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El Salvador
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
to 21 Sep 1821
 
[Province of San Salvador
                                    1821-22]
21 Sep 1821 - 22 Feb 1822
 
[El
                                    Salvador civil flag 1823]
1 Feb 1823 - 21 Aug 1823
 
[Central American Federation
                                    1823-1824]
21 Aug 1823 - 22 Nov 1824
 
[Central American Federation
                                    1824-1841]
22 Nov 1824 - 1838
 
[El
                                    Salvador civil flag 1841-1865]
1838 - 28 Apr 1865
 
[Salvador Flag 1865-1869]
28 Apr 1865 - Jun 1865 (9 stars)
 
[Salvador Flag 1865-1869]
Jun 1865 - Feb 1869 (11 stars)
 
[Salvador - 1869-1873]
Feb 1869 - Feb 1873 (12 stars)
 
[Salvador Flag 1873-1877]
Feb 1873 - Feb 1877 (13 stars)
 
[Salvador Flag 1877-1912]
  Feb 1877 - 17 May 1912  (14 stars)
 
[Salvador Flag 1865 Obverse]
Obverse 9 May 1865 - 14 Nov 1875
 
[Salvador Flag 1875-1912
                                    Obverse]
Obverse 14 Nov 1875 - 17 May 1912
[El
                                    Salvador state flag]
Adopted 17 May 1912 State Flag
[El
                                    Salvador civil flag]
Adopted 17 May 1912 Civil Flag
Map of El Salvador Hear National Anthem
"Himno Nacional de El Salvador"
 (National Anthem of El Salvador)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 15 Sep 1879
(officially from 11 Dec 1953)
Constitution
  (20 Dec 1983)
Capital: San Salvador
(1528-1539 San Salvador en el
 Valle de la Bermuda; 1539-1579
San Salvador en el Valle
de las Hamacas)
Currency: U.S. Dollar (USD);
1919-2001 Salvadoran Colon
 (SVC); 1847-1919 Salvadoran
Peso (SVC)
National Holiday: 15 Sep (1821)
Independence Day
Population: 6,172,011 (2017)
GDP: $56.9 billion (2017)
Exports: $4.25 billion (2017)
Imports: $9.50 billion (2017) 
Ethnic groups: mestizo 86.3%, white 12.7%, Amerindian 0.2%
(includes Lenca, Kakawira, Nahua-Pipil), black 0.1%,
other 0.6% (2007)
 Total Active Armed Forces: 15,500 (2010)
Merchant marine: 2 ships (2017) 
Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 36%, other 2%,
 none 12% (2014)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS, APM, BCIE, BTWC, CACM, CAFTA, CAP, CCM, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA (observer), ISO (suspended), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), LAP, LU, MIGA, NAM (observer), NPT, NTBT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OST, PA (observer), PCA, SEGIB, SICA, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
El Salvador
Chronology
1524                       Spanish conquest beings (completed by 1540).
Apr 1525                   San Salvador city founded (refounded 1528).
  1 Apr 1528                Province of San Salvador (Provincia de San Salvador).
1538 - 1543                Governed by the Audiencia of Panama.
Nov 1542                   Divided into three administrative districts
                             (Los Izalcos [from 1552 Sonsonate], Cuzcatlán,
                             and San Miguel); part of Kingdom of Guatemala
                             (which is subordinate to New Spain [Mexico]).
27 Sep 1546                San Salvador alcaldia formed from Cuzcatlán,
                             Choluteca, and San Miguel.
1577                       Alcaldía mayor de San Salvador.
17 Sep 1785                Intendancy of San Salvador (still subordinate
                             to Guatemala).
 5 Nov 1811 -  3 Dec 1811  Independence of San Salvador declared (not 
                             recognized).
21 Sep 1821                Independence declared (Province of San Salvador,
                             constituent of the Kingdom of Guatemala which
                             declared its independence 15 Sep 1821).
11 Jan 1822                The province repudiates the decision by the 
                             Guatemala junta to incorporate the Kingdom of
                             Guatemala into Mexico, and declares its 
                             secession.
 2 Dec 1822                Government requests annexation to United States.
10 Feb 1823                Incorporation into Mexico.
 1 Jul 1823                Central America (the former Kingdom of Guatemala)
                             proclaims its independence from Spain and 
                             Mexico; Province of San Salvador is part of the
                             newly established republic (see Guatemala).
22 Apr 1824                Constituent state of the Central American 
                             Republic (State of Salvador)(Estado del
                             Salvador).
Mar 1840                   Federal authorities cease to exist.
 2 Feb 1841                Secession by Salvador formally decreed.
18 Feb 1859                Republic of Salvador (República del Salvador)(also
                             in sporadic official use since 7 Oct 1890,
                             Republic of El Salvador).
15 Jun 1866                Spain recognizes the independence of El Salvador.
15 Sep 1896 - 25 Nov 1898  Part of later aborted attempt at recreating a
                             Central American Federation.
17 Sep 1896                State of Salvador (also Estado de El Salvador).
25 Nov 1898                Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador).
 9 Jun 1915                Use of the form "El Salvador" as part of official
                             name of the Republic is legally certified.
 1 Oct 1921 -  4 Feb 1922  State of El Salvador (Estado de El Salvador), 
                             during a later aborted attempt at recreating
                             a Central American Federation.
 4 Feb 1922                Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Senior justices (later Lieutenant governors) 
 1 Apr 1525 - 1526         Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras    (b. c.1490 - d. 1541)
 1 Apr 1528 - 22 Apr 1529  Diego de Alvarado Tordolla         (d. 1540)
22 Apr 1529 - Jul 1529     Gaspar Arias Dávila
Jul 1529 - 1530            Diego de Rojas                     (b. 1500 - d. 1544)
                            (prisoner of Estete in 1530)
1530                       Martín de Estete (Astete)          (b. c.1489 - d. 1536)
                           
