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Gibraltar   
   
[Union
                                    flag of 1606]
            24 Jul 1704 - 1 Jan 1801
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                        1 Jan 1801  - 1875
 
[Gibraltar colonial flag
                                    1875-1921]
                            1875 - 7 Jul 1921
 
[Gibraltar government ensign,
                                    1921-c.1939]
                         7 Jul 1921 - c.1939
 
[Gibraltar government ensign
                                    c.1939-1999]
           c.1939 - 25 Jan 1999  Government Ensign

[Gibraltar government ensign,
                                    1999]
         Adopted 25 Jan 1999  Government Ensign

[Gibraltar Civil Ensign, 1996]
              Adopted 19 Mar 1996 Civil Ensign

[Gibraltar
                                    Civil and State Flag]
          Adopted 8 Nov 1982 Civil and State Flag,
            1966 - 8 Nov 1982 Unofficial City Flag

Map of Gibraltar
Hear National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen" 
Hear Local Anthem
"Gibraltar, the Rock on
Which I Stand"
Adopted 10 Oct 1994
Constitution Order
(2 Jan 2007)
---------------------------------
1969 Constitution Order
(30 May 1969 - 2 Jan 2007)
Capital: Gibraltar
Currency: Gibraltar Pound (GIP)
National Holiday: 10 Sep (1967)
Gibraltar National Day
Population: 29,111 (2013)
GDP: $1.88 billion (2012)
Exports: $271 million (2004)
Imports: $2.96 billion (2004)
Ethnic groups: Gibraltarian (mixed Italian, Maltese, Portuguese
 and Andalusian descent) 83.2%, other British 9.5%,
Moroccan 3.5%, Spanish 1.19%, other 2.5% (2001)
Total Active Armed Forces: 280 with 220 Police (2008)
Defense is the Responsibility of the U.K.
Merchant marine: 267 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 6.9%, other
Christian 3.2%, Muslim 4%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other
or unspecified 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ICC, Interpol (subbureau), UPU
Gibraltar
Chronology

29 Apr 711                 Muslim rule; named Jabal al-Tariq ("Mountain of 
                             Tarik").
12 Sep 1309 - 17 Jun 1333  Occupied by Castile.
20 Aug 1462                Conquered by Castile; comarca de Campo Llano de
                             Gibraltar established, it is part of
the
                             estates of the duke of Medina Sidonia from 1467  
                             (Gibraltar).
22 Dec 1501                Becomes a Spanish crown possession.
24 Jul 1704                British occupy Gibraltar (Fortress of Gibraltar).
 
3 Sep 1704 - 31 Mar 1705  Under siege by Spain.
13 Jul 1713                Spain cedes Gibraltar to Britain in perpetuity 

