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Former Arabian Polities

States: Abu `Arish - al-Hasa - Ar-Bir - `Asir (Lower `Asir - Upper `Asir) - Auda - `Ayayna - Bani al-Murrah - Burayda - Djaladjil - Durma - Ghatghat (Ghatgat) - Harma - Hejaz (Hijaz) - Jebel Shammar (Ha'il) - Khardj (Kharj) - Madjm`a - Manfuha (Manfuhah) - Mutayr - Najran - Nejd (Najd) - Raudha - Shaqr - Tarmada - `Unayzah (`Anayza) -

al-Hasa: see under Saudi Arabia



Manfuha (Manfuhah)

1682                       Sheikhdom of Manfuha (Manufuah) 
1834                       Diriyah (Wahhabi) rule (see Nejd).

Sheikhs
1682 1726                Dawwas ibn `Abd Allah ibn Sha`lan     (d. 1726)
1726 1727                 Muhammad I                           (d. 1727) 
1727 17..                `Abd Allah I ibn Faris 
bf.1746 17..             `Ali ibn Mazru`
c.1755 - ...               Muhammad II ibn `Abd Allah ibn Faris 
c.1809 18..              `Abd Allah II ibn Mazru`
18.. 1825                Ibrahim ibn Mazru` 
1825 1834                Mishari ibn `Abd ar-Rahman ibn 
                             Mishari ibn Sa`ud



Abu `Arish

[Abu `Arish sheikhdom
                (Arabia)]

13th cent.                 Sheikhdom of Abu `Arish
1627 - 1750                Under the Imams of Yemen.
1750                       Sheikdom (restored).
1803 - 1819                Under Diriyah (Wahhabi) rule (see Nejd).
1830 - 1840                Egyptian occupation.
1863                       Annexed to `Asir.

Sheiks
1750 - 1863                ....



Ar-Bir

16..                       Sheikhdom of ar-Bir in the Sudayr region.
1850                       State suppressed.

Sheikhs
16..- ...                  Muhammad ibn al-`Aqir 
... - ...                  `Abd Allah ibn al-`Aqir
... - ...                  Hamad ibn Muhammad 
.. - 1850                  ....



Raudha

bf.1697                    Sheikhdom of Raudha
....                       State suppressed.

Sheikhs
bf.1697 17..             Madhi ibn Ghazir
17.. - 1745                Muhammad                              (d. 1745)
1745 1757                Fauzan ibn Ghazir ibn Madhi 
1757 17..                `Umayr ibn Ghazir 
17.. 1782                `Aun ibn Mani' al-Madhi
1782 17..                `Aqil ibn Man'i al-Madhi



Khardj (Kharj)

c.1688                     Emirate of Khardj (Kharj).
1804 1818                Diriyah (Wahhabi) rule (see Nejd).
1818 1823                Egyptian occupation (see Burayda).
1847                       United with Nejd.

Emirs
c.1688 - ...               Zamil ibn `Uthman Mishari 
c.1740 - 1776              Zayid (1st time)                      (d. 1783)
1776                       Sulayman ibn `Ufaysan (1st time)
1776 - 1783                Zayid (2nd time)                      (s.a.)
1783 - 1784                Barrak                                (d. 1784) 
1784 - 1785                Turki 
1785 - 1793                Sulayman ibn `Ufaysan (2nd time)
1793 - 1804                Ibrahim ibn `Ufaysan
1804 1818                Wahhabi rule
1818 1823                Egyptian rule 
1823 - 1825                Zaqm ibn Zamil 
1825 - 1828/30             `Umar ibn Muhammad ibn `Ufaysan       (d. 1839)
1830 184.                Fahd ibn `Abd Allah ibn `Ufaysan


Hejaz: see under Saudi Arabia



Al-Qasim (Qassim) Region

`Unayzah (`Anayza) 

[The Banner or flag or
                  the Arabian Tribe Anayza]

