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Zimbabwe
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                     11 Feb 1888 - 4 Nov 1893;
               1 Oct 1923 - 10 Nov 1968 (dual-flag); 
                    12 Dec 1979 - 17 Apr 1980
 
[Flag
                                    of the British South Africa
                                    Company]
                      4 Nov 1893 - 30 Sep 1923
               British South Africa Company flag 
 
[Southern Rhodesia, 1924-1954]
                    11 Aug 1924 - 22 Jul 1954
 
 
[Southern Rhodesia (Alternate
                                    version] 1924 - 1954)
            11 Aug 1924 - 22 Jul 1954  Alternate
 
 
[Federation of Rhodesia &
                                    Nyasaland 1954-1963]
                    22 Jul 1954 - 31 Dec 1963 
             Federation of Rhodesia & Nyasaland
 
[Southern Rhodesia (1964 -
                                    1968)]
                     8 Apr 1964 - 11 Nov 1968
 
 
[Rhodesia (1968 - 1979)]
                     11 Nov 1968 - 2 Sep 1979 
 
[Zimbabwe Rhodesia (1979)]
    2 Sep 1979 - 12 Dec 1979 (de facto to 18 Apr 1980)
 
[Zimbabwe]
                        Adopted 18 Apr 1980
 
Map of Zimbabwe Hear National Anthem
"Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe"
"Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe"
(Blessed Be The Land of Zimbabwe)
Adopted 18 Apr 1994
Former National Anthem
"Ishe Komborera Africa"
(God Bless Africa)
(18 Apr 1980-18 Apr 1994)
Constitution
(22 May 2013)
--------------------------------
Rhodesian Constitutions
(1961, 1965, 1970, 1979)
Capital: Harare
(Salisbury 1901-1981,
 
Mashonaland: Fort Salisbury
12 Sep 1890-1901;
Matabeleland: Bulawayo
1881-1890)
Currency: from 2009 South
 African Rand (ZAR),
US Dollar
 (USD),
Botswana Pula (BWP),
& Euro (EUR);
1980-12 Apr 2009
Zimbabwean
Dollar (ZWD);
1940-1956
Southern Rhodesia
Currency Board Pound (RHSP);
1901-1940 British Pound (GBP)
National Holiday: 18 Apr (1980)
Independence Day
Population: 13,182,908 (2013)
GDP: $7.49 billion (2013)
Exports: $3.14 billion (2013)
Imports: $4.57 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other African 11%, 
white 1%, mixed and Asian 1%, other 10.5% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 29,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: African independent Christian 38%, traditional beliefs
25%, Protestant 14%, Roman Catholic 8%, Muslim 1%,
other (mostly unaffiliated Christian) 14% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, COMESA, CTBT (signatory), CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Zimbabwe
Index
Chronology

11 Feb 1888                Cecil Rhodes' company imposes a protectorate
                             over Ndebele Kingdom (Matabeleland) via the Rudd 
                             Concession (contested by the Ndebele).
30 Oct 1888                Region named "Zambesia" by the British.
12 Sep 1890                Pioneer column raises Union Jack on Harare Hill in
                             Salisbury and claims Mashonaland for Britain.
 9 May 1891                Mashonaland and Matabeleland are declared British
                             Protectorates.
23 Jan 1894                South Zambesia created from Mashonaland and 
                             Matabeleland protectorates.
 3 May 1895                South Zambesia and North Zambesia (Zambia)
                             united as Rhodesia Protectorate.
24 Jan 1901                Mashonaland and Matabeleland united as Southern
                             Rhodesia; administered by British South
                             Africa Company.
21 Sep 1923                British colony of Southern Rhodesia (effective
                             1 Oct 1923).
 1 Aug 1953 - 31 Dec 1963  Part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
                             (Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and
                             Nyasaland).
24 Oct 1964                Renamed Rhodesia (not recognized by UK).
11 Nov 1965                Unilateral declaration of independence from
                             UK as Rhodesia (not recognized).
 2 Mar 1970                Republic of Rhodesia (not recognized).
 1 Jun 1979                Zimbabwe Rhodesia (interim state).
12 Dec 1979                Return to colonial status (Southern Rhodesia).
17 Apr 1980                Independence from Britain (Zimbabwe).
17 Apr 1991                Republic of Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe
(since 1980)
Traditional
States
 Mashonaland
(1890-1901)
Matabeleland
(1896-1901)
Southern Rhodesia
(1884-1965)
Rhodesia
(1965-1979)
Zimbabwe-
Rhodesia
(1979-1980)
Federation of
Rhodesia and
Nyasaland

