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Nauru
 
[German
                                    Empire 1870-1919 (Germany)]
              21 Oct 1887 - 4 Aug 1914
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                      4 Aug 1914 - 17 Dec 1920
 
[Australian
                                    flag]
 17 Dec 1920 - 26 Aug 1942; 13 Sep 1945 - 31 Jan 1968 
 
[Japan]
           26 Aug 1942 - 13 Sep 1945
 
[Nauru]
                        Adopted 31 Jan 1968
 

Map of Nauru
Hear National Anthem
"Nauru Bwiema"
(Song of Nauru)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1968
Constitution
(29 Jan 1968)
Capital: no official capital;
government offices
in Yaren District
Currency: Australian Dollar
(AUD); 1942-45 Oceania
Gumpyo Pound (XOGP)
1914-42 Australian Dollar (AUD)
National Holiday: 31 Jan (1968)
Independence Day
Population: 9,434 (2013)
GDP: $72 million (2011)
Exports: $100.2 million (2009)
Imports: $145.1 million (2009)
Ethnic groups: Nauruan 48%, Kiribati 19.3%,
Chinese 13%,
Tuvaluan 6.9%, Australian
white 6.2%, other 6.6% (2000)
Total Police Force: 80 (2012)
No formal agreements but defense assured by Australia
Merchant marine: None (2010) 
Religions: Protestant 45.8% (Nauru Congregational 35.4%, Nauru
 Independent Church 10.4%),
Roman Catholic 33.2%,
other 14.1%, none 4.5%, unspecified 2.4% (2002)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, APM, BTWC, C, CCM, CTBT, CWC, FAO, G-77, ICAO, ICCt, IFAD, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IRENA, ISA, ITU, KP, NPT, OPCW, PC, PIF, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UPU, WHO
Nauru
Chronology

 8 Nov 1798                Discovered by British Capt. John Fearn, named 
                             Pleasant Island.
1878 - 1888                Civil war among the 12 traditional clans.
21 Oct 1887                German protectorate (Nauru).
14 Apr 1888                Part of (German) Marshall Islands.
 1 Apr 1906                Part of German New Guinea (see Papua New Guinea).
 4 Aug 1914                Australian naval forces remove German officials
                             and a German radio post, then depart.
 7 Sep 1914                Australian occupation.
1914 - Jun 1921            Part of the British Western Pacific Territories.
17 Dec 1920                League of Nations mandate (to Australia, 
                             New Zealand, and United Kingdom; actual 
                             administration by Australia)(Nauru).
26 Aug 1942 - 13 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation.
 1 Nov 1947                United Nations trust territory (to Australia, 
                             New Zealand, and United Kingdom; actual
                             administration by Australia)(Nauru).
31 Jan 1968                Independence (Republic of Nauru).