                             by the Treaty of Utrecht.
22 Feb 1727 - 23 Jun 1727  Under siege by Spain.
 9 Nov 1729                Cession confirmed by Treaty of Seville.
16 Mar 1731                Cession confirmed by Treaty of Vienna.
18 Oct 1748                Cession confirmed by Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
10 Feb 1763                Cession confirmed by Treaty of Paris.
24 Jun 1779 -  7 Feb 1783  Final "great siege" by Spain. 
 3 Sep 1783                Cession confirmed by Treaty of Versailles
20 Jun 1830                British crown colony (Crown Colony of Gibraltar).
10 Sep 1967                Referendum endorses (by 99.6%) British sovereignty.
18 Dec 1968                United Nations resolution 2429 calls for the 
                             "decolonization" of Gibraltar.
30 May 1969                Autonomy granted (City of Gibraltar).
 8 Jun 1969 - 15 Dec 1982  Border crossing and other links closed by Spain
                             (fully
reopened 5 Feb 1985).
 7 Nov 2002                Referendum rejects (by 98.9%) the idea of joint 
                             Anglo-Spanish sovereignty.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Military commander
24 Jul 1704 -  4 Aug 1704  Sir George Rooke                   (b. 1650 - d. 1709)
Governors
 4 Aug 1704 - 13 Sep 1705  Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt   (b. 1669 - d. 1705)
 6 Aug 1704 - Nov 1704     Henry Nugent, count of Valdesoto   (b. 16.. - d. 1704)
                             (deputy governor)
24 Dec 1704 - 24 Dec 1707  John Shrimpton (deputy governor)   (b. 16.. - d. 1707)
24 Dec 1707 - 24 Jan 1711  Roger Elliott                      (b. 1665 - d. 1714)
24 Jan 1711 -  7 Aug 1713  Thomas Stanwix                     (b. 1670 - d. 1725)
 7 Aug 1713 - 20 Oct 1720  David Colyear, Earl of Portmore    (b. c.1656 - d. 1730)
20 Oct 1720 -  2 Feb 1727  Richard Kane                       (b. 1666 - d. 1736)
 2 Feb 1727 - 13 May 1730  Jasper Clayton                     (b. 1675 - d. 1743)
15 May 1730 - 24 Oct 1739  Joseph Sabine                      (b. 1661 - d. 1739)
24 Oct 1739 - 22 Apr 1740  Francis Columbine (acting)         (b. 1680? - d. 1746)
22 Apr 1740 - 1749         William Hargrave                   (b. c.1672 - d. 1751)
1749 - 31 May 1754         Sir Humphrey Bland                 (b. 1685/86 - d. 1763)
31 May 1754 - 12 Jul 1756  Thomas Fowke                       (b. c.1690 - d. 1765)
12 Jul 1756 - 16 Apr 1757  James O'Hara, Earl of Tyrawley     (b. 1681/82 - d. 1773)
16 Apr 1757 - 28 Apr 1761  William Home, Earl of Home         (b. 1681 - d. 1761)
28 Apr 1761 - 13 Jun 1761  John Toovey (acting)               (b. 17.. - d. 1770)
13 Jun 1761 - 14 Jun 1761  John Parslow (acting)              (d. 1786)
14 Jun 1761 - Jan 1776     Edward Cornwallis                  (b. 1713 - d. 1776)
1765 - 1767                John Irwin (acting for Cornwallis) (b. 1727/28 - d. 1788)
16 Jan 1776 - 25 May 1777  Robert Boyd (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1710 - d. 1794)
25 May 1777 - Jul 1790     George Augustus Eliott,            (b. 1717 - d. 1790)
                             (from 14 Jun 1787) Baron 
                             Heathfield of Gibraltar 
Jul 1790 - 13 May 1794     Sir Robert Boyd (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                             (acting to 16 Oct 1790)
13 May 1794 - 30 Dec 1795  Charles Rainsford                  (b. 1728 - d. 1809)
30 Dec 1795 - 25 Feb 1802  Charles O'Hara                     (b. 1740 - d. 1802)
25 Feb 1802 - 10 May 1802  Charles Barnett                    (b. 1758 - d. 1804)
24 May 1802 - 23 Jan 1820  Prince Edward, Duke of Kent        (b. 1767 - d. 1820)
 