(1953-1963)
 
 

Mashonaland

Resident Commissioner
29 Jun 1890 - 18 Sep 1891  Archibald Ross Colquhoun            (b. 1848 - d. 1914)
Administrators
18 Sep 1891 -  2 May 1896  Leander Starr Jameson               (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
 8 Oct 1893 - 22 Jan 1894  Andrew Henry Farrell Duncan         (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
                             (acting for Jameson)
 2 May 1896 - 24 Jul 1897  Albert Henry George Grey, Earl Grey (b. 1851 - d. 1917)
24 Jul 1897 - 24 Jan 1901  Sir William Henry Milton            (b. 1854 - d. 1930)
                             (acting to 5 Dec 1898)


Matabeleland

Administrator
Nov 1896 - Mar 1901        Arthur Lawley                       (b. 1860 - d. 1932)
                             (acting 5 Dec 1898) 


Southern Rhodesia

Chief magistrates of South Zambesia
23 Jan 1894 - May 1894     Andrew Henry Farrell Duncan        (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
                             (acting)
May 1894 -  9 Sep 1894     Leander Starr Jameson              (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
Administrators of the Rhodesia Protectorate
 9 Sep 1894 - 28 Oct 1894  Leander Starr Jameson (1st time)   (s.a.)
28 Oct 1894 -  1 Apr 1895  Francis William Rhodes (acting)    (b. 1851 - d. 1905)
 1 Apr 1895 - Jun 1895     Leander Starr Jameson (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Jun 1895 -  2 May 1896     Joseph Vincent (acting)            (b. 1861 - d. 1914)
 2 May 1896 - 24 Jul 1897  Albert Henry George Grey,          (b. 1851 - d. 1917)
                             Earl Grey 
24 Jul 1897 - 24 Jan 1901  Sir William Henry Milton           (b. 1854 - d. 1930)
                             (acting to 4 Dec 1898)
Administrators
24 Jan 1901 -  2 Nov 1914  Sir William Henry Milton           (s.a.)
 2 Nov 1914 - 24 Dec 1914  Francis James Newton (acting)      (b. 1857 - d. 1948)
24 Dec 1914 - 21 Sep 1923  Sir Francis Drummond Percy Chaplin (b. 1866 - d. 1933)
15 Oct 1919 - 14 Dec 1919  Clarkson Tredgold                  (b. 1865 - d. 1938) 
                             (acting for Chaplin)
10 Sep 1920 - 10 Dec 1920  Ernest Montagu (1st time)          (b. 1862 - d. 1952) 
                             (acting for Chaplin)
15 Nov 1922 - 10 May 1923  Ernest Montagu (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                             (acting for Chaplin)
21 Sep 1923 - 23 Sep 1923  Percy Donald Leslie Flynn (acting) (b. 1872 - d. 1940)
23 Sep 1923 -  1 Oct 1923  Vacant
Governors
 1 Oct 1923 - 15 Jun 1928  Sir John Robert Chancellor         (b. 1870 - d. 1952)
15 Jun 1928 - 24 Nov 1928  Murray Bisset (acting)             (b. 1876 - d. 1931)
24 Nov 1928 -  1 May 1934  Sir Cecil Hunter-Rodwell           (b. 1874 - d. 1953)
 1 May 1934 -  8 Jan 1935  Sir Alexander Fraser Russell       (b. 1876 - d. 1952)
                             (1st time)(acting) 
 8 Jan 1935 -  8 Jan 1942  Sir Herbert James Stanley          (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
 8 Jan 1942 - 10 Dec 1942  Sir Alexander Fraser Russell       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting) 
10 Dec 1942 - 26 Oct 1944  Sir Evelyn Baring                  (b. 1903 - d. 1973)
26 Oct 1944 - 20 Feb 1945  Sir Robert James Hudson (1st time) (b. 1885 - d. 1963)
                             (acting)
20 Feb 1945 -  2 Feb 1946  Sir William Eric Campbell Tait     (b. 1886 - d. 1946)
 2 Feb 1946 - 19 Jul 1946  Sir Alexander Fraser Russell       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (acting) 
19 Jul 1946 - 14 Jan 1947  Sir Robert James Hudson (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
14 Jan 1947 - 21 Nov 1953  Sir John Noble Kennedy             (b. 1893 - d. 1970)
21 Nov 1953 - 26 Nov 1954  Sir Robert Clarkson Tredgold       (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
                             (acting)
26 Nov 1954 - 28 Dec 1959  Sir Peveril Barton Reiby Wallop    (b. 1898 - d. 1985)
                             William-Powlett 
28 Dec 1959 - 17 Nov 1965  Humphrey Vicary Gibbs              (b. 1902 - d. 1990)
                            (from 1 Jan 1960, Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs)
                            (continues to 24 Jun 1969, unrecognized by Smith regime)

