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Gabon
 
             9 Feb 1839 - 29 Jun 1959
 
[Pre-Independence Flag of
                                    Gabon1959-1960]
         29 Jun 1959 - 9 Aug 1960 
 
[Flag of
                                    Gabon]
             Adopted 9 Aug 1960
 
Map of Gabon
Hear National Anthem
"La Concorde"
(The Concord)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 17 Aug 1960
Constitution
 (14 Mar 1991; in French) 
Capital: Libreville
(Fort d'Aumale 1843-1849)
Currency: Communauté
Financière Africaine
Franc (XAF)
National Holiday: 12 Mar (1968)
Founding of the Gabonese
Democratic Party
Population: 1,640,286 (2013)
GDP: $30.06 billion (2013)
Exports: $9.77 billion (2013)
Imports: $3.93 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Fang 28.6%, Punu 10.2%, Nzebi 8.9%,
French 6.7%, Mpongwe 4.1%, other Africans and
Europeans 154,000 (including 10,700 French and
11,000 persons of dual nationality) (2000)
Total Armed Forces: 4,700 (2010)
French Troops: 2,800 (2009)
Merchant marine: 2 ships (2010)
Religions: Christian 73% (of which Roman Catholic 45%,
Protestant
28%), Muslim 12%, traditional beliefs/animist 10%,
non-religious 5% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BDEAC, BTWC, CEEAC, CEMAC, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Gabon Index
Chronology

 9 Feb 1839                First transfer of sovereignty to France
                             (French Gulf of Guinea settlements).
11 Jun 1843                French Gabon settlements (1854-1859 including 
                             Gorée).
1854                       Gorée, Gabon, and other French settlements form 
                             the Colony of Gorée and Dependencies, headed by
                             the Commandant of the Naval Division of the 
                             Western Coasts of Africa.
26 Feb 1859                Gorée re-incorporated into Senegal; the other
                             settlements continue to be subordinated to the 
                             Naval Division, now with its center at Gabon.
 4 Oct 1860                Gabon territory part of Ivory Coast-Gabon
                             colony.
16 Dec 1883                French Gabon colony
27 Apr 1886                Part of French Congo (Gabon territory) 
                             (see Congo [Brazzaville]).
11 Dec 1888                Part of Middle Congo-Gabon territory
30 Apr 1891                French Equatorial African Protectorate renamed
                             French Congo.
 5 Jul 1902                Gabon territory part of Lower Congo-Gabon colony.
29 Dec 1903                Gabon colony
15 Jan 1910                Part of French Equatorial Africa (AEF) colony
                             (see Congo [Brazzaville]).
30 Jun 1934 - 31 Dec 1937  Gabon Region within unitary AEF colony.
31 Dec 1937                Gabon overseas territory of France (part of AEF).
16 Jun 1940 - 12 Nov 1940  Administration loyal to Vichy France 
                             (from 12 Nov 1940, under Free French).
27 Oct 1946                Overseas territory of France (part of AEF).
28 Nov 1958                Autonomy (Gabonese Republic).
17 Aug 1960                Independence from France.

Gabon and
Dependencies

(1839-1886)
Traditional States
Orungu
(1790-1927)
-------------------
Mpongwe
-------------------
Olamba