1 May 1803 - 17 Dec 1804  Sir Thomas Trigge                  (b. 1742? - d. 1814)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
18 Dec 1804 - Jun 1806     Henry Edward Fox                   (b. 1755 - d. 1811)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
28 Jun 1806 - Nov 1806     James Drummond (1st time)          (b. c.1758 - d. 1831)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
Nov 1806 - Aug 1808        Sir Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple       (b. 1750 - d. 1830)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
Aug 1808 - May 1809        James Drummond (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
May 1809 - Aug 1809        Sir John Francis Cradock           (b. 1762 - d. 1839)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
Aug 1809 - Oct 1809        John Smith                         (b. 1754 - d. 1837)   
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
Oct 1809 - Nov 1809        Alex McKenzie Fraser               (b. 1756 - d. 1809)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
Nov 1809 -  2 Apr 1814     (Sir) Colin Campbell               (b. 1754 - d. 1814)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
 3 Apr 1814 - 15 Nov 1821  Sir George Don (1st time)          (b. 1754 - d. 1832)
                             (acting for Prince Edward)
29 Jan 1820 - 24 Sep 1835  John Pitt, Earl of Chatham         (b. 1756 - d. 1835)
 7 Jun 1825 - 10 May 1831  Sir George Don (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                             (acting for Pitt)
10 May 1831 - 29 May 1835  Sir William Houstoun               (b. 1766 - d. 1842)
                             (acting for Pitt)
Lieutenant governor
28 Feb 1835 -  1 Sep 1836  Sir Alexander George Woodford      (b. 1782 - d. 1870)
Governors
 1 Sep 1836 - 11 Oct 1842  Sir Alexander George Woodford      (s.a.)
11 Oct 1842 - 12 Dec 1848  Sir Robert Thomas Wilson           (b. 1777 - d. 1849)
12 Dec 1848 - 26 Jul 1855  Sir Robert William Gardiner        (b. 1781 - d. 1864)
26 Jul 1855 -  5 May 1859  Sir James Fergusson                (b. 1787 - d. 1865)
 5 May 1859 - 21 Sep 1865  Sir William John Codrington        (b. 1804 - d. 1884)
21 Sep 1865 - 25 Jul 1870  Sir Richard Airey                  (b. 1803 - d. 1881)
25 Jul 1870 - 23 Jun 1876  Sir William Fenwick Williams       (b. 1800 - d. 1883)
23 Jun 1876 -  3 Jan 1883  Robert Cornelis Napier,            (b. 1810 - d. 1890)
                             Baron Napier of Magdala
 3 Jan 1883 -  2 Nov 1886  Sir John Miller Adye               (b. 1819 - d. 1900)
 2 Nov 1886 - 23 Aug 1890  Sir Arthur Edward Hardinge         (b. 1828 - d. 1892)
23 Aug 1890 - 27 Jan 1891  Sir Leicester Curzon Smyth         (b. 1829 - d. 1891)
27 Jan 1891 - 31 Mar 1891  Henry Richard Legge Newdigate      (b. 1828 - d. 1892)
                             (acting)
31 Mar 1891 - 27 Jun 1893  Sir Lothian Nicholson              (b. 1827 - d. 1893)
27 Jun 1893 -  7 Aug 1893  George Joseph Smart (acting)       (b. 1833 - d. 1897)
 7 Aug 1893 - 22 May 1900  Sir Robert Biddulph                (b. 1835 - d. 1918)
22 May 1900 -  1 Aug 1905  Sir George Stuart White            (b. 1835 - d. 1912)
 1 Aug 1905 - 30 Jul 1910  Sir Frederick William Edward       (b. 1844 - d. 1910)
                             Forestier Forestier-Walker 
30 Jul 1910 - 11 Jul 1913  Sir Archibald Hunter               (b. 1856 - d. 1936)
11 Jul 1913 -  9 Jul 1918  Sir Herbert Scott Gould Miles      (b. 1850 - d. 1926)
 9 Jul 1918 - 26 May 1923  Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien  (b. 1858 - d. 1930)
26 May 1923 - 13 Aug 1928  Sir Charles Carmichael Monro       (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
13 Aug 1928 - 13 May 1933  Sir Alexander John Godley          (b. 1867 - d. 1957)
13 May 1933 - 12 Aug 1938  Sir Charles Harington Harington    (b. 1872 - d. 1940)
12 Aug 1938 - 11 Jul 1939  Sir Edmund Ironside                (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
11 Jul 1939 - 14 May 1941  Sir Clive Gerard Liddell           (b. 1883 - d. 1956)
14 May 1941 - 31 May 1942  John Standish Surtees Prendergast  (b. 1886 - d. 1946)
                             Vereker, Viscount Gort 
31 May 1942 - 14 Feb 1944  Noel Mason-MacFarlane              (b. 1889 - d. 1953)
                             (from 6 Aug 1943, Sir Noel Mason-MacFarlane)
14 Feb 1944 -  8 Feb 1947  Sir Ralph Eastwood                 (b. 1890 - d. 1959)
 8 Feb 1947 - 23 Apr 1952  Sir Kenneth Arthur Noel Anderson   (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
23 Apr 1952 -  6 May 1955  Sir George Holmes Alexander        (b. 1897 - d. 1986)
                             MacMillan of MacMillan 
 6 May 1955 - 16 Apr 1958  Sir Harold Redman                  (b. 1899 - d. 1986)
16 Apr 1958 -  8 Jun 1962  Sir Charles Frederic Keightley     (b. 1901 - d. 1974)
 8 Jun 1962 -  5 Aug 1965  Sir Alfred Dudley Ward             (b. 1905 - d. 1991)
 5 Aug 1965 - Mar 1969     Sir Gerald William Lathbury        (b. 1906 - d. 1978)
Mar 1969 -  3 Oct 1973     Sir Varyl Cargill Begg             (b. 1908 - d. 1995)
 3 Oct 1973 - 30 May 1978  Sir John Grandy                    (b. 1913 - d. 2004)
30 May 1978 - 26 Oct 1982  Sir William Jackson                (b. 1917 - d. 1999)
26 Oct 1982 - 19 Nov 1985  Sir David Williams                 (b. 1921 - d. 2012)
19 Nov 1985 - Dec 1989     Sir Peter Terry                    (b. 1926)
Dec 1989 - Mar 1993        Sir Derek Reffell                  (b. 1928)
Apr 1993 -  5 Dec 1995     Sir John Chapple                   (b. 1931)
 5 Dec 1995 - 19 Feb 1997  Sir Hugo White                     (b. 1939 - d. 2014)
24 Feb 1997 -  5 Apr 2000  Sir Richard Luce                   (b. 1936)
 5 Apr 2000 - 16 May 2003  David Durie                        (b. 1944)
                             (from 1 Jan 2003, Sir David Durie) 
16 May 2003 - 27 May 2003  David Blunt (acting)               (b. 1953)
27 May 2003 - 17 Jul 2006  Sir Francis Richards               (b. 1945)
17 Jul 2006 - 27 Sep 2006  Philip Barton (acting)             (b. 1963)
27 Sep 2006 - 21 Oct 2009  Sir Robert Fulton                  (b. 1948)
21 Oct 2009 - 26 Oct 2009  Lesley Pallett (f)(acting)
26 Oct 2009 - 13 Nov 2013  Sir Adrian James Johns             (b. 1951)
13 Nov 2013 -  6 Dec 2013  Alison MacMillan (f)(acting)
 6 Dec 2013 -              Sir James Dutton                   (b. 1954)

