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Ecuador
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                    to 2 Jun 1822
 
 
[Estado de Guayaquil 1820
                                    Flag]
           11 Oct 1820 - 2 Jun 1822
 
 
[Estado de Guayaquil 1822,
                                    1830-1845 Flag]
              2 Jun 1822 - 31 Jul 1822; 
            22 Sep 1830 -  6 Mar 1845
 
[Great
                                    Colombia Federal Republic ]
                                    (1819-1834)
            31 Jul 1822 - 6 Mar 1845
 
[Ecuador March 1845 Flag]
              6 Mar 1845 - 6 Nov 1845
 
[Ecuador 1845-1860 Flag]
             6 Nov 1845 - 26 Sep 1860
 
[Flag of Ecuador]
                 Adopted 26 Sep 1860 Civil Flag
 
[(State)
                                    Flag of Ecuador]
        Adopted 26 Sep 1860 State Flag
 
 

Map of Ecuador Hear National Anthem
"Salve, Oh Patria!"
(We Salute You Our Homeland)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 23 Nov 1948
(lyrics 1865)
Constitution
  (22 Oct 2008; in Spanish)
---------------------------------
Former Constitutions
(1820, 1830, 1998-2008)
Capital: Quito
(Riobamba
4 Nov 1859 - 12 Jan 1860)
Currency: US Dollar (USD);
Sucre (ECS)(1884-13 Mar 2000)
National Holiday: 10 Aug (1809)
Independence Day
Population: 15,439,429 (2013)
GDP: $157.6 billion (2013)
Exports: $25.48 billion (2013)
Imports: $26.22 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 71.9%,
Montubio (triracial) 7.4%, Afro-ecuadorian 7.2%,
Amerindian 7%, white 6.1%, other 0.4%
(2010)
Total Armed Forces: 57,983 (2010)
Merchant marine: 44 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 94.1%, Protestant 1.9%,
other 4% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), ACTO, ANT, APM, BTWC, CAN, CCM, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, LAIA, LAP, LU, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, SEGIB, UN, UNASUR, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Ecuador Index
Chronology

1532                       Spanish conquest, part of Viceroyalty of Peru.
 6 Dec 1534                Quito re-founded as Santiago de Quito.
25 Jul 1537                Guayaquil founded by Spain.
29 Aug 1563                Audiencia of Quito, part of Viceroyalty of Peru.
29 Aug 1563 - 17 May 1717  Popayán part of Audiencia of Quito. 
27 May 1717                Part of Viceroyalty of New Granada (see Colombia).
27 May 1717 - 26 Mar 1722  Audiencia of Quito suppressed.
11 May 1724 - 20 Aug 1739  Reincorporated into Peru.
20 Aug 1739                Part of Viceroyalty of New Granada.
 9 Oct/3 Nov 1820          Independence from Spain.
31 Jul 1822                Part of Gran Colombia (see Colombia).
13 May 1830                Independence from Gran Colombia (State of the 
                             South of Colombia).
22 Sep 1830                State of Ecuador (literally "State of the 
                             Equator").
12 Feb 1832                Galapagos Islands annexed.
 8 Aug 1835                Republic of Ecuador
16 Feb 1840                Spain recognizes the independence of Ecuador.
29 Jan 1942                Oriente province and port of Tumbes annexed by 
                             Peru.

Ecuador
(since 1830)
Quito
(1533-1822)
 Guayaquil
(1820-1822)
 Cuenca
(1820-1822)
Galapagos Islands
 
 
 
 
 