(in dissidence, appointed by Pedro Arias Dávila of Nicaragua)
1530 - 1532                Luis de Moscoso Alvarado           (b. 1505 - d. 1551)
1532 - 1534                Gómez de Alvarado y Contreras      (b. c.1482 - d. 1542)
Alcaldes ordinarios of San Salvador

1534 - 1536                Isidro Blasco
1536 - 1537                Alonso de Oliveros
1537 - 1538                Pedro Cerón (1st time)
                           + Antonio Docampo
1538 - 1539                Antonio Bermúdez
1539 - 1541                Luis Dubre
1541 - 1544                Pedro Cerón (2nd time)
                           + Antonio de Figueroa
1544 - 1548                Cristóbal Salvago
                           + Juan de Ugarte
1548 - 1550                Luis de Dubois (1st time)
1550 - 1552                Juan Vázquez de Coronado y Anaya   (b. 1523 - d. 1565)
1552 - 1554                Gaspar de Cepeda                   (b. c.1498 - d. 1558)
1554 - 1556                Ambrosio Méndez (1st time)
1556 - 1558                Hernando Bermejo
                           + Luis de Dubois (2nd time)
1558 - 1559                Juan de Tovar
1559 - 1562                Pedro Benavides
1562 - 1564                Pedro Cerón (3rd time)
1564 - 1567                Juan Núñez de Prado
                           + Ambrosio Méndez (2nd time)
1567 - 1569                Lope Pardo
1569 - 1570                Luis Dubois (3rd time)
1570 - 1572                Hernando Bermejo
1572 - 1573                Gómez Díaz de la Reguera
                           + Blás Cordova
1573 - 1577                Luis Ganboa
1577 - 1579                Ignacio Cota
Alcaldes mayores of San Salvador
1579 - 1580                Diego Galán (interim)
1580 - 1581                Juan Cisneros de Reynosa y Valverde(b. c.1530 - d. 16..)
                             (interim)
1581 - 1586                Alonso de Nava
Alcaldes mayores of the Provinces of San Salvador, San Miguel and Jérez de la Choluteca
1585 - 1588                Lucas Pinto Cuadrado               (b.  1540 - d. 1588)
1588 - 1590                Diego de Paz (interim)
1590 - 1593                Pedro Girón de Alvarado (interim)
1593 - 1594                Luis de la Fuenta y Cerda (interim)
1594 - 1596                Martín de Vega y Aceituno
1596 - 1602                Francisco Osorio y Ávalos
Alcaldes mayores
of the Provinces of San Salvador and San Miguel
1602 - 1607                Juan Guiral de Mencis
1607 - 1613                Andrés Dorante de Laguna
1613 - 1620                Pedro Farfan de los Godos
                             (arrested 1619)
1620 - 1626                Pedro de Aguilar Lazo de la Vega
                             (also lieutenant of the captain-general)
1626 - 1631                Pedro de Torres y Toledo
1631 - 1636                Eugenio de Nueda y Góngora
1636 - 1641                Juan Sarmiento Valderrama
1641 - 1642                Martín de Duarte (interim)         (d. 1642)
1642 - 1647                Antonio Justiniano Chavarri (interim)
Alcaldes mayores and Lieutenants of Captain-general of the Provinces
of San Salvador and San Miguel and (from 1689, San Vicente)

