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Afghanistan
 
[Afghanistan
                                  before 1901]
1881 - c.1901 
 
[Afghanistan c.1901-1919]
c.1901 - 1919
[Afghanistan 1919-1921]
1919 - 1921; 14-17 Jan 1929 
[Afghanistan 1921-1928]
1921 - Jun 1928
[Afghanistan June - September
                                    1928]
Jun 1928 - 2 Sep 1928
[Afghanistan Sep. 1928 - Jan.
                                    1929]
2 Sep 1928 - 14/17 Jan 1929
[Afghanistan Jan. 1929 - Oct.
                                    1929]
17 Jan 1929 - 13 Oct 1929
[Afghanistan Oct. 1929 - 1931]
13 Oct 1929 - 31 Oct 1931 
[Afghanistan 1930-1973, arms
                                    within red stripe]
31 Oct 1931 - 17 Jul 1973
[Afghanistan 1973-May 1974]
17 Jul 1973 - 9 May 1974
 
[Afghanistan May 1974-April
                                    1978]
9 May 1974 - 27 Apr 1978
 
[Afghanistan April-Oct.1978]
27 Apr 1978 - 19 Oct 1978 
 
[Afghanistan
                                  1978-1980]
19 Oct 1978 - 21 Apr 1980 
 
[Afghanistan 1980-1987]
21 Apr 1980 - 30 Nov 1987
 
[Afghanistan
                                    Nov.1987-Apr.1992]
30 Nov 1987 - 27 Apr 1992 
 
[Afghanistan
                                    Apr.1992-Dec.1992]
27 Apr 1992 - 2 Dec 1992 (provisional)
 
 
[Afghanistan Dec.1992-Sep.1996,
                                    2001-2002]
2 Dec 1992 - 27 Sep 1996, 13 Nov 2001-27 Jan 2002
(27 Sep 1996 - 7 Dec 2001 UN recognized Govt. Flag)
 
[Taliban Flag 1996-1997
                                    (Afghanistan)]
3 Apr 1996 - 27 Oct 1997 Taliban Flag
 
 
[Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
                                    1996-2001, Taliban (Afghanistan)]
27 Oct 1997 - 7 Dec 2001 Taliban Flag
 
[Afghanistan 2002-2004
                                    (Transitional Authority)]
27 Jan 2002 - 4 Jan 2004
 
[Afghanistan (Transitional
                                    Authority) Official Variant
                                    2002-2004]
27 Jun 2002 - 4 Jan 2004 Official Variant
 
[Islamic
                                    Republic of Afghanistan 2004-2021]
4 Jan 2004 - 15 Aug 2021
[Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
                                    from 2021 Taliban (Afghanistan)]
Adopted 15 Aug 2021

Map of Afghanistan Hear National Anthem
"Daa dae baatoraano kor"
(This is the Home of the Brave)
(1996-2001, from 15 Aug 2021

[a cappella, no instruments])

-------------------------------
Former National Anthem

"Milli Surood"
(National Anthem)
(14 May 2006-15 Aug 2021)
-------------------------------
Former National Anthem
"Soroud-e Melli"
(National Anthem)
(1992-1999, 2002-2006)
Hear Former Anthem
"Soroud-e Melli"
(National Anthem)
(1978-1992)
------------------------------------
Former Anthem
"Soroud-e Melli"
(National Anthem)
(1973-1978)

--------------------------------------
Former Anthem
"Loya Salami" (Grand Salute)
(1943-1973)

--------------------------------------
Former Anthem (1926-1943)
(Royal Salute)
Constitution
(26 Jan 2004 - 15 Aug 2021)
------------------------------
Former Constitutions
(1923, 1963, 1976, 1987, 1990)
Capital: Kabul
(Taliban: Kandahar 3 Apr - 27
Sep 1996, 13 Nov - 7 Dec 2001;
N. Alliance: Mazar-i Sharif
 27 Sep 1996 - 13 Nov 2001)

(winter Peshawar 1776-1818;
summer Kandahar
[Ahmadshahi] 1747-1774)
Currency: Afghani (AFN);
Afghanistan Rupee (AFR)
1881-1927
National Holiday: 19 Aug (1919)
Independence Day
--------------------------------------
and (2004-21): 28 Apr (1992)
Mujahideen Victory Day
Population: 37,466,414 (2021) 
GDP: $78.56 billion (2019)
Exports: $2.24 billion (2019)
Imports: $6.92 billion (2019)
note: not including illicit exports
or re-exports
Ethnic groups: Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%,
Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, others 4% (2004)
note: current statistical data on ethnicity are not available.
- Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups:
Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri,
 Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai (2015)
Total Afghan Armed Forces: 277,800 (2021)
Merchant marine: None (2020)
Religions: Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7-89.7%, Shi'a 10-15%),
other 0.3% (2009)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AIIB, APA, APM, BTWC, CCM, CICA, CP, CSTO (observer), CTBT, CWC, ECO, EITI (suspended), ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD (suspended), ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF (suspended), Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA (observer), ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NATO (global partner), NPT, NTBT, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), OST, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Afghanistan
Index

Chronology

1504                       Divided between the Moghul Empire (Kabul) and
                             Persia (Herat) with control of Kandahar alternating
                             between them.
21 Apr 1709                Mir Wais frees Kandahar from Persian rule. 
12 Oct 1722 - 25 Apr 1725  Afghans under Mir Mahmud occupy Isfahan in Persia
12 Mar 1738                Persia under Nadir Shah reasserts control over 
                             Kandahar, renamed Nadirabad; Kabul (from 19 Jun
                             1738), Herat (already from 22 Aug 1731) and
                             Lahore (from 12 Jan 1739).
Jul 1747                   Independence (Emirate [or Kingdom] of Afghanistan)
                             under Kabul; but supremacy is contested from
                             Herat (1797, 1818-19, 1819-56, 1857-63, 1863-68,
                             1880-81); Kandahar (1772, 1793, 1804-05, 1808, 1809,
                             1819-58, 1863-68, 1880-81); Ghazni (1879-80); and
                             Peshawar (1801, 1818-23).
25 Apr
1839 -  6 Jan 1842  British India intervention (taking Kabul 7 Aug 1839). 
22 Nov 1878 - 22 Apr 1881  British India occupation (in Kabul 12 Oct-14 Dec 1879
                             and 24 Dec 1879-22 Jul 1880).