1768                       Emirate of Unayzah (`Unaizah/`Anayza/Anizah).
1819 1822                Egyptian occupation.

1822                       Al-Sulaim family comes to power.
1839 1840                Egyptian occupation.

1849                       Diriyah (Wahhabi) rule (see Nejd).
Mar 1904                   Annexed to Nejd.

Emirs
1768                       `Abd Allah ibn Hamad ibn Zamil        (d. 1768)
1768 - 1788                Yahya ibn `Ali 
1788 - ....                `Abd Allah II ibn Yahya 
.... - 1819                `Abd Allah III ibn Rashid             (d. 1819)
                             al-`Alaiyan 
c.1819 - 1822              `Abd Allah IV al-Djama'i              (d. 1822)
18.. 18..                Sulayman ibn Rashid al-`Alaiyan 
18.. 1836                Yahya II                              (d. 1836)
1841 - 1845                `Abd Allah V
1845 1848                Ibrahim 
1848 1849                Nasir as-Suhaym                       (d. 1858)
Governors-general 
1849 - 1854                Djalwi ibn Turki
1854 - 1867                `Abd Allah VI ibn Yahya 
1867 1891                Zamil as-Sulaym                       (b. 1831 d. 1891)
1891 - 1895                `Abd Allah VII ibn Yahya ibn Salih
1895 - 1900                Salih al-Amir
1900 - 1904                Hamad ibn `Abd Allah 


Buraydah (Buraidah)

[Emirate of Burayda flag (Arabia)]

1768                       Emirate of Buraydah (Buraidah)
1776 - 1819                Diriyah (Wahhabi) rule (see Nejd).
1819 1822/23             Egyptian occupation.
1863                       Under suzerainty of Nejd.
1891 - 1904                Annexed by Jebel Shammar (see Ha'il).
1908                       Incorporated into Nejd.

Emirs
1768 - 1769                Rashid al-Duraybi (1st time) 
1769 1770                al-`Alaiyan
1770 1775                Rashid al-Duraybi (2nd time)
1775 - 1776                `Abd Allah ibn Hasan al-`Alaiyan      (d. 1776)
Governor-general (in al-Qasim)
1776 1819                Hudjaylan ibn Hamad al-`Alaiyan       (b. c.1738 d. 1819)
Governors
181. 18..                Ismail Pasha
18.. 182.                Halid Pasha
Emirs
1823 - 1826/28             Muhammad al-`Ali ash-Shayr
1826/28 - 1850             `Abd al-`Aziz al-Muhammad ibn Hasan   (d. 1861)
                             (1st time)
1850 - 1851                `Abd al-Muhsin al-Muhammad ibn Turki
1851 1859                `Abd al-`Aziz al-Muhammad ibn Hasan   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1859                       `Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-`Aziz ibn      (d. 1859)
                             `Adwan al-`Ulaiyan 
1859                       Muhammad ibn Ghanim                   (d. 1859)
1859 1861                `Abd al-`Aziz al-Muhammad ibn Hasan   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
1861 - 1863                `Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ibrahim Manfuhah
1863                       Muhammad ibn Ahmad as-Sudayri
1863                       Sulayman ar-Rashid al-`Ulaiyan
1867 1891                Zamil as-Sulaym                       (b. 1831 d. 1891)
Governors-general (in al-Qasim)
1827 - 1839                Ahmad ibn Nasir as-Sani               (d. 1861)
1863 - 1875                Muhanna' as-Salih Aba al-Khail        (d. 1875)
1876 1891                Hasan al-Muhanna                      (b. 1836 d. 1902)
1891 - 1902                Salim al-Subhan 
1902 - 1906                Salih al-Muhanna                      (b. 1876 d. 19..) 
1906 - 1908                Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah abal Khayl    (b. 1871 d. 19..) 
1908 - 1913                `Abd Allah ibn Djalwi ibn Turki       (b. 1890 d. 1935)



Sudayr (Sudair) Region

`Auda  

17..                       Sheikhdom of `Auda
17..                       Annexed by Diriyah (Wahhabis)(see Nejd).

Sheikhs
17.. - 1757                `Abd Allah ibn Sultan                 (d. 1757)
1757 - 1767                `Uthman ibn Sa`dun                    (d. 1767)
1767 17..                Mansur ibn Abd Allah ibn Hamad



Djaladjil

Sheikhs
bf.1762 - 17..             Suwayhid I
Governors-general
1779 - 18....              `Abd Allah ibn Djaladjil, Sudayri 
18.. - 1831                Suwayhid II ibn `Ali ibn Djaladjil


Harma

....                       Sheikhdom of Harma
1779                       Destroyed by Diriyah (Wahhabis)(see Nejd).

