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Isle of Man
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                                 to 1929
 
[Manx
                                    Lieutenant Governor's flag (Isle of
                                    Man)]
                    Lieutenant governor's Flag
 
[Manx
                                    civil ensign 1929-1968 (Isle of
                                    Man)]
    (from 1848)  8 Jul 1929 - 9 Jul 1968 Civil Ensign 
 
[Manx flag
                                    (Isle of Man)]
       Adopted 9 Jul 1968 (confirmed 27 Aug 1971)
 
[Manx
                                    civil ensign (Isle of Man)]
                  Civil Ensign from 27 Aug 1971
 


 Map of the Isle of Man
Hear National Anthem
 
"God Save the Queen"

Hear Local Anthem
 "Arrane Ashoonagh dy Vannin"
(O' Land of Our Birth)
in use from 27 Mar 1907,
Adopted 23 Jan 2003
Constitution Acts
(1919,1961,1990)
(does not embody the
unwritten Manx Constitution)

Capital: Douglas
(Castletown to 1874)
Currency: British Pound (GBP);
and from 1865 Manx Pound
(IMP)
National Holiday: 5 Jul (1417)
Tynwald Day
 (Manx National Day)
Population: 86,159 (2013)
GDP: $4.07 billion (2007)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A 
Ethnic groups: white 96.5%, Asian/Asian British 1.9%,
other 1.5% (2011)
Total Police Force: 293 (2003)
Defense is the Responsibility of the U.K.
Merchant marine: 321 ships (2010)
Religions: Christian 63.7% (of which Anglican 40.5%,
Methodist 9.9%, Roman Catholic 8.2%, Baptist,
Presbyterian, and  Society of Friends 7%),
other (mostly non-religious) 36.3% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: UPU
Isle of Man
Chronology
 
c.500's                    Legendary Celtic kingdom Ynys Manau.
c.582 - c.620              Ruled by the Dál Riata kingdom. 
8.. - 902                  Fiefdom of Norse Kingdom of Dublin.
917 - 978                  Fiefdom of Norse Kingdom of Dublin.
23 Apr 1014 - c.1079       Fiefdom of Norse Kingdom of Dublin.
c.1079                     Kingdom of Man and the Isles (including Inner and                                Outer Hebrides, and Kintyre peninsula).
1098 - 24 Aug 1103         Norwegian fiefdom.

1156 - 1164                Inner
Hebrides (Islay, Mull, Coll) and Kintyre
                             part of the Lordship of the Isles under
Somerled.
24 Nov 1265                Scottish fiefdom; confirmed by Treaty of Perth on
                             2 Jul 1266 (to Feb 1290, 12 Jun 1313 - Jul 1317,
 
                            and 1328 - 8 Jun 1333)(the Hebrides and Kintyre
                             peninsula formally part of Scotland). 

 8 Jun 1333                English fiefdom (previously Feb 1290 - 12 Jun 1313
 
                            and Jul 1317 - 1328). 
1392                       Sold to Sir William le Scrope, effective 3 Jun 1397
                             upon the death of Montague.
13 Oct 1399                Forfeited to crown.
19 Oct 1399                Granted to Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland.
 4 Oct 1405                Granted to Sir John de Stanley.
24 Jun 1417                Tynwald holds first recorded session.
29 Jul 1504                Lordship of the Isles of Man. 
16 Apr 1594 - 14 Feb 1609  Succession disputed by daughters of Ferdinando. 
14 Aug 1607                Leased to Earls of Northampton and Salisbury;
                             lease revoked by indenture on 18 Jun 1609.
14 Feb 1609                Claims by daughters of Ferdinando settled by deed.
28 Jun 1609                Leased to Earls of Salisbury and Suffolk for 21 yrs
                             by royal demise, retroactive to 29 Sep 1608
 7 Jul 1609                Granted to William Stanley Earl of Derby,
                             effective 1612 by take-over.
29 Sep 1649                Granted to Lord Fairfax by parliament (effective on
                             surrender 31 Oct 1651), proclaimed 23 Feb 1652.
31 Oct 1651 -  8 May 1660  Under the Commonwealth of England.
 7 Mar 1765                Bought by U.K. for £70,000 (ratified 10 May 1765 by
 