Premiers
 1 Oct 1923 - 28 Aug 1927  Sir Charles Patrick John Goghlan   (b. 1863 - d. 1927)  RP
 2 Sep 1927 - Apr 1933     Howard Unwin Moffat                (b. 1869 - d. 1951)  RP
Prime ministers
Apr 1933 -  5 Jul 1933     Howard Unwin Moffat                (s.a.)               RP
 5 Jul 1933 - 12 Sep 1933  George Mitchell                    (b. 1867 - d. 1937)  RP
12 Sep 1933 -  7 Sep 1953  Godfrey Martin Huggins             (b. 1883 - d. 1971)  PR; 1934
                            (from 1 Jan 1941, Sir Godfrey Martin Huggins)          UP;1953 FP
 7 Sep 1953 - 17 Feb 1958  R.S. Garfield Todd                 (b. 1908 - d. 2002) URP;1957 UFP
17 Feb 1958 - 17 Dec 1962  Sir Edgar Cuthbert Fremantle       (b. 1905 - d. 1971)  UFP
                             Whitehead 
17 Dec 1962 - 13 Apr 1964  Sir Winston Joseph Field           (b. 1904 - d. 1969)  DP;1962 RF
13 Apr 1964 - 11 Nov 1965  Ian Douglas Smith                  (b. 1919 - d. 2007)  RF

Chairmen of British South Africa Company
1889 - 1913                James Hamilton, Duke of Abercorn   (b. 1838 - d. 1913) 
1913 - 1917                Leander Starr Jameson              (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
1917 - 1920                Vacant
1920 - 1923                Philip Lyttleton Gell              (b. 1852 - d. 1926)
1923 - 1925                James Rochfort Maguire             (b. 1855 - d. 1925) 

Party abbreviations: DP = Dominion Party (UFP opposition, anti-federation, pro-white minority rule, 1960 renamed Federal Dominion party, 1953-1962, successor RF); FP = Federal Party (center-right, pro-federation, 1953-1957, merged with URP as UFP); RF = Rhodesian Front (conservative, Rhodesian nationalist, pro-white minority rule, republican, merger of DP and RF, Mar 1962-1981, renamed Republican Front); RP = Rhodesian Reform Party (1923-1934, merged with RP as UP, in 1962 merged with DP as RF); UFP = United Federal Party (center-right, pro-federation, in 1963 renamed Federal Party, 1958-1963); UP = United Party (merger of RP and Rhodesian Party, 1934-1953, renamed URP); URP = United Rhodesia Party (conservative, 1953-1958, merged with FP as UFP)