19 Mar 1880 - 19 Aug 1919  British manage foreign affairs by mutual agreement
                              (formally by 21 Mar 1905 Treaty of Kabul;
                             formally ended by Treaty of Kabul 22 Nov 1921,
                             ratified on 6 Feb 1922).
 2 Oct 1881                Re-integration of Herat
.
10 Sep 1885                North-western border defined by Russia - U.K. protocol
                             (not accepted by Afghanistan until 12 Nov 1893).
19
Aug 1919                Independence celebrated (proclaimed 13 Apr 1919).
 9 Apr 1923                Exalted State of Afghanistan
17 Jul 1973                Afghanistan (proclaimed a republic in accordance with
                             a declaration of 17 Jul 1973).
26 Jul 1973 - 28 Apr 1978  Republican State of Afghanistan
28 Apr 1978                Constitution of 1977 is abrogated in accordance with the
                             declarations of the Military Revolutionary Council.
30 Apr 1978                Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
27 Dec 1979 - 15 Feb 1989  Invasion and occupation by the Soviet Union.
30 Nov 1987                Republic of Afghanistan
28 Apr 1992 - 22 Dec 2001  Islamic State of Afghanistan (from 27 Sep 1996,
                             largely retaining
international recognition).
 4 Apr 1996                Taliban proclaim Mullah Mohammad Omar as Commander of
                             the Faithful (Amir al-Mo´menin) in Kandahar.
 4 Apr 1996 - 26 Oct 1997  Islamic State of Afghanistan.
27 Sep 1996                Taliban enter Kabul.
26 Oct 1997
-  7 Dec 2001  Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (state name changed in
                             accordance with a guidance of
Amir al-Mo´menin of
                             13 Oct 1997)(not internationally recognized).

19
Oct 2001 - 22 Dec 2001  Invasion and occupation by U.S. and NATO forces.
13 Nov 2001                Kabul falls to the Northern Alliance,
Kandahar falls
                             to U.S. forces on 7 Dec 2001.

22 Dec 2001                Inauguration of the Interim Administration of
                             Afghanistan at ceremony Kabul.
22 Dec 2001                Afghanistan

19 Jun 2002                Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan
 7 Dec 2004                Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
15 Aug 2021                Polity ceases to exist de facto with the occupation
                             of Kabul by the armed forces of the Taliban;
                             remaining U.S. and NATO forces depart 30 Aug 2021.
15 Aug 2021                Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (restored).

Afghanistan
(since 1880)

Kabul
(1747-1901)
Herat
(1747-1881)
Kandahar
(1708-1881)
 Peshawar
(1747-1823)
Exile Government
(1988-1992)
Other Former
Afghan Polities

Andkhui
(1731-1880)
Badakhshan
(1657-1873)
 Konduz
(1698-c.1900)
 Maimana
(1747-c.1900)
Sar-i-Pul
(1831-c.1880)
Shibarghan
(1757-1875)
1849 Map of
Afghanistan


Note
:
Before 1881 there were essentially three additional rulers' capitals contending for supremacy over the national capital Kabul and the Afghan state: Herat, Kandahar, and Peshawar (the last now in Pakistan).  All rulers of Kabul, Herat, Kandahar, and Peshawar belong belong to the Abdali tribal group, whose name was changed to Durrani (Dorrani) on the accession of Ahmad Shah. They belong either to the Saddozay segment of the Popalzay clan (typically with the style padshah [king]) or to the Mohammadzay segment of the Barakzay clan (typically with the style Amir, in full Amir al-Mo´menin [Leader of the Faithful]). The Mohammadzay also furnished the Saddozay kings frequently with top counselors, who served occasionally as regents, identified with the epithet Mohammadzay.

Kabul

[Afghanistan before
                        1901]
1881 - c.1901 

Great Kings of Afghanistan (Padshah)
Jul 1747 -  4 Jun 1772     Ahmad Shah "Durr-i Durran"         (b. 1722 - d. 1772)
 
5 Jun 1772 - Aug 1772     Sulayman Shah
Aug 1772 - 19 May 1793     Timur Shah                         (b. 1748 - d. 1793)
24? May 1793 - 24 Jul 1801 Zaman Shah                         (b. c.1767 - d. 1845)
24 Jul 1801 - Jul 1803     Mahmud Shah (1st time)             (d. c.1829)
13 Jul 1803 - 1809         Shuja` al-Mulk Shah (1st time)     (b. c.1785 - d. 1842)
1807 - 1808                Qaysar Shah (in rebellion)
 3 May 1809 - 1826         Mahmud Shah (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1818                       Sultan `Ali Shah                   (d. 1819)
1818 - 1829                Ayyub Shah                         (d. 1837)
1823                       Habibollah Shah
1823 - 1826                Sultan Mohammad Khan               (b. 1795 - d. 1861)
                             Mohammadzay -Regent
1826 - 1836                Dost Mohammad Khan                 (b. 1789 - d. 1863)
                             Mohammadzay -Regent
1829 - 1842                Kamran Shah                        (d. 1842)
Emir

1836 -  2 Aug 1839         Dost Mohammad Khan (1st time)      (s.a.) 
                             (exiled
Aug 1839-Aug 1840 to Bukhara, 12 Nov 1840-Apr 1843 India)
Kings

 8 May 1839 -  6 Apr 1842  Shuja` al-Mulk Shah (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1841 - Apr 1842            Mohammad Zaman Khan     
                             Mohammadzay -Regent 
                             (in rebellion)
Apr 1842 - 12 Oct 1842     Fath Jang Shah                     (d. 1855)
12 Oct 1842 - Apr 1843     Shahpur Shah                       (d. 1884)
Emirs
Apr/May 1843 - 9 Jun 1863  Dost Mohammad Khan (2nd time)      (s.a.)

