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Niger
 
[French
                                    Flag]
            23 Jul 1900 - 23 Nov 1959 
 
[Flag of
                                    Niger]
         Adopted 23 Nov 1959
 
Map of Niger
Hear National Anthem
"La Nigerienne"
(Song of Niger)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted Jul 1961
Constitution
(29 Nov 2010,
 in French)
--------------------------------

2009 Constitution
(18 Aug 2009-18 Feb 2010;
 in French)

1999 Constitution
(9 Aug 1999-18 Aug 2009;
in French)
Capital: Niamey
(Zinder 1911-1926;
Niamey 1903-1910;
Sorbo Haoussa 1900-1903)
Currency: Communauté
Financière Africaine
Franc (XOF)
National Holiday: 18 Dec (1958)
Republic Day 
Population: 16,889,327 (2013)
GDP: $13.98 billion (2013)
Exports: $1.53 billion (2013)
Imports: $2.31 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Hausa 55.4%, Zarma-Songhai-Dendi 21%,
Taureg 9.3%,
Fulani (Peul) 8.5%, Kanouri-Nanga (Beri Beri) 4.7%,
Diffa Arab, Teda, Toubou, Gourmantche & other 1.1% (2001)
Total Active Armed Forces: 5,300 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Muslim 90% (of which Sunni 85%, Shi'a 5%),
 traditional beliefs 9%,
other 1% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, CCM, CEMAC, CEN-SAD, CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Niger Index
Chronology

23 Jul 1900                French Autonomous Military Territory of Zinder;
                             part of French West Africa (see Senegal).
22 Jun 1910                Niger Military Territory.
 4 Dec 1920                Niger Territory.
26 Dec 1922                French Colony (Niger).
16 Jun 1940 - Nov 1942     Administration loyal to Vichy France
                             (from Nov 1942, Free French).
13 Oct 1946                Niger overseas territory of France.
19 Dec 1958                Autonomy (Republic of Niger).
 3 Aug 1960                Independence from France.

Traditional
States
 
 
 
 
 
 

Commandants
20 Dec 1900 - 1901         Étienne Péroz                      (b. 1857 - d. 1910)
13 Nov 1901 - 1902         Henri Joseph Eugène Gouraud        (b. 1867 - d. 1946)
 3 Nov 1902 - 1903         François Marie Noël                (b. 1858 - d. 1912)
Nov 1903 - 1906            Joseph Gauderique Aymerich         (b. 1857 - d. 1937)
1906 - 1907                Grégoire Ignace Dominique Lamolle  (b. 1855 - d. 1925)
Jan 1907 - 1908            Marc Cristofari                    (b. 1860 - d. 1922)
Aug 1908 - Feb 1910        Paul Célestin Marie Joseph Venel   (b. 1864 - d. 1920)
                             (1st time)
Feb 1910 - 22 Jun 1910     .... (acting)
22 Jun 1910 - 27 Sep 1911  Paul Célestin Marie Joseph Venel   (s.a.)