Rhodesia
 
[Southern
                          Rhodesia (1964 - 1968)]
              11 Nov 1965 - 11 Nov 1968 
 
[Rhodesia (1968
                          - 1979)]
               11 Nov 1968 - 2 Sep 1979 
 
[Zimbabwe
                          Rhodesia (1979)]                  2 Sep 1979 - 12 Dec 1979
Map of Rhodesia Hear National Anthem
"Rise O' Voices of Rhodesia" Adopted 26 Aug 1974 
Former National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen"
(11 Nov 1965-2 Mar 1970)
Constitution
(2 Mar 1970)
----------------------------------
Unilateral Declaration of
Independence ("UDI")

   (11 Nov 1965)
Capital: Salisbury Currency: 1970-1980
 Rhodesian Dollar
(RHD);
1964-1970 Rhodesian Pound
(RHP)

National Holiday:
11 Nov (1965)

Independence Day
Population: 6,930,000 (1978)
GDP: $3.15 billion (1974) Exports: $650 million (1973)
Imports: $541 million (1973)
Ethnic groups: Bantu tribes (black) 96%, Caucasian 3%, 
colored and Asian 1%
Total Armed Forces: 9,550 (1977)
Reserve Forces: 58,000
Merchant marine: None (1978)
Religions: Christian 75% (mostly Protestant, Roman
Catholic 9%)
Jewish (6,000) and Muslim
International Organizations/Treaties: GATT, IOC (excluded), ITU (suspended), IUOTO (expelled 1969), UIBPIP, WHO (associate)(in suspense), WMO

11 Nov 1965                Unilateral declaration of independence from Britain as 
                             Rhodesia¹ (not recognized).
 2 Mar 1970                Republic of Rhodesia (not recognized).
 1 Jun 1979                Zimbabwe Rhodesia (interim state)
12 Dec 1979                Return to colonial status as British colony 
                             of Southern Rhodesia.
17 Apr 1980                Independence from Britain (Zimbabwe).

Queen¹
11 Nov 1965 -  2 Mar 1970  Government carried on in the name                            
                           of the non-consenting Queen of

                           the United Kingdom
                          
                           Elizabeth II                        (b. 1926)
Officer Administering the Government
17 Nov 1965 -  2 Mar 1970  Clifford Walter Dupont              (b. 1905 - d. 1978)  RF
                             (acting to 20 Dec 1965)
Presidents
 2 Mar 1970 - 31 Dec 1975  Clifford Walter Dupont              (s.a.)               RF
                             (acting to 16 Apr 1970)
31 Dec 1975 - 14 Jan 1976  Henry Breedon Everard (1st time)    (b. 1897 - d. 1980)  RF
                             (acting) 
14 Jan 1976 - 31 Aug 1978  John James Wrathall                 (b. 1913 - d. 1978)  RF
31 Aug 1978 -  1 Nov 1978  Henry Breedon Everard (2nd time)    (s.a.)               RF
                             (acting) 
 1 Nov 1978 -  5 Mar 1979  Jack William Pithey (acting)        (b. 1903 - d. 1987)  RF
 5 Mar 1979 -  1 Jun 1979  Henry Breedon Everard (3rd time)    (s.a.)               RF
                             (acting)
 1 Jun 1979 - 12 Dec 1979  Josiah Zion Gumede                  (b. 1919 - d. 1989)  UANC
Governor
12 Dec 1979 - 17 Apr 1980  Christopher John Soames,            (b. 1920 - d. 1987)
                             Baron Soames 

Prime ministers
11 Nov 1965 -  1 Jun 1979  Ian Douglas Smith                   (b. 1919 - d. 2007)  RF
 1 Jun 1979 - 11 Dec 1979  Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa             (b. 1925 - d. 2010)  UANC

 ¹upon the Unilateral Declaration of Independence on 11 Nov 1965, Queen Elizabeth II (s.a.) was proclaimed Queen of Rhodesia and styled: "by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith", she does not accept the legality of the existence of this polity; however, the government of Rhodesia was carried on in her name with this style until the establishment of the Republic of Rhodesia on 2 Mar 1970.