                            Revesting Act, effective 17 May 1765 by payment).
21 Jun 1765                British crown possession (take-over 11 Jul 1765).
 2 Jun 1828                Murray family's remaining manorial rights are    
                             purchased by the crown.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Kings 
(Norse names with Irish and English in parentheses to 1250)
8.. - 902
                 the kings of Dublin  
902 - 917                  Røgnvaldr (Raghnall ua Ímhair)     (b. 8.. - d. 921)   
917 - 978                  the kings of Dublin  
978 - 989                  Gudhfridhr Haraldsson (Godred)     (b. 94. - d. 989)
                             (Gofraidh mac Arailt)
989 - 1005                 R
øgnvaldr Gudhfridharson           (b. 9.. - d. 1005)
                             (Rahnall mac Gofraidh)
1005 - 23 Apr 1014         
Óláfr Gudhfridharson               (b. 9.. - d. 1014)
23 Apr 1014 - c.1079       the kings of Dublin  

c.1079 - 1094              Gudhfridhr hvíthønd Haraldsson     (b. 1040? - d. 1095) 

                             (
Gofraid crobh bhan mac meic Arailt)
                             (
Godred IV "White Hand")
1094 - 1098                Domhnall mac Taidc Ua Briain       (b. 10.. - d. 1115)
                             (Domhnall mac Taidc)
1098 - 24 Aug 1103
        the kings of Norway
24 Aug 1103 - 29 Jun 1153  
Óláfr Gudhfridharson (Olaf I)      (b. 108. - d. 1153)
                             (
Amhlaíbh mac Gofraidh)
29 Jun 1153 - 1158         Gudhfridhr Óláfsson (Godred)       (b. 111. - d. 1187)
                             (1st time)(
Gofraidh mac Amhlaíbh)
1158 - 1164                Sumarlidhi Gillibrigtsson,
mórmaer (b. 112. - d. 1164)
                             av Argyll (Somhairle mac Gilla Brighde)
                             (
Somerled, Lord of Argyll)
1164 - 10 Nov 1187         Gudhfriddhr 
Óláfsson (Godred)      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

10 Nov 1187 - 14 Feb 1229  R
agnvaldr Gudhfridharson (Ragnal I)(b. 116. - d. 1229)
                             (Raghnalt mac Gofraidh)
1226 - 21 May 1237         
Óláfr svarti Gudhfridharson        (b. 1173? - d. 1237)
                             (Amhlaíbh mac Gofraidh)
                             (Olaf I
I "the Black")
                             (co-ruler to 14 Feb 1229)
21 May 1237 -  6 May 1249  Haraldr Óláfsson (Harold I)        (b. 1223? - d. 1249)
                             (Arailt mac Amhlaíbh)
 6 May 1249 - 30 May 1249  R
øgnvaldr Óláfsson (Ragnal II)     (b. 122. - d. 1249)
                             (Raghnalt mac Amhlaíbh)
30 May 1249 - 1250        
Haraldr Gudhfridharson (Harold II) (d. 1252?)
                             (Arailt mac Gofraidh)
1250 - 1252                John Dugaldsson 

1252 - 24 Nov 1265         Magnús 
Óláfsson                    (b. 122. - d. 1265)
24 Nov 1265 - Feb 1290     the kings of Scotland
Feb 1290 - 12 Jun 1313     the kings of England

12 Jun 1313 - 20 Dec 1313  the kings of Scotland
20 Dec 1313 - Jul 1317     Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray     (b. c.1277 - d. 1332)
                             (1st time)

Jul 1317 - 1328            the kings of England
1328 - 20 Jul 1332         Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

20 Jul 1332 - 11 Aug 1332  Thomas Randolph II, Earl of Moray  (b. 130. - d. 1332)
11 Aug 1332 -  8 Jun 1333  John Randolph, Earl of Moray       (b. 1306 - d. 1346)
                             (1st time) 
 
