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Chad
 
             5 Sep 1900 - 6 Nov 1959 
 
Chad flag
                Adopted 6 Nov 1959
 
Map of Chad
Hear National Anthem
"La Tchadienne"
(The Chadian)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted Jan 1960
Constitution
(31 Mar 1996; in French)
Capital: N'Djamena
(Fort Lamy 1900 - 6 Sep 1973)
Currency: Communauté
Financière Africaine
Franc (XAF)
National Holiday: 11 Aug (1960)
Independence Day
Population: 11,193,452 (2013)
GDP: $28 billion (2013) 
Exports: $3.8 billion (2013)
Imports: $2.7 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%,
Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%,
 Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%,
unknown 0.3% (1993)
Total Active Armed Forces: 25,350 (2010)
French Troops: 1,200 (2009)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Sunni Muslim 53.1%, Christian 34.3% (of which
Roman Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%),
animist/traditional beliefs 7.3%, other 0.5%,
unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1%  (1993)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BDEAC, CCM, CEEAC, CEMAC, CEN-SAD, CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS (observer), ESCR, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISESCO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Chad Index
Chronology
 5 Sep 1900                French rule (Military Territory of the Lands and
                             Protectorates of Chad).
 5 Jul 1902                Circumscription of the Lands and Protectorates 
                             of Chad.
29 Dec 1903                Territory of Chad 
11 Feb 1906                Military Territory of Chad, part of the
                             Oubangui-Chari-Tchad colony (see under
                             the Central African Republic).
15 Jan 1910                Chad, Middle Congo (now Congo [Brazzaville],
                             Oubangui-Chari, and Gabon form French Equatorial
                             Africa [AEF]; [see Congo (Brazzaville)]).
14 May 1915                Territory of Chad (part of Oubangui-Chari-Tchad 
                             colony).
12 Apr 1916                Oubangui-Chari-Tchad dissolved, thereafter separate
                             part of French Equatorial Africa (see AEF colony)
17 Mar 1920                Colony of Chad (part of AEF colony).
30 Jun 1934                Region of Chad (part of AEF colony).
31 Dec 1937                Territory of Chad (part of AEF colony).
26 Aug 1940 - 1945         Administration loyal to Free French forces.
27 Oct 1946                Chad an overseas territory of France
                             (part of AEF colony).
28 Nov 1958                Autonomy (Republic of Chad).
11 Aug 1960                Independence from France. 
11 Aug 1960 - 23 Jan 1965  France continues to administer Borkou-Ennedi-
                             Tibesti prefecture, which is formally 
                             under sovereignty of Chad.
Jul 1975 - 30 May 1994     Libya occupies and annexes the Aozou Strip.
15 Dec 1980 - Nov 1981     Libya occupies northern Chad.
Jun 1983 - Mar 1987        Libya and pro-Libyan forces occupy the country
                             north of Koro Toro.
13 Feb 1994                Aozou Strip definitively allocated to Chad 
                             by International Court of Justice.
Traditional
States
Borkou-Ennedi
-Tibesti

(1960-1965)
Exile Governments
(1982-1988)
Historical Maps
of Chad
Map of Chad
Civil War
1983-1987
 
 
 
 