1647 - 1652                Juan Martínez Telles de los Ríos
1652 - 1657                José Portal de Artavia
1657 - 1659                Francisco Andrabeja
1659 - 1663                Lupercio de Espés y Brizuela
                             (interim) 
1663 - 1670                Pedro de Saravelles
1670 - 1673                Martín de Revollar
1673 - 1680                Juan de Miranda
1680 - 1684                Diego de Gamarra y Balcárcel
                             (interim)
1684 - 1689                Pedro Calvo del Risco
1689 - 1694                José de Arría y Hurtado
1694 - 1699                José Calvo de Lara
1699 - 1703                Bartolomé Gálvez Corral
1703 - 1706                Juan Antonio Ruiz de Bustamante    (b. 1670 - d. 1725)
                             (interim)
1706 - 1708                Francisco Chacón Medina y Salazar  (b. 16.. - d. 1723)
                             (interim)
1708 - 1710                Nicolás de Segovia Parada y Verdugo
1710 - 1715                Francisco Rodríguez Franco (interim)
1715                       Andrés de Miranda
                             (did not take office)
1715 - 1716                Pedro de Oyanarte                  (b. 16.. - d. 1716)
1716 - 1718                Estebán de Larramendi (interim)
1718 - 1721                José Llanes Robles
1721 - 1723                Pedro de Doralea (interim)         (d. 1723)
1723 - 1724                Rodrigo Salgado (interim)
1724                       José de Algarrate                  (d. 1724)
                             (did not take office)
1724 - 1729                Pedro de Echevers
1729 - 1734                Antonio González Manrique          (b. 1695 - d. 1738)
1737 - 1737                Cristóbal Marcos de Gálvez Corral
                             (1st time)
1737 - 1740                Manuel de Gálvez y Corral (interim)
1740 - 1744                Esteban Sánchez Calderón
                             (did not come to San Salvador)
1744 - 1751                Isidro Díaz de Vivar 
1751 - 1756                Domingo Soto Bermúdez 
1756 - 1757                Manuel Amate (interim) 
1757 - 1759                Bernabé de la Torre Trassierra     (d. 1773)
                             (1st time)
1759 - 1761                Francisco Ignacio Chamorro         (b. 1719 - d. 1785)
                             Sotomayor y Vilavicencio (interim)
1761 - 1763                Manuel Fradique y Goyena (1st time)
                             (interim)
1763 - 1765                José Jacinto Palomo y Rodríguez
                             (interim)
1765 - 1766                Cristóbal Marcos de Gálvez Corral
                             (2nd time)
1766 - 1771                Manuel Fradique y Goyena (2nd time)
1771 - 1773                Bernabé de la Torre Trassierra     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1773                       Rafael Benavides (interim)
                             (declined office)
1773 - 1774                Francisco Antonio de Aldana y
                             Guevarra (interim)
1774 - 1777                Melchor de Meneos (interim)
1777 - 1786                Manuel Fradique y Goyena (3rd time)
Intendants of San Salvador

1786 - 1789                José Ortiz de la Peña
1789 - 1791                Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet(b. 1748 - d. 1807)
                             de Novelles, barón de Carondelet

