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Mauritania  
   
[Flag of
                                    France]
           12 May 1903 - 1 Apr 1959 
 
[Mauritania]
                Adopted 1 Apr 1959
 
Map of the Mauritania
Hear National Anthem
"National Anthem of Mauritania"
Text of National Anthem
 Adopted 1960
Constitution
(12 Jul 1991)
Capital: Nouakchott
(Saint Louis, Senegal 1903-1960)
Currency: Ouguiya (MRO)
National Holiday: 28 Nov (1960)
Independence Day
Population: 3,437,610 (2013)
GDP: $8.20 billion (2013)
Exports: $2.72 billion (2013)
Imports: $3.35 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Moor 70% (about 40% black Moor
[Haratin or African Sudanic] and about 30% white Moor
 [Bidan, or Arab Berber]), other black African (mostly
Wolof, Tukulor, Soninke and Fulani) 30% (2003)
Total Active Armed Forces: 15,870 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010) 
Religions: Sunni Muslim 99.1%, traditional beliefs 0.5%,
Christian 0.3%, other 0.1% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, APM, Arabsat, AU, CCM, CAEU (candidate), CEN-SAD, CCM (signatory), CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PAM, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Mauritania
Index
Chronology

12 May 1903                French protectorate of Mauritania.
18 Oct 1904                French civil territory of Mauritania
                            (part of French West Africa; see Senegal).
12 Jan 1920                French colony
16 Jun 1940 - Nov 1942     Administration loyal to Vichy France (from 
                             Nov 1942, Free French).
27 Oct 1946                Mauritania overseas territory of France.
28 Nov 1958                Autonomy (Islamic Republic of Mauritania).
28 Nov 1960                Independence from France.
26 Feb 1976 - 11 Aug 1979  Annexes southwestern Western Sahara.

Traditional
states
Arguin
(1445-1728)

Historical maps
of Mauritania
 
 
 

Commandant
12 May 1903 - Nov 1904     Xavier Coppolani                   (b. 1866 - d. 1905)
Commissioners
Nov 1904 - 12 May 1905     Xavier Coppolani                   (s.a.)
12 May 1905 - 27 May 1905  Louis Frèrejean (acting)           (b. 1862 - d. 1917)
27 May 1905 - Nov 1907     Bernard Laurent Montané-Capdebosq  (b. 1862 - d. 19..)
Nov 1907 - 1909            Henri Joseph Eugène Gouraud        (b. 1867 - d. 1946)
1909                       Claudel (acting)
1909                       Aubert (acting)
 1 Jan 1910 -  1 Mar 1912  Henri Hippolyte Patey              (b. 1867 - d. 1957)
 1 Mar 1912 - 25 May 1914  Charles Paul Isidore Mouret        (b. 1871 - d. 1914)
May 1914 - 20 Nov 1916     Louis Jules Albert Obissier        (b. 1868 - d. 1916)
20 Nov 1916 - 11 Dec 1920  Nicolas Jules Henri Gaden          (b. 1867 - d. 1939)
Lieutenant governors
11 Dec 1920 -  9 Nov 1926  Nicolas Jules Henri Gaden          (s.a.)
 9 Nov 1926 - 13 Jan 1928  Albéric Auguste Fournier           (b. 1878 - d. 19..)
13 Jan 1928 - 21 Nov 1929  Alphonse Paul Albert Choteau       (b. 1883 - d. 1936)
21 Nov 1929 - 19 Jun 1931  René Héctor Émile Chazal
19 Jun 1931 - 22 Jun 1933  Gabriel Omer Descemet (1st time)   (b. 1879 - d. 1961)
                             (acting)
22 Jun 1933 -  7 Apr 1934  Louis Jean François Antonin        (b. 1878 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)