Commissioners
29 May 1900 -  2 Jul 1902  Émile Gentil                       (b. 1866 – d. 1914)
25 Aug 1900 -  8 Mar 1901  Félix Robillot (acting for Gentil) (b. 1865 - d. 1943)
 8 Mar 1901 – 15 Jul 1902  Georges Matthieu Destenave         (b. 1854 - d. 1928) 
                             (acting [for Gentil to 2 Jul 1902])
Administrators 
 8 Aug 1902 – 19 Oct 1902  Victor Emmanuel Étienne Largeau    (b. 1867 - d. 1916)
                             (acting)
19 Oct 1902 - Nov 1903     Alfred Fourneau                    (b. 1860 – d. 1930)
Commandants (subordinated to the lieutenant governors of Oubangui-Chari)
Nov 1903 – 17 Jul 1904     Victor Emmanuel Étienne Largeau    (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
17 Jul 1904 - 11 Aug 1906  Henri Joseph Eugène Gouraud        (b. 1867 - d. 1946)
11 Aug 1906 - 25 Jul 1908  Victor Emmanuel Étienne Largeau    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
25 Jul 1908 -  1 Nov 1909  Constant Millot                    (b. 1863 - d. 1916)
 1 Nov 1909 -  9 Nov 1910  Alexandre Marie Henry Moll         (b. 1871 - d. 1910)
 9 Nov 1910 - 12 Mar 1911  Joseph Édouard Maillard (acting)
12 Mar 1911 -  8 Sep 1912  Victor Emmanuel Étienne Largeau    (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 8 Sep 1912 -  3 Sep 1913  James Édouard Hirtzman (acting)    (b. 1862 - d. 1924)
 3 Sep 1913 - 29 Jul 1915  Victor Emmanuel Étienne Largeau    (s.a.) 
                             (4th time)
29 Jul 1915 - 28 Nov 1917  Victor Emmanuel Merlet             (b. 1862 - d. 19..)
                             (administrator)
28 Nov 1917 - 22 May 1918  Clément Léon Martelly (acting)     (b. 1867 - d. 19..)
22 May 1918 - 24 Mar 1920  Albert Ducarre (acting)            (b. 1869 - d. 1954)
Lieutenant governors
24 Mar 1920 - 10 Jan 1921  Bertrant (acting) (de facto)
10 Jan 1921 - 20 Apr 1923  Fernand Marie Joseph Antoine Lavit (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
 7 May 1923 - 25 Jan 1926  Dieudonné François Joseph          (b. 1879 - d. 1976)
                             Marie Reste (acting to 9 Apr 1925)
Oct 1925 - Jan 1926        François Joseph Henri Terraz       (b. 1880 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Reste)
 5 Jan 1925 - 27 Feb 1925  Antoine Touzet (did not take office)
 5 Apr 1925 -  9 Apr 1925  Albéric Auguste Fournier           (b. 1878 - d. 19..)
                             (did not take office)
26 Jan 1926 - 18 Mar 1929  Jules Marcel de Coppet (1st time)  (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
                             (acting)
 3 Dec 1927 -  9 Feb 1928  Jacques Auguste Maurice Cléret     (b. 1881 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for de Coppet)
13 Jan 1928 - 21 Apr 1929  Adolphe Deitte                     (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
                             (did not take office)
18 Mar 1929 - 18 Apr 1929  Maurice Assier de Pompignan        (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
                             (acting)
18 Apr 1929 - Feb 1930     Émile Buhot-Launay (acting)        (b. 1881 - d. 1970)
Sep 1929 - Dec 1929        Maurice Assier de Pompignan        (s.a.)
                             (acting for Buhot-Launay)
Feb 1930 - 20 Apr 1932     Jules Marcel de Coppet (2nd time)  (s.a.)
11 Oct 1930 - 24 Dec 1930  Louis de Poyen-Bellisle            (d. 1937)
                             (acting for de Coppet)
20 Apr 1932 -  4 May 1932  Joseph Georges Alexandre Bouvet    (b. 1877 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
 4 May 1932 - 14 Jun 1933  Georges David Pierre Marie         (b. 1874 - d. 1942)
                             Prouteaux (acting)
24 Sep 1932 - 20 Dec 1932  Louis de Poyen-Bellisle            (s.a.)
                             (acting for Prouteaux)
14 Jun 1933 – 27 Jun 1933  Louis de Poyen-Bellisle (acting)   (s.a.)
27 Jun 1933 - 15 Oct 1934  Richard Edmond Maurice Brunot      (b. 1883 - d. 1958)
11 Dec 1933 - Feb 1934     Louis de Poyen-Bellisle            (s.a.)
                             (acting for Brunot)
Commandants (subordinated to the governor-delegate of Oubangui-Chari to 31 Dec 1937)
15 Oct 1934 - 14 Dec 1938  Charles Dagain                     (b. 1885 - d. 1969)
Jun 1935 - Feb 1936        Maurice Falvy (acting for Dagain)  (b. 1888 - d. 1970)