Quito

Lieutenant-governors
1533 - 1538                Sebastián de Benalcázar               (b. 1480 - d. 1551)
                             (or Belalcázar)
 9 Nov 1538 - 1540         Lorenzo de Aldana (acting)            (b. 1508 - d. 1571) 
 1 Dec 1540 - 1542         Gonzalo Pizarro Alonso                (b. c.1510 - d. 1548) 
1542 - 1544                Cristóbal Vaca de Castro              (b. 1492 - d. 1566)
Jul 1546 - May 1547        Pedro de Puelles                      (d. 1547) 
May 1547 - 1556            Rodrigo de Salazar
Governors 
 9 Sep 1556 - 1559         Gil Ramírez Dávalos                   (b. 1510 - d. ....) 
 7 Jul 1559 - 1563         Melchor Vásquez de Ávila 
1563 - 1564                Juan Salazar de Villasante 
 6 Mar 1564 - Sep 1564     Alonso Manuel de Anaya 
Governor/Presidents
18 Sep 1564 - 26 Jan 1568  Hernando de Santillán y Figueroa       (b. c.1519 - d. 1574) 
26 Jan 1568 - 1571         Gabriel de Loarte 
19 Jul 1571 - 1575         Lope Díez de Aux y Armendáriz          (d. 1585) 
 8 Aug 1575 - 1578         Pedro García de Valverde
 2 Jun 1578 - 1582         Diego de Narváez 
 5 Mar 1582 - 1587         Pedro Venegas de Cañaveral (interim)
1587                       Francisco de Auncibay
15 Aug 1587 - 1593         Manuel Barros de San Millán            (b. 1523 - d. 1599) 
22 Mar 1593 - 1600         Esteban de Marañón (interim) 
23 Feb 1600 - 29 Apr 1608  Miguel de Ibarra                       (b. 1550 - d. 1608)
29 Apr 1608 - 1609         Diego de Armenteros y Henao (interim)  (b. c.1575 - d. 1628) 
1609 - 1612                Juan Fernández de Recalde              (d. 1612) 
20 Oct 1612 - 1614         Matías de Peralta Cabeza de Vaca
                             (interim)

30 Sep 1614 - 21 Jul 1636  Antonio de Morga Sánchez Garay         (b. 1559 - d. 1636)
                             y López de Garfinas
                             (imprisoned 1625 - 18 Sep 1627)
1625 - 18 Sep 1627         Juan de Mañosca
                             (inquisitor of the tribunal of Lima)

1636 - 1637                Antonio Rodríguez de San Isidro
                             Manrique (1st time) (interim) 
19 Sep 1637 - 1641         Alonso Pérez de Salazar                (d. 1641)
1642 - 17 Dec 1644         Juan de Lizárazu                       (d. 1644)

17 Dec 1644 - 1646         Antonio Rodríguez de San Isidro        (d. 1646)
                             Manrique (2nd time)(interim)
1646 - 1647                Alonso Ferrer de Ayala (interim) 
14 Aug 1647 - 1652          Martín de Arriola y Balerdi           (d. 1652) 
1652 - 1655                Juan Morales de Aramburu (interim) 
 5 Nov 1655 - 1661         Pedro Vázquez de Velasco 
23 Jan 1662 - 1665         Antonio Fernández de Heredia           (d. 1665) 
1665 - 1670                Alonso Castillo de Herrera (interim)
20 Sep 1670 - 1673         Diego del Corro Carrascal              (d. 1673) 
Mar 1673 - 29 Jan 1678     Alonso de la Peña y Montenegro,        (b. 1596 - d. 1681)
                             obispo de Quito (interim)
29 Jan 1678 - 26 Apr 1689  Lope Antonio de Munive y Axpe,         (d. 1689)
                             (from 1683) conde de Peña Florida
Apr 1689 - 10 Jan 1691    
Miguel Antonio de Ormaza y Ponce       (d. 1723)
                             de Léon
(president of the Audiencia)
10 Jan 1691 - 1703         Mateo de la Mata Ponce de León         (b. 1645? - d. 1720)
28 Aug 1703 - 1707         Francisco López Dicastillo 
 1 Mar 1707 - 1714         Juan de Sosaya 
28 Jul 1715 - 1718         Santiago de Larraín y Vicuña (1st time)(b. 1666 - d. 1748))
1718 - 26 Mar 1722         Audiencia suppressed
1722 - 1728                Santiago de Larraín y Vicuña (2nd time)(s.a.)
29 Dec 1728 - 1736         Dionisio de Alcedo y Herrera           (b. 1690 - d. 1776)
 8 Dec 1736 -  8 Jul 1743  José de Araujo y Río
1741                       Francisco Miguel de Goyeneche
                             (did not take office)
 3 Jul 1743 - 19 Mar 1745  Manuel Rubío de Arévalo (1st time) 
                             (interim)
19 Mar 1745 - 22 Sep 1753  Fernando Félix Sánchez de Orellana     (b. 1723 - d. 1784)
                             y Rada, marqués de Solanda
22 Sep 1753 - 1761         Juan Pío de Montúfar y Fraso Porras    (b. 1702 - d. 1761)
                             y del Corro, marqués de Selva Alegre
1761 - 1766                Manuel Rubío de Arévalo (2nd time) 
 9 Apr 1766 - 17 Jul 1767  Juan Antonio Zelaya y Vergara          (b. 1712 - d. 1776) 
                             (interim)
17 Jul 1767 - 29 Sep 1778  José Ángel Diguja y Quinoñes
                             (from 1777, Regent)

