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Nauru
 
[German
                                    Empire 1870-1919 (Germany)]
              2 Oct 1888 - 4 Aug 1914
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                      4 Aug 1914 - 17 Dec 1920
 
[Australian
                                    flag]
 17 Dec 1920 - 26 Aug 1942; 13 Sep 1945 - 31 Jan 1968 
 
[Japan]
           26 Aug 1942 - 13 Sep 1945
[Nauru]
                        Adopted 31 Jan 1968

Map of Nauru
Hear National Anthem
"Nauru Bwiema"
(Song of Nauru)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1968
Constitution
(29 Jan 1968)
Capital: no official capital;
government offices
in Yaren District
Currency: Australian Dollar
(AUD); 1942-45 Oceania
Gumpyo Pound (XOGP);
1914-42 Australian Dollar (AUD)
National Holiday: 31 Jan (1968)
Independence Day
Population: 9,591 (2016)
GDP: $150.8 million (2015)
Exports: $125 million (2013)
Imports: $143.1 million (2013)
Ethnic groups: Nauruan 48%, Kiribati 19.3%,
Chinese 13%,
Tuvaluan 6.9%, Australian
white 6.2%, other 6.6% (2000)
Total Police Force: 80 (2012)
No formal agreements but defense assured by Australia
Merchant marine: None (2010) 
Religions: Protestant 60.4% (includes Nauru Congregational
35.7%, Assembly of God 13%, Nauru Independent Church 9.5%,
 Baptist 1.5%, and Seventh Day Adventist 0.7%), Roman Catholic
 33%, other 3.7%, none 1.8%, unspecified 1.1% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, APM, BTWC, C, CCM, CTBT, CWC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICSID, IFAD, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IRENA, ISA, ITU, KP, NPT, OPCW, PC, PIF, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UPU, WHO
Nauru
Chronology

 8 Nov 1798                Visited by British Capt. John Fearn on whaling ship
                             Hunter and named
Pleasant Island.
 6 Apr 1886                Western Pacific divided into U.K./German spheres
                             of influence, Nauru falling into German zone of
                             influence (by U.K./German declaration).
16 Apr 1888                Nauru declared a German protectorate, acting on
                             imperial authorization
of 25 Oct 1887 (effected
                             on 2 Oct 1888).
 
2 Oct 1888                German protectorate by proclamation and flag
                             raising
; subordinated to
Marshall Islands.
 
3 Oct 1888                Civil war, among the 12 traditional clans (ẹaroẹn),
 
                            terminated by German intervention).
Jul 1907                   Pacific Phosphate Company Ltd., an Anglo-German
                             venture, begins mining phosphate on Nauru.
 9 Sep 1914 (hours)        British occupation,
wireless station destroyed.
 9 Sep 1914 -  6 Nov 1914  German rule (subordinated to Caroline Islands).
 
6 Nov 1914                Australian occupation.
25 Jun
1920                British Phosphate Commission (under U.K. 42%,
                             Australia 42%, and New Zealand 16%) buys all of
                             the assets of the Pacific Phosphate Company Ltd.
28 Oct 1920               
Territory of Nauru
17 Dec 1920                League of Nations joint mandate given to United

                             Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia (administered
                            
by Australia).
26 Aug 1942 - 13 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation (subordinated to Marshall
                             Islands).

 1 Nov 1947 - 31 Jan 1968  United Nations trust territory under Australia, 
                             New Zealand, and United Kingdom (administered
                             by Australia).
20 Aug 1951                Nauru Local Government Council, presided over by
                             Head Chief, established (dissolved 2 Mar 1992).