12 Jun 1863 - 25 May 1866  Shir `Ali Khan (1st time)          (b. 1825 - d. 1879)
                            (entered Kabul Sep 1863; lost control of Kabul Mar 1866-11 Sep 1868)
25 May 1866 -  4 Oct 1867  Mohammad Afzal Khan                (b. 1811 - d. 1867)
                            (extended control to Kandahar in Jan 1867)
11 Oct 1867 - Oct 1868     Mohammad A`zam Khan                (b. 1818 - d. 1869)
                            (lost control of Kabul 21 Aug 1868, fled country Oct 1868)
11 Sep 1868 - 22 Feb 1879  Shir `Ali Khan (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                            (entered Kabul 11 Sep 1868; fled to Mazar-i Sharif on 13 Dec 1878)
28 Feb 1879 - 28 Oct 1879  Mohammad Ya`qub Khan               (b. 1849 - d. 1923)
1879 - 31 Mar 1880         Mohammad Jan -Minister-regent      (b. .... - d. 1880)
British General Officers Commanding, Kabul Field Force
(from May 1880, Northern Afghanistan Field Force)

28 Oct 1879 -  2 May 1880  Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts       (b. 1832 - d. 1914)
 2 May 1880 - 22 Jul 1880  Sir Donald Martin Stewart          (b. 1824 - d. 1900)
Emirs
20/27 Dec 1879-20 Apr 1880 Musa Jan Khan                      (b. 1868 - d. 1951)
                             (proclaimed ruler in Ghazni, Ghazni occupied by U.K. army 20 Apr 1880)
20 Jul 1880 -  3 Oct 1901  Abdul Rahman Khan                  (b. 1844 - d. 1901)
                             (recognized by U.K. on 22 Jul 1880)

Chief ministers (Wazir-i-azam)
1747 - 1773                Bagi Khan Salihzai Bamizai
                             (Shah Wali Khan)
1773 - 1774                Sardar Rahim Dad Khan Sultan
                             Muhammad Barakzay
                             (chief of royal secretariat)
177. - 1793                Payinda Khan Mohammadzay (Barakzay)(b. c.1728 - d. 1798)
                             Sarfraz Khan
1793 - 1801                Rahmatullah Khan Kamran Khel
                             Sadozai (Wafadar Khan)
1801 – 1803                Fateh Khan Mohammadzay (Barakzay)  (b. 1780 – d. 1818)
                             (1st time)
1803 - 1808                Shir Mohammad Khan                 (d. 1808)
1808 - 1809                Nawab Mohammad
`Uman Khan
1809 - 1817                Fateh Khan Mohammadzay (Barakzay)  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1818                       Dost Mohammad Khan
Mohammadzay     (s.a.)
1818 - 1823                Mohammad `Azim Khan                (b. 1785 - d. 1823)
1823                       Habibollah Khan
1823 - 1824                Yar Mohammad Khan
Alikozay         (b. c.1790 - d. 1851)
1824 - 1826                Soltan Mohammad Khan Mohammadzay   (s.a.)
1826? - 1839               Mirza Sami Khan
1839 - 1840                Mullah Shakur Ishakzai
1840 - 1842                Mohammad `Usman Khan Sadozay       (b. 1798 - d. 1865)
1841 - May 1842            Aminullah Khan Logari
                             (in rebellion, with Mohammad Zaman Khan)
Jun 1842 - Sep 1842        Mohammad Akbar Khan
Oct 1842 - Dec 1842        Gholam Mohammad Khan Bamizai
                           + Khan Shirin Khan Jawansher
1842 - c.1848?             Mohammad Akbar Khan                (d. c.1848)
c.1848? - 1855            
Gholam Haydar Khan                 (b. 18.. - d. 1858)
1855 - 1863                ....
1863 - 18..                Mohammad Rafiq Khan
c.1869 - 1878              Sayyid Nur Mohammad Khan           (d. 1878)
c.1878 - 1880              Mirza Mohammad Hassan Khan


Regional Rulers:

Herat
[Herat flag,
                          c.1829 - 1863 (Afghanistan)]c.1829 - 26 May 1863


25 Oct 1856 - 24 May 1857  Direct rule of military authorities of Persia, occupying Herat.

Persian Governor

1695 - 1708                Sultan Abdullah Khan Abdali        (b. 1670 - d. 1721)
Shah (in rebellion against Persia)
1708 - Aug 1712           
Abdullah Khan                      (s.a.)
Persian Governors
16 Oct 1712 -  4 Oct 1720  Shahzada Assadullah Khan Abdali    (b. 1687 - d. 1720)
15 Jul 1722 - Aug 1724     Shahzada Muhammad Khan Abdali      (d. 1750)
Aug 1724 - 21 Apr 1730     Allah Yar Khan Abdali (1st time)
21 Apr 1730 - Jul 1731     Sardar Zulfikhar Khan Abdali       (d. af.1738)
Jul 1731 - 27 Feb 1732     Allah Yar Khan Abdali (2nd time)

Great Kings of Afghanistan
(in dissidence, at Herat)
Jul 1747 - 1797            see Kabul
Jan? 1797 - Sep/Oct 1797   Mahmud Shah (1st time)             (d. c.1829)
1797 - 1818                see Kabul
1818 - 1819                Mahmud Shah (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1819                       see Kandahar
1819 - 1826                Mahmud Shah (3rd time)             (s.a.)
1829 - 1842                Kamran Shah                        (d. 1842)
1842 -  1 Jun 1851         Yar Mohammad Khan                  (b. c.1790 - d. 1851)
                             Alikozay -Minister-regent
 1 Jun 1851 - 15 Sep 1855  Sayyed Mohammad Khan               (d. 1855)
                             Alikozay -Minister-regent
15 Sep 1855 - Jun 1856     Mohammad Yusuf Khan                (d. 1857)
                             Mohammadzay -Regent
Jun 1856 - Oct 1856        Isa Khan Bardorani -Minister-regent
Oct 1856 - 27 Jul 1857     occupied by Persia
Emirs
of Afghanistan (in opposition, at Herat)
27 Jul 1857 - 26 May 1863  Sultan Ahmad Khan                  (d. 1863)
26 May 1863 -  9 Jun 1863  see Kabul
 9 Jun 1863 -  8 Sep 1868  Shir `Ali Khan                     (b. 1825 - d. 1879)
 8 Sep 1868 - 12 Oct 1879  see Kabul
Mar 1880 -  2 Oct 1881     Mohammad Ayyub Khan                (b. 1855 - d. 1914)

Chief ministers (Wazir)  
1801 - 1818                Fateh Khan Mohammadzay (Barakzay)  (s.a.)
1818 - 1828/29             Ata M
ohammad Khan
1828/29 - Mar 1842         Yar Mohammad Khan
Alikozay         (s.a.)

Kandahar (Qandahar)
 
[Afghanistan
                          before 1901] c.1881


11 May 1880                The province of Kandahar is detached from the domains of the former
                             Muhammadzai rulers as a de facto separate polity upon the
                             installation of a ruler titled wali approved by the government of
                             British India and recognized by the British crown.
11 May 1880 - 21 Apr 1881  Kandahar (Qandahar).
21 Apr 1881                Sovereignty of Kandahar was rescinded when the city and citadel of
                             Kandahar were transferred from the military officials of British
                             India to the officials of Abdul Rahman Khan.