 7 Apr 1934 -  5 Jul 1934  Gabriel Omer Descemet (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 5 Jul 1934 - Aug 1934     Adolphe Deitte                     (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
Aug 1934 -  1 Nov 1934     Jean-Baptiste Victor Chazelas      (b. 1885 - d. 1953) 
                             (1st time) (acting)
 1 Nov 1934 - 15 Apr 1935  Richard Edmond Maurice Édouard     (b. 1883 - d. 1958)
                             Brunot
15 Apr 1935 - 10 Nov 1935  Jean-Baptiste Victor Chazelas      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
10 Nov 1935 -  1 Sep 1936  Jules Marcel de Coppet             (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
 1 Sep 1936 - 24 Oct 1936  Jean Louis Beyriès                 (b. 1887 - d. 1974) 
                             (1st time) (acting)
24 Oct 1936 -  7 Aug 1938  Oswald Durand                      (b. 1888 - d. 1982)
 7 Aug 1938 - Nov 1938     Charles André Dumas (acting)
Nov 1938 -  4 May 1944     Jean Louis Beyriès (2nd time)      (s.a.) 
                             (acting to 28 Aug 1941)
Apr 1942 - May 1944        Jean Chalvet                       (b. 1893 - d. 1975)
                             (acting for Beyries)
 4 May 1944 - 31 Jul 1945  Christian Robert Roger Laigret     (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
31 Jul 1945 - 30 Apr 1946  René Babin (acting)
30 Apr 1946 - 19 Jul 1947  Georges Poirier (acting)
19 Jul 1947 - 31 Dec 1947  Lucien Eugène Geay (acting)        (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
31 Dec 1947 -  7 Aug 1949  Henry Jean Marie de Mauduit        (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
 7 Aug 1949 - 27 Sep 1950  Édouard Louis Terrac (acting)      (b. 1900 - d. 1956)
27 Sep 1950 - 25 Apr 1952  Jacques Camille Marie Rogué        (b. 1898 - d. 1980)
25 Apr 1952 -  6 Apr 1954  Pierre Messmer                     (b. 1916 - d. 2007) 
                             (acting to 23 Feb 1953)
 6 Apr 1954 - 23 Jun 1955  Albert Jean Mouragues (1st time)   (b. 1908 - d. 1978)
23 Jun 1955 - 14 May 1956  Jean Paul Parisot                  (b. 1901 - d. 1958)
14 May 1956 -  5 Oct 1958  Albert Jean Mouragues (2nd time)   (s.a.)
High commissioners
 5 Oct 1958 - Feb 1959     Henri Joseph Marie Bernard         (b. 1920 - d. 2000)
Feb 1959 - 28 Nov 1960     Amédée Joseph Émile Jean Pierre    (b. 1913 - d. 1996)
                             Anthonioz 
President
28 Nov 1960 - 10 Jul 1978  Moktar Ould Daddah                 (b. 1924 - d. 2003) PRM;1961 PPM
                             (acting Head of state to 20 Aug 1961)
President of the Military Committee for National Recovery (from 6 Apr 1979, Military
Committee for National Salvation; from 20 Mar 1979 also styled Heads of State)
10 Jul 1978 -  3 Jun 1979  Mustafa Ould Salek                 (b. 1936 - d. 2012)  Mil
 3 Jun 1979 -  4 Jan 1980  Mohamed Mahmoud Ould Louly         (b. 1943)            Mil
 4 Jan 1980 - 12 Dec 1984  Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla       (b. 1940)            Mil
12 Dec 1984 - 18 Apr 1992  Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya        (b. 1941)            Mil
President
18 Apr 1992 -  3 Aug 2005  Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya        (s.a.)               PRDS
Chairman of the Military Council for Justice and Democracy
 3 Aug 2005 - 19 Apr 2007  Ely Ould Mohamed Vall              (b. 1953)            Mil
President  
19 Apr 2007 -  6 Aug 2008  Sidi Mohamed Ould Cheikh Abdellahi (b. 1938)            Non-party
Chairman of the High Council of State
 6 Aug 2008 - 15 Apr 2009  Mohammed Ould Abdel Aziz           (b. 1956)            Mil
Presidents
15 Apr 2009 -  5 Aug 2009  Ba Mamadou dit M'Baré (interim)    (b. 1946 - d. 2013)  Non-party
 5 Aug 2009 -              Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz            (s.a.)               UPR
14 Oct 2012 - 24 Nov 2012  Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf       (b. 1957)            Non-party
                            (acting for
Abdel Aziz)