1791 - 1793                José Antonio María de Aguilar      (b. 1758 - d. 1799)
                             (interim)
1793 - 1798                Ignacio Santiago Ulloa             (d. 1798)
1798 - 1805                Antonio Isidor Palomo
1799 - 1800                Bernardo José de Arce (acting)
1800 - 1801                Luis Martínez Navarrete (acting)
1801 - 1802                Luis de Argueda (acting)
1802 - 1803                José Justiniano Ros (acting)
1803 - 1804                Buenaventura de Viteri (acting)
1804                       Francisco Vallejo (acting)
1805 -  5 Nov 1811         Antonio Basilio Gutiérrez y Ulloa
 5 Nov 1811 -  3 Dec 1811  José Mariano Batres y Asturias
 3 Dec 1811 - Aug 1812     José Alejandro de Aycinena y       (b. 1767 - d. 1826)
                             Carrillo (acting)
Aug 1812 - 1814            José María Peinado (1st time)      (b. 1769 - d. 1820)
1814 - 1817                José Méndez de Quiroga
1817 - 1818                Juan Miguel de Bustamante
1818                       Simón Gutiérrez
1818 - 29 Jan 1820         José María Peinado (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1820 - 21 Sep 1821         Pedro Barriere de la Barriere      (d. 1827)
Intendant and Superior Political Chief
21 Sep 1821 - 28 Nov 1821  Pedro Barriere de la Barriere      (s.a.)
Intendants and Governors
28 Nov 1821 -  9 Feb 1823  José Matías Delgado y de León      (b. 1767 - d. 1832)
                             (from 11 Jan 1822, President of the Junta of Government)
10 Feb 1823 -  7 May 1823  Vicente Filisola                   (b. 1789 - d. 1850)
 7 May 1823 - 25 May 1823  Felipe Codallos Núñez 
25 May 1823 - 17 Jun 1823  Consultative Junta
                           - Mariano Prado Baca               (b. 1776 - d. 1837) 
                           - José Milla
                           - Jos
é Rivas
Supreme Political Chief

 1 Jul 1823 - 22 Apr 1824  Mariano Prado Baca                 (s.a.) 
Chief of State
22 Apr 1824 -  1 Oct 1824  Juan Manuel Rodríguez              (b. 1771 - d. 1847)
Supreme Chiefs of State
 1 Oct 1824 - 13 Dec 1824  Mariano Prado Baca (1st time)      (s.a.)               Lib
                             (acting)
13 Dec 1824 -  1 Nov 1826  Juan Vicente Villacorta Díaz       (b. 1764 - d. 1828)  Lib
 1 Nov 1826 - 30 Jan 1829  Mariano Prado Baca (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Lib
                             (acting)
30 Jan 1829 - 29 Mar 1832  José María Cornejo Merino y        (b. 1788 - d. 1864)  Con
                             Guevara
16 Feb 1830 - 25 Feb 1830  José Damian Villacorta Cañas       (b. 1796 - d. 1860)
                             (acting for Cornejo Merino)
29 Mar 1832 - 13 May 1832  José Francisco Morazán Quezada     (b. 1792 - d. 1842)  Lib 
                             (1st time) (provisional)
13 May 1832 - 25 Ju1 1832  Joaquín de San Martín y Ulloa      (b. 1770 - d. 1854)  Con
                             (1st time) (acting)
25 Ju1 1832 -  1 Jul 1833  Mariano Prado Baca (3rd time)      (s.a.)               Lib
Jan 1833 - 23 Apr 1833     Anastasio Aquino                   (b. 1792 - d. 1833)
                             ("king" of Nonualco indians; in rebellion)
 1 Jul 1833 - 23 Jun 1834  Joaquín de San Martín y Ulloa      (s.a.)               Con 
                             (2nd time)
23 Jun 1834 - 13 Jul 1834  Carlos Salazar Castro              (b. 1800 - d. 1867)
                             (provisional; in rebellion from 12 Jun 1834)
13 Jul 1834 - 30 Sep 1834  direct rule by the federal government
30 Sep 1834 - 14 Oct 1834  Joaquín Escolán y Balibrera        (b. 1810 - d. ....)
14 Oct 1834 - 10 Apr 1835  José María Silva (1st time)        (b. 1804? - d. 1876) 
                             (acting)
10 Apr 1835 - 15 Nov 1835  Nicolás Espinoza                   (b. 1795 - d. 1845)  Lib
15 Nov 1835 -  7 Mar 1836  Francisco Gómez de Altamirano      (b. 1796 - d. 1838)
                             y de Elizondo (acting)
 7 Mar 1836 - May 1838     Diego Fernández Vigil y Cocaña     (b. 1799 - d. 1845)  Lib
May 1838 -  1 May 1839     Timoteo Menendez (1st time)                             Lib
 1 May 1839 - 13 Jul 1839  Antonio José Cañas Quintanilla     (b. 1785 - d. 1844)  Con 
                             (1st time)(acting)
13 Jul 1839 -  4 Apr 1840  José Francisco Morazán Quezada     (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)
 4 Apr 1840 - 15 Apr 1840  José María Silva (2nd time)        (s.a.) 
                             (acting)(departs on 5 Apr 1840; Municipal
                             Council of San Salvador then assumes government)
 5 Apr 1840 - 15 Apr 1840  Municipal Council of San Salvador
                           (acting)