31 Jan 1968                Independence (Republic of Nauru).

 
1 Jul 1970                Nauru government purchases and takes full control
                             of the phosphate operations on Nauru.
23 Mar 1992               
Nauru Island Council, presided over by the Head
                             Chief,
established.
 1 Jul 1996                P
owers of the Local Government Council are formally
                             transferred to the Cabinet.
23 Apr 1999               
Nauru Island Council dissolved.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Kaiserlicher Kommissar (Imperial Commissioner)
 2 Oct 1888 -  3 Oct 1888  Franz Leopold Sonnenschein         (b. 1857 - d. 1897)  
Bezirksamtleute (District magistrates)
 3 Oct 1888 - 14 May 1889  Robert Rasch (acting)              (b. 1853 - d. 19..)
14 May 1889 - 1892         Christian Hermann Johannsen        (b. 1857 - d. 189.)
1892 - 1897                Friedrich "Fritz" Jung
1898 - 1905                Ludwig Kaiser                      (b. 1862 - d. 1906)
Stationsleiter (Station chiefs)
 1 Apr 1906 - 1908         Konrad Geppert                     (b. 18.. - d. 1908) 
1908 - 1911                Joseph Siegwanz
1911 - 1912                Karl Warnecke
1912 -  9 Sep 1914         Wilhelm Wostrack (1st time)
British Commanding Officer of the Landing Party
 9 Sep 1914 (hours)        Myles Aldington Blomfield          (b. 1884 - d. 1941) 
Stationsleiter
 9 Sep 1914 -  6 Nov 1914  Wilhelm Wostrack (2nd time)
Commanding Officer of the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force
 6 Nov 1914                William Holmes                     (b. 1862 - d. 1917)
Commanding Officer of the Australian Garrison Nauru 
 6 Nov 1914 - 25 Dec 1914  Edward Creer Norrie                (b. 1885 - d. 1958)
Administrators
25 Dec 1914 - Dec 1917     Charles Rufus Marshall Workman     (b. 1874 - d. 1942)
Dec 1917 -  9 Jun 1921     Geoffrey Whistler Bingham Smith-   (b. 1879 - d. 1927)
                             Rewse
10 Jun 1921 - 27 Jun 1927  Thomas Griffiths                   (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
27 Jun 1927 - 31 Dec 1932  William Augustin Newman            (b. 1873 - d. 1955)
 5 Feb 1929 - 1929         .... (acting for Newman)
 1 Jan 1933 - 17 Jan 1933  .... (acting)
17 Jan 1933 - 31 Aug 1938  Rupert Clare Garsia                (b. 1887 - d. 1954)
 1 Sep 1938 - 22 Oct 1938  .... (acting)
22 Oct 1938 - 26 Aug 1942  Frederick Royden Chalmers          (b. 1881 - d. 1943)
                            (Japanese prisoner 26 Aug 1942 - 25 March 1943)
Japanese Military Commanders
26 Aug 1942 -  7 Mar 1943  Nakayama Hiromi                    (d. 1946)
 7 Mar 1943 - 13 Jul 1943  Takenouchi Takenao
                             (commander 67 Naval Guard Unit)
13 Jul 1943 - 13 Sep 1945  Soeda Hisayuki
                             (commander 67 Naval Guard Unit)
Australian Military Administrator
13 Sep 1945 - 31 Oct 1945  Joseph Lawrence Andrew Kelly       (b. 1907 - d. 1970)
Administrators
 1 Nov 1945 - 30 Aug 1949  Mark Ridgway                       (b. 1891 - d. 1984)
31 Aug 1949 - 20 Dec 1949  Harold Hastings Reeve (acting)     (b. 1908 - d. 1973)
20 Dec 1949 - 31 Oct 1952  Robert Stanley Richards            (b. 1885 - d. 1967)
Jul 1952 - 30 Jun 1954     John Keith Lawrence                (b. 1910 - d. 2000)
                             (acting [for Richards to 31 Oct 1952])
Dec 1953 - 30 Jun 1954     Keith Alan Read (acting)           (b. 1920 - d. 19..)
 1 Jul 1954 - 21 Jun 1958  Reginald Sylvester Leydin          (b. 1905 - d. 199.)
                             (1st time)
21 Jun 1958 - 30 Apr 1962  John Preston White                 (b. 1914 - d. 19..)
 1 May 1962 - 31 May 1962  Frederick William McConaghy        (b. 1919 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