 8 Mar 1938 - Apr 1938     Gabriel Fortuné (acting for Dagain)(b. 1897 - d. 1971)
Apr 1938 - Nov 1938        Émile Buhot-Launay                 (s.a.)
                             (acting for Dagain)
Chefs de territoire 
14 Dec 1938 -  4 Jan 1939  Charles Dagain (acting)            (s.a.)
 4 Jan 1939 - 10 Dec 1940  Adolphe Félix Sylvestre Éboué      (b. 1884 - d. 1944)
10 Dec 1940 - 21 Jan 1941  Philippe Leclerc (acting)          (b. 1902 - d. 1947)
21 Jan 1941 - 12 Dec 1942  Pierre-Olivier Lapie               (b. 1901 - d. 1994)
12 Dec 1942 -  5 Sep 1943  André Jean Gaston Latrille         (b. 1894 - d. 1987)
 5 Sep 1943 - 13 Oct 1946  Jacques Camille Marie Rogué        (b. 1898 - d. 1980)
                             (acting to 7 Jan 1944)
Jan 1944 - Feb 1944        François Casamatta (1st time)      (b. 1898 - d. 1961)
                             (acting for Rogué)
28 Aug 1945 - Oct 1945     Auguste Léon Valentin Éven         (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
                             (acting for Rogué)
17 May 1946 - 13 Oct 1946  Adrien Léger (acting for Rogué)    (b. 1889 - d. 1948)
Governors
13 Oct 1946 - Jan 1949     Jacques Camille Marie Rogué        (s.a.)
13 Oct 1946 - 21 Nov 1946  Adrien Léger (acting for Rogué)    (s.a.)
Jan 1949 - Feb 1949        François Casamatta (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting)
Feb 1949 - Jul 1949        Paul Hippolyte Julien Marie        (b. 1901 - d. 1965)
                             Le Layec (acting)
Aug 1949 - Feb 1951        Henry Jean Marie de Mauduit        (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
                             (acting to 1 Feb 1950)
Feb 1951 - 19 Oct 1951     Charles Émile Hanin (acting)       (b. 1895 - d. 1964)
19 Oct 1951 - 16 Dec 1951  François Casamatta (3rd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting)
16 Dec 1951 -  3 Nov 1956  Ignace Jean Aristide Colombani     (b. 1908 - d. 1988)
 3 Nov 1956 - 28 Nov 1958  René Troadec                       (b. 1908 - d. 1986)
High Commissioners
28 Nov 1958 - 22 Jan 1959  René Troadec                       (s.a.)
22 Jan 1959 - 11 Aug 1960  Daniel Marius Doustin              (b. 1920 - d. 2004)
Presidents
11 Aug 1960 - 13 Apr 1975  François Tombalbaye                (b. 1918 - d. 1975)  PPT;1973
                             (from 30 Aug 1973, N'Garta Tombalbaye)                MNRCS
                             (Head of State to 23 Apr 1962)                        
13 Apr 1975 - 15 Apr 1975  Noël Milarew Odingar               (b. 1932 - d. 2007)  Mil
                             (interim head of state)
15 Apr 1975 - 23 Mar 1979  Félix Malloum N'Gakoutou Bey-Ndi   (b. 1932 - d. 2009)  Mil 
                            (chairman Higher Military Council to 12 May 1975,
                             Head of State 12 May 1975 - 29 Aug 1978)
23 Mar 1979 - 29 Apr 1979  Goukouni Oueddei (1st time)        (b. 1944)           FROLIANT-FAP
                            (chairman Provisional Council of State) 
29 Apr 1979 -  3 Sep 1979  Lol Mahamat Choua                  (b. 1939)            MPLT
                            (Lol Mohamed Shawa)
                            (president of Transitional Government of National Union)
 3 Sep 1979 -  7 Jun 1982  Goukouni Oueddei (2nd time)        (s.a.)              FROLIANT-FAP
                            (chairman Provisional Administrative Committee 
                             to 10 Nov 1979, then president of Transitional 
                             Government of National Union)
 7 Jun 1982 -  1 Dec 1990  Hissène Habré                      (b. 1942)          FAN;1984 UNIR
                             (chairman Command Council of the Armed Forces
                             of the North to 19 Jun 1982, chairman Council 
                             of State 19 Jun - 21 Oct 1982)
 1 Dec 1990 -  2 Dec 1990  Jean Alingué Bawoyeu (acting)      (b. 1937)            UDR
 2 Dec 1990 -              Idriss Déby                        (b. 1952)            MPS 
                            (from 26 Jan 2006, Idriss Déby Itno) 
                            (president of Patriotic Salvation Movement 
                             2 - 4 Dec 1990; President of the Council 
                             of State 4 Dec 1990 - 4 Mar 1991)
 