Persian Governors
May 1704 - 21 Apr 1709     Gorgin Khan (= Giorgi XI of Kartli) (b. 1651 - d. 1709)
Nov 1709 - 26 Oct 1711     Ki-Khosrow (= Kaikhosro of Kartli)  (b. c.1674 - d. 1711)
21 Apr 1709 - 1715         Mir Wais Khan Hotaki                (b. c.1673 - d. 1715)
                             (in rebellion to 1711)
1715  (6 months)           Mir Abdollah Khan Hotaki            (d. 1715)
1715 - 1722                Mahmud Shah Hotaki                  (b. c.1699 - d. 1725)
1722 - 12 Mar 1738         Hussain Sultan Khan Hotaki          (d. 1738)

Great Kings of Afghanistan (in opposition, at Kandahar)
Jul 1747 - Aug 1772        see Kabul
Aug 1772 - 1772            Sulayman Shah
1772 - May 1793            see Kabul
May 1793 - Sep/Oct 1793    Humayun Shah (1st time)
Sep/Oct 1793-Sep/Oct 1794  see Kabul
Sep/Oct 1794-6/7 Jan 1795  Humayun Shah (2nd time)
6/7 Jan 1795 - 1806        see Kabul
1803 - 1804                Qaysar Shah
1804 - 1805                Kamran Shah
1805 - 1808                see Kabul
1808                       Mahmud Shah (1st time)              (d. 1829)
1808 - 1809                see Kabul
1809 -  3 May 1809         Mahmud Shah (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 3 May 1809 - 1818         see Kabul
1819 - 1826                Shirdil Khan Mohammadzay -Regent    (b. c.1786 - d. 1826)
1826 - 1839                Purdil Khan Mohammadzay -Regent     (b. c.1785 - d. 183.)
Apr 1839 -  5 Apr 1842     Shuja` al-Mulk Shah                 (s.a.)
May 1842 - 1842            Safdar Jang Khan Saddozay -Regent
1842 - Aug 1855            Kohandil Khan Mohammadzay -Regent   (b. c.1792 - d. 1855)
Aug 1855 - Nov 1855        Mohammad Sadeq Khan 
                             Mohammadzay -Regent
Nov 1855 - Jul 1858        Ghulam Haydar Khan                  (b. 18.. - d. 1858)
                             Mohammadzay -Regent
Jul 1858 -  9 Jun 1863     see Kabul
Emirs of Afghanistan (in opposition, at Kandahar) 
1863 - 1865                Mohammad Amin Khan                  (b. 18.. - d. 1865)
1865 - Jan 1867            Shir `Ali Khan (1st time)           (b. 1825 - d. 1879)
Jan 1867 -  7 Oct 1867     Mohammad Afzal Khan                 (b. 1811 - d. 1867)
 7 Oct 1867 - Apr 1868     Mohammad A`zam Khan                 (b. 1818 - d. 1869)
Apr 1868 -  8 Sep 1868     Shir `Ali Khan (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 8 Sep 1868 - 12 Oct 1879  see Kabul
1880 - 21 Apr 1881         Shir `Ali Khan                      (d. 1897)
                             Barakzay -Minister-regent
21 Apr 1881 - 20 Jul 1881  see Kabul
20 Jul 1881 - 22 Sep 1881  Mohammad Ayyub Khan                 (s.a.)

Peshawar

1747                       Part of Afghanistan.
 8 May 1758 - 1759         Occupied by Maratha Empire.
1818 - 1822                Peshawar valley a Sikh vassal.
 6 May 1834                Independent rule is rescinded after the capture of the citadel
                             of Peshawar by the armed forces of the Sikhs (see Punjab under
                             Indian Princely states).

Great Kings of Afghanistan (in opposition, at Peshawar)
Jul 1747 - Aug 1801        see Kabul
Aug 1801 - Sep 1801        Shuja` al-Mulk Shah (1st time)      (s.a.)
Sep 1801 - 1818            see Kabul
1818                       Ayyub Shah (1st time)               (d. 1837)
1818                       Shuja` al-Mulk Shah (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1818 - 1829                Ayyub Shah (2nd time)               (s.a.)


Afghanistan
 

General Secretaries of the People's Democratic (Communist) Party of Afghanistan (HDK)
 1 May 1978 - 16 Sep 1979  Nur Mohammad Taraki                (b. 1917 - d. 1979)
16 Sep 1979 - 27 Dec 1979  Hafizullah Amin                    (b. 1929 - d. 1979) 
27 Dec 1979 -  4 May 1986  Babrak Karmal (= Sultan Hussain)   (b. 1929 - d. 1996) 
 4 May 1986 - 28 Jun 1990  Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzay       (b. 1947 - d. 1996)


Commanders of the Faithful (style Amir al-Mo´menin)(de facto Rulers)
 4 Apr 1996 - 13 Nov 2001  Mullah Mohammad Omar Akhund        (b. 1960 - d. 2013)  Tal
                             (continues in rebellion to 23 Apr 2013)
29 Jul 2015 - 21 May 2016  Akhtar Mohammad Mansour            (b. c.1968 - d. 2016)Tal
                             (in rebellion)
15 Aug 2021 -              Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada      (b. c.1960)          Tal
                             (in rebellion from 25 May 2016)

Emirs¹
20 Jul 1880 -  3 Oct 1901  Abdul Rahman Khan                  (b. 1844 - d. 1901)
                             (proclaimed at assembly in Charikar 20 Jul 1880;
                             recognized by the U.K. on 22 Jul 1880)
Apr 1887 - Jun 1887        Timur Shah Khan Ghilzay

                             (in rebellion, at Herat)
 1 Aug 1887 - 29 Sep 1887  Sardar Mohammad Ishaq Khan
                             (in rebellion, at Balkh)
14 Aug 1887 - Sep 1887     Mohammad Ayyub Khan                (b. 1855 - d. 1914)
                             (in rebellion, at Herat)
 3 Oct 1901 - 20 Feb 1919  Habibullah Khan                    (b. 1872 - d. 1919)
20 Feb 1919 - 27 Feb 1919  Nasrullah Khan                     (b. 1875 - d. 1920)
                             (recognized by notables in Jalalabad 20 Feb 1919,
                             publicly proclaimed 21 Feb 1919, abdicated 27 Feb 1919)
21 Feb 1919 -  9 Jun 1926  Amanullah Khan                     (b. 1892 - d. 1960)
                             (recognized by notables in Kabul 21 Feb 1919)