                             (2nd time)
27 Sep 1911 - 1912         Adolphe Charles Léon Hocquart      (b. 1861 - d. 1913)
1912 - 24 Feb 1913         Charles Camille Thierry de Maugras (b. 1860 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
Commissioners
24 Feb 1913 -  4 Dec 1913  Charles Camille Thierry de Maugras (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 4 Dec 1913 - 15 Nov 1915  Paul Célestin Marie Joseph Venel   (s.a.)
15 Nov 1915 - 24 Jan 1918  Charles Henri Mourin               (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
24 Jan 1918 - 1919         Marie Joseph Félix Méchet          (b. 1870 - d. 1926)
Aug 1919 - 1920            Claude Paul Émile Lefebvre
1920 -  5 Jul 1920         Maurice Gustave Fernand Renauld    (b. 1873 - d. 1953)
                             (acting)
 5 Jul 1920 - 1921         Lucien Émile Rueff
1921 - 26 Dec 1922         Joseph Jules Brévié                (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
Lieutenant governors
26 Dec 1922 -  9 Oct 1929  Joseph Jules Brévié                (s.a.)
23 Mar 1923 - Sep 1925     Léonce Jore (acting for Brévié)    (b. 1882 - d. 1975)
 9 Oct 1929 - 21 Nov 1929  Jean-Baptiste Robert Fayout 
                             (acting)
21 Nov 1929 - 30 Oct 1930  Alphonse Paul Albert Choteau       (b. 1883 - d. 1936)
30 Oct 1930 -  9 Sep 1931  Louis Placide Blacher              (b. 1883 - d. 1960)
 9 Sep 1931 - 25 May 1933  Théophile Antoine Pascal Tellier   (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
25 May 1933 - May 1934     Maurice Léon Bourgine              (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
May 1934 - 16 Mar 1935     Léon Charles Adolphe Pêtre         (b. 1881 - d. 1956)
16 Mar 1935 - 29 Apr 1938  Joseph Urbain Court                (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
29 Apr 1938 - 18 Feb 1939  Jean-Baptiste Victor Chazelas      (b. 1885 - d. 1953)
                             (acting)
18 Feb 1939 -  7 Nov 1940  Jean Alexandre Léon Rapenne        (b. 1901 - d. 1952)
 7 Nov 1940 -  8 Dec 1940  Léon Solomiac (acting)             (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
 8 Dec 1940 -  4 Mar 1942  Maurice Émile Falvy                (b. 1888 - d. 1970)
 4 Mar 1942 - 21 Dec 1954  Jean-François Toby                 (b. 1900 - d. 1964)
                             (acting to Dec 1942) 
30 Apr 1946 - 13 Oct 1946  Jacques Pierre Gosselin            (b. 1897 - d. 1953) 
                             (acting for Toby)
24 Nov 1948 - 25 Feb 1949  Lucien Eugène Geay                 (b. 1900 - d. 1976) 
                             (acting for Toby)
25 Feb 1949 - 29 Mar 1950  Igance Colombani                   (b. 1908 - d. 1988)
                             (acting for Toby)
11 Feb 1952 - 23 Feb 1953  Fernand Georges Gaston Casimir     (b. 1896 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Toby)
21 Dec 1954 -  3 Nov 1956  Jean Paul Ramadier                 (b. 1913 - d. 1968)
 3 Nov 1956 - 29 Jan 1958  Paul Camille Bordier               (b. 1921 - d. 2003)
29 Jan 1958 - 25 Aug 1958  Louis Félix Rollet (acting)        (b. 1915 - d. 2001)
High commissioner
25 Aug 1958 - 10 Nov 1960  Jean Colombani                     (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
President
10 Nov 1960 - 15 Apr 1974  Hamani Diori                       (b. 1916 - d. 1989)  PPN-RDA
Presidents of the Supreme Military Council
15 Apr 1974 - 10 Nov 1987  Seyni Kountché                     (b. 1931 - d. 1987)  Mil
                            (army chief of staff to 17 Apr 1974)
10 Nov 1987 - 17 May 1989  Ali Saibou                         (b. 1940 - d. 2011)  Mil 
                            (interim to 14 Nov 1987)
President of the Supreme Council of National Orientation
17 May 1989 - 18 Dec 1989  Ali Saibou                         (s.a.)               MNSD
Presidents
18 Dec 1989 - 16 Apr 1993  Ali Saibou                         (s.a.)               MNSD
16 Apr 1993 - 27 Jan 1996  Mahamane Ousmane                   (b. 1950)            CDS
President of the National Salvation Council
27 Jan 1996 -  7 Aug 1996  Ibrahim Baré Mainassara            (b. 1949 - d. 1999)  Mil
President
 7 Aug 1996 -  9 Apr 1999  Ibrahim Baré Mainassara            (s.a.)            UNIRD;1997 RDP
Chairman of the Military Junta
 9 Apr 1999 - 11 Apr 1999  Djibrilla Hamidou Hima             (b. 1965)            Mil
President of the National Reconciliation Council

11 Apr 1999 - 22 Dec 1999  Daouda Malam Wanké                 (b. 1954 - d. 2004)  Mil
President
22 Dec 1999 - 18 Feb 2010  Mamadou Tandja                     (b. 1938)            MNSD
President of Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy
18 Feb 2010 -  7 Apr 2011  Salou Djibo                        (b. 1965)            Mil
President
 7 Apr 2011 -              Mahamadou Issoufou                 (b. 1952)            PNDS

