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Sint Maarten
 
[National flag of
                            the Netherlands]
1634 - 15 Dec 1959
[Netherlands
                            Antilles flag, 1959-1986]
15 Dec 1959 - 13 Jun 1985
[Sint Maarten flag
                          (Netherlands)]
Adopted 13 Jun 1985
Map of Sint Maarten Hear National Anthem
"Wilhelmous van Nassouwe"
(William of Nassau)
Hear Local Anthem
"Volkslied van Sint Maarten"
(St. Martin National Anthem)
(a.ka. O Lieve Land van Sint Maarten [O' Sweet Saint
Martin's Land]
) From c.1958
Constitution
(10 Oct 2010)
Capital: Philipsburg
(Fort Amsterdam 1631-1633,
1648-1763)
Currency: Netherlands
Antillean Guilder (ANG)
National Holiday: 27 Apr (1967)
King's Day (
Koningsdag)
------------------------------------
Local Holiday: 11 Nov (1493)
Saint Martin's Day
(
Sint-Maarten Dag)
Population: 40,552 (2018)
GDP: $1.04 billion (2017) Exports: $31.1 million (2017)
Imports: $388 million (2017)
Ethnic groups: Saint Maarten 29.9%, Dominican
Republic 10.2%, Haiti 7.8%, Jamaica 6.6%, Saint Martin 5.9%, Guyana 5%, Dominica 4.4%, Curacao 4.1%, Aruba 3.4%,
Saint Kitts and Nevis 2.8%, India 2.6%, Netherlands 2.2%,
U.S. 1.6%, Suriname 1.4%, Saint Lucia 1.3%, Anguilla 1.1%,
other 8%, unspecified 1.7% (2011)
Total Police Force: 370 (2012)
Defense is the Responsibility of The Netherlands
Merchant marine: None (2018)
Religions: Protestant 41.9% (Pentecostal 14.7%, Methodist 10.0%,
 Seventh Day Adventist 6.6%, Baptist 4.7%, Anglican 3.1%,
other Protestant 2.8%), Roman Catholic 33.1%, Hindu 5.2%,
Christian 4.1%, Jehovah's Witness 1.7%, Evangelical 1.4%,
 Muslim/Jewish 1.1%, other 1.3% (includes Buddhist, Sikh,
Rastafarian), none 7.9%, no response 2.4% (2011)

International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (associate), AOSIS (observer), Caricom (observer), DLU (cooperation), FATF, ILO, IMF, Interpol, LAP, OECS (observer), UNESCO (associate), UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCO, WMO
Sint Maarten
Chronology