Kings¹
 9 Jun 1926 - 14 Jan 1929  Amanullah Shah                     (s.a.)
14 Jan 1929 - 17 Jan 1929  Inayatullah Shah                   (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
                             (publicly proclaimed 14 Jan 1929, abdicated 17 Jan 1919)
Emirs
¹
14 Dec 1928 - 13 Oct 1929  Habibullah "Ghazi"                 (b. 1890? - d. 1929)
                             (recognized at a meeting outside Kabul 14 Dec 1928,
                             publicly proclaimed in Kabul 16 Jan 1929)
c.23 Jan 1929-28 Feb 1929  Ali Ahmad Khan (1st time)          (b. 1883 - d. 1929)

                             (in rebellion, at Jalalabad)
Jan 1929 - 23 May 1929     Amanullah Khan -King
¹              (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion, at Kandahar)
23 May 1929 -  1 Jun 1929  Ali Ahmad Khan (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion, at Kandahar)
1929 - 15 Oct 1929         Mohammad Nadir Khan                (b. 1880 - d. 1933)
                             (in rebellion, at Khost)
Kings¹
15 Oct 1929 -  8 Nov 1933  Mohammad Nadir Shah                (s.a.)
 8 Nov 1933 - 17 Jul 1973  Mohammad Zahir Shah                (b. 1914 - d. 2007)
                            (from 15 Jun 2002, styled "Baba-i millat-i Afghan"
                            [Father of the Afghan Nation])
President

18 Jul 1973 - 15 Feb 1977  Mohammad Daud Khan Mohammadzay     (b. 1909 - d. 1978)  Ind;1976 NRP
State President
15 Feb 1977 - 27 Apr 1978  Mohammad Daud Khan Mohammadzay     (s.a.)               NRP
Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Council of the National Armed Forces of Afghanistan
27 Apr 1978 - 30 Apr 1978  Abdul Qadir Dagarwal               (b. 1944 - d. 2014)  Mil
Presidents of the Revolutionary Council 
30 Apr 1978 - 16 Sep 1979  Nur Mohammad Taraki                (s.a.)               HDK
16 Sep 1979 - 27 Dec 1979  Hafizullah Amin                    (s.a.)               HDK
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Revolutionary Council and Presidents of the Revolutionary Council
27 Dec 1979 - 20 Nov 1986  Babrak Karmal                      (s.a.)               HDK
20 Nov 1986 - 30 Sep 1987  Mohammad Shamkani (acting)         (b. 1947 - d. 2012)  Non-party
30 Sep 1987 - 30 Nov 1987  Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzay       (s.a.)               HDK
Presidents
30 Nov 1987 - 16 Apr 1992  Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzay       (s.a.)               HDK;1990 HW
18 Apr 1992 - 28 Apr 1992  Abdul Rahim Hatif (acting)         (b. 1926 - d. 2013)  HW
President of the Jihad Council and Representative
28 Apr 1992 - 28 Jun 1992  Sibghatullah Mojaddedi             (b. 1925 - d. 2019)  JNM
President of the Leadership Council and President

 6 May 1992 -  2 Jan 1993  Burhanuddin Rabbani                (b. 1940 - d. 2011)  JIA
                             (in dissidence to 28 June 1992)
President
 2 Jan 1993 - 22 Dec 2001  Burhanuddin Rabbani                (s.a.)               JIA;+ 1997
                             (in rebellion 27 Sep 1996 - 13 Nov 2001,              UINFSA
                             largely retaining international recognition)
Heads of the Supreme Council2
27 Sep 1996 - 16 Apr 2001  Mullah Mohammad Rabbani Akhund     (b. 1956 - d. 2001)  Tal
16 Apr 2001 - 13 Nov 2001  Maulavi Mohammad Abdul Kabir       (b. c.1958)          Tal
                             (acting)
Chairman of the Interim Administration
22 Dec 2001 - 19 Jun 2002  Hamid Karzay                       (b. 1957)            Non-party
Presidents
19 Jun 2002 - 29 Sep 2014  Hamid Karzay                       (s.a.)               Non-party
29 Sep 2014 - 15 Aug 2021  Mohammad Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzay     (b. 1949)            Non-party
                             (fled country 15 Aug 2021)
 9 Mar 2020 - 17 May 2020  Abdullah Abdullah                  (b. 1960)            IM
                             (in dissidence)
17 Aug 2021 -  6 Sep 2021  Amrullah Saleh (acting)            (b. 1972)            BM
                             (in Panjshir, in dissidence)
Head of Government
2
 7 Sep 2021 -              Mullah Mohammad Hassan Akhund      (s.a.)               Tal
                             (interim)