Chief ministers
11 Aug 1964 -  6 Aug 1969  Sir Joshua Hassan (1st time)       (b. 1915 - d. 1997)  AACR
 6 Aug 1969 - 25 Jun 1972  Robert Peliza                      (b. 1920 - d. 2011)  IWBP
25 Jun 1972 -  8 Dec 1987  Sir Joshua Hassan (2nd time)       (s.a.)               GLP-AACR
 8 Dec 1987 - 25 Mar 1988  Adolfo Canepa                      (b. 1940)            GLP-AACR
25 Mar 1988 - 17 May 1996  Joe Bossano                        (b. 1939)            GSLP
17 May 1996 -  9 Dec 2011  Peter Caruana                      (b. 1956)            GSD
 9 Dec 2011 -              Fabian Picardo                     (b. 1972)            GSLP

Territorial Dispute: In 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement between the UK and Spain; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the two countries; Spain disapproves of U.K. plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy.

Party abbreviations: GSD = Gibraltar Social Democrats (social-democratic, center-right, est.1989); GSLP = Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party (social-democratic, est.1978); 
- Former parties: AACR = Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights (center-right, nationalist, 1942-1969, from 1969, GLP-AACR); GLP-AACR = Gibraltar Labour Party-Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights (center-right, nationalist, 1969-1992, AACR merged with  Gibraltar Labour Party in 1969); IWBP = Integration with Britain Party (pro-integration with UK, right-wing, 1967-1978)








Ben Cahoon