                Mahmudu bin Mohamed                (b. 1863 - d. 1898)
                                 Makadara -Regent
    French Residents (subordinated to the French administrators of Mayotte)
    1886 - 1887                Louis Hyacinthe Désiré Jules       (b. 1846 - d. 1894)
                                 Vincent 
    1887 - 1888                Barneaud (1st time)(acting)
    1888 - 1889                Edmond Édouard Regnot              (b. 1850 - d. 1891)
    1889                       Barneaud (2nd time)(acting)
    1889 - 1912                the residents of Anjouan
    Presidents
    11 Aug 1997 - 1998         Said Mohamed Souef
    19 May 2002 - 19 May 2007  Mohamed Said Fazul                 (b. 1960)            UCP
    19 May 2007 - 22 May 2007  Vacant
    22 May 2007 -  1 Jul 2007  Youssouf El-Farouk (interim)
     1 Jul 2007 - 23 May 2003  Mohamed Ali Said
    Governor
    23 May 2009 -  
               Mohamed Ali Said        

    Prime minister
    11 Aug 1997 - 1998         Soidri Ahmed

    Party abbreviations: UCP = Union Comorien pour le Progrès (Comoran Union for Progress, Moheli regionalist, Said Fazul personalist, est.2002); Mil = Military






    © Ben Cahoon