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The Gambia
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                      1713 - 1779, 1815 - 1870
 
[Flag
                                    of West Africa Settlements]
                            1870 - 1889
 
Gambia
                                    colonial ensign 1889-1965
                        1889 - 18 Feb 1965 
 
[Flag of
                                    the Gambia]
               Adopted 18 Feb 1965
 


Map of Gambia
Hear National Anthem
 "For The Gambia,
Our Homeland"
Text of National Anthem
 Adopted 18 Feb 1965
Constitution
(24 Apr 1970; suspended
Jul 1994 - Jan 1997)
Capital: Banjul
(Bathurst 1816-14 Apr 1973;
Fort James 1661-95, 1699-1709,
1713-1779)
Currency: Dalasi (GMD) 
National Holiday: 18 Feb (1965)
Independence Day
Population: 1,883,051 (2013)
GDP: $3.67 billion (2013)
Exports: $113.2 million (2013)
Imports: $359.7 million (2013) 
Ethnic groups: African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%,
Wolof 16%, Jola [Diola] 10%, Serahuli 9%, other 4%),
non-African 1% (2003)
Total Active Armed Forces: 800 (2010)
Merchant marine: 4 ships (2010) 
Religions: Muslim 90%, Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)
9%, traditional beliefs and other 1% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, CCM (signatory), CEN-SAD, CTBT (signatory), CWC, ECOWAS, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WAMZ, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
The Gambia
Index
Chronology
1588                       Granted to a Company of Devon and London Merchants
                             by Queen Elizabeth I of England, but no 
                             settlement is undertaken.
1618                       Granted to the Company of Adventurers of London
                             by King James I of England.
26 Oct 1651                Courlander (now Latvia) colony (Courlander Gambia)
                             established, includes St. Andrew's Island,
                             St. Mary Island (now Banjul, with Fort
                             Bayona), and Fort Jillifree (now Juffurreh,
                             on the northern bank of the Gambia river).
 4 Feb 1659 - 10 Jun 1660  Dutch occupation (Dutch Gambia), under West India 
                             Company (administered from Goree).
 3 Jul 1660 -  2 Aug 1660  Dutch occupation, under West India Company
                             (administered from Goree).
19 Mar 1661                English occupy St. Andrew's Island and other 
                             Courlander possessions, renaming the island 
                             James Island and the fort as Fort James
                             (administered by the Royal Adventurers in
                             Africa Company).
17 Nov 1664                Formally ceded by Courland to England.
 1 Aug 1669                Administration sublet to Gambia Adventurers.
c.May 1681                 French found Fort Albreda.
1684                       Administration taken over by the Royal African 
                             Company.
27 Jul 1695 - Apr 1699     French rule (French Gambia), island is deserted.
20 May 1709 - 13 Nov 1713  Abandoned.
13 Jun 1750                Administration taken over by the Company of 
                             Merchants Trading in Africa (Fort James).
25 May 1765 - 11 Feb 1779  Part of British Senegambia (former French
                             Senegal and British Gambia settlements)
                             (see Senegal).
Apr 1766                   British crown colony of Senegambia.
11 Feb 1779 -  3 Sep 1783  French occupation, part of French Senegal 
                             (see Senegal).
 3 Sep 1783                Gambia formally restored to Britain.
1815                       British rule of Fort James confirmed by France.
23 Aug 1816                St. Mary's Island purchased, Bathurst founded
                             (Bathurst colony).
17 Oct 1821                British colony (subordinated to Sierra Leone
                             to 1843 and 1866-88).
14 Apr 1823                McCarthy's Island (Lemaine Island) annexed.
15 Jun 1826                Ceded Mile (south bank below McCarthy's Island)
                             annexed.
12 Dec 1829                Bathurst Settlement and Dependencies in the
                             Gambia.
13 Jul 1840                Kombo formally incorporated.
11 Apr 1843                Gambia Colony
19 May 1857                France cedes its last settlement in the area 
                             (Albreda) to Britain.
19 Feb 1866 - 17 Dec 1874  Part of British West African Settlements 
                             (see Sierra Leone).
17 Dec 1874 - 24 Nov 1888  Part of smaller British West Africa Settlements 
                             (see Sierra Leone).
24 Nov 1888                Gambia a separate colony.
28 Dec 1894                British protectorate proclaimed over the 
                             interior.
11 Jan 1901                Gambia Colony and Protectorate
 3 Oct 1963                Self-rule achieved.
18 Feb 1965                Independence from U.K. (The Gambia).
24 Apr 1970                Republic of The Gambia
 1 Feb 1982 - 30 Sep 1989  Confederation with Senegal (Senegambia).
18 Oct 1996                The Gambia 
Traditional
States
Gambia
Protectorate