8 Jun 1333 -  9 Aug 1333  the king of England
 9 Aug 1333 - 29 Sep 1333  John Randolph, Earl of Moray       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
29 Sep 1333 - 30 Jan 1344  William I de Montacute,            (b. 1301 - d. 1344)
                            (from 16 Mar 1337) Earl of Salisbury
30 Jan 1344 -  3 Jun 1397  William II Montague, Earl          (b. 1328 - d. 1397)
                             of Salisbury
 3 Jun 1397 - 13 Oct 1399  William III le Scrope,             (b. 1350 - d. 1399)
                             (from 29 Sep 1397) Earl of Wiltshire
13 Oct 1399 - 19 Oct 1399  Vacant
19 Oct 1399 - 10 Aug 1405  Henry de Percy, Earl of            (b. 1341 - d. 1408)
                             Northumberland 
10 Aug 1405 -  4 Oct 1405  Vacant
 4 Oct 1405 -  6 Jan 1414  Sir John I de Stanley              (b. c.1362 - d. 1414)
 6 Jan 1414 - 27 Nov 1437  Sir John II de Stanley             (b. c.1386 - d. 1437)
27 Nov 1437 - 20 Feb 1459  Thomas I Stanley,                  (b. 1406? - d. 1459)
                            (from 15 Jan 1456) Lord Stanley  
20 Feb 1459 - 29 Jul 1504  Thomas II Stanley,                 (b. 1435? - d. 1504)
                            (from 27 Oct 1485) Earl of Derby 
Lords¹
29 Jul 1504 - 23 May 1521  Thomas III Stanley, Earl of Derby  (b. c.1484 - d. 1521)
23 May 1521 - 24 Oct 1572  Edward Stanley, Earl of Derby      (b. 1509 - d. 1572)
24 Oct 1572 - 25 Sep 1593  Henry Stanley, Earl of Derby       (b. 1531 - d. 1593)
25 Sep 1593 - 16 Apr 1594  Ferdinando Stanley, Earl of Derby  (b. 1559 - d. 1594)
16 Apr 1594 - 29 Sep 1607  Vacant; disputed by daughters of Ferdinando
29 Sep 1607 - 29 Sep 1608  Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton  (b. 1540 - d. 1614)
                           - jointly with -
29 Sep 1607 - 1612         Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury    (b. 1563 - d. 1612)
                           - jointly with -
29 Sep 1608 - 1612         Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk     (b. 1561 - d. 1626)      
1612 - 11 Aug 1627         William IV Stanley, Earl of Derby  (b. 1561 - d. 1642)

1612 - 10 Mar 1627         Elizabeth de Vere, Countess        (b. 1575? - d. 1627)
                             of Derby (f) -Regent
11 Aug 1627 - 15 Oct 1651  James I Stanley, Earl of Derby     (b. 1607 - d. 1651)
                             (fled 15 Aug 1651, captured 3 Sep 1651)
15 Aug 1651 - 15 Oct 1651  Charlotte de la Trémoille (f)      (b. 1599 - d. 1664)
                             (acting for absent James I)
15 Oct 1651 - 31 Oct 1651  Charles Stanley, Earl of Derby     (b. 1628 - d. 1672)
                             (1st time)
15 Oct 1651 - 31 Oct 1651  Charlotte de la Trémoille (f)      (s.a.)
                             (acting for absent Charles)
31 Oct 1651 - 23 Feb 1652  Vacant  

23 Feb 1652
- 29 May 1660  Thomas Fairfax, Lord Fairfax       (b. 1612 - d. 1671)
29 May 1660 - 21 Dec 1672  Charles Stanley, Earl of Derby     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
21 Dec 1672 -  5 Nov 1702  William V Stanley, Earl of Derby   (b. 1655 - d. 1702)
21 Dec 1672 -  6 Apr 1673  Dorothea Helena van den            (b. c.1630 - d. 1673)
                             Kerchhove (f) -Regent   
 6 Apr 1673 - 16 Mar 1676  James Butler, Duke
                (b. 1610 - d. 1688) 
                             of Ormonde -Regent

 5 Nov 1702 -  1 Feb 1736  James II Stanley, Earl of Derby    (b. 1664 - d. 1736)
 1 Feb 1736 -  8 Jan 1764  James III Murray, Duke of Atholl   (b. 1690 - d. 1764)
 8 Jan 1764 - 11 Jul 1765 
 Charlotte Murray, Baroness Strange (b. 1731 - d. 1805)
                           - jointly with -
 8 Jan 1764 - 11 Jul 1765 
 John Murray, Duke of Atholl        (b. 1729 - d. 1774)
11 Jul 1765 -              the Monarchs of the United Kingdom
 