Vice President of the Government Council
14 May 1957 - 26 Jul 1958  Gabriel Lisette                    (b. 1919 - d. 2001)  PPT
Presidents of the Provisional Government
26 Jul 1958 - 11 Feb 1959  Gabriel Lisette                    (s.a.)               PPT
                            (to 10 Dec 1958, president of the Government Council)
11 Feb 1959 - 12 Mar 1959  Gontchomé Sahoulba                 (b. 1916 - d. 1963)  GIRT
12 Mar 1959 - 26 Mar 1959  Ahmad Koulamallah                  (b. 1912 - d. 1975)  MSA
26 Mar 1959 - 16 Jun 1959  François Tombalbaye                (s.a.)               PPT
Prime ministers 
16 Jun 1959 - 13 Apr 1975  François Tombalbaye                (s.a.)               PPT;1973
                             (from 30 Aug 1973, N'Garta Tombalbaye)                MNRCS
15 Apr 1975 - 29 Aug 1978  Félix Malloum N'Gakoutou           (s.a.)               Mil
29 Aug 1978 - 23 Mar 1979  Hissène Habré                      (s.a.)              FROLIANT-FAN
23 Mar 1979 - 19 May 1982  Post abolished
19 May 1982 - 19 Jun 1982  Djidingar Dono Ngardoum            (b. 1928 - d. 2000)  RUDT
19 Jun 1982 -  4 Mar 1991  Post abolished
 4 Mar 1991 - 20 May 1992  Jean Alingué Bawoyeu               (s.a.)               UDR
20 May 1992 -  7 Apr 1993  Joseph Yodoyman                    (b. 1950 - d. 1993)  ANDR
 7 Apr 1993 -  6 Nov 1993  Fidèle Moungar                     (b. 1948)            ACTUS
 6 Nov 1993 -  8 Apr 1995  Delwa Kassire Koumakoye (1st time) (b. 1949)            RNDP
 8 Apr 1995 - 17 May 1997  Koibla Djimasta                    (b. 1950 - d. 2007)  UDR
17 May 1997 - 13 Dec 1999  Nassour Guelendouksia Ouaido       (b. 1947)            MPS
13 Dec 1999 - 12 Jun 2002  Nagoum Yamassoum                   (b. 1954)            MPS
12 Jun 2002 - 24 Jun 2003  Haroun Kabadi                      (b. 1949)            MPS
24 Jun 2003 -  3 Feb 2005  Moussa Faki                        (b. 1960)            MPS
 3 Feb 2005 - 23 Feb 2007  Pascal Yoadimnadji                 (b. 1950? - d. 2007) MPS
23 Feb 2007 - 26 Feb 2007  Adoum Younousmi (interim)          (b. 1962)            MPS
26 Feb 2007 - 16 Apr 2008  Delwa Kassire Koumakoye (2nd time) (s.a.)               RNDP
16 Apr 2008 -  5 Mar 2010  Youssouf Saleh Abbas               (b. 1952)            Non-party
 5 Mar 2010 - 21 Jan 2013  Emmanuel Nadingar                  (b. 1951)            MPS
21 Jan 2013 - 21 Nov 2013  Joseph Djimrangar Dadnadji         (b. 1954)            MPS
21 Nov 2013 -              Kalzeubé Pahimi Deubet                                  MPS        