Historical Maps
of Gabon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Commander
 9 Feb 1839 - 11 Jun 1843  Louis Édouard Bouët                (b. 1808 - d. 1871)
                             (from 1844, Louis Édouard Bouët-Willaumez)
Commandants-particular of Gabon and Gulf of Guinea Settlements
11 Jun 1843 - 1844         Antoine Devoisins
1844                       Joseph Marie Millet
1844 - 1846                André Brisset (1st time)           (b. 1808 - d. 1876)
1846                       Eugène Louis Hugues Méquet         (b. 1812 - d. 1887)
1846                       Clément Grosjean
1846 - 1847                Jean Carrilès
1847 - 1848                André Brisset (2nd time)           (s.a.)
25 Mar 1848 - 1848         Alphonse Alexandre Sourdeaux
 3 Aug 1848 - 1848         Eugène Jean Antione Desperles      (b. 1819 - d. 1860)
Dec 1848 - 1849            Étienne Charles Deschanel
10 Aug 1849 - 1850         Jean-Auguste Martin                (b. 1814 - d. 1882)
15 Dec 1850 - 1853         Alexis Édouard Vignon (1st time)   (b. 1806 - d. 1884)
1853 - 1857                Théophile Quillet
1857 - 1859                Alexis Édouard Vignon (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1859 - 1860                Pierre Alexandre Mailhetard        (b. 1822 - d. 1885)
 4 Aug 1860 - 1861         César Charles Joseph Pradier       (b. 1811 - d. ....)
1861 - 1863                Paul Claude Nicolas Brue           (b. 1808 - d. ....)
1863 - 1866                Charles Ferdinand Eugène Baur    
1866 - 1867                Joseph Henri Brunet-Millet         (b. 1821 - d. 1885)
1867 - 1868                Hyacinthe Laurent Théophile Aube   (b. 1826 - d. 1890)
1868 - 1869                Frédéric Amable Bourgarel          (b. 1826 - d. 1897)
1869 - 1871                Hippolyte Adrien Bourgin           (b. 1826 - d. 1879)
1871 - 1873                Gustave Aristide Léopold Garraud   (b. 1820 - d. ....)
1873 - 1875                Charles Henri Jules Panon du       (b. 1827 - d. 1897)
                             Hazier 
1875 - 1876                Félix Ambroise Clément             (b. 1822 - d. 1884)
1876 - 1879                Paul Michel Frédéric Caudière      (b. 1822 - d. 1887)
1879 - 1880                Augustin Ernest Dumont             (b. 1835 - d. 1898)
1880 - 1881                Jules Émile Hanet-Cléry            (b. 1833 - d. 1890)
1881 - 16 Dec 1883         Émile Masson                       (b. 1832 - d. 1912)
16 Dec 1883 - 1885         Jean Joseph Alfred Cornut-Gentille (b. 1839 - d. 1918)
1885 - 27 Apr 1886         Georges Émile Pradier
Governor
27 Apr 1886 - 29 Jun 1886  Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza         (b. 1852 - d. 1905)
Lieutenant governors
29 Jun 1886 - 12 Mar 1889  Noël Eugène Ballay                 (b. 1847 - d. 1902)
12 Mar 1889 -  1 Jun 1894  Charles de Chavannes               (b. 1853 - d. 1940)
 1 Jun 1894 - 22 Jan 1899  Albert Dolisie                     (b. 1856 - d. 1899)
 1 May 1899 - 1902         Émile Gentil                       (b. 1866 - d. 1914)
21 Jan 1904 - 19 Apr 1905  Louis Auguste Bertrand Ormières    (b. 1851 - d. 1914)
19 Apr 1905 -  5 Aug 1905  Paul Jean François Cousturier      (b. 1849 - d. 1921)
                             (acting)
 5 Aug 1905 - 27 Apr 1906  Alfred Louis Fourneau (acting)     (b. 1860 - d. 1930)
27 Apr 1906 - 23 Apr 1907  Charles Henri Adrien Noufflard     (b. 1872 - d. 1936)
                             (acting)
23 Apr 1907 - 26 Apr 1907  Alfred Albert Martineau            (b. 1859 - d. 1945)
26 Apr 1907 - 20 Jan 1909  Édouard Émile Léon Telle (acting)  (b. 1859 - d. 1949)
20 Jan 1909 - 10 Feb 1909  Frédéric Claude Weber (acting)     (b. 1855 - d. 19..)
10 Feb 1909 -  9 Nov 1909  Charles Amédée Rognon (acting)     (b. 1861 - d. 1911)
 9 Nov 1909 - Jun 1911     Léon Félix Richaud (acting)        (b. 18.. - d. 1944)
Jun 1911 - 21 Feb 1912     Georges Virgile Poulet             (b. 1859 - d. 193.)
21 Feb 1912 - 18 Apr 1914  Paul Pierre Marie Georges Adam     (b. 1865 - d. 1916)
                             (acting)