Senescahls
c.1219                     Holan
c.1260                     Fogall McHascatt
Bailiffs
c.1266                     Godfrey MacManus
12.. - 12..                Alan of Galloway
1278? - 1282               Maurice Okerfair                   (d. 1282)               
12.. - 12..                Reginald the Chaplain              
12.. - 1287                Brennus                            (d. 1287)               
12.. - 12..                Donald               
Governors

1289? - 1293               Walter de Huntercumbe         
    (b. 12 .. - d. 1293)
                             (custodian)
1296? - 
29 Sep 1307        Anthony Beck, Bishop of Durham     (b. c.1245 - d. 1311) 
29 Sep 1307 - 1308         Piers Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall
  (b. c.1284 - d. 1312)
                             (custodian)      
1308 - 1310                Henri de Beaumount (1st time)      (d. 1340)
                             (Henricus de Bello Monte)
1310 - 1312                Gilbert Makaskill
(Makaskel)
                             (1st time)(custodian)
1312 - 1313                Henri de Beaumount (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1313 - 131.
               Gilbert Makaskill (Makaskel)
                             (2nd time)(seneschal)
1318 - 13..                John de Athy (custodian)
Sep 1329 - 13..            Edmund Mortayn 
29 Sep 1334 - 13..         William de Montacute (custodian)
1405 - 1417                Michael Blundell
1417 - 1418?               John Letherland (
Litherland)
                             (lieutenant)
1418? - 1422?              John Fazakerley
1422 - 1428                John Walton (lieutenant)
1428 - 14..                Henry Byron
(lieutenant)
1496 - 1497                Peter Dutton (captain)
1497 - 1505                Henry Radcliffe
, Abbot of Rushen
                             (deputy)
1505 - 1511                Ralph Rushton (1st time)
                             (deputy to 1505, then captain)
1511 - 1517                Sir John Ireland (1st time)

                             (lieutenant)
1517 - 1518                Ralph Rushton (2nd time)(captain)
1518 - 1521                John Fazakerley
(lieutenant)
1521 - 1522                Thomas Denisport (Danport)
1522 - 1526                Sir John Ireland (2nd time)
                             (lieutenant)
1526 - 1527                Richard Holt (lieutenant)
1527 - 1532                Henry Stanley
1532 - 1536                John
Fleming (captain)
1536 - 1545                George Stanley
(captain)           (d. 1570)
1545 - 1552                William Stanley (captain)
1552 - 1570                Henry Stanley
(captain)            (b. 1515 - d. 1598)
1570 - 1576                Edward Tarbock (Torbock)
(captain)  (b. c.1551 - d. 1608)
1576 - 1580                John Hanmer (Harmer)
1580                       Richard Sherburne (Shireburne)     (b. 1526 - d. 1594)
1580 - 1592                John Meyrick, Bishop of Man        (b. 1538 - d. 1599)
1592                       Thomas Mortimer
(deputy captain)
1592 - 1593                Cuthbert Gerrard (1st time)(captain)
1593 - 1594                William Stanley (William IV)       (s.a.)
1594                       Thomas Burscough
1594                       Edward Ellis (1st time)
(deputy)
1594 - 17 Jun 1595         Randulph Stanley                   (b. c.1562 - d. 1595)
Aug 1595 - 1608            Sir Thomas Gerard (captain)        (b. c.1564 - d. 1618)
                             (did not take office)
1596                       Cuthbert Gerrard (2nd time)(deputy)
1596 - 1597                Peter (Piers) Legh (captain)       (b. c.1563 - d. 1635/36)
1596 - 1608                Robert Molyneux (deputy)
1599                       Edward Ellis (2nd time)(deputy)
1609 - 1623                John Ireland
                           + John Birchall (to 1610)
1623 - 1624                Sir Ferdinando Leigh (Legh       (b. c.1585 - d. 1653/54)
1624 - 1625                Edward Fletcher
1626 - 1627                Edward Holmewood
1627 - 1634                Edward Christian (1st time)        (b. c.1600 - d. 1661)
1634                       Ewan Christian                     (b. 1579 - d. 1655)
1634 - 1638                Sir Charles Gerrard
1639                       Radcliffe Gerrard
1639 - 1640                Foulkes Hunckes
(or Fulke Hunke)
                             (captain)