Vice President of the Government Council
21 May 1957 - 16 Jul 1958  Moktar Ould Daddah                 (s.a.)              UPM;1958 PRM
President of the Council of Government
16 Jul 1958 - 28 Nov 1958  Moktar Ould Daddah                 (s.a.)               PRM
Prime ministers
28 Nov 1958 - 20 Aug 1961  Moktar Ould Daddah                 (s.a.)              PRM;1960 PPM
                             (president of the provisional government to 26 Jun 1959)
 6 Apr 1979 - 27 May 1979  Ahmed Ould Bouceif                 (b. 1934 - d. 1979)  Mil
28 May 1979 - 31 May 1979  Ahmed Salim Ould Sidi (acting)     (b.c.1938 - d. 1981) Mil
31 May 1979 - 12 Dec 1980  Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (1st time)
12 Dec 1980 - 25 Apr 1981  Sid Ahmed Ould Bneijara            (b. 1947)            Non-party 
25 Apr 1981 -  8 Mar 1984  Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya        (s.a.)               Mil
                             (1st time)
 8 Mar 1984 - 12 Dec 1984  Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)
12 Dec 1984 - 18 Apr 1992  Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya        (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)
18 Apr 1992 -  2 Jan 1996  Sidi Mohamed Ould Boubacar         (b. 1957)            PRDS
                             (1st time)
 2 Jan 1996 - 18 Dec 1997  Cheikh El Avia Ould Mohamed Khouna (b. 1956)            PRDS
                             (1st time)
18 Dec 1997 - 16 Nov 1998  Mohamed Lemine Ould Guig           (b. 1958)            PRDS
16 Nov 1998 -  6 Jul 2003  Cheikh El Avia Ould Mohamed Khouna (s.a.)               PRDS 
                             (2nd time)
 6 Jul 2003 -  7 Aug 2005  Sghair Ould M'Bareck               (b. 1954)            PRDS
 7 Aug 2005 - 20 Apr 2006  Sidi Mohamed Ould Boubacar         (s.a.)               PRDS
                             (2nd time)
20 Apr 2007 -  6 May 2008  Zeine Ould Zeidane                 (b. 1966)            Non-party
 6 May 2008 -  6 Aug 2008  Yahya Ould Ahmed El Waghef         (b. 1960)            PNDD
 6 Aug 2008 - 14 Aug 2008  Vacant
14 Aug 2008 -              Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf       (s.a.)               Non-party


Territorial Dispute:
Mauritanian claims to Western Sahara remain dormant. 

Party abbreviations: PNDD = Pacte National pour la Démocratie et le Développement (National Pact for Democracy and Development, ADIL, pro-presidential, est.2008); PRDS = Parti Républicain Démocratique et Social (Social and Democratic Republican Party, authoritarian, social democratic, 1992-2005 government party, est.1992); UPR = Union pour la République (Union for the Republic, centrist, populist, est.2009); Mil = Military;
- Former parties:
PPM = Parti du Peuple Mauritanien (Mauritanian People's Party, authoritarian, centralist, islamic socialist, Oct 1961-Jul 1978 only legal party, former PRM, 1960-1978); PRM = Parti de Regroupement Mauritanien (Mauritanian Gathering Party, nationalist, 1958-1961, merged into PPM); UPM = Union Progressiste Mauritanienne (Mauritanian Progressive Union, traditionalist, 1948-1958, merged into PRM)