                           - Rafael Francisco Osejo           (b. 1790 - d. 1848)
                              (alcalde de primer voto)
                           - Ignacio Carrillo
                           - Isidro Viteri

15 Apr 1840 - 23 Sep 1840  Antonio José Cañas Quintanilla     (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time)(acting)
23 Sep 1840 -  7 Jan 1841  Norberto Ramírez Áreas (acting)    (b. 1800 - d. 1856)  Con
 7 Jan 1841 - 22 Feb 1841  Juan Nepomuceno Fernández          (b. 1790 - d. 1857)  Con
                             Lindo y Zelaya (provisional) 
Presidents
22 Feb 1841 -  1 Feb 1842  Juan Nepomuceno Fernández          (s.a.)               Con
                             Lindo y Zelaya (provisional) 
 1 Feb 1842 - 14 Apr 1842  José Escolástico Marín (acting)    (d. 1846)
14 Apr 1842 -  1 Feb 1844  Juan José Guzmán                   (b. 1800 - d. 1947)  Con 
                             (acting to 20 Sep 1842)
 1 Feb 1844 -  7 Feb 1844  Fermín Palacios Ulloa (1st time)
                             (acting)
 7 Feb 1844 - 15 Feb 1845  Francisco Malespín Herrera         (b. 1766 - d. 1846)  Con
15 Feb 1845 -  1 Feb 1846  Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán Ugalde     (b. 1801 - d. c.1875)
                             Alvarado (1st time)
                             (in rebellion from 2 Feb 1845)
 1 Feb 1846 - 21 Feb 1846  Fermín Palacios Ulloa (2nd time)
                             (acting)
21 Feb 1846 -  1 Feb 1848  Eugenio Aguilar González Batres    (b. 1804 - d. 1879)  Lib 
 1 Feb 1848 -  3 Feb 1848  José Tomás Medina Menéndez (acting)(b. 1803 - d. 1884)
 3 Feb 1848 -  7 Feb 1848  José Félix Quirós Sánchez          (b. 1811 - d. 1883)
                             (1st time)(acting) 
 7 Feb 1848 -  1 Feb 1850  Doroteo Vasconcelos Vides y        (b. 1803 - d. 1883)  Lib
                             Ladrón de Guevara (1st time)
 1 Feb 1850 -  4 Feb 1850  José Félix Quirós Sánchez          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 4 Feb 1850 -  1 Mar 1851  Doroteo Vasconcelos Vides y        (s.a.)               Lib
                             Ladrón de Guevara (2nd time) 
 1 Mar 1851 -  3 May 1851  José Félix Quirós Sánchez          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(acting)
 3 May 1851 - 30 Jan 1852  Francisco Javier Dueñas Díaz       (b. 1810 - d. 1884)  Con
                             (1st time)(acting)
30 Jan 1852 -  1 Feb 1852  José María San Martín y Fugón      (b. 1811 - d. 1857)  Con
                             (1st time)(acting) 
 1 Feb 1852 -  1 Feb 1854  Francisco Javier Dueñas Díaz       (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Feb 1854 - 15 Feb 1854  Vicente Gómez (acting)
15 Feb 1854 -  1 Feb 1856  José María San Martín y Fugón      (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time)
 1 Feb 1856 - 12 Feb 1856  Francisco Javier Dueñas Díaz       (s.a.)               Con
                             (3rd time)(acting)
12 Feb 1856 -  1 Feb 1858  Rafael Campo Pomar                 (b. 1813 - d. 1890)  Con
 1 Feb 1858 -  7 Feb 1858  Lorenzo Zepeda (acting)            (d. 1859)
 7 Feb 1858 -  1 Feb 1860  Miguel Santín del Castillo y       (b.c.1830 - d. 1880) Con 
                             Barroeta
                             (deposed de facto 19 Jan 1859)