Chief ministers (Wazirs)
1892 - 1901                Mir Abdul Kasim
1905 - 1916                Sardar Abdul Kuddus Khan           (b. 1842 - d. 1928)
1916                       Ali Ahmad Khan Barakzay            (b. 1883 - d. 1929?)
                           + Sardar Mohammad Sulaiman Khan    (b. bf.1880 - d. 1928)
                           (acting)
1916 - 20 Feb 1919         Nasrullah Khan                     (s.a.)
Prime ministers
Mar 1919 - 25 Oct 1927     Sardar Abdul Kuddus Khan           (s.a.)               Non-party
25 Oct 1927 - 17 Jan 1929  Sardar Shir Ahmad "Sura-i Milli"   (b. 1883 - d. 1929)  Non-party
17 Jan 1929 - 14 Nov 1929  Vacant
14 Nov 1929 -  9 May 1946  Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan        (b. 1884 - d. 1953)  Non-party
 9 May 1946 - 20 Sep 1953  Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan Gazi       (b. 1887 - d. 1959)  Non-party
20 Sep 1953 - 14 Mar 1963  Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Mohammadzay 
14 Mar 1963 -  2 Nov 1965  Mohammad Yusuf                     (b. 1917 - d. 1998)  Non-party
 2 Nov 1965 - 11 Oct 1967  Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal         (b. 1919 - d. 1973)  Non-party
11 Oct 1967 -  1 Nov 1967  Abdullah Yaqta (interim)           (b. 1914 - d. 2003)  Non-party
 1 Nov 1967 -  9 Jun 1971  Mohammad Nur Ahmad Etemadi         (b. 1921 - d. 1979)  Non-party
 9 Jun 1971 - 12 Dec 1972  Abdul Zahir                        (b. 1910 - d. 1982)  Non-party
12 Dec 1972 - 17 Jul 1973  Mohammad Musa Shafiq               (b. 1932 - d. 1979)  Non-party
17 Jul 1973 - 27 Apr 1978  Post abolished
 1 May 1978 - 27 Mar 1979  Nur Mohammad Taraki                (s.a.)               HDK
27 Mar 1979 - 27 Dec 1979  Hafizullah Amin                    (s.a.)               HDK
27 Dec 1979 - 11 Jun 1981  Babrak Karmal                      (s.a.)               HDK
11 Jun 1981 - 26 May 1988  Sultan Ali Keshtmand (1st time)    (b. 1935)            HDK
26 May 1988 - 21 Feb 1989  Mohammad Hassan Sharq              (b. 1925)            Non-party
21 Feb 1989 -  8 May 1990  Sultan Ali Keshtmand (2nd time)    (s.a.)               HDK
 8 May 1990 - 15 Apr 1992  Fazl al-Haqq Khaliqyar             (b. 1934 - d. 2004) HDK;6-1990 HW
15 Apr 1992 -  6 Jul 1992  Vacant
 6 Jul 1992 - 15 Aug 1992  Abdul Sabur Farid Kohistani        (b. 1952 - d. 2007)  HIA-G
15 Aug 1992 - 17 Jun 1993  Vacant
17 Jun 1993 - 28 Jun 1994  Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (1st time)     (b. 1949)            HIA-G
28 Jun 1994 - 16 Nov 1995  Arsala Rahmani Daulat (acting)     (b. 1937 - d. 2012)  IT
16 Nov 1995 - 26 Jun 1996  Ahmad Shah Ahmadzay (acting)       (b. 1944 - d. 2021)  IT
26 Jun 1996 - 27 Sep 1996  Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (2nd time)     (s.a.)               HIA-G
                             (continues under Burhanuddin Rabbani to 11 Aug 1997)
11 Aug 1997 - 21 Aug 1997  Abdul Rahim Ghafoorzai             (b. 1947? - d. 1997) UINFSA
                             (under Burhanuddin Rabbani)
21 Aug 1997 - 30 Sep 1997  Mohammad Ali Jawid (acting)        (b. 1950)            HIA
                             (under Burhanuddin Rabbani)
30 Sep 1997 - 29 Sep 2014  Post abolished
Chief executive
29 Sep 2014 -  9 Mar 2020  Abdullah Abdullah                  (s.a.)               IM
Head of Interim Government
 7 Sep 2021 -              Mullah Mohammad Hassan Akhund      (s.a.)               Tal

[International Security Assistance
                            Force in Afghanistan 2002-2008]
2002 - 28 Dec 2008 ISAF
[Operation
                          Resolute Support (NATO) 2008-2021
                          (Afghanistan)]
28 Dec 2008 - 12 Jul 2021 RS

Commanders, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 
10 Jan 2002 - 20 Jun 2002  John Chalmers McColl (U.K.)        (b. 1952)
20 Jun 2002 - 10 Feb 2003  Akın Zorlu (Turkey)                (b. 1948 - d. 2014)
10 Feb 2003 - 11 Aug 2003  Norbert van Heyst (Germany)        (b. 1944)
11 Aug 2003 -  9 Feb 2004  Götz Gliemeroth (Germany)          (b. 1943)
 9 Feb 2004 -  9 Aug 2004  Rick J. Hillier (Canada)           (b. 1956)
 9 Aug 2004 - 13 Feb 2005  Jean-Louis Py (France)             (b. 1948)
13 Feb 2005 -  5 Aug 2005  Ethem Erdaği (Turkey)              (b. 1949)
 5 Aug 2005 -  4 May 2006  Mauro Del Vecchio (Italy)          (b. 1946)
Commanders, U.S. Forces Afghanistan and International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 
 4 May 2006 -  6 Feb 2007  David J. Richards (U.K.)           (b. 1952)
 6 Feb 2007 -  3 Jun 2008  Dan K. McNeill (U.S.)              (b. 1946)
 3 Jun 2008 - 15 Jun 2009  David D. McKiernan (U.S.)          (b. 1950)
15 Jun 2009 - 23 Jun 2010  Stanley A. McChrystal (U.S.)       (b. 1954)
23 Jun 2010 -  4 Jul 2010  Sir Nicholas "Nick" Parker (U.K.)  (b. 1954)
                             (acting)
 4 Jul 2010 - 18 Jul 2011  David H. Petraeus (U.S.)           (b. 1952)
18 Jul 2011 - 10 Feb 2013  John R. Allen (U.S.)               (b. 1953)
10 Feb 2013 - 26 Aug 2014  Joseph F. Dunford, Jr. (U.S.)      (b. 1955)
26 Aug 2014 - 28 Dec 2014  John F. Campbell (U.S.)            (b. 1957)
Commanders, U.S. Forces Afghanistan and NATO Operation Resolute Support
28 Dec 2014 -  2 Mar 2016  John F. Campbell (U.S.)            (s.a.)
 2 Mar 2016 -  2 Sep 2018  John "Mick" W. Nicholson Jr. (U.S.)(b. 1957)
 2 Sep 2018 - 12 Jul 2021  Austin Scott Miller (U.S.)         (b. 1961)
12 Jul 2021 - 30 Aug 2021  Kenneth F. McKenzie, Jr. (U.S.)    (b. 1957)

Commanders of Soviet Forces (40th Combined Army)(in Kabul)
27 Dec 1979 - 23 Sep 1980  Yuriy Vladimirovich Tukharinov     (b. 1927 - d. 1998)
23 Sep 1980 - 12 May 1982  Boris Ivanovich Tkach              (b. 1935 - d. 2010)
13 May 1982 -  3 Nov 1983  Viktor Fyodorovich Yermakov        (b. 1935)
 3 Nov 1983 - 19 Apr 1985  Leonid Yevstafyevich Generalov     (b. 1937 - d. 1991)
19 Apr 1985 - 30 Apr 1986  Igor Nikolayevich Rodionov         (b. 1936 - d. 2014)
30 Apr 1986 -  1 Jun 1987  Viktor Petrovich Dubynin           (b. 1943 - d. 1992)
 1 Jun 1987 - 15 Feb 1989  Boris Vsevolodovich Gromov         (b. 1943)         