Party abbreviations: RF = Rhodesian Front (Rhodesian nationalist, pro-white minority rule, successor to the Dominion Party, Mar 1962-1981); UANC = United African National Council (African nationalist, 1974-1996)


Zimbabwe


17 Apr 1980                Independence from Britain (Zimbabwe).
17 Apr 1991                Republic of Zimbabwe

Presidents
18 Apr 1980 - 31 Dec 1987  Canaan Sodindo Banana              (b. 1936 - d. 2003)  ZANU 
31 Dec 1987 -              Robert Gabriel Mugabe              (b. 1924)            ZANU-PF

Prime ministers
18 Apr 1980 - 31 Dec 1987  Robert Gabriel Mugabe              (s.a.)               ZANU 
31 Dec 1987 - 11 Feb 2009  Post abolished
11 Feb 2009 - 11 Sep 2013  Morgan Richard Tsvangirai          (b. 1952)            MDC
11 Sep 2013                Post abolished

Territorial Disputes: Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration.

Party abbreviations: MDC = Movement for Democratic Change (social-democratic, reformist, est.1999); ZANU-PF = Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (democratic socialist, African nationalist, authoritarian, est.1987);
- Former parties: ZANU = Zimbabwe African National Union (African militant, democratic socialist, African nationalist, merged into ZANU-PF, 1963-1987)



Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
 
  [Federation of Rhodesia
              & Nyasaland 1954-1963]                  
                       22 Jul 1954 - 31 Dec 1963 

 
Map of the Federation of
Rhodesia and Nyasaland
Hear National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen" 
Text of National Anthem
(1953-1963)
Constitution Order
(3 Sep 1953, as
amended 1 Sep 1959)
Capital: Salisbury
Administrative Capital: Zomba
Currency: 1956-1965 Rhodesia
&
Nyasaland Pound (RHFP);
 1953-1956
Southern Rhodesia
Currency Board Pound (RHSP)
National Holiday: 1 Aug (1953)
Federation Day
Population: 8,510,000 (1961)
GDP: £380.9 million (1958)
Exports: £206.8 million (1961)
Imports: £155 million (1961)
Ethnic groups: African majority; European and
other 297,000
(1959)
Total Armed Forces: 4,520 (1957)
Merchant marine: None (1961)
Religions: Christian  (mostly Protestant, Roman Catholic),
 Jewish (6,000) and traditional beliefs
International Organizations/Treaties: FAO (associate), GATT, IOC, IOM, ITU, IUOTO, UIBPIP, UNHCR, WHO (associate), WMO

 1 Aug 1953                The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
                             (Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland
                             also called the Central African Federation).
31 Dec 1963                The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland dissolved.

Governors-general
 4 Sep 1953 - 24 Jan 1957  John Jestyn Llewellin, Baron       (b. 1893 - d. 1957)
                             Llewellin of Upton 
24 Jan 1957 - Feb 1957     Sir Robert Clarkson Tredgold       (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
                             (acting) 
Feb 1957 -  8 Oct 1957     Sir William Lindsay Murphy (acting)(b. 1887 - d. 1965)
 8 Oct 1957 - May 1963     Simon Ramsay, Earl of Dalhousie    (b. 1914 - d. 1999)
May 1963 - 31 Dec 1963     Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs          (b. 1902 - d. 1990)

Prime ministers
 7 Sep 1953 -  2 Nov 1956  Sir Godfrey Martin Huggins         (b. 1883 - d. 1971)  FP
                            (from 17 Feb 1955, Godfrey Martin
                             Huggins, Viscount Malvern)
 2 Nov 1956 - 31 Dec 1963  Sir Roy Welensky                   (b. 1907 - d. 1991)  FP;1957 UFP

Party abbreviations: FP = Federal Party (center-right, pro-federation, 1953-1957, merged with United Rhodesia Party as UFP); UFP = United Federal Party (center-right, pro-federation, in 1963 renamed Federal Party, 1958-1965)







© Ben Cahoon