1641 - 1642                Edward Christian (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1642 - 19 Sep 1651         John Greenhalghe (Greenhalgh)      (b. 1597 - d. 1651)
                             (royalist)
Sep 1651 - 31 Oct 1651     Sir Philip Musgrave
(royalist)     (b. 1607 - d. 1678)
31 Oct 1651 - 1652         Robert Duckenfield (
Dukinfield)    (b. 1619 - d. 1689)
                             (parliament)
1652 - Jun 1652            Samuel Smith (deputy governor)     (d. 1652)
18 Aug 1652 - 1653         Commissioners for governing the Isle
                           (appointed by Lord Faifax)
                           - James Chaloner
                  (b. 1603 - d. 1660)
                           - Robert Dinley
                           - Jonathan Wilton
1652 - 1653                Philip Eyton (lieutenant governor)
1653 - 1656                Matthew Cadwell
1656 - 1659                William Christian ("Illiam Dhone") (b. 1608 - d. 1663)
1659 - 1660                James Chaloner                     (s.a.)
1660                       Richard Stephenson (deputy governor)
1660 - 1664                Roger Nowell                       (b. 1605 - d. 1695)
1664 - 1673                Isaac Barrow, Bishop of Man        (b. 1613 - d. 1680)
1673 - 1676                Henry Nowell                       (b. 1622/23 - d. 1676)
1677 - 1678                Henry Stanley                      (b. 1617 - d. 1682)
1678 - 1690                Robert Heywood                     (b. 1633 - d. 1690)
1690 - 1693                Roger Kenyon                       (b. c.1627 - d. 1698)
1693 - 1696                William Sacheverell                (b. 1664 - d. 1715)
1696 - 1701                Nicholas Sankey                    (d. 1722)
1701 - 1702                James Cranston (or Cranstown)
1703 - 1713                Robert Mawdesley                   (b. 1662 - d. 1723)
1713 - 1718                Charles Z. Stanley                 (b. 1666 - d. 1715)
1718 - 1723                Alexander Horne
                             (deputy from 1713)
1723 - 1725                John Lloyd (or Floyde)
1725 - 1736                Thomas J. Horton                   (b. 1685 - d. 1757)
1736 - 1744                James Murray, Duke of Atholl       (s.a.)
1744 - 1751                Patrick Lindsay                    (b. 1686 - d. 1753)
1751 - 1761                Basil Cochrane                     (b. c.1701 - d. 1788)
1761 - 30 Apr 1777         John Wood                          (b. 1722 - d. 1777)
1777                       Richard Dawson                     (b. 17.. - d. 1800)
1777 - 1793                Edward Smith                       (b. 17.. - d. 1808)
1793 -  2 Jun 1828         John Murray, Duke of Atholl        (b. 1755 - d. 1830)
Lieutenant governors (acting for the governors to 2 Jun 1828)
1773 - 1775                Henry Hope                 
1775 - Dec 1790            Richard Dawson                     (s.a.)
Dec 1790 - 1804            Alexander Shaw                     (b. 1737 - d. 1811)
1804 - 1805                Henry Murray, Earl of Murray       (b. 1767 - d. 1805)
1805 - 28 Nov 1832         Cornelius Smelt                    (b. 1748 - d. 1832)
1832 - 1845                John Ready                         (b. 1777 - d. 1845)
1845 - Jul 1860            Charles Hope                       (b. 1808 - d. 1893)
1860                       Mark Hildesley Quayle (1st time)   (b. 1804 - d. 1879)
                             (acting)
1860 - 1863                Francis Pigott Stainsby Conant     (b. 1809 - d. 1863)
1863                       Mark Hildesley Quayle (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
1863 - 1882                Henry Brougham Loch                (b. 1827 - d. 1900)
                             (from 18 Sep 1880, Sir Henry Brougham Loch) 
1882                       Sir Spencer Walpole                (b. 1839 - d. 1907)
1883 - 1896                Sir Joseph West Ridgeway           (b. 1844 - d. 1930)
24 Jan 1896 - 27 Jun 1902  John Major Henniker-Major,         (b. 1842 - d. 1902)
                             Baron Henniker 
 3 Jul 1902 - 21 Oct 1902  Sir John James Gell (acting)       (b. 1823 - d. 1905)
21 Oct 1902 -  3 Apr 1919  George Fitzroy Henry, Baron Raglan (b. 1857 - d. 1921)
 3 Apr 1919 - 1925         William Fry                        (b. 1858 - d. 1934)
1925 - 1932                Sir Claude Hill                    (b. 1866 - d. 1934)
1932 - 1937                Sir Montagu Sherard Dawes Butler   (b. 1873 - d. 1952)
1937 -  1 Oct 1945         William Spencer Leveson-Gower,     (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
                             (from 21 Jul 1939) Earl Granville 
 