British Envoys and Ministers
 7 Aug 1839 - 23 Dec 1841  William Hay Macnaghten             (b. 1793 - d. 1841)
Dec 1841 -  6 Jan 1842     Eldred Pottinger (acting)          (b. 1811 - d. 1843)
British Agents (Wakil)
1857 - Mar 1859            Nawab Faujdar Khan Alizai          (d. 1875)
Apr 1859 - 1865            Gholam Husain Khan Alizai          (d. 1881)
Feb 1864 - Jan 1868        Bukhtiar (Bakhtyar) Khan (acting)  (d. 1879)
Jan 1868 - 1879            Attah Mohammad Khan Khagwani       (d. 1897)
British Envoy and Minister Plenipotentiary
24 Jul 1879 -  3 Sep 1879  Pierre Louis Napoleon Cavagnari    (b. 1841 - d. 1879)
British Chief Political Officer
19 Mar 1880 - 22 Jul 1880  Lepel Henry Griffin (Griffin Sahib)(b. 1838 - d. 1908)
                            (appointed 30 Jan 1880, arrived 19 Mar 1880)
British Agents of the Government of India
Jun 1882 - Jun 1885        Khan Bahadur Mohammad Afzal Khan  
1885 - Jul 1891            Mirza Attaullah Khan Sardar
Jul 1891 - 1894            Sardar Mohammad Afzal Khan
Dec 1894                   Mohammad Izzat Khan (acting)
Dec 1894 - Sep 1895        Mohammad Akram Khan                (b. 1852 - d. 1895)
1897 - 1900                Maulvi Ghafoor Khan
Mar 1900 - 1903            Hafiz Mohammad Nawaz Khan
Jul 1903 - 1907            Malik Khuda Bakhsh Khan Tiwana     (b. 1868 - d. 19..)
Mar 1907 - Jul 1910        Fakir Sayyid Iftikharuddin
Jul 1910 - Nov 1913        Malik Talib Mehdi Khan             (b. 1871 - d. 19..)
Nov 1913 - Aug 1919        Hafiz Saifullah Khan

Afghan Interim Government in exile (in Peshawar, Pakistan) 1988-1992

[Afghan Exile Govt. in Peshawar 1989-1992
                  flag]

President
14 Feb 1989 - 27 Apr 1992  Sibghatullah Mojaddedi              (s.a.)               JNM

Prime ministers
19 Jun 1988 - 14 Feb 1989  Ahmad Shah Ahmadzay                 (s.a.)               IT
14 Feb 1989 - 27 Apr 1992  Abdul Rab Rasul Sayyaf              (b. 1946)            IT 

[Qandahar Transitional Flag revolt 1929
                          (Afghanistan State flag c.1920)]
1929 Qandahar Transitional Flag

  ¹full title: 
 (a) the title Emir (Amir) was dropped from international use since Jun 1926, but the coins bore this title as part of the tughra to the accession of Nadir Shah in 1929; the styles Da Afghanistan Padshah in Pashto and Padshah-i Afghanistan ("King of Afghanistan") in Persian are found in the Constitutions of 1923 and 1931. The styles used in the Constitution of 1964 were Bacha in Pashto and Padshah ("King") in Persian. The official styles used for the promulgation of laws (published in Afghanistan Official Gazette in 1964-1973) were Da Afghanistan Bacha in Pashto and Padshah-i Afghanistan ("King of Afghanistan") in Persian.

  2the de facto leader during the Taliban rule from 3 Apr 1996, starting in Kandahar, and taking Kaubul 27 Sep 1996, was Mullah Mohammad Omar Akhund (s.a.), styled Amir al-Mo´menin. The United Nations, U.S. and most countries recognized the government of Burhanuddin Rabbani (s.a.) as the legitimate government of Afghanistan during the Taliban period. During this period the Burhanuddin Rabbani government controlled only Takhar and parts of Badakhshan provinces. The Rabbani government retakes Kabul on 27 Sep 1996 and drives the Taliban from Kandahar 7 Dec 2001. On 15 Aug 2021, the Taliban retake Kabul and on 19 Aug 2021 restore the Islamic Emirate under Amir al-Mo´menin Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada (s.a.).

International Disputes: Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military met periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps and since 2014 have met to discuss collaboration on the Taliban insurgency and counterterrorism efforts; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey; Iran protests Afghanistan's restricting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries.

Party abbreviations (parties banned 1997-2001): BM = Basij-i Milli (National Movement, also known as Rawand-i Sabz-i Afghanistan [Afghanistan Green Trend], centrist, Islamic democratic, reformist, Amrullah Saleh personalist, est.2010); HIA = Harakat-i Islami-yi Afghanistan (Islamic Movement of Afghanistan, Shi'a Islamist, est.1978); HIA-G = Hizb-i Islami-yi Afghanistan - Gulbuddin (Islamic Party Afghanistan-Gulbuddin, HIA-Gulbuddin Hekmatyar faction, radical islamist, G. Hekmatyar personalist, Pashtun, est.1977); IM = I'tilaf-i Milli-yi Afghanistan/Da Afghnistan da Milli I'tilaf, (National Coalition of Afghanistan, Hamid Karzai opposition, communitarianism, Islamist, populist, est.2010); Ind = Independent; JIA = Jam'iyyat-i Islami-yi Afghanistan (Islamic Association of Afghanistan, moderate islamist, Tajik, est.1968); JMI = Junbish-i Milli-yi Islami-yi Afghanistan (National Islamic Movement of Afghanistan, left-wing, mainly Uzbek, est.1992); JNM = Jabha-yi Nijat-i Milli-yi Afghanistan (National Liberation Front of Afghanistan, anti-communist, moderate islamist, mainly Pashtun, est.1978); Tal = Tahrik-i Islami-yi Taliban Afghanistan/Da Afghanistan da Talibano Islami Tahrik (Islamic Movement of Students of Afghanistan, Islamic fundamentalist, Pashtun, government party 1997-2001 and from 2021, est.1994); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: HDK = Hizb-i Dimukratik-i Khalq-i Afghanistan (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, communist, 1990 renounced Marxism, 1965-28 Jun 1990, then HW); HW = Hizb-i Watan (Fatherland Party, social-democratic, former HDK, 1990-1992); IT = Ittihad-i Islami Bara-yi Azadi-yi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan, extreme Islamist, mainly Pashtun, 1981-2005, renamed Hizb-i Tanzim-i Da'wat-i Islami-yi Afghanistan/Da Afghanistan da Da'wat Islami Tanzim [Islamic Mission Organization of Afghanistan]); NRP = Hizb-i Inqilab-i Milli (National Revolutionary Party, Mohammad Daud personalist, 1977-1978 government party, Pashtun nationalist, 1976-1978); UINFSA = Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islami-yi Milli bara-yi Nijat-i Afghanistan (National Islamic United Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan, "Northern Alliance", anti-Taliban coalition incl. JMI, IT, Hizb-i Wahdat [Unity Party] and HIA, Sep 1996 - Dec 2001)

Other Polities Incorporated into Afghanistan

Andkhui

1730/31                    Andkhui Khanate, under suzerainty of Bukhara.
1820                       Under suzerainty of Afghanistan.
1880                       Incorporated into Afghanistan.