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Head Chiefs (styled 'kings' by Europeans)
18.. - 1878                Auweyida (1st time)                (b. 1850 - d. 1921)
                            (deposed during the civil war;
                             mentioned as no longer ruling in 1881) 
1878 - 1888                Interregnum
1888 - 1921                Auweyida (2nd time)                (s.a.) 
Reichskommissare (Imperial commissioners)
1886 - 1887                Wilhelm Knappe                     (b. 1855 - d. 1910)
1888 - 1889                Franz Leopold Sonnenschein         (b. 1857 - d. 1897)
Bezirksamtmann (District commissioners)
 2 Oct 1888 - May 1889     Robert Rasch (acting)
May 1889 - 1895            Christian Johannson
1895 - 1898                Fritz Jung
1899 - 1906                Ludwig Kaiser                      (b. 1862 - d. 1906)
Stationsleiter (Station chiefs)
(from 1911, subordinated to administrators of Ponape district)
1906 - 1908                Konrad Geppert                     (b. 18.. - d. 1908) 
1908 - 1911                Joseph Siegwanz
1911 - 1912                Warnecke
1912 -  6 Nov 1914         Wilhelm Wostrack
Australian Commanders
 7 Sep 1914 -  6 Nov 1914  William Holmes                     (b. 1862 - d. 1917)
 6 Nov 1914 - 1914         Edward Creer Norrie                (b. 1886 - d. 1958)
Administrators
25 Dec 1914 - Dec 1917     Charles Rufus Marshall Workman     (b. 1874 - d. 1942)
Dec 1917 - 10 Jun 1921     Geoffrey Whistler Bingham          (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
                             Smith-Rewse
10 Jun 1921 - Jun 1927     Thomas Griffiths                   (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
Jun 1927 - 16 Jan 1933     William Augustin Newman            (b. 1873 - d. 19..)
16 Jan 1933 - Nov 1938     Rupert Clare Garsia                (b. 1887 - d. 1954)
Nov 1938 - 26 Aug 1942     Frederick Roydon Chalmers          (b. 1881 - d. 1943)
Japanese commanders
26 Aug 1942 -  7 Mar 1943  Hiromi Nakayama                    (d. 1946)
 7 Mar 1943 - 13 Jul 1943  Takenao Takenouchi
13 Jul 1943 - 13 Sep 1945  Hisayuki Soeda
Administrators
13 Sep 1945 -  1 Nov 1945  Joseph Lawrence Andrew Kelly       (b. 1907 - d. 1970)
 1 Nov 1945 - Aug 1949     Mark Ridgway                       (b. 1891 - d. 1984)
Aug 1949 - Nov 1949        Harold Hastings Reeve (acting)     (b. 1908 - d. 1961?)
Nov 1949 - Jan 1953        Robert Stanley Richards            (b. 1885 - d. 1967)
Jan 1953 - Dec 1953        John Keith Laurence (acting)       (b. 1910)
Dec 1953 - Jul 1954        K.A. Read (acting)
Jul 1954 - May 1958        Reginald Sylvester Leydin          (b. 1905 - d. ....)
                             (1st time)
May 1958 - Apr 1962        John Preston White                 (b. 1914)
May 1962 - Apr 1966        Reginald Sylvester Leydin          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
Apr 1966 - 31 Jan 1968     Leslie Dudley King                 (b. 1909)
Chairman of the Constitutional Convention
31 Jan 1968                Hammer DeRoburt                    (b. 1922 - d. 1992)  Non-party
Chairman of the Council of State
31 Jan 1968 - 18 May 1968  Hammer DeRoburt                    (s.a.)               Non-party
Presidents
18 May 1968 - 22 Dec 1976  Hammer DeRoburt (1st time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
22 Dec 1976 - 19 Apr 1978  Bernard Annen Auwen Dowiyogo       (b. 1946 - d. 2003)  NP 
                             (1st time) 
19 Apr 1978 - 11 May 1978  Lagumot Gagiemem Nimidere Harris   (b. 1938 - d. 1999)  Non-party
                             (1st time) 
11 May 1978 - 17 Sep 1986  Hammer DeRoburt (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
17 Sep 1986 -  1 Oct 1986  Kennan Ranibok Adeang (1st time)   (b. 1942 - d. 2011)  NP
 1 Oct 1986 - 12 Dec 1986  Hammer DeRoburt (3rd time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
12 Dec 1986 - 22 Dec 1986  Kennan Ranibok Adeang (2nd time)   (s.a.)               NP
22 Dec 1986 - 17 Aug 1989  Hammer DeRoburt (4th time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
17 Aug 1989 - 12 Dec 1989  Nangindeit Temanimon Kenas Aroi    (b. 1942 - d. 1991)  Non-party
12 Dec 1989 - 22 Nov 1995  Bernard Annen Auwen Dowiyogo       (s.a.)               DPN
                             (2nd time) 
22 Nov 1995 - 12 Nov 1996  Lagumot Gagiemem Nimidere Harris   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time) 
12 Nov 1996 - 26 Nov 1996  Bernard Annen Auwen Dowiyogo       (s.a.)               DPN
                             (3rd time) 
26 Nov 1996 - 19 Dec 1996  Kennan Ranibok Adeang (3rd time)   (s.a.)               DPN
19 Dec 1996 - 13 Feb 1997  Rueben James Kun                   (b. 1942)            Non-party
13 Feb 1997 - 18 Jun 1998  Kinza Godfrey Clodumar             (b. 1945)            CP
18 Jun 1998 - 27 Apr 1999  Bernard Annen Auwen Dowiyogo       (s.a.)               DPN
                             (4th time) 
27 Apr 1999 - 20 Apr 2000  René Reynaldo Harris (1st time)    (b. 1947 - d. 2008)  Non-party
20 Apr 2000 - 30 Mar 2001  Bernard Annen Auwen Dowiyogo       (s.a.)               DPN
                             (5th time) 
30 Mar 2001 -  9 Jan 2003  René Reynaldo Harris (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Non-party
 9 Jan 2003 - 17 Jan 2003  Bernard Annen Auwen Dowiyogo       (s.a.)               DPN
                             (6th time) 
17 Jan 2003 - 18 Jan 2003  René Reynaldo Harris (3rd time)    (s.a.)               Non-party
18 Jan 2003 - 10 Mar 2003  Bernard Annen Auwen Dowiyogo       (s.a.)               DPN
                             (7th time) 
10 Mar 2003 - 29 May 2003  Derog Gioura                       (b. 1932 - d. 2008)  Non-party
                             (acting to 20 Mar 2003)
29 May 2003 -  8 Aug 2003  Ludwig Derangadage Scotty          (b. 1948)            Non-party
                             (1st time)
 8 Aug 2003 - 22 Jun 2004  René Reynaldo Harris (4th time)    (s.a.)               Non-party
22 Jun 2004 - 19 Dec 2007  Ludwig Derangadage Scotty          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
19 Dec 2007 - 10 Nov 2011  Marcus Ajamada Stephen             (b. 1969)            Non-party
10 Nov 2011 - 15 Nov 2011  Frederick William Pitcher          (b. 1967)            NFP
15 Nov 2011 - 11 Jun 2013  Sprent Jared Brent Arumogo Dabwido (b. 1972)            Non-party
11 Jun 2013 -              Baron Divavesi Waqa                (b. 1959)            Non-party