25 Jan 1859 - 15 Feb 1859  Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán Ugalde     (s.a.)
                             Alvarado (2nd time)(acting)
15 Feb 1859 - 12 Mar 1859  José María Peralta (acting)        (b. 1807 - d. 1883)
12 Mar 1859 - 26 Oct 1863  José Gerardo Barrios Espinoza      (b. 1813 - d. 1865)  Lib
                             (acting to 1 Feb 1860; left national territory 19 Nov 1863)
26 Oct 1863 - 15 Apr 1871  Francisco Javier Dueñas Díaz       (s.a.)               Con
                             (4th time)(provisional [in rebellion
                             from 10 Jul 1863] to 1 Feb 1865)
15 Apr 1871 -  1 Feb 1876  Santiago González Portillo         (b. 1818 - d. 1887)  Mil;1871
                             (provisional to 1 Feb 1872)                           Lib
 1 Feb 1876 -  1 May 1876  Andrés del Valle Rodríguez         (b. 1833 - d. 1888)  Lib 
 1 May 1876 - 19 May 1885  Rafael Zaldívar y Lazo             (b. 1834 - d. 1903)  Lib
                             (provisional to 19 Jul 1876 and 2-25 Feb 1880)
19 May 1885 - 19 Jun 1885  Fernando Figueroa (1st time)       (
b. 1849 - d. 1919)  Mil
15 May 1885 - 22 Jun 1890  Francisco Menéndez Valdivieso      (b. 1830 - d. 1890)  Lib/Mil
                             (provisional [in rebellion to 19 Jun 1885]
                             to 1 Mar 1887)
22 Jun 1890 -  4 Jun 1894  Carlos Basilio Ezeta y de León     (b. 1852 - d. 1903)  Mil
                             (provisional to 1 Mar 1891)
 1 May 1894 - 13 Nov 1898  Rafael Antonio Gutiérrez           (b. 1845 - d. 1921)  Mil
                             (provisional [in rebellion to 10 Jun 1894]
                             to 1 Mar 1895; Governor 1-13 Nov 1898)
14 Nov 1898 -  1 Mar 1903  Tomás Herculano de Jesús Regalado  (b. 1861 - d. 1906)  Mil
                             Romero (provisional to 1 Mar 1899)
 1 Mar 1903 -  1 Mar 1907  Pedro José Escalón                 (b. 1847 - d. 1923)  Mil
 1 Mar 1907 -  1 Mar 1911  Fernando Figueroa (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Mil
 1 Mar 1911 -  9 Feb 1913  Manuel Enrique Araujo Rodríguez    (b. 1865 - d. 1913)  Non-party
 9 Feb 1913 -  1 Mar 1919  Carlos Meléndez Ramírez            (b. 1861 - d. 1919)  PND
29 Aug 1914 -  1 Mar 1915  Alfonso Quiñónez Molina (1st time) (b. 1874 - d. 1950)  PND
                             (acting for absent Meléndez Ramírez
21 Dec 1918 -  1 Mar 1919  Alfonso Quiñónez Molina (2nd time) (s.a.)               PND
                             (acting for absent Meléndez Ramírez
 1 Mar 1919 -  1 Mar 1923  Jorge Meléndez Ramírez             (b. 1871 - d. 1953)  PND
                             (1 Oct 1921 - 4 Feb 1922, Head of State)
 1 Mar 1923 -  1 Mar 1927  Alfonso Quiñónez Molina (3rd time) (s.a.)               PND
 1 Mar 1927 -  1 Mar 1931  Pío Romero Bosque "Don Pío"        (b. 1860 - d. 1935)  PND
 1 Mar 1931 -  4 Dec 1931  Arturo Araujo Fujardo              (b. 1878 - d. 1967)  PL
 4 Dec 1931 -  9 May 1944  Maximiliano Hernández Martínez     (b. 1882 - d. 1966)  Mil/PPP
29 Aug 1934 -  1 Mar 1935  Andrés Ignacio Menéndez (1st time) (b. 1879 - d. 1962)  Mil/PPP
                             (acting for absent Hernández Martínez
 9 May 1944 - 21 Oct 1944  Andrés Ignacio Menéndez (2nd time) (s.a.)               Mil/PPP
                             (provisional)
21 Oct 1944 -  1 Mar 1945  Osmín Aguirre y Salinas            (b. 1899 - d. 1977)  Mil