Rival government (from Sep 1987 in Libya, later Algeria exile)

Chad flag

President of the Government National Peace
28 Oct 1982 - Nov 1982     Goukouni Oueddei (1st time)        (s.a.)              FROLIANT-FAP
Presidents of the Government of National Salvation
Nov 1982 - 11 Sep 1987     Goukouni Oueddei (1st time)        (s.a.)              FROLIANT-FAP
Sep 1987 - Mar 1988        Acheikh ibn Oumar                  (b. 1951)           CDR
Mar 1988 - ....            Goukouni Oueddei (2nd time)        (s.a.)              FROLIANT-FAP

[FROLIANT Front
                          de Libération Nationale du Tchad (Chad)]
             FROLINAT flag 
 
[Forces Armées du
                          Nord (Chad)]
                 FAN flag 
 
Territorial Disputes: Since 2003, ad-hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries.

Party abbreviations: ACTUS = Action Tchadienne pour l'Unité et le Socialisme (Chadian Action for Unity and Socialism, democratic socialist, est.1981); ANDR = Alliance Nationale pour la Démocratie et le Renouveau (National Alliance for Democracy and Renewal, social-democratic, est.1992); MPS = Mouvement Patriotique du Salut (Patriotic Salvation Movement, Idriss Déby personalist, government party, est.1990); RNDP = Rassemblement National pour le Développement et le Progrès (National Rally for Development and Progress, also called VIVA, est.1992); UDR = Union pour la Démocratie et la République (Union for Democracy and Republic, est.1992); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: CDR = Conseil Démocratique Révolutionnaire (Democratic Revolutionary Council, Acheikh ibn Oumar personalist, anti-Habré, 1985-1999); FAN = Forces Armées du Nord (Armed Forces of the North, Hissène Habré personalist, split from FROLIANT, 1979-1983, renamed UNIR); FAP = Forces Armées Populaires (People's Armed Forces, Goukouni Oueddei personalist, split from FROLIANT, 1976-1986); FROLIANT = Front de Libération Nationale du Tchad (National Liberation Front of Chad, pro-Libyan to 1987, 1966-14 Jan 1993); GIRT = Groupement des Indépendants et Ruraux Tchadiens (Rally for Chadian Self-employed and Peasants, split from Union Démocratique Tchadienne, est.1958); MNRCS = Mouvement National pour la Révolution Culturelle et Sociale (National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution, PPT successor, Jun 1973-13 Apr 1975 only legal party, 1973-1975); MPLT = Mouvement des Personnes pour la Libération du Chad (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Chad, split from FAP, 1977-c.1988); MSA = Mouvement Socialiste Africain (African Socialist Movement, socialist, 1950-1959); PPT = Parti Progressiste Tchad (Progressive Party of Chad, African nationalist, leftist, Jan 1962-Jun 1973, only legal party, 1947-1973, renamed MNRCS); RUDT = Rassemblement pour l'Unité et la Démocratie Tchadienne (Rally for Unity and Chadian Democracy); UNIR = Union Nationale pour l'Indépendance et Révolution (National Union for Independence and Revolution, Hissène Habré personalist, former FAN, 1983-1990)


Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti
 
Capital: Largeau
(from 1960, Faya-Largeau)
Population: 75,000 (1964)

15 Nov 1934                Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti (B.E.T.) département created.
11 Aug 1960                Independence of Chad, French administration continues
                             under the sovereignty of Chad (Borkou-Ennedi-Tibest Region).
23 Jan 1965                B.E.T. administration is transferred to Chad.
1975 - 1980                Occupied by Libya.
1983 - 1987                Occupied by Libya.

Prefects
 8 Apr 1958 - 23 Nov 1960  Jean Chapelle                      (b. 1905 - d. 1986)
23 Nov 1960 -  5 Mar 1962  Baylon
 5 Mar 1962 -  6 May 1964  Murati
 6 May 1964 - 30 Mar 1965  Aimé
30 Mar 1965 - 1967         Noël Milarew Odingar               (b. 1932 – d. 2007)







© Ben Cahoon