 1 Jun 1962 - Feb 1966     Reginald Sylvester Leydin          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
Feb 1966 -  2 May 1966     .... (acting)
 3 May 1966 - 30 Jan 1968  Leslie Dudley King                 (b. 1909 - d. 2005)
Chairman of the Constitutional Convention
31 Jan 1968                Hammer DeRoburt                    (b. 1922 - d. 1992)  Non-party
                           (chairman of Nauru Legislative Council 31 Jan 1966 - 31 Jan 1968)
Chairman of the Council of State
31 Jan 1968 - 17 May 1968  Hammer DeRoburt                    (s.a.)               Non-party
Presidents
17 May 1968 - 22 Dec 1976  Hammer DeRoburt (1st time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
22 Dec 1976 - 19 Apr 1978  Bernard Dabarnen Dowiyogo          (b. 1946 - d. 2003)  NP 
                             (1st time) 
19 Apr 1978 - 11 May 1978  Lagumot Gagiemem Nimidere Harris   (b. 1938 - d. 1999)  Non-party
                             (1st time) 
11 May 1978 - 17 Sep 1986  Hammer DeRoburt (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
17 Sep 1986 -  1 Oct 1986  Kennan Ranibok Adeang (1st time)   (b. 1942 - d. 2011)  NP
 1 Oct 1986 - 12 Dec 1986  Hammer DeRoburt (3rd time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
12 Dec 1986 - 20 Dec 1986  Kennan Ranibok Adeang (2nd time)   (s.a.)               NP
20 Dec 1986 - 17 Aug 1989  Hammer DeRoburt (4th time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
17 Aug 1989 - 12 Dec 1989  Nangindeit Temanimon Kenas Aroi    (b. 1942 - d. 1991)  Non-party
12 Dec 1989 - 22 Nov 1995  Bernard Dabarnen Dowiyogo          (s.a.)               DPN
                             (2nd time) 
22 Nov 1995 - 12 Nov 1996  Lagumot Gagiemem Nimidere Harris   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time) 
12 Nov 1996 - 26 Nov 1996  Bernard Dabarnen Dowiyogo          (s.a.)               DPN
                             (3rd time) 
26 Nov 1996 - 19 Dec 1996  Kennan Ranibok Adeang (3rd time)   (s.a.)               DPN
19 Dec 1996 - 13 Feb 1997  Reuben James Tullen Kun            (b. 1942)            CP
13 Feb 1997 - 18 Jun 1998  Kinza Godfrey Clodumar             (b. 1945)            CP
18 Jun 1998 - 27 Apr 1999  Bernard Dabarnen Dowiyogo          (s.a.)               DPN
                             (4th time) 
27 Apr 1999 - 20 Apr 2000  René Reynaldo Harris (1st time)    (b. 1947 - d. 2008)  CP
20 Apr 2000 - 30 Mar 2001  Bernard Dabarnen Dowiyogo          (s.a.)               DPN
                             (5th time) 
30 Mar 2001 -  9 Jan 2003  René Reynaldo Harris (2nd time)    (s.a.)               CP
 9 Jan 2003 - 17 Jan 2003  Bernard Dabarnen Dowiyogo          (s.a.)               DPN
                             (6th time) 
17 Jan 2003 - 18 Jan 2003  René Reynaldo Harris (3rd time)    (s.a.)               CP
18 Jan 2003 - 10 Mar 2003  Bernard Dabarnen Dowiyogo          (s.a.)               DPN
                             (7th time) 
25 Feb 2003 - 29 May 2003  Derog Gioura                       (b. 1932 - d. 2008)  Non-party
                             (acting [for Dowiyogo to 10 Mar] to 20 Mar 2003)
29 May 2003 -  8 Aug 2003  Ludwig Derangadage Scotty          (b. 1948)            Non-party
                             (1st time)
 8 Aug 2003 - 22 Jun 2004  René Reynaldo Harris (4th time)    (s.a.)               CP
22 Jun 2004 - 19 Dec 2007  Ludwig Derangadage Scotty          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
19 Dec 2007 - 10 Nov 2011  Marcus Ajemada Stephen             (b. 1969)            Non-party
10 Nov 2011 - 15 Nov 2011  Frederick William Henry Pitcher    (b. 1967)            NA
15 Nov 2011 - 11 Jun 2013  Sprent Jared Brent Arumogo Dabwido (b. 1972)            NA
11 Jun 2013 -              Baron Divavesi Waqa                (b. 1959)            Non-party


