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Zimbabwe Traditional States 


Note: This record is in three parts: (A) the end of the "Changamire Empire"; (B) other Shona states; (C) the Ndebele ("Matabele") Kingdom.


"Changamire Empire"

Note: Various names have been proposed for this polity, among them Botwa, Moyo-vaRozwi, Ukalanga (i.e., Karanga, the state [see Mozambique traditional states] of which this polity is historically an offshoot). Changamire is probably a distortion, adopted by the Portuguese, of name and/or epithet of the founder.

c.1480                     Changamire, briefly usurping ruler of the Karanga state, is 
                             removed and establishes a separate polity; its history to
                             c.1680 is obscure.
c.1680                     The Changamire state absorbs the Torwa state.
1857                       The last effective ruler flees (he is captured 1866) and the 
                             British South Africa Company rules (till 1923) The ruling 
                             lineage continues to claim the royal style.

Rulers (title Mambo)
1700? - 1710               Changamire Negamo
1710 - ....                ....
c.1802                     Gumboremvura Changamire
1828 - 1836                Chirisamhuru II Changamire Dhlembevu 
                             (= Sabanko Changamire = Chapungu Changamire)
1836 - 1838                Vacant
1838 - 1857                Tohwechipi Changamire "Chibamubamu"



Other Shona states

Bocha

Rulers (title Mambo)
bf.1750                    Mutekwatekwa
.... - ....                Chiruka (later Dongorere)
.... - ....                Chimhiti
.... - ....                Gandidzanwa
.... - ....                Nyachitwu
1938 - 19..                Chikwa
19.. - 19..                Manjengwa
19.. - 19..                Nyamura
19.. - 19..                Nyika
1946 - 19..                Murwira
19.. - 19..                Isiah (Hama)
19.. - 19..                Solomon Murwira
19.. -                     Bernard



Buhera

Rulers (title Mambo)
1858?                      Mutema
....                       Muradzikwa



Govera

c.1788                     Govera state founded.

Rulers (title Mambo)
c.1788                     Chirimuhanzo I Mhepo
.... - ....                Chirimuhanzo II
.... - ....                Chirimuhanzo III
.... - ....                Chirimuhanzo IV
.... - ....                Chirimuhanzo V
.... - ....                Chirimuhanzo VI
.... - 1891                Chirimuhanzo VII Chatikobo
1891 - ....                Chirimuhanzo VIII Chinyama


Manyika: see Mozambique traditional states


Maungwe

c.1635                     Maungwe state founded.

Rulers (title Mambo)
.... - 1831                Makoni IX Muswati
1831 - 183.                Makoni X Zendera
183. - 1840                Mukunyadze (usurper)
1840 - 1865                Makoni XI Nyamahindi
1865 - 1889                Makoni XII Muruko
1889 -  4 Sep 1896         Makoni XIII Mutota (= Chingaira)
1896 - 1921                Makoni XIV Ndapfunya



Mbire

c.1330                     Mwene Mutapa (also called Monomatap) state founded.
c.1740                     Mbire state founded.

Rulers (title Mambo)
c.1759 - c.1785            Svosve Changara
c.1785 - c.1790            Svosve Nyamhandu II
c.1790 - c.1810            Svosve Chiwayo
c.1810 - c.1835            Svosve Nyasoro
.... - 186.                Svosve Chikunga
186. - 18..                Svosve Choto Mtuta Chidyausiku
18.. - 1896                Svosve Gusha
1896 - 1897                Svosve Chikosha



Mhari

c.1820                     Mhari state founded.

Rulers (title Mambo)
c.1830                     Chivi I Tavengerwegi
1837? - 1865               Chivi II Matsweru
1865 - Oct 1879            Chivi III Mazorodze
1879 - 188.                Chivi IV
188. - 1907                Chivi V Madhlangove



Nhowe

c.1710                     Mangwende dynasty, formerly in Matandandura and Matukutu,
                             settles in Nhowe.

Rulers (title Mambo)
c.1831                     Gatsi
18.. - 1869                Motani
1869 - 1880                Katerere
1880 - May 1924            Mungati
1924 - 1926                Vacant
1926 - 19..                Chibanda



Shavasha

c.1744                     Chinamhora dynasty, founded c.16.., settles in Shavasha.

Rulers (title Mambo)
c.1831                     Chinamhora V Chidwiza
18.. - 18..                Chinamhora VI
18.. - 18..                Chinamhora VII
c.1869                     Chinamhora VIII Chingoma
c.1888 - 1907              Chinamhora IX Kuvimadzama
1907 - 1916                Chinamhora X Shambare



amaNdebele (the Ndebele Kingdom)

1821                       Mzilikazi Khumalo, a Zulu chief, emigrates, creating a migrating
                             amaNdebele polity.
Nov 1837                   One of two migrating parties settles in its final location
                            (modern Bulawayo) and, in ignorance of the fate of Mzilikazi, 
                             installs his son Nkulumane as acting king.
1839                       Mzilikazi's party arrives and purges the Nkulumane faction,
                             consolidating the kingdom.
11 Feb 1888                Cecil Rhodes's company imposes a protectorate over 
                             the Ndebele Kingdom (Matabeleland) by the Rudd Concession 
                             (contested by the Ndebele).
 9 May 1891                Matabeleland declared a British protectorate.
Feb 1894                   The British South Africa Company (i.e., Cecil Rhodes's
                             company) extinguishes the kingdom after the flight of
                             Lobengula.
late 1894 - Dec 1896       Sporadically successful attempts at reinstating the kingdom 
                             ultimately fail.

Rulers (title Nkosi)
1821 -  9 Sep 1868         Mzilikazi ka Mthsobana Khumalo         (b. c.1790 - d. 1868)
1837 - 1839                Nkulumane ka Mzilikazi Khumalo 
                             (acting king)
 9 Sep 1868 - 24 Jan 1870  Mncumbathe ka Mzingeli Khumalo -Regent (b. c.1780 - d. c.1872)
24 Jan 1870 - Feb 1894     Jando "Lopengule" ka Mzilikazi Khumalo (b. 1836 - d. 1894)
                             (usually referred to as Lobengula)
Feb 1894 - late 1894       Vacant
late 1894 - 15 Jun 1896    Mlugulu Khumalo -Regent
15 Jun 1896 - Dec 1896     Nyamanda ka Lopengule Khumalo
Administrator of Matabeleland
Nov 1896 - Mar 1901        Arthur Lawley                          (b. 1860 - d. 1932)
                             (acting to 5 Dec 1898)







Ben Cahoon