13 Nov 1493                Once past St. Kitts Spanish explorer Capt.
                             Cristóbal Colón may have sighed Saint Martin.
                             According to tradition he names it island
                             Isla San Martín (a name in fact given to Nevis).
                             The Caribs called the island Soualiga.
1516                       First mentioned as "Sam Mtim" on the Reinel map.
 5 Oct 1624                First recorded European, Dutch sailor Pieter
                             Schouten (d. 1625), lands on Sint Maarten.
1631 -  2 Jul 1633         Dutch settlement in southern end of the island.
 2 Jul 1633 - 1648         Spanish occupation. 
23 Mar 1648                Divided into French Saint-Martin (north) and Dutch 
                             Sint Martin (Martijn)(south) parts by the Treaty
                             of Concordia (Mont des Accords).
1648 - Apr 1672            Dutch Sint Martin a grantee-concession
                             (subordinated to St. Eustatius).
Apr 1672 - 15 Jun 1676     French occupy entire island (see Saint-Martin).
15 Jun 1676 - 30 Jun 1676  Dutch occupy entire island.
30 Jun 1676 - 27 Jan 1690  French occupy entire island (see Saint-Martin).
1690 - 10 Sep 1697         No organized administration on the island.
20 Sep 1697                English agree to restore conquered territories
                             (incl. Saint Martin) to status quo ante by the
                             Treaty of Ryswick (Tractatus Pacis).
1699 - 1702                French control entire island (see Saint-Martin).
1702 - 10 Apr 1703         Abandoned, both countries having evacuated. 
1703 - 16 Mar 1792         Dutch part under the Dutch West India Company 
                             administration.
10 Apr 1703 - Aug 1715     Dutch in control of the entire island.
15 May 1733                Philipsburg founded.
24 Feb 1779 -  5 Feb 1781  French occupy Dutch part (see Saint-Martin).  
 5 Feb 1781 - 27 Nov 1781  British occupy entire island. 
27 Nov 1781 - 11 Feb 1784  French occupy the Dutch part (the Dutch part civil
                             administration continues).
18 May 1793 -  5 Apr 1795  Dutch control entire island. 
28 Apr 1795 - 24 Mar 1801  French occupy entire island (the Dutch part Dutch
                             administration continues with French commissioners)
                             (see Saint-Martin).
24 Mar 1801 -  1 Dec 1802  British occupy entire island.
 1 Dec 1802 - 15 Feb 1810  French and Dutch parts resumed.
17 Jan 1803 - 15 Jan 1821  Saba a dependency of Sint Maarten.
15 Feb 1810 - 24 Jan 1815  British occupy entire island
.
 9 Jul 1810                Annexed along with Holland by France (not effected).
24 Jan 1815 -  6 Jan 1816  British occupy the Dutch part (and the French part
                             again Jul 1815 - 22 Nov 1816).
 6 Jan 1816                Dutch Sint Martin part resumed.
1816 - 15 Jan 1821         Sint Maarten, Saba subordinated to Sint Eustatius.
15 Jan 1821 - 20 May 1828  Sint Eustatius, Saba a dependency of Sint Maarten.
20 May 1828 - 29 Oct 1845  Sint Martin, Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, 

                             Sint Eustatius, and Dutch Guiana united as the 
                             Dutch West Indies; with the governor of Dutch
                             Guiana as the governor-general (see Suriname).
28 Nov 1839                Franco-Dutch Convention confirms the 1648 accords.
29 Oct 1845                Suriname colony is separated from Curaçao and its
                             dependencies.
27 Jan 1848                Dutch Islands united under the name of Curaçao and

                             Dependencies (from 20 Sep 1948, renamed the
                             Netherlands Antilles: see under Curaçao).
1919 -  1 Apr 1983         Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten united as
                             the Netherlands Windward Islands Territory
                             (Eilandgebied de Bovenwindse Eilanden).
1936                       Dutch part officially adopts the Dutch spelling 
                             Sint Maarten.
12 May 1904 - Jul 1940     French garrison (Dutch administration continues).
20 Sep 1948                Netherlands Antilles a coequal part of Netherlands
                             realm.
29 Dec 1954                Netherlands Antilles an autonomous part of 

                             the Netherlands.
14 Oct 1994                Referendum supports remaining within Netherlands
                             Antilles over becoming autonomous country 59%-32%.
23 Jun 2000                Referendum supports a "status aparte" as a
                             separate entity within The Netherlands by 68.9%.
 2 Nov 2006                Sint Maarten and Curaçao sign an agreement with
                             The Netherlands on "status aparte"
10 Oct 2010                Sint Maarten an autonomous country of Netherlands.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Dutch Commander

1631 -  2 Jul 1633         Jan Claeszoon van Campen           (d. 1642)
Spanish Governors
 