Head Chiefs of the Council of Chiefs
1927 - 1931                Daimon
1931 - 18 Dec 1951         Timothy Detudamo                   (d. 1953)
                             (1942 - 30 Jun 1943 "Governor of the Nauruans";
                             in Truk, Micronesia exile 30 Jun 1943 - 31 Jan 1946)
Head Chiefs of the Local Government Council
18 Dec 1951 - Apr 1953     Timothy Detudamo                   (s.a.)
Apr 1953 - Dec 1955        Raymond Gadabu                     (d. 1964)
Dec 1955 - 31 Jan 1968     Hammer DeRoburt                    (s.a.)


British Phosphate Commission (BPC) Commissioners¹
- Australia -
1920                       J.R. Collins (acting)
1920 - 1926                H.B. Pope
1926 - 1927                P.E. Deane (acting)
1927 - 1946                Sir Clive McPherson                (b. 1884 - d. 1958)
1946 - 1952                W.M. Webster
1952 - 1962                James Reginald Halligan            (b. 1894 - d. 1968) 
1962 - 1970                Sir William E. Dunk                (b. 1897 - d. 1984)
 1 Jul 1970 -  1 Jul 1976  Sir Allen Stanley Brown            (b. 1911 - d. 1990)
 1 Jul 1976 - 1985         Maurice Carmel Timbs               (b. 1917 - d. 1994)
1980                       W.B. Marson (acting for Timbs)
- New Zealand -
1920 - 1951                Sir Albert Fuller Ellis            (b. 1869 - d. 1951)
1951 - 1958                C.M. Richwite
1958 - 1971                R.B. Tennent
1971 - 1973                R.H. Bevin
1973 - 1975                S.C. Gainey
1975                       A.T. Johns (acting)
1975 - 1985                W.D.M. Bremmer
- United Kingdom -
1920 - 1930                Sir Alwin Robinson Dickinson       (b. 1873 - d. 1944) 
1930 - 22 Mar 1931         Sir George Saltmarsh               (b. 1869 - d. 1931)
1931 - 1934                Thomas Lodge
1934 - 1946                Sir Arthur Stretton Gaye           (b. 1881 - d. 1960)  
1946 - 1951                W. Bankes Amery
1952 - 1964                George Calder  
1965 - 1977                Sir Alexander Nicol Anton Waddell  (b. 1913 - d. 1999)
1977 - 1981                Sir Richard Posnett                (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
1981 - 1985                C.M. Carruthers
- General Managers -

1920 - 1954                A. Harold Gaze (acting to 1930)    (b. 1885 - d. 1954)
                             (Chief Representative to 1931)
1954 - 1966                J.A. Bissett
1966 - 1974                L.E. Ravenscroft
1974 - 1975                W.B. Marston
1975 - 1981                A.E. Gaze
1981                       N.D. Duke (acting)
- Managers on Nauru -

1920 - 1924                J.M. Thompson
1924 - 1933                Matthew Thom
1933 - 1937                F.F. Christian
1937 - 28 Feb 1942         William V. Bott
1942 - 1945                Vacant
1945 - 1951                R.B. Kirk
1951 - 1959                L.E. Cameron
1959                       N.C. Anderson
1959 - 1965                J.C. Taylor
1965 - 1970                W.B. Marston
1970 - 1 Jul 1970          J.F. Harrington

  ¹British Phosphate Commission (BPC), formed in 1919, controlled the entire economy of Nauru, owned much of its infrastructure and financed the official administration, and thus they may be considered as co-administrators of Nauru. The share of each of the three powers in the operation was: Australia 42%, U.K. 42% and New Zealand 16%. The phosphate was only to be exported to the three countries. In 1927, the BPC also formalized the unofficial habit of paying a royalty to the Nauruans, that existed since the German period. The Commission also controlled the phosphate mining on Christmas Island and Ocean (Banaba) Island.

Party abbreviations: DPN = Democratic Party of Nauru (successor to NP, est.1987); NFP = Naoero Amo (Nauru First, liberal, christian-democratic, est.2001);
- Former parties:
CP = Centre Party (informal), NP = Nauru Party (informal, 1975-1987, then DPN)







© Ben Cahoon