Head Chiefs
1920 - 21 Oct 1930         Daimon                             (b. c.1850 - d. 1930)
1930 - 29 Jun 1943         Timothy Detudamo (1st time)        (b. 1888? - d. 1953)
                            (Tim Tẹdẹdamo)(kaichō of the Nauruans 1942 - 29 Jun 1943;
                             in Truk, Micronesia exile 29 Jun 1943 - 31 Jan 1946)
31 Jan 1946 - 11 Apr 1953  Timothy Detudamo (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Apr 1953 - 10 Dec 1955     Raymond Gadabu                     (d. c.1964)
10 Dec 1955 -  2 Mar 1992  Hammer DeRoburt                    (s.a.)
 2 Mar 1992 -  2 May 1992  Vacant
 2 May 1992 - 23 Apr 1999  Paul James DeLuckner Aingimea      (b. 1950? - d. 2004)
23 Apr 1999                Post abolished


British Phosphate Commission Board of Commissioners
¹
- Australia -
1920                       James Richard Collins (acting)     (b. 1869 - d. 1934)
1920 - 1926                Harold Pope                        (b. 1873 - d. 1938)
1926 - 1927                Percival Edgar Deane (acting)      (b. 1890 - d. 1946)
1927 - 1946                Clive McPherson                    (b. 1884 - d. 1958)
                             (from 31 Dec 1940, Sir Clive McPherson)
1946 - 1952                William Maule McDowell Webster     (b. 1885 - d. 1958)
1952 - 1962                James Reginald Halligan            (b. 1894 - d. 1968) 
1962 - 1970                Sir William Ernest Dunk            (b. 1897 - d. 1984)
 1 Jul 1970 - 30 Jun 1976  Sir Allen Stanley Brown            (b. 1911 - d. 1990)
 1 Jul 1976 - 1985         Maurice Carmel Timbs               (b. 1917 - d. 1994)
1980                       William Bernard Marston            (b. 1913 - d. ....)
                             (acting for Timbs)
- New Zealand -
1920 - 1951                Albert Fuller Ellis                (b. 1869 - d. 1951)
                             (from 9 Jun 1938, Sir Albert Fuller Ellis)
1951 - 1958                Cleave Mackellar Richwhite         (b. 1890 - d. 1981)
1958 - 1971                Robert Browne Tennent              (b. 1893 - d. 1982)
1971 - 1973                Richard Hughes Bevin               (b. 1901 - d. 1980)
 1 Feb 1973 -  1 Jun 1975  Stanley Charles Gainey             (b. 1912 - d. 1975)
1975                       Alan Tutton Johns (acting)         (b. 1917 - d. 1997)
1975 - 1985                W.D.M. Bremmer                     (b. c.1920)
- United Kingdom -
25 Nov 1920 - 1930         Alwin Robinson Dickinson           (b. 1873 - d. 1944) 
                             (from 3 Jun 1927, Sir Alwin Robinson Dickinson)
 3 Jun 1930 - 22 Mar 1931  Sir Edward George Saltmarsh        (b. 1869 - d. 1931)
 1 Jun 1931 - 1934         Thomas Lodge                       (b. 1882 - d. 1958)
26 Mar 1934 - 1946         Arthur Stretton Gaye               (b. 1881 - d. 1960)  
                             (from 6 Jun 1941, Sir Arthur Stretton Gaye)
15 Jan 1946 - 1951         William Bankes Amery               (b. 1883 - d. 1951)
1952 - 31 Dec 1964         George Calder                      (b. 1894 - d. 1970)
 1 Jan 1965 - 31 Dec 1977  Sir Alexander Nicol Anton Waddell  (b. 1913 - d. 1999)
 1 Jan 1978 - 1981         Richard Neil Posnett               (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
                             (from 31 Dec 1979, Sir Richard Neil Posnett)
1981 - 1985                C.M. Carruthers
- General Managers -

1920 - 1954                Alfred Harold Gaze (acting to 1930)(b. 1885 - d. 1954)
                             (chief representative to 1931)
1954 - 1966                James Alexander Bissett            (b. 1904 - d. 1985)
1966 - 1974                L.E. Ravenscroft
1974 - 1975                William Bernard Marston            (s.a.)
1975 - 1981                Alfred Edwards "Fred" Gaze         (b. 1923 - d. 2008)
- BPC Managers on Nauru -

1920 - 1924                J.M. Thompson                      (b. 1876 - d. 19..)
1924 - 1933                Matthew Thom                       (b. 1888 - d. 1975)
1933 - 1937                Frederick Fisher Christian         (b. 1890 - d. 1950)
1937 - 28 Feb 1942         William Victor Bott (1st time)     (b. 1893 - d. 1966)
Sep 1945                   William Victor Bott (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Sep 1945 - Aug 1951        Royston Beverly Kirk               (b. 1903 - d. 1967)
Aug 1951 - 1959            L.E. Cameron                       (b. 1903 - d. 19..)
1959                       N.C. Anderson                      (b. 1899 - d. 19..)
1959 - 1965                John Charles Edward Taylor         (b. 1912 - d. 1982)
1965 - 1970                William Bernard Marston            (s.a.)
1970 -  1 Jul 1970         John F. Harrington                 (b. 1933)

 ¹British Phosphate Commission (BPC), formed in 1920, controlled the entire economy of Nauru, owned much of its infrastructure and financed the official administration, and thus they may be considered as co-administrators of Nauru. The share of each of the three powers in the operation was: United Kingdom 42%, Australia 42%, and New Zealand 16%. The phosphate was only to be exported to the three countries. In 1927, the BPC also formalized the unofficial habit of paying a royalty to the Nauruans that existed since the German period. The Commission also controlled the phosphate mining on Christmas Island and Ocean (Banaba) Island.

Party abbreviations: DPN = Democratic Party of Nauru (successor to NP, est.Feb? 1987); NA = Naoero Amo (Nauru First, liberal, christian-democratic, est.2001);
- Former parties:
CP = Centre Party (informal); NP = Nauru Party (informal, 1975-1987, then DPN)







© Ben Cahoon