Sheikhs
.... - 1777                `Uthman ibn `Abd Allah
1777 - 1779                Nasir ibn Ibrahim



Madjm`a 

bf.1758                    Sheikhdom of Madjam`a
1882 - 1908                Part of Jebel Shammar (see Ha'il).
1908                       Annexed by Nejd.

Sheikhs
bf.1758 - 1778             Hamad ibn `Uthman
1779 - 180?                `Abd Allah ibn Djaladjil
18.. 1823                Mazyad
1823 18..                Muhammad ibn Saqr
18.. 1827                Ibn `Abdan
1827 - 1839                Ahmad ibn Nasir as-Sani               (d. 1861)
1839 1841                Muhammad ibn Ahmad as-Sudayri 
                             (1st time)
1841                       `Abd Allah ibn Husayn (1st time)
1841 184.                `Abd al-`Aziz ibn Mishari ibn `Aiyaf
bf.1796 - 1832             Faysal ibn Wathban ad-Duwish          (d. 1832)
184. - 1853                Muhammad ibn Ahmad as-Sudayri
                             (2nd time)
1853 18..                `Abd Allah ibn Husayn (2nd time)
Governors
188. 18..                Sulayman ibn Sami
18.. - 1896                Ibrahim al-`Askar
1896 - 1908                `Abd Allah al-Askar



Al-Washm Region 

Shaqr

Sheikhs
bf.1803 18..             `Abd Allah ibn Hamad ibn Ghayhab
bf.1818 - af.1834          Hamad ibn Yahya ibn Ghayhab


Tarmada

Sheikh
bf.1853 - ....             Ibrahim ibn Sulayman


Mutayr

1872                       Emirate of Mutayr (Mutair).
1908                       Annexed to Nejd.
1927 - 1930                Ikhwan leaders, including Emir Faysal al-Duwaish, launch a
                             rebellion against Ibn Saud.

Sheikhs
bf.1796 - 1832             Faisal ibn Wathban al-Duwaish         (d. 1832)
1832 - 184.                Muhammad al-Makni
bf.1847 - 1856/57          Humaydi                               (d. 1856/57)
.... - ....                `Ammash al-Duwaish
Emirs
1872 - c.1907              ....
c.1907 1908              Faisal II al-Duwaish                  (b. c.1882 - d. 1931)



`Asir

c.983 1003               Sheikhdom of `Asir (Aseer)
1524 - 1538                Occupied by Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt.
1539                       Part of Ottoman Empire (under governors of Yemen).
1728                       Sheikhdom in Djazan and Abu `Arish. 
1802 - 1815                Diriyah (Wahhabi) vassals rule in `Asir as-Sarat.
1818 - 1840                Coastal `Asir under Egyptian occupation.
1823/24                    Sheikhdom of Upper (North) `Asir, under the Mughaydi
                             (or `Ayad [Jewish]) dynasty.
1830                       Sheikhdom of Lower (South) `Asir, under the Idrisi dynasty
                             independent under (nominal) suzerainty of the
                             `Ayad's to 1909.
1872                       Annexed by Ottoman Empire as a mutassarrifiyya dependent on
                             the vilayet of Yemen, with the capital at Abha,
 
3 Aug 1917                Emirate of `Asir declares independence. 
30 Aug 1920               
Upper `Asir annexed by Nejd.
20 Nov 1930               
Lower `Asir incorporated into Hejaz.
14 Jun 1934                Kingdom of Yemen formally cedes `Asir and Jizan
                             to Saudi Arabia by the Treaty of Ta'if.