2 Jul 1633 - 1635         Cebrián de Lizarazu
1635 - 1639                Luis de Valdes
1639 - 1648                Diego Guajardo Fajardo
Dutch Commanders
14 Feb 1648 - 1650         Martin (Marten) Thomas
1650 - 1655                Adriaan de Vos
1655 - 1660                Edmond de Fosse
1667?                      Jan Sympson
1672?                      Jan Simonsz. de Buck
Apr 1672 - 15 Jun 1676     French occupation
15 Jun 1676 - 30 Jun 1676 
Jacob Binckes                      (b. 1637 - d. 1677)
30 Jun 1676 - 27 Jan 1690  French occupation
1690 - 1699                Vacant
1699 - 1702                French administration
1702 - 10 Apr 1703         abandoned
Vice-commanders
(Vice Commandeurs Sint Martin [Nederlandsch gedeelte])
10 Apr 1703 - 170.         Lucas van Beverhoudt               (b. c.1665 - d. c.1722)
1705?                      Olivier Graval
1708?- 1710                Charles Devezaen
1710 - Feb 1712            François Lemaire
1712 - 1713                Jean Buretel
1713 - 1718                Martinus Meyer (1st time)          (d. 1733)
12 May 1718 - 1720         Louis Guillaume du Repaire
1720 - 1721                Jan de Windt, Sr.
1721 - 10 Jun 1733         Martinus Meyer (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Jun 1733 - 1735            Jacobus Barry
16 Feb 1735 - 16 Jun 1736  John Philips (1st time)            (b. 1689? - d. 1746)
                             (commander)
17 Jun 1736 - 22 Jul 1737  Pieter Hassell (acting)           
(b. c.1677 - d. 175.)
22 Jul 1737 - 16 Dec 1746  John Philips (2nd time)            (s.a.) 
                            
(commander)
17 Dec 1746 - 15 Jan 1748  Jan de Wever (acting)

17 Jan 1748 - 27 Nov 1781  Abraham Heyliger Pzn.              (b. 1717 - d. 1783)
 
5 Feb 1781 - 26 Nov 1781  Andrew Edhouse -British commander  (b. c.1723 - d. 1788)
Governors
26 Nov 1781 - 23 Jul 1783  Abraham Heyliger Pzn.              (s.a.)
1783 - 1784                Charles Chabert, Jr.               (b. 1761 - d. 1810)
11 Feb 1784 -  5 Feb 1785  Councillors (acting)
                           - Thomas Aertsen

                           - Jacob M. Gumbes
Commanders
 
5 Feb 1785 - 11 Feb 1790  Johannes Salomons Gibbes           (b. 1735 - d. 1802)
                             (
vice-commander to 26 Sep 1786)
12 Feb 1790 - 19 Jun 1800  Willem Hendrik Rink (1st time)     (b. 1756 - d. 1848)
28 Apr 1795 - 1801         with French commissioners (see St. Martin)
1800 - 1801                Remt Folkerus Muller
20 Jan 1801 - 24 Mar 1801  Willem Hendrik Rink (2nd time)     (s.a.)
24 Mar 1801 -  1 Dec 1802  Robert Nicholson                   (b. 17.. - d. 1810)
Governors
 1 Dec 1802 - Aug? 1806    Willem Hendrik Rink (3rd time)     (s.a.)

Aug? 1806 - 14 Feb 1810    Jan Verveer Jzn.                   (b. 1775 - d. 1838)
15 Feb 1810 - 1810         George William Richard Harcourt    (b. 1775 - d. 1812)
                             (British commander)
14 Feb 1810 -  3 Apr 1810  John Skinner                       (b. c.1750 - d. 1827)

 
3 Apr 1810 - Jan 1813     Nicolas
Jan 1813 - Feb 1814        James Alexander Farquharso
n        (b. 1775 - d. 1834)
                             (1st time)
Feb 1814 -  5 Apr 1815     William McCaskill                  (b. c.1750 - d. 1815)
Mar 1815 - May 1815        Robert Ferry (acting)
May 1815 - Jul 1815        James Alexander Farquharson        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Jul 1815 - Aug 1815        Francis Edden (acting)
Aug 1815 -  6 Jan 1816     Robert Douglas                     (b. c.1745 - d. 1828)
Lieutenant governors (gezaghebber)
12 Feb 1816 -  5 Feb 1820
  Paulus Roelof Cantz'laar           (b. 1771 - d. 1831)
                           (commander)
 
5 Feb 1820 -  1 Jan 1840  Diederik Johannes van Romondt      (b. 1781 - d. 1849)
                             (president of Police Council [acting
                             to 15 Jan 1821] to 20 Nov 1833)
 9 Mar 1822 - 15 Mar 1823  Abraham Heijlinger

                             (acting for van Romondt)
 