Arguin

1445 -  5 Feb 1633         Portuguese factory (Arguim).
 5 Feb 1633 - 1678         Dutch rule (brief English occupation in 1665).
 1 Sep 1678 - Sep 1678     French occupation.
Sep 1678                   Abandoned.
 5 Oct 1685 -  7 Mar 1721  Brandenburg (from 1701, Prussian) rule.
 7 Mar 1721 - 11 Jan 1722  French rule.
11 Jan 1722 - 20 Feb 1724  Dutch rule.
20 Feb 1724 -  5 May 1728  French rule.

Captains
1445 - 14..                Diogo Gomes 
c.1455 - 1461              Soeiro Mendes de Évora
1481/82                    João Afonso
11 Jul 1492 - 10 Aug 1495
 Afonso de Moura
1495/99 - 1501             Fernão Soares

1505 - 1508                Gonçalo da Fonseca
1508 - 1511                Francisco de Almada
1511 - 1514                Fernão Pinto
1514 – Nov 1514            Pero Vaz de Almeida
Nov 1514 - 1517            Estêvão da Gama
1517 - 1521                António Portocarreiro
1521 – 1522                Gonçalo da Fonseca
1522 – 1525                Rui Cotrim
1525 – 1528                Lourenço de Paiva
1528 - 1532                Brás Gomes de Carvalhosa
Jan 1532 - 15..            Brás Correia Pantoja
1541                       Francisco de Hevão ?
1543                       João Gomes o Souro (Osouro)
1545 - 1547                Cristovão Falcão de Sousa          (b. 1515/18 - 1553/37)
1547 - 1549                Gil Sardinha 
1549/1550                  Cristovão de Rosales
1551                       Pedro Valdez Rosales  
1569                       Lionis da Gama 
1575                       João Leite Pereira
1576                       Bráz Guedes de Carvalho ?  
c.1577                     Antonio de Carvalho
15.. - 15..                Antonio Pinto
c.1591                     Belchior de Landim
1592 - 1628                João Gonçalves de Ataide,          (b. 1560 - d. 1628)
                             conde de Atouguia
                            (
captain-donatary)
16.. - 16..                Rodrigo Freire 
.... - ....                Aires Tavares and
.... - ....                Fernando de Sande

1623 - 1624                Amador Louzado
1624 - 16..                Francisco Cordovil
162. - 1633                  Abrão de Tovar

1628 - 1633                Luis de Ataide, conde de           (d. 1639)
                             Atouguia
(captain-donatary)
Governors

Feb 1633 - 1634            Abraham van (de) Pere
1634 - 16..                Daniel van (de) Pere
c.1634                     Fouck (or Joas Koeck)

16.. - Sep 1678            ....
 1 Sep 1678 - Sep 1678     .... -French commander  
Sep 1678 -  5 Oct 1685     abandoned
 7 Oct 1685 - 1691         Cornelis Reers
1691 - 1694                Lambrecht de Hond
1694 - 1712                Jan Reers (1st time)
1700 - 1702                Christian Düring
                             (acting for Reers)
 6 Jul 1712 - 1717         Jan de Both Nicolaes (1st time)  
1717 -  7 Mar 1721
        Jan Wynen Bastiaens
 7 Mar 1721 - Aug 1721     Julien du Bellay Duval             (d. 1721)
Aug 1721 - 1721            Claude Bonneaventure le Riche
1721 - 11 Jan 1722         Jan de Both Nicolaes
(2nd time)
                             (acting)
Jan 1722 - 20 Feb 1724     Jan Reers (2nd time)
Feb 1723 -  4 Jun 1723     Marion -French governor
                            
(in opposition)
20 Feb 1724 -  7 Jan 1727  Louis Barthélemy de la Motte       (d. 1727)
1727 -  5 May 1728         Claude Garcin







© Ben Cahoon