18 Apr 1914 -  1 Jun 1917  Marie Casimir Joseph Guyon         (b. 1870 - d. 1942)
 1 Jun 1917 - 12 Jun 1918  Georges Thomann (acting)           (b. 1872 - d. 1943)
12 Jun 1918 - 30 Jun 1919  Maurice Pierre Lapalud             (b. 1868 - d. 19..)
30 Jun 1919 - 29 May 1922  Jean Henri Marchand                (b. 1864 - d. 19..)
                             (acting to 13 Apr 1920)
29 May 1922 - 15 Jun 1923  Edmond Émilien Cadier (acting)     (b. 1868 - d. 1951)
12 Jun 1923 - 29 Jul 1924  Louis Nicolas Jean Marie Cercus
                             (acting)
29 Jul 1924 - 19 Jun 1931  Marie Joseph Jules Pierre Bernard  (b. 1876 - d. 19..)
19 Jun 1931 - Nov 1931     Louis Vingarassamy (acting)        (b. 1880 - d. 1951)
Nov 1931 - 26 Sep 1934     Louis Alexis Étienne Bonvin        (b. 1886 - d. 1945)
Administrator-superior
26 Sep 1934 - 24 Oct 1936  Louis Alexis Étienne Bonvin        (s.a.)
Governors-delegate
24 Oct 1936 - 11 Sep 1937  Louis Alexis Étienne Bonvin        (s.a.)
11 Sep 1937 - 29 Aug 1938  Georges Hubert Parisot             (b. 1887 - d. 1969)
29 Aug 1938 - 14 Nov 1940  Georges Pierre Masson              (d. 1940)
                             (acting to 2 Nov 1939)
14 Nov 1940 - 15 Mar 1941  André Marie Jules Parant (acting)  (b. 1897 - d. 1941)
Governors
26 Mar 1941 - 31 May 1942  Victor Valentin-Smith
31 May 1942 - 26 Aug 1943  Charles André Maurice Assier de    (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
                             Pompignan
26 Aug 1943 - 19 Nov 1944  Paul Vuillaume                     (b. 1896 - d. 1975)
19 Nov 1944 - 28 Mar 1946  Numa Henri François Sadoul         (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
                             (1st time) (acting)
28 Mar 1946 - 31 Dec 1947  Roland Joanes Louis Pré            (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
31 Dec 1947 -  6 Apr 1949  Numa Henri François Sadoul         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 6 Apr 1949 - 19 Oct 1951  Pierre-François Pélieu             (b. 1906 - d. 1952)
                             (acting to 4 Jan 1950)
19 Oct 1951 - 25 Apr 1952  Charles Émile Hanin (acting)       (b. 1895 - d. 1964)
25 Apr 1952 - 29 Jan 1958  Yves Jean Digo                     (b. 1897 - d. 1974)
29 Jan 1958 - Nov 1958     Louis Marius Pascal Sanmarco       (b. 1912 - d. 2009)
High Commissioners
Nov 1958 - Jul 1959        Louis Marius Pascal Sanmarco       (s.a.)
Jul 1959 - 17 Aug 1960     Jean Risterucci                    (b. 1911 - d. 1982)
Presidents
17 Aug 1960 - 17 Feb 1964  Gabriel Léon M'ba (1st time)       (b. 1902 - d. 1967)  BDG
                             (head of state to 21 Feb 1961)
17 Feb 1964 - 18 Feb 1964  Revolutionary Committee
                           - Daniel Mbene                     (d. 1969)            Mil
                           - Jean-Valère Essone                                    Mil
                           - Jacques Mombo                                         Mil
                           - Daniel Mbo Edou                  (d. 1964)            Mil
18 Feb 1964 - 19 Feb 1964  Jean-Hilaire Aubame                (b. 1912 - d. 1989)  UDSG
                             (head of Provisional Government)
19 Feb 1964 - 28 Nov 1967  Gabriel Léon M'ba (2nd time)       (s.a.)               BDG
28 Nov 1967 -  8 Jun 2009  Albert-Bernard Bongo               (b. 1935 - d. 2009) BDG;1968 PDG
                             (from 29 Sep 1973, Omar Bongo;
                             from 15 Nov 2003, Omar Bongo Ondimba)
 6 May 2009 -  8 Jun 2009  Didjob Divungi Di Ndinge           (b. 1946)            ADERE
                             (acting for Bongo)
10 Jun 2009 - 16 Oct 2009  Rose Francine Rogombé (f)          (b. 1942
)            PDG
                             (interim)
16 Oct 2009 -              Ali Ben Bongo Ondimba              (b. 1959)            PDG