1 Jan 1840 - 12 Jun 1849  Johannes Willem van Romondt        (b. 1805 - d. 1849)
12 Jul 1849 - 16 Apr 1850  Pieter Petersen (acting)
16 Apr 1850 - May 1859     Johannes Didericus Crol            (b. 1806 - d. 1870)
May? 1859 -  1 Nov 1860    Lucas Percival (acting)            (b. 1808 - d. 1877)
 
1 Nov 1860 - 25 Oct 1865  Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga   (b. 1822 - d. 1896)
 
7 May 1864 -  7 Mar 1865  Diederik Chr. van Romondt          (b. 1807 - d. 1865)
                             (
acting for Idsinga)
25 Oct 1865 - 23 Feb 1866  Philogène Philippe Maillard        (b. 1806 - d. 1886)
                             (acting)
23 Feb 1866 - 18 Nov 1870  Herman François Gerardus Wagner    (b. 1822 - d. 1904)
18 Nov 1870 - 28 Aug 1871  Robert van Romondt (acting)
28 Aug 1871 - 1883         Edouard Dénis Ernest van den       (b. 1831 - d. 1908)
                             Bossche
 
9 Feb 1874 - 19 Feb 1877  Diederik Charles van Romondt       (b. 1835 - d. 1904) 
                             (1st time)(acting for van den Bossche)
1883 -  1 Aug 1883         Diederik Charles van Romondt       (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 
1 Aug 1883 - 17 Sep 1885  Jan Hendrik Rudeloff Beaujon       (b. 1838 - d. 1930)
1885 -  1 Jul 1889         Theophilus George Groebe           (b. 1838 - d. 1919)
 
1 Jul 1889 -  7 Jul 1891  Jan Hero Adriaan van Daalen        (b. 1842 - d. 1899)
 
7 Jul 1891 - 17 Apr 1893  Frans Johannes Olivier             (b. 1850 - d. 1914)
17 Apr 1893 - 26 Nov 1894  Diederik Charles van Romondt       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (acting)
26 Nov 1894 - Dec 1901     Jozef Möller                       (b. 1849 - d. 1909)
18 May 1898 -  1 Dec 1900  Diederik Charles van Romondt       (s.a.)
                             (4th time) (acting for Möller)
Dec 1901 - 28 Sep 1918     Abraham Jan Cornelis Brouwer       (b. 1858 - d. 1919)
28 Sep 1918 -  2 Jun 1919  Frits Koenraad Thielen (acting)    (b. 1875 - d. 1943)
Lieutenant governors (gezaghebber) for the Windward Islands
(Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius)
 2 Jun 1919 - 24 Aug 1920  G.J. Tymstra (interim)

24 Aug 1920 - 29 Dec 1920
  A.W. de Haseth (interim)
29 Dec 1920 - 15 Nov 1923  J. Van der Zee Rz.
15 Nov 1923 -  1 Feb 1927
  Richard Johannes "Hensi"           (b. 1883 - d. 1959)
                             Beaujon, Jr.
 
1 Feb 1927 - 28 Jul 1927  C.F. Boskaljon (acting)
28 Jul 1927 - 21 May 1930
  Willem Frederik Meinhardt Lampe    (b. 1896 - d. 1973)
                             (interim)
17 Jul 1930 -  3 Dec 1943  Johan Diedrich Meiners             (b. 1889 - d. 19..)
16 Apr 1938 -  9 Jan 1939  Anthony Hendrik Marinus van Weel   (b. 1900 - d. 1987)
                             (acting for Meiners)
 
7 Oct 1943 - 23 Feb 1948  Pieter Hendrik van Leeuwen         (b. 1893 - d. ....)
16 Mar 1946 - 31 Oct 1946  Maximillian Joseph Huith           (b. 1909 - d. 1993)
                             (acting for Leeuwen)
16 Dec 1947 - 23 Feb 1948
  Maximillian Joseph Huith           (s.a.)
                             (acting for Leeuwen)
23 Feb 1948 - 21 Jul 1958  Johannes Christiaan Paap

                             (interim to
10 Nov 1948)
 