Sheikhs
1728/29 - 1762/63          Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khayrat
1762/63 - 1809             Muhammad                              (d. 1809) 
1809 - 1818/40             Sharif Hamud ibn Muhammad Abu Mismar
1801 - 1809                `Abd al-Wahhab Muhammad ibn Abu       (d. 1809)
                           Nuqta ar-Rufayda (in `Asir as-Sarat) 
1809 1815                Tami ibn Shu`ayb (in `Asir as-Sarat)  (d. 1815)
1815 - 1840                ....
1840 - 1848                al-Husayn ibn `Ali ibn Haydar         (d. 1851) 
                             (in rebellion in Abu Arish)
1848 1855                Haydar (in rebellion in Abu Arish)
1855 - 185.                ....
185. 1863                al-Hasan ibn Muhammad
                             (in rebellion, in Abu Arish)


Upper `Asir
  

[Flag of the
                        Sheikdom of Upper Asir 1916-1920 (Arabia)]
1916 - 30 Aug 1920

Capital: Abha
Population: N/A

1823/24                    Sheikhdom of Upper (North) `Asir, under the Mughaydi
                             (or `Ayad [Jewish]) dynasty.
1872                       Part of Ottoman Empire, annexed to Yemen province.
Aug 1916   
               Independence of Emirate of Upper `Asir (Al Imarat al-`Asir al-Ulya)
                             declared in revolt against `Asir.
Apr - May 1920             Nejd intervened in support of the Ikhwan and defeated bin `Ayad.
30 Aug 1920                Upper
`Asir partitioned between the Nejd and the Idrisi `Asir.
1923                       Formally annexed by Nejd.

Sheikhs
1823/24 18..             Sa`id bin Muslat al-Mughaydi
18.. - 1833/34             `Ali bin Mudjattil al-Mughaydi
1833/34 - 1856/57          `Al'ud bin Mar`i bin Musa al-Mughaydi (d. 1856/57)
1856/57 1872             Muhammad                              (d. 1872) 
1872 - 1916                Post abolished
Emir
1916 - 30 Aug 1920         al-Hasan bin `Ayad (in Abha)
 


Lower `Asir
 
[Flag of
                          [Lower] Asir c.1909-1930 (Arabia)]
c.1909 -  20 Nov 1930
[Variant Flag of
                          Emirate of Asir 1927-1930 (Arabia)]
1927 - 20 Nov 1930 Variant
Map of Asir
Capital: Sabyah (Sabya)
Population: 1,000,000
 (1921 est.)

1830                       Sheikhdom of `Asir, under Idris dynasty.
1871 - 1914                Part of Ottoman Empire.
24 Dec 1908                Sultanate of `Asir
Jan 1910                   By the Treaty of al-Hafa'ir, the Al-Idrisi local rulers gained the
                             position of kaymakam of Asir which de facto made it a semi-
                             independent region under Ottoman suzerainty.

Aug 1916 - 1920           
`Ayad rebellion in Upper `Asir against al-Idrisi rule.
 
3 Aug 1917                Emirate of `Asir (Al-Imarat al-`Asir) declares independence.
1917                       al-Qunfudhah (Kunfuda) exchanged with Hejaz for Farasan Islands
                             (Juzur Farasan).

Jan 1921 - 1925            al-Hudaydah (Hodeidah/Hodeida) occupied by `Asir.
Apr 1925                   al-Hudaydah ceded to Yemen (recognized by Saudi Arabia 1934).
21 Oct 1926 - 20 Nov 1930  Protectorate of Nejd.

20 Nov 1930                Incorporated into Hejaz by Nejd. 

Imams and Sheikhs
1830 - 1838                Sayyid Ahmad al-Idrisi al-Hasani        (b. 1760 d. 1837) 
1838 - 1889                Sayyid Muhammad (I) ibn Ahmad al-Idrisi (d. 1889)
                             al-Hasani
1889 - 1908                Sayyid Ali (I) ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad   (d. 1904)
                             al-Idrisi al-Hasani
1908 - 24 Dec 1908         Sayyid Muhammad (II) ibn Ali al-Idrisi  (b. 1876 - d. 1923)

                             al-Hasani 
Imam and Sultan
24 Dec 1908 -  3 Aug 1917  Sayyid Muhammad (II) ibn Ali al-Idrisi  (s.a.)
                             al-Hasani
Imams and Emirs
 3 Aug 1917 - 20 Mar 1923  Sayyid Muhammad (II) ibn Ali al-Idrisi  (s.a.)