Vice President of the Council of Government
21 May 1957 - 26 Jul 1958  Gabriel Léon M'ba                  (s.a.)               BDG
President of the Government Council
26 Jul 1958 - 28 Nov 1958  Gabriel Léon M'ba                  (s.a.)               BDG
Head of the Provisional Government
28 Nov 1958 - 27 Feb 1959  Gabriel Léon M'ba                  (s.a.)               BDG
Prime ministers
27 Feb 1959 - 21 Feb 1961  Gabriel Léon M'ba                  (s.a.)               BDG
21 Feb 1961 - 16 Apr 1975  Post Abolished
16 Apr 1975 -  3 May 1990  Léon Mébiame                       (b. 1934)            PDG
 3 May 1990 -  2 Nov 1994  Casimir Oyé-Mba                    (b. 1942)            Non-party
 2 Nov 1994 - 23 Jan 1999  Paulin Obame-Nguema                (b. 1934)            PDG
23 Jan 1999 - 20 Jan 2006  Jean-François Ntoutoume-Émane      (b. 1939)            PDG
20 Jan 2006 - 17 Jul 2009  Jean Eyeghe Ndong                  (b. 1946)            PDG
17 Jul 2009 - 
27 Feb 2012  Paul Biyoghé Mba                   (b. 1953)            PDG
27 Feb 2012 - 24 Jan 2014  Raymond Ndong Sima                 (b. 1955)            PDG

24 Jan 2014 -              Daniel Ona Ondo                    (b. 1945)            PDG

Territorial Disputes: UN urges Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane Island and lesser islands and to establish a maritime boundary in hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay

Party abbreviations: ADERE = Alliance Démocratique et Républicaine (Democratic and Republican Alliance, est.1990); PDG = Parti Démocratique Gabonais (Gabonese Democratic Party, authoritarian, conservative, former BDG, 1968-90 only legal party, est.Mar 1968); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: BDG = Bloc Démocratique Gabonais (Gabonese Democratic Bloc, 1953-Mar 1968, then PDG); UDSG = Union Démocratique et Sociale Gabonaise (Gabonese Democratic and Social Union, 1946-1968)



Gabon and Dependencies

 9 Feb 1839                First transfer of sovereignty to France.
1854                       Gorée, Gabon, and other French settlements form 
                             the Colony of Gorée and Dependencies, headed by
                             the Commandant of the Naval Division of the 
                             Western Coasts of Africa
1859                       Gorée re-incorporated into Senegal; the other
                             settlements continue to be subordinated to the 
                             Naval Division, now with its center at Gabon.
27 Apr 1886                Part of French Congo. 