Khans
1730/31 - 1736             Ali Mardan Khan (for Nadir shah of Afghanistan)
1736 - 1790                Sulaiman Khan (in 1750 Mukhless Khan)
1790 - 1812                Rahmatullah Khan
1812 - 1830                Yulduz Khan
1830 - 1835                Abd'al Aziz Khan
1835 - 1844                Shah Wali Khan
1844 - 1845                Ghazanfar Khan (1st time)
1845                       Sufi Khan (1st time)
1845 - 1847                Ghazanfar Khan (2nd time)
1847                       Sufi Khan (2nd time)
1847 - 1869                Ghazanfar Khan (3rd time)
1869 - 1880                Daulat Beg Khan



Badakhshan

1657                       (Uzbek) Khanate of Badakhshan
1750? - c.1793             Incorporated into Afghanistan (Kabul) under Durrani.
1793 - 1873                Part of Bukhara khanate.
1822 - 1859                Tributary to Konduz (Qonduz).
1859                       Tributary to Afghanistan.
1873                       Incorporated into Afghanistan. 

Khans
1657 - 1708                Yari Beg
1708 - 1713                Sulaiman Shah
1713 - 1718                Yusuf Ali
1718 - 1736                Diya' ad-Din
1736 - 17..                Sulaiman Beg
17.. - 1748                Mirza Kalan I
1748 - 1765                Sultan Beg
1765 - 17..                Burhan ad-Din
17.. - 17..                Mirza Kalan II
17.. - 17..                Ahmad Shah Khan 
17.. - 17..                Mirza Kalan III 
17.. - 1792                Zaman ad-Din
1792 - 1822                Mir Mohammed Shah
1822 - 1828                Mirza Kalan IV
1828 - 1829                Mirza Abd al-Ghaful
1829 - 1832                Murad Beg
1832 - 1838                Mirza Sulaiman 
1838 - 1847                Sultan Shah
                           - jointly with -
1844 - 1862                Mir Shah Nizam ad-Din                (d. 1862)
1862 - 1869                Ghahandar Shah
1869 - 1873                Mahmud Shah



Ghurian

1803                       Ghurian Qaraei Khanate within Persia.
1816                       Incorporated into (Herat) Afghanistan.

Khans
1803 - 1813                Yusef Ali Khan Qaraei-Torbati                        
1813 - 1816                Sardar Mohammad Khan Qaraei-Torbati (b. c.1790 - d. 1850)   



Konduz (Qonduz)

1508                       Konduz (Qonduz) founded.
1520 - 1545                Annexed to Badakhshan.
.... - 1698                Annexed to Badakhshan. 
1859                       Incorporated into Afghanistan. 

Rulers
1647 - 1657                Beg Murad
1657 - 1714                Mahmud Bî
1714 - 17..                Sohrab Biy
17.. - 1740                Yusuf Biy
1740 - 1753                Hazara Biy
1753 - 1800                Mizrab Biy
1800 - 1815                Kokan Biy
1815 - 1846                Murad Beg
1846 - 1860                Sultan Murad
1869 - 1888                Sultan Ali Murad Beg 


Khulm (Kholm) 

1800? - 1841               Under suzerainty of Konduz (Qonduz).
1849                       Khulm (Kholm) annexed by Afghanistan.

Rulers
1800? - 1817               Qilij Ali Beg Khan
1817 - 1849                Muhammad Amin Beg 



Maimana (Maymana)

c.1506                     Conquered by Persia.
1747                       Maimana city state in the northwest of Afghanistan.
1876 - 1879                Incorporated into Afghanistan.
c.1900                     Incorporated into Afghanistan.

Governors
1747 - 17..                Haji Khan
17.. - 1790                Ghan
1790 - 1810                Ahmad
1810 - 1826                Allah Yar
1826 - 1845                Mizrab
1845 - 1853                Hikmat
1853 - 1876                Husain Kahn (1st time)
1876 - 1879                see Kabul
1879 - 1883                Dilwar Khan
1883 - ....                Husian Khan (2nd time)
.... - c.1900              Kemal Khan



Sar-i-Pul (Sar-i-Pol) 

c.1510                      Part of Persia.
1731 - 1800                 Ruled by Maimana.
17.. - ....                 Part of Bukhara khanate.
1750?                       Incorporated into Afghanistan.
1831                        City of Sar-i-Pul in northwest Afghanistan.
1850 - 1863                 Incorporated into Afghanistan (see Kabul).
1875                        Incorporated into Afghanistan.

Rulers (title Beglarbegis)
1731 - 1800                 see Maimana
1800 - 1840                 Zu'l-Faqar Sher Khan
1840 - 1851                 Mahmud Khan
1851 - 1862                 Qilij Khan
1861 - 1862                 see Kabul
1862 - 1864                 Muhammad Khan (1st time)
1864 - 1866                 see Kabul
1866? - 1875                Muhammad Khan (2nd time)



Shibarghan (Sheberghan)‏

1757                        Shibarghan a Khanate 
1855 - 1859                 Occupied by Afghanistan.
1875                        Incorporated into Afghanistan.

Hakims
1747 - 1757                 Izbasar (for Bukhara)
1757 - 1800                 Daulat Khan
1800 - 1820                 Erich Khan
1820 - 1829                 Manwar Khan
1829 - 1851                 Rustam Khan (from 1846 Husain Khan)
1851 - 1855                 Hakim Khan 
                            + Nizam al Daula 
1855 - 1859                 Sardar Wali Muhammad Khan Barakzai
                              (Afghan military governor)
1859 - 1875                 Hakim Khan 





© Ben Cahoon