                             al-Hasani 
20 Mar 1923 - Feb 1926     Sayyid Ali (II) ibn Muhammad al-Idrisi  (b. 1905 - d. ....)
                             al-Hasani 
Feb 1926 - 20 Nov 1930     Sayyid al-Hasan ibn Ali al-Idrisi
                             al-Hasani


Nejd see under Saudi Arabia



Najran

[former Najran flag (Arabia)]

Map of Najran
Capital: Najran (Nadjran)
Population: N/A

1633                       Isma'ili Muslim ecclesiastic principality of Najran (Nadjran) under
                             the suzerainty of Imams of Yemen; consequently under Ottoman
                             Empire.
30 Oct 1918                End of Ottoman suzerainty, remains a vassal of Yemen.
1924                       Forces of Yemen launched several unsuccessful raids to
                             annex Najran to the
Kingdom of Yemen.
1926                       Nejd declares a protectorate over Najran.

Winter 1931 - Spring 1932  Yemen occupies Najran.
Nov 1933                   Forces of the Imam of Yemen attack Najran.
21 Apr 1934                Saudi forces occupy Najran.
14 Jun 1934                Kingdom of Yemen formally cedes Najran,
`Asir, and Jizan
                             to Saudi Arabia by the Treaty of Ta'if.

Rulers (Da'ias)
1677 - 1717                Muhammad ibn Isma'il 
                             (from 1706, in Najran) 
1717 - 1747                Hibbat-Allah 
1747 - 1760                Isma'il I 
1760 1774                Hasan I `Ali 
1774 - 1780                `Abd al-`Ali ibn Hasan 
1780 - 1810                `Abd Allah I ibn `Ali 
1810 - 1819                Yusuf 
1819 - 1826                Husayn ibn Hasan ibn `Ali 
1826 - 1841                Isma'il II ibn Muhammad 
1841 - 1846                Hasan II 
1846 - 1872                Hasan III ibn  Isma'il 
1872 - 1889                Ahmad 
1889 - 1905                `Abd Allah II ibn `Ali ibn Husayn 
                              ibn `Ali 
1905 - 1912                `Ali I ibn Hibbat Allah 
1912 - 1934                `Ali II ibn Muhsin ibn Husayn         (d. 1936) 
1936                       Husayn Ahmad ibn Hasan (pretender)



`Ayayna 

1446                       Sheikhdom of `Ayayna
1768                       Conquered by Diriyah (see Nejd).
1819                       Destroyed by Egypt.

Sheikhs
1685 1725                `Abd Allah III ibn Muhammad 
1725 - 1740                Muhammad II ibn Hamad Harfash 
1740 1750                `Uthman ibn Hamad                     (d. 1750)
1750 - 1759                Mishari ibn Ibrahim ibn Mu`ammar 
1759 - 1760                Sultan ibn Muhsin al-Mu`ammari
1760 - 1768                Nasir II ibn`Uthman                   (d. 1768) 



Durma

16..                       Sheikhdom of Durma
1757?                      Conquered by Diriyah (see Nejd).

Sheikhs
16.. 1684                Muhammad I
1684 17..                ...
17.. - 1751                Ibrahim                               (d. 1751)
1751 - 1752/53             `Abd Allah ibn `Abd ar-Rahman
                             al-Muraydi
1753 - 1757?               Muhammad II 



Ghatghat (Ghatgat)

....                        Sultanate of Ghatghat, established by Sultan ibn Bijad as the
                              hijra al-ghutat, the most important and well-prepared hijra of
                              the Ikhwan movement.

bf.1920 - 1929              Vassal of Nejd.
1927 - 1930                 Ikhwan leaders, including Sultan ibn Bijad, launch a rebellion
                              in the name of morality and religion against the authority of
                              Ibn Saud.
1929                        Incorporated into Nejd.

Sultan
bf.1920 - 1929              ibn Bikhad (Bijad)                    (b. 1876 - d. 1931)


Jebel Shammar (Ha'il): see under Saudi Arabia



Rub' al-Khali (Empty Quarter)

Bani al-Murrah

[Emirate of
                      al-Murrah, 1901-1917 (Arabia)]
1901 - 1917

....                         Emirate of al-Murrah (Al-Imarat al-Murrah)(ranging between the
                               port of al-'Uqayr in the north to Jabrin [Yabrin] oasis and
                               the Rub' al-Khali ["Empty Quarter"] desert in the south), in
                               opposition to Ottoman and later Al Saud rule.
1917                         Incorporated into Nejd.

Emirs
.... - 1917                  ....






  Ben Cahoon