(1893-1935)
Historical Maps
of The Gambia
 
 
 
 
 
 

English Agents
1618 - 1619                George Thompson                    (d. 1619)
1619 - c.1624              Richard Jobson
.... - ....                .... [unknown]
Courlander Governors
26 Oct 1651 12 Mar 1652  Pieter Schulte                     (d. af.1653)
12 Mar 1652 1653         Heinrich Fock (1st time) (acting)  (d. 1654)
1653 1654                Friedrich Wilhelm von Trotta,      (d. 1654)
                             gen. Treyden                        
1654 Aug 1654            Heinrich Fock (2nd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
Aug 1654 1655            Wilhelm Philipp von Seitz          (d. af.1656)
1655 Feb 1657            Otto Stiel (1st time) (acting)     (d. af.1670)
Feb 1657 1657            Joachim Deninger von Olinda        (d. 1657)
1657   4 Feb 1659         Otto Stiel (2nd time)              (s.a.)
                             (acting to 1658)
 4 Feb 1659 10 Jun 1660  Dutch occupation
10 Jun 1660 -  3 Jul 1660  Otto Stiel (3rd time)              (s.a.)
 3 Jul 1660 -  2 Aug 1660  Dutch occupation
 2 Aug 1660 19 Mar 1661  Otto Stiel (4th time)              (s.a.)
English Agents
19 Mar 1661 - 1661         Francis Kerby
1661 - 1662                Morgan Facey
1662 - 26 Jan 1664         Stephen Ustick
26 Jan 1664 - 1666         John Ladd
1666 - 1672                ....
1672 - 1674                Rice Wright
1674 - 1677                ....
1677 - 1680                Thomas Thurloe
1680 - 1681                Thomas Forde 
1681 - 1684                John Kastell
1684 - 1688                Alexander Cleeve
1688 -  8 Jun 1693         John Booker                        (d. 1693)
 8 Jun 1693 - 1695         William Heath
1695 - 27 Jul 1695         John Hanbury
27 Jul 1695 - Apr 1699     French rule, but deserted
Apr 1699 - 1700            Thomas Corker
1700                       Paul Pindar
1700 - 1701                Thomas Gresham
1701 - Nov 1702            Henry Bradshaw
Nov 1702 -  7 Dec 1703     Humphrey Chishull
 7 Dec 1703 -  4 Sep 1704  Thomas Weaver
 4 Sep 1704 - 22 Jun 1706  John Chidley
22 Jun 1706 - Aug 1706     Joseph Dankins (acting)
Aug 1706 -  2 Dec 1706     John Tozer
 2 Dec 1706 - 20 May 1709  John Snow
20 May 1709 - 13 Nov 1713  Abandoned
13 Nov 1713 - Dec 1714     William Cooke
Dec 1714 -  9 Oct 1717     David Francis                     (d. 1717)
 9 Oct 1717 -  4 Feb 1721  Charles Orfeur                    (d. 1745)
Governors
 4 Feb 1721 -  6 Oct 1721  Thomas Whitney
 6 Oct 1721 - 13 Apr 1723  Henry Glynne
13 Apr 1723 - 28 Oct 1723  Joseph Willey
28 Oct 1713 -  2 Nov 1725  Robert Plunkett
 2 Nov 1725 - 1728         Anthony Rogers
1728                       Richard Hull (1st time)
1728 - 1729                Charles Cornewall
1729 - 29 Nov 1729         Daniel Pepper (acting)
29 Nov 1729 -  7 Feb 1733  Anthony Rogers
 7 Feb 1733 - 16 Jan 1737  Richard Hull (2nd time)
16 Jan 1737 - 1745         Charles Orfeur                     (s.a.)
1745 - 13 Jun 1750         John Gootheridge
13 Jun 1750 - 1752         James Alison (acting)
1752 - 1754                James Skinner
1754 - 1755                Robert Lawrie
1755 - 1758                Tobias Lisle
1758 - 25 May 1765         Joseph Debat 
25 May 1765 - 11 Feb 1779  part of British Senegambia (see Senegal)
11 Feb 1779 -  3 Sep 1783  part of French Senegal
Commandants
 3 Sep 1783 - 23 Apr 1816  None
23 Apr 1816 -  1 Aug 1826  Alexander Grant
 1 Aug 1826 -  8 Mar 1829  Alexander Findlay
 8 Mar 1829 -  8 Aug 1829  W. Hutton (acting)
 8 Aug 1829 - 28 Jan 1830  James Jackson (captain) (acting)
Lieutenant governors
28 Jan 1830 - 17 Apr 1830  Alexander Findlay
17 Apr 1830 - 20 Sep 1837  George Rendall                     (b. c.1791 - d. 1837)
21 Sep 1837 -  2 Feb 1829  Anthony Clogstoun (acting)         (b. 1815 - d. 1851)
 2 Feb 1839 - 17 Sep 1839  William Mackie                     (d. 1839)
17 Sep 1839 -  9 Apr 1840  Thomas Lewis Ingram (1st time) 
                             (acting)
  9 Apr 1840 - 31 May 1841  Sir Henry Vere Huntley             (b. 1795 - d. 1864)
31 May 1841 -  1 Apr 1843  Thomas Lewis Ingram (2nd time) 
                             (acting)
Governors
  1 Apr 1843 - 26 Aug 1843  Henry Froude Seagram               (b. c.1802 - d. 1843)
26 Aug 1843 - 1843         Thomas Lewis Ingram (3rdtime)                          
                             (acting)
Oct 1843 - Mar 1844        Edmund Nash Norcott                (b. c.1794 - d. 1874)
Oct 1843 - 1844            Thomas Lewis Ingram
                             (acting for absent Norcott)
 7 Aug 1844 - 10 Dec 1844  John Mantell (acting)