8 Apr 1953 -  3 Nov 1953  Ir. K.A. van Rijswijk
                             (acting for Paap)
 1 Jul 1957 - 16 Oct 1957  Walter Granville Buncamper         (b. 1908 - d. 1978)
                             (1st time)(acting for Paap)
16 Oct 1957 -  7 Jul 1958  Hendrik Anthonius Hessling         (b. 1901 - d. 1966)
                             (acting for Paap)

 
7 Jul 1958 - 10 Aug 1959  Walter Granville Buncamper         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)

10 Aug 1959 - 1968         Jan Jacob "Japa" Beaujon           (b. 1921 - d. 1999)
Aug 1968 -  1 Mar 1975     Reinier Oswald van Delden          (b. 1928 - d. 2011)  
                             (acting to 3 Mar 1969)
 1 Mar 1975 - 1981         Theodore Maxwell "Max" Pandt       (b. 1939 - d. 2017)
                             (acting to 1 Sep 1975)
1981 -  1 Apr 1983         Ralph R.H. Richardson              (b. 1937)

Lieutenant governors (gezaghebber)

 
1 Apr 1983 - 1992         Ralph R.H. Richardson              (s.a.)

1992 - 1994                Wilfred Russell Voges              (b. 1943)
 
1 Sep 1994 - 22 Sep 2000  Dennis Leory Richardson            (b. 1946)
22 Sep 2000 - 10 Aug 2010  Franklyn E. Richards               (b. 1950)
10 Aug 2010 - 10 Oct 2010  Reynold Amando Groeneveldt (acting)
Governor
10 Oct 2010 -              Eugene Holiday                     (b. 1962)
 

Leaders of the government (unofficial post until 1997)
1954 - 1991                Claude Wathey                      (b. 1926 - d. 1998)  DP
                            
(= Albert Claudius Wathey)
1991 - 1995                Edgar Hubert Lynch                 (b. 1952)            SPA

1995 -  1 Jul 1999         William Marlin (1st time)          (b. 1950)            SPA 
 1 Jul 1999 -  8 Jun 2009  Sarah A. Wescot-Williams (f)       (b. 1956)            DP
 8 Jun 2009 - 10 Oct 2010  William Marlin (2nd time)          (s.a.)               SPA + NA
Prime ministers
10 Oct 2010 - 19 Dec 2014  Sarah A. Wescot-Williams (f)       (s.a.)               DP
19 Dec 2014 - 19 Nov 2015  Marcel Faustiano Augustin Gumbs    (b. 1953)            UPP
19 Nov 2015 - 24 Nov 2017  William Marlin                     (s.a.)              
SPA + NA
24 Nov 2017 - 15 Jan 2018  Rafael Boasman (acting)            (b. 1953)            USP
15 Jan 2018 -
10 Oct 2019  Leona Marlin-Romeo (f)             (b. 1973)            UDP
10 Oct 2019 -
19 Nov 2019  Wycliffe Sylvester Smith (acting)  (b. 1948)            SMCP
19 Nov 2019 -              Silveria Elfrieda Jacobs (f)       (b. 1968)            NA

Party abbreviations: NA = National Alliance/Nationale Alliantie (electoral alliance of SPA and National Progressive Party/Nationale Progressieve Partij, est.18 Jan 2002); SMCP = Sint Maarten Christian Party (christian democratic, est.Nov 2015); SPA = St. Maarten Patriotic Alliance/Sint Maarten Patriottische Alliantie (part of NA from 18 Jan 2002, named 1979-1990 as St. Maarten Patriotic Movement, est.1990); UDP = United Democratic Party/Verenigde Democratische Partij (merger of UPP and DP, est.Nov 2017); USP = United St. Maarten Party/ Verenigde Sint Maarten Partij (split from NA, est.22 Dec 2013);
- Former parties:
DP = Democratic Party St. Maarten/Democratische Partij Sint Maarten (1954-Nov 2017, merged into UDP); UPP = United People's Party/Verenigde Volkspartij (populist, 24 Jul 2010-Nov 2017, merged into UDP)






 © Ben Cahoon