                             (provisional)
 4 Nov 1944 -  7 Nov 1944  Miguel Tomás Molina                (b. 1862 - d. 1965) 
                             (provisional; in rebellion)
 1 Mar 1945 - 14 Dec 1948  Salvador Castaneda Castro          (b. 1888 - d. 1965)  Mil/PUSD
15 Dec 1948 - 14 Sep 1950  Revolutionary Council of Government
                           - Manuel de Jesús Córdova          (b. 1894 - d. 19..)  Mil
                               Rodríguez (to 5 Jan 1949)
                           - Óscar Osorio Hernández           (b. 1910 - d. 1969)  Mil
                              (to 22 Oct 1949)
                           - Reynaldo Galindo Pohl            (b. 1918 - d. 2012)
                              (to 22 Oct 1949)
                           - José Óscar Adán Bolaños Estrada  (b. 1912 - d. ....)  Mil
                           - Humberto Costa                   (b. 1906 - d. ....)  Mil
14 Sep 1950 - 14 Sep 1956  Óscar Osorio Hernández             (s.a.)               Mil/PRUD
14 Sep 1956 - 26 Oct 1960  José María Lemus López             (b. 1911 - d. 1993)  Mil/PRUD
26 Oct 1960 - 25 Jan 1961  Junta of Government
                           - Miguel Ángel Castillo            (b. 1915 - d. 19..)  Mil
                           - Fabio Castillo Figueroa          (b. 1921 - d. 2012)
                           - Ricardo Falla Cáceres            (b. 1921 - d. 1990)
                           - René Fortín Magaña               (b. 1931)
                           - Rubén Alonso Rosales Soriano     (b. 1925 - d. 2000)  Mil
                           - César Yanes Urías                (b. 1931)            Mil
25 Jan 1961 - 25 Jan 1962  Civic-Military Directory
                           - Aníbal Portillo Gonzalez         (b. 1914 - d. 2010)  Mil
                           - Feliciano Avelar                 (b. 1919)
                           - José Antonio Rodríguez Porth     (b. 1915 - d. 1989) 
                              (to 6 Apr 1961)
                           - José Francisco Valiente          (b. 1911) 
                              (to 6 Apr 1961)
                           - Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo  (b. 1921 - d. 1973)  Mil
                              (to 11 Sep 1961)
                           - Mariano Castro Morán             (b. 1916 - d. 2005)
                              (from 11 Sep 1961)
25 Jan 1962 -  1 Jul 1962  Eusebio Rodolfo Cordón Cea         (b. 1899 - d. 1966)  Non-party
                             (provisional) 
 1 Jul 1962 -  1 Jul 1967  Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo    (s.a.)               Mil/PCN 
 1 Jul 1967 -  1 Jul 1972  Fidel Sánchez Hernández            (b. 1917 - d. 2003)  Mil/PCN
 1 Jul 1972 -  1 Jul 1977  Arturo Armando Molina Barraza      (b. 1927)            Mil/PCN 
 1 Jul 1977 - 15 Oct 1979  Carlos Humberto Romero Mena        (b. 1924 - d. 2017)  Mil/PCN 
15 Oct 1979 - 22 Dec 1980  Revolutionary Junta
                           - Adolfo Arnoldo Majano Ramos      (b. 1938)            Mil
                              (to 7 Dec 1980)
                           - Jaime Abdul Gutiérrez Avendaño   (b. 1936 - d. 2012)  Mil
                           - Román Antonio Mayorga Quirós     (b. 1942)            Non-party
                              (17 Oct 1979 - 5 Jan 1980)