10 Dec 1844 - 1847         Charles Fitzgerald                 (b. 1792 - d. 1887)
19 Apr 1847 - 22 Dec 1847  Thomas Lewis Ingram (4th time)
                             (acting)
22 Dec 1847 - 1851         Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell      (b. 1814 - d. 1881)
1851 - 1852                Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy          (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
1852 - 1859                Luke Smythe O'Connor               (b. 1806 - d. 1873)
Apr 1859 - Sep 1859        D. Robertson (acting)
Sep 1859 - 19 Feb 1866     George Abbas Kooli D'Arcy          (b. 1818? - d. 1885)
Administrators
19 Feb 1866 - 1869         Charles George Edward Patey        (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
1869 - 1871                Alexander Bravo (acting)
1871 - 1873                Jeremiah Thomas Fitzgerlad         (b. c.1830 - d. 1881)
                             Callaghan 
1873 - 1875                Cornelius Hendricksen Kortright    (b. 1817 - d. 1899)
1875 - 1877                Sir Samuel Rowe                    (b. 1835 - d. 1888)
1875 -  9 Jan 1877         Henry Towry Miles Cooper           (b. 1838 - d. 1877)
                             (acting for absent Rowe)
30 Mar 1877 - 1884         Valesius Skipton Gouldsbury        (b. 1839 - d. 1896)
1884 - 1886                Sir Cornelius Alfred Moloney       (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
1886 - 1888                Sir James Shaw Hay                 (b. 1839 - d. 1924)
1888 - 1891                Sir Gilbert Thomas Carter          (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
                             (acting to 28 Nov 1888) 
1891 - 1900                Sir Robert Baxter Llewelyn         (b. 1845 - d. 1919) 
1900 - 11 Jan 1901         Sir George Chardin Denton          (b. 1851 - d. 1928)
Governors
11 Jan 1901 - 21 Dec 1911  Sir George Chardin Denton          (s.a.)
21 Dec 1911 - 11 Apr 1914  Henry Lionel Galway                (b. 1859 - d. 1949)
11 Apr 1914 - 1920         Edward John Cameron                (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
                            (from 5 Jun 1916, Sir Edward John Cameron)
1920                       Herbert Henniker-Heaton (acting)   (b. 1880 - d. 1961)
 3 Jan 1921 - 10 Mar 1927  Sir Cecil Hamilton Armitage        (b. 1868 - d. 1933)
10 Mar 1927 - 29 Nov 1928  Sir John Middleton                 (b. 1870 - d. 1954)
29 Nov 1928 - 11 Sep 1930  Sir Edward Brandis Denham          (b. 1876 - d. 1938)
11 Sep 1930 - 12 Apr 1934  Sir Herbert Richmond Palmer        (b. 1877 - d. 1958)
12 Apr 1934 - 22 Oct 1936  Arthur Frederick Richards          (b. 1885 - d. 1978)
                            (from 3 Jun 1935, Sir Arthur Frederick Richards)
22 Oct 1936 - 23 Mar 1942  Sir Wilfred Thomas Southorn        (b. 1879 - d. 1957)
23 Mar 1942 - 29 Mar 1947  Hilary Rudolph Robert Blood        (b. 1893 - d. 1967)
                            (from 11 Jan 1944, Sir Hilary Rudolph Robert Blood)
29 Mar 1947 - Dec 1949     Andrew Barkworth Wright            (b. 1895 - d. 1971)
                            (from 1948, Sir Andrew Barkworth Wright) 
Dec 1949 - 19 Jun 1958     Percy Wyn-Harris                   (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
                            (from 4 Jan 1952, Sir Percy Wyn-Harris) 
19 Jun 1958 - 29 Mar 1962  Sir Edward Henry Windley           (b. 1909 - d. 1972)
29 Mar 1962 - 18 Feb 1965  John Warburton Paul                (b. 1916 - d. 2004)
                            (from 2 Jun 1962, Sir John Warburton Paul)  
Queen2
18 Feb 1965 - 24 Apr 1970  the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
18 Feb 1965 -  9 Feb 1966  Sir John Warburton Paul            (s.a.)
 9 Feb 1966 - 24 Apr 1970  Farimang Mamadi Singhateh          (b. 1912 - d. 1977)
                            (from 12 Sep 1966, Sir Farimang Mamadi Singhateh)
                            (acting to 11 Aug 1966 [retroactive to 4 Jul 1966])
Presidents
24 Apr 1970 - 22 Jul 1994  Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara           (b. 1924)            PPP
30 Jul 1981 -  5 Aug 1981  Kukoi Samba Sanyang                (b. 1952 - d. 2013)  Mil
                            (chairman National Revolutionary Council, in rebellion)
22 Jul 1994 -              Yahya Abdul-Azziz Jemus Junkung    (b. 1965)          Mil;1996 APRC
                             Jammeh 
                            (chairman Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council 
                             to 28 Sep 1996; Head of State to 18 Oct 1996)
 