Vice President of the Council of Government
20 May 1957 - 26 Jul 1958  Djibo Bakary                       (b. 1922 - d. 1998)  PRA
Presidents of the Government Council
26 Jul 1958 - 10 Oct 1958  Djibo Bakary                       (s.a.)               PRA
18 Dec 1958 - 25 Feb 1959  Hamani Diori                       (s.a.)               PPN-RDA
Prime ministers
25 Feb 1959 - 10 Nov 1960  Hamani Diori                       (s.a.)               PPN-RDA
10 Nov 1960 - 24 Jan 1983  Post abolished
24 Jan 1983 - 14 Nov 1983  Mamane Oumarou (1st time)          (b. 1945)            Non-party
14 Nov 1983 - 15 Jul 1988  Ahmid Algabid                      (b. 1941)            Non-party
15 Jul 1988 - 20 Dec 1989  Mamane Oumarou (2nd time)          (s.a.)               MNSD
20 Dec 1989 -  2 Mar 1990  Post abolished
 2 Mar 1990 - 27 Oct 1991  Aliou Mahamidou                    (b. 1936 - d. 1996)  MNSD
27 Oct 1991 - 17 Apr 1993  Amadou Cheiffou                    (b. 1942)            Non-party
17 Apr 1993 - 28 Sep 1994  Mahamadou Issoufou                 (s.a.)               PNDS
28 Sep 1994 -  8 Feb 1995  Souley Abdoulaye                   (b. 1965)            CDS
 8 Feb 1995 - 21 Feb 1995  Amadou Boubacar Cissé (1st time)   (b. 1948)            Non-party
21 Feb 1995 - 27 Jan 1996  Hama Amadou (1st time)             (b. 1950)            MNSD-N
30 Jan 1996 - 21 Dec 1996  Boukary Adji                       (b. 1939)            Non-party
21 Dec 1996 - 27 Nov 1997  Amadou Boubacar Cissé (2nd time)   (s.a.)               RDP
27 Nov 1997 -  3 Jan 2000  Ibrahim Hassane Mayaki             (b. 1951)            UNIRD
 3 Jan 2000 -  7 Jun 2007  Hama Amadou (2nd time)             (s.a.)               MNSD-N
 7 Jun 2007 - 23 Sep 2009  Seyni Oumarou                      (b. 1950)            MNSD-N
23 Sep 2009 -  2 Oct 2009  Albadé Abouba (acting)                                  MNSD-N
 2 Oct 2009 - 18 Feb 2010  Ali Badjo Gamatié                  (b. 1957)            MNSD-N
18 Feb 2010 - 23 Feb 2010  Vacant
23 Feb 2010 -  7 Apr 2011  Mahamadou Danda                    (b. 1951)            Non-party
 7 Apr 2011 -              Brigi Rafini                       (b. 1953)            PNDS

Territorial Disputes: Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010.

Party abbreviations: CDS = Convention Démocratique et Sociale-Rahama (Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama, centrist, est.1991); MNSD-NMouvement National pour la Société du Développement-Nassara (National Movement for the Society of Development-Nassara, liberal conservative, center-right, former MNSD, est.1991); PNDS = Parti Nigerien pour la Democratie et le Socialisme-Tarayya (Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya, social-democratic, est.1990); RDP = Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et le Progrès-Jama'a (Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a, 1997-99, ruling party est.1997); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: MNSD = Mouvement National pour la Société du Développement (National Movement for the Society of Development, conservative, 1989-1990 was only legal party, 1990-1991, then MNSD-N); PPN-RDA = Parti Progressiste Nigérien-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (Nigerien Progressive Party-African Democratic Rally, nationalist, pan-African, 1960-1974 de facto state legal party, 1946-1974); PRA = Parti du Regroupement Africain (African Regroupment Party, 1958-1960); UNIRD = Union Nationale des Indépendants pour le Renouveau Démocratique (National Union of Independents for Democratic Renewal, authoritarian, 1996-1999)







© Ben Cahoon