Commandants of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa
 9 Feb 1839 - 1845         Louis Édouard Bouët                (b. 1808 - d. 1871)
                             (from 1844, Louis Édouard Bouët-Willaumez)
                             (1st time) 
1845 - 1848                Jean-Baptiste Montagniès de la     (b. 1793 - d. 1862)
                             Roque
1848                       Auguste Laurent François Baudin    (b. 1800 - d. 1877)
                             (1st time)
 1 Sep 1848 - Apr 1850     Louis Édouard Bouët-Willaumez      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
1850 - 1851                Charles Penaud                     (b. 1800 - d. 1864)
1851 - 1854                Auguste Laurent François Baudin    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1854 - 31 Jan 1856         Jérôme Félix Monléon               (b. 1798 - d. 1856)
31 Jan 1856 - Mar 1859     Auguste Léopold Protet             (b. 1808 - d. 1862)
1859 - 1861                Auguste Bosse                      (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
1861 - 1863                Octave François Charles, baron     (b. 1812 - d. 1886)
                             Didelot
1863 - 1866                André Émile Léon Laffon de Ladébat (b. 1807 - d. 1874)
1866 - 1868                Alphonse Jean René, vicomte        (b. 1809 - d. 1881)
                             Fleuriot de Langle 
1868 - 1869                Alexandre François Dauriac         (b. 1812 - d. 1878)
1869 - 1870                Victor Auguste, baron Duperré      (b. 1825 - d. 1900)
1870 - 1872                Siméon Bourgeois                   (b. 1815 - d. 1887)
1872 - 1874                Antoine Louis Marie Le Couriault   (b. 1815 - d. 1877)
                             de Quillio
1874 - 1875                Charles Henri Jules Panon du       (b. 1827 - d. 1897)
                             Hazier 
1875 - 1877                Amédée Louis Ribourt               (b. 1821 - d. 1893)
1877 - 1879                François Hippolyte Allemand        (b. 1820 - d. 1895)
1879 - 1881                Bernard Ernest Mottez
1881 - 24 Jan 1883         Louis Antoine Richild,             (b. 1827 - d. 1883)
                             baron Grivel
1884 - 1886                Jules Marie Armand Cavelier de     (b. 1834 - d. 1912)
                             Cuverville 



Traditional States

Orungu

Note: There is a large number of very minor traditional states (like Mpongwe and Olamba), with very fragmentary records. Orungu is the only major polity.

bf.1700                    Orungu kingdom founded.
1927                       Kingdom extinguished by French colonial government.

Rulers (title Agamwinboni)
c.1700 - c.1730            Reto Ndongo                        (b. c.1670 - d. c.1730)
c.1730 - 17..              Ndebulia Mbura                     (b. c.1700 - d. ....)
17.. - c.1750              Renjangue Ndongo                   (b. c.1700 - d. c.1750) 
c.1750                     Renkondje                          (b. c.1730
- d. ....)
c.1750 - 1790              Ngwerangu'Iwono                    (b. c.1730 - d. ....) 
1790                       Ndombe

1790 - 1810                Reombi "Mpolo" (or Renwombi)
      (b. c.1760 - d. 18..)
1810 - 1840                Ogul'Issogwe (Rogombe) "Mpolo"
                             (Pasol)
1840 - 1862                Ombango Rogombe "Ikinda" (Pascal)
1862 - 1865                Ndebulia-Rogombe
1865 - 1882                Ncege (Ntchengue or Ranyonyuna)
1882 - ....                Avonowanga
.... - 1927                Rogombe-Mentchandi                 (d. 1927)


Mpongwe
 
Rulers (title Oga)
1839 - 1876                Denis I Anchuwe Koke Rapoutchombo  (b. 1790 - d. 1876)
1876 - 1884                Felix Adende Rapontchombo         
(b. 1844 - d. 1911)
                             (1st time) 
1884 - 1900                Denis II (1st time)  
1900 - 1905                Felix Adende Rapontchombo          (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
1905 - 1927                Denis II (2nd time) 


Olamba
 
Rulers (title Aguekaza)
1839 - 1848                Glass Noama
1848 - ....                Govern
.... - ....                Tom Case
.... - ....                Will Glass



 



© Ben Cahoon