Chief minister
14 Mar 1961 - 12 Jun 1962  Pierre Sarr N'Jie                  (b. 1909 - d. 1993)  UP
Prime minister
12 Jun 1962 - 24 Apr 1970  David Kairaba Jawara               (s.a.)               PPP
                            (from 1965, Dawda Kairaba Jawara;
                             from 1 Jan 1966, Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara)
 
  Referred to as "The Second Republic of The Gambia" in the preface to the Constitution of 1997 and in the Constitution's Schedule 2, section 2.

 2Full style:
(a) 18 Feb 1965 - 18 Jun 1965: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(b) 18 Jun 1965 - 24 Apr 1970: "Queen of The Gambia and all Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

 
Territorial Disputes: Attempts to stem refugees, cross-border raids, arms smuggling, and other illegal activities by separatists from southern Senegal's Casamance region as well as from conflicts in other west African states.

Party abbreviations:
APRC = Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction (centrist, authoritarian, est.1996); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: UP = United Party (PPP opposition, N'Jie personalist, 1953-1993); PPP = People's Progressive Party (center-right, Feb-Dec 1959 named Protectorate People's Party, Feb 1959-1994)

Gambia Protectorate

Note: Before 1935, The Gambia was divided into the Colony (a small area containing present-day Banjul) and the Protectorate. The Protectorate originally had two divisions North Bank and South Bank and later five divisions.