                           - Guillermo Manuel Ungo Revelo     (b. 1931 - d. 1991)  MNR
                              (17 Oct 1979 - 5 Jan 1980)
                           - Mario Antonio Andino Gómez       (b. 1936 - d. 2014)  Non-party 
                              (17 Oct 1979 - 5 Jan 1980)
                           - José Antonio Morales Ehrlich     (b. 1935)            PDC
                              (from 9 Jan 1980)
                           - José Ramón Ávalos Navarrete      (b. 1933)            Non-party
                              (from 9 Jan 1980) 
                           - Héctor Miguel Antonio Dada       (b. 1938)            PDC
                               Hirezi (9 Jan - 3 Mar 1980)
                           - José Napoleón Duarte Fuentes     (b. 1925 - d. 1990)  PDC
                              (from 10 Mar 1980)
22 Dec 1980 -  2 May 1982  José Napoleón Duarte Fuentes       (s.a.)               PDC
                             (president of the Revolutionary Junta
                             (1st time)
 2 May 1982 -  1 Jun 1984  Álvaro Alfredo Magaña Borja        (b. 1925 - d. 2001)  Non-party
                             (provisional)
 1 Jun 1984 -  1 Jun 1989  José Napoleón Duarte Fuentes       (s.a.)               PDC 
                             (2nd time)
 1 Jun 1989 -  1 Jun 1994  Alfredo Félix Cristiani Burkard    (b. 1947)            ARENA 
 1 Jun 1994 -  1 Jun 1999  Armando Calderón Sol               (b. 1948 - d. 2017)  ARENA
 1 Jun 1999 -  1 Jun 2004  Francisco Guillermo Flores Pérez   (b. 1959 - d. 2016)  ARENA
 1 Jun 2004 -  1 Jun 2009  Elías Antonio Saca González        (b. 1965)            ARENA
 1 Jun 2009 -  1 Jun 2014  Carlos Mauricio Funes Cartagena
   (b. 1959)            FMLN
 1 Jun 2014 -              Salvador Sánchez Cerén             (b. 1944)            FMLN

Territorial Disputes: International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary, in 1992, with final agreement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States (OAS) survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified in the ICJ decision, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca

Party abbreviations: ARENA = Alianza Republicana Nacionalista (Nationalist Republican Alliance, conservative, est.1981); FMLN = Frente Farabundo Martí Liberación Nacional (Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front, social-democratic, formerly a leftist militant group to 1992, est.1980); PCN = Partido de Conciliación Nacional (Party of National Conciliation, center-right, est.1961); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: Cons = Conservador (Conservative, 19th cent.); Lib = Liberal (19th cent); MNR = Movimiento Nacional Revolucionario (National Revolutionary Movement, social-democratic, 1968-1980); PDC Partido Democráta Cristiano (Christian Democratic Party, christian-democratic, 1960-2011); PL = Partido Laborista (Labor Party, social-democratic, est.1930); PND = Partido Nacional Democrático (National Democratic Party); PPP = Partido Nacional 'Pro-Patria' (Pro-Fatherland National Party, only legal party 1934-1944); PRUD = Partido Revolucionario de Unificación Democrática (Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification, est.1945); PUSD = Partido de Unificación Social Demócrata (Social Democratic Unification Party)







© Ben Cahoon