7 Sep 1945 - 1952         Sir Geoffrey Rhodes Bromet         (b. 1891 - d. 1983)
 
7 Sep 1952 - 1959         Sir Ambrose Dundas Flux Dundas     (b. 1899 - d. 1973)
 8 Sep 1959 - Sep 1966     Sir Ronald Herbert Garvey          (b. 1903 - d. 1991)
 7 Sep 1966 - 1974         Sir Peter Hyla Gawne Stallard      (b. 1915 - d. 1995)
1974 - 1980                Sir John Warburton Paul            (b. 1916 - d. 2004)
1980 - 1985                Sir Nigel Cecil                    (b. 1925)
1985 - 1990                Laurence New                       (b. 1932)
1990 - 1995                Sir Laurence Jones                 (b. 1933 - d. 1995)
27 Oct 1995 -  1 Sep 2000  Sir Timothy Daunt                  (b. 1935)
 1 Sep 2000 - 25 Oct 2000  Thomas William Cain (acting)       (b. 1935)
25 Oct 2000 - 27 Sep 2005  Ian David Macfadyen                (b. 1942)
27 Sep 2005 - 17 Oct 2005  Michael Kerruish (acting)          (b. 1948 - d. 2010)
17 Oct 2005 -  1 Apr 2011  Sir Paul Haddacks                  (b. 1946)
 1 Apr 2011 -  7 Apr 2011  David Charles Doyle
(acting)
 7 Apr 2011 -              Adam Kenneth Compton Wood          (b. 1955)

Chairmen of the Executive Council 
1961 - Feb 1967            Charles Kerruish                   (b. 1917 - d. 2003)  Non-party
Feb 1967 - Jan 1971        E. Norman Crowe                    (b. 1905 - d. 1992)  Non-party
Jan 1971 - Jan 1977        Percy Radcliffe (1st time)         (b. 1916 - d. 1991)  Non-party
Jan 1977 - 24 Nov 1981     Clifford Irving                    (b. 1914 - d. 2004)  Non-party
24 Nov 1981 - Mar 1985     Percy Radcliffe (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
Mar 1985 - Dec 1986        Edgar Mann                         (b. 1926 - d. 2013)  Non-party
Chief ministers
Dec 1986 -  3 Dec 1996     Miles Walker                       (b. 1940)            Non-party
 3 Dec 1996 -  4 Dec 2001  Donald James Gelling (1st time)    (b. 1938)            Non-party
 4 Dec 2001 - 14 Dec 2004  Richard Corkill                    (b. 1951)            Non-party
14 Dec 2004 - 14 Dec 2006  Donald James Gelling (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Non-party
14 Dec 2006 - 11 Oct 2011  James Anthony "Tony" Brown         (b. 1950)            Non-party
11 Oct 2011 -              Allan Robert Bell                  (b. 1947)            Non-party

 ¹Full style of the rulers:
(a)
c.1079 - 1405: Rex Manniae et Insularum ("King of Man and the Isles");
(b) from 1405: Dominus Manniae et Insularum ("Lords of Man and the Isles").

Party abbreviations (majority are non-party): APC = Alliance for Progressive Government (government watchdog, est.1991); LVP = Liberal Vannin Party (liberal, est.2006); MLP = Manx Labour Party (social-democratic party, est.1918); MV-MNP = Mec Vannin-Manx Nationalist Party (center left, nationalist, environmental, est.1962)








© Ben Cahoon