21 Jan 1893                First British travelling commissioners appointed.
28 Dec 1894                Gambia Protectorate formed.
11 Jan 1901                Gambia Colony and Protectorate
1935                       Partitioned into five divisions (Saint Mary, MacCarthy Island,
                             North Bank, South Bank, and Upper River) subordinated to
                             the Senior Commissioner at Bathurst. 
18 Feb 1965                Part of independent Gambia.

Travelling Commissioners of the North Bank of the Gambia River
21 Jan 1893 - 28 Feb 1902  John Henry Ozanne                  (b. 1851 - d. 1902)
1902 - 1920                Howard Lloyd Pryce (Price)         (d. 1932)
1920? - af.1928            Emilius Hopkinson (1st time)       (b. 1896 - d. 1951)
bf.1930? - af.1931         R.W. Macklin (1st time)
c.1932                     A.R. Clark
c.1933                     Emilius Hopkinson (2nd time)       (s.a.)
c.1934                     R.W. Macklin (2nd time)
c.1935                     Kenneth Cecil Tours
c.1936 - c.1939            A.J. Knott
c.1940 - c.1941            F.A. Evans
c.1941 - c.1942            G. Lorimer
c.1944                     Nicholas Master Assheton           (b. 1905 - d. 1994)
Travelling Commissioners of the South Bank of the Gambia River
21 Jan 1893 - 1895?        Cecil Frederick Sitwell            (b. 1860 - d. 1900)
1895? - 1896?              A.A. Hammill
 4 Nov 1896 - Nov 1897     Percy Errington Wainewright        (b. 1865 - d. 1901)
1898? - 1899?              Howard Lloyd Pryce
1899 - 14 Jun 1900         Frederic Edgar Silva               (b. 1872 - d. 1900)
c.1903                     A.K. Withers
1904? - 1905?              W.B. Stanley
28 Sep 1905 - 1911         Hugh F. Sproston
1911? - 1920?              Emilius Hopkinson                  (s.a.)
1921? - 1924?              R.W. Macklin
1924? - 1925?              L.A.W. Brooks
1925? - 1930?              R.W. Macklin
1930/31? - 1932?           Ernest Benjamin Leese
1932? - 1933?              H.R. Oke
1933? - 1936?              Ronald Henry Gretton               (b. 1907 - d. .....)
1936 - 1937?               Ronald Graham Syme
1937? - af.1939            R.G. Biddulph
c.1942 - 1944?             Wilson Plant
Senior Commissioners
1944 - 1950?               Neil Archibald Campbell Weir       (b. 1895 - d. 1967)
1950 - 1956                Gerald Humphrey Smith
May? 1956 - c.1959         Kenneth John Frazer                (b. 1914 - d. 2012)
bf.1962                    K.J.W. Lane



Gambia Traditional States


Barra

1892                       Extinguished by British colonial authorities.

Rulers
16.. - 1826                .... [unknown, 64 kings]
1826 - 1832                Burungai Djirayandi Sonko
1832 - 1862                Demba Adam Sonko
1862 - 1892                Demba Sonko



Fuladugu

1867 - 1887                Part of N'Gabu (see under Guinea-Bissau).

Head Chiefs
1887 - 1901                Alfa Musa Molo                       (d. 1931)
1901 - 1918                Dembo Dansone
1918 - 1919                Sanneh Bayo
1919 - 1922                Musa Jatte
1922 - 1924                Hansumana Dansoe
1925 - 1951                Cherno Kady Naldeh  
1952 - 1964                Koba Leigh
1964 - 1997                Laning Baldeh
1997 -                     Farli Baldeh



Marabut

Rulers
1851 - 1855                'Umar
1851 - 1892                Fodi Kabba (in Jarra)
1861 - 1866                Maba Almami (in Badibbu)             (d. 1867)
1867 - 1885                Manimadu N'Dare (in Badibbu)
1877 - 1887                Bayram Sis (in rebellion) 
1885 - 1887                Sa'id Mattin (in Badibbu) 






Ben Cahoon