29 Sep 1778 - 1784         José Garíca de León y Pizarro          (b. 1745 - d. 1815)
 3 May 1784 - 1790         Juan Jose de Villalengua y Marfil      (b. 1748 - d. ....)
29 Apr 1790 - 1791         Juan Antonio Mon y Velarde Pardo       (b. 1747 - d. 1791) 
                             y Cienfuegos
13 Jul 1791 - 14 Dec 1798  Luis Antonio Muñoz de Guzmán Montero
                             de Espinosa
14 Dec 1798 - 10 Aug 1807  Francisco Luis Héctor de               (b. 1748 - d. 1807) 
                             Carondelet de Novelles, 
                             baron de Carondelet 
10 Aug 1807 - Aug 1808     Juan Antonio Nieto (interim)
 1 Aug 1808 - 1811         Manuel Ruíz y Urríez de Castilla y     (b. 17.. - d. 1812) 
                             Cavero, conde de Ruíz de Castilla
                             (from 19 Sep 1810, chairman of Supreme Junta)
12 Aug 1809 - 22 Sep 1809  Juan Pío Montúfar y Larrea,            (b. 1758 - d. 1819)
                              marqués de Selva Alegre
                             (chairman of Supreme Junta; in opposition)
10 Oct 1810 - 1812         Joaquín Molina y Zuleta (interim)
1811 - Dec 1812            José de Cuero y Caicedo                (b. 1735 - d. 1815)
                             (chairman of Supreme Junta)
 7 Nov 1812 - 1816         Toribio Montes                         (b. 1749 - d. 1830)
26 Jul 1816 - 1819         Juan Ramírez y Orozco                  (b. 1764 - d. 1852)
14 Apr 1819 - Nov 1821     Melchor de Aymerich y Villajuana       (b. 1754 - d. 1836)
                              (1st time) (interim)
23 Nov 1821 -  8 Apr 1822  Juan de la Cruz Mourgeón y Achet       (d. 1822)
 8 Apr 1822 - 24 May 1822  Melchor de Aymerich y Villajuana       (s.a.)
                              (2nd time)(interim)


Guayaquil
 
[Guayaquil 1820
                          Flag]
              9 Oct 1820 - 2 Jun 1822
 
[Guayaquil 1822
                          Flag]
             2 Jun 1822 - 30 Jul 1822

1535                       Guayaquil founded by Spain.
 9 Oct 1820                Independence (Province of Guayaquil).
31 Jul 1822                Incorporation into Gran Colombia (see Colombia).
13 May 1830                Part of State of the South of Colombia (Ecuador).

Political Chief
 9 Oct 1820 - 14 Oct 1820  José Joaquín Eufrasio de Olmedo    (b. 1780 - d. 1847)
                             y Maruri 
Presidents of the Governing Junta
14 Oct 1820 -  8 Nov 1820  José Gregorio Escobedo y Rodríguez (b. 1795 - d. 1830) 
                             de Olmedo (provisional)
 8 Nov 1820 - 13 Jul 1822  José Joaquín Eufrasio de Olmedo    (s.a.)
                             y Maruri 
13 Jul 1822 - 31 Jul 1822  Simón José Antonio de la Santísima (b. 1783 - d. 1830)
                             Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios


Cuenca

1557                       Cuenca founded by Spain.
 3 Nov 1820                Independence (Free Province of Cuenca).
11 Apr 1822                Incorporation into Gran Colombia (see Colombia).
13 May 1830                Part of State of the South of Colombia (Ecuador).

Political Chief
 3 Nov 1820 - 15 Nov 1820  José María Vásquez de Noboa y      (b. c.1780 - d. 18..)
                             Concha
President of the Supreme Governing Junta

15 Nov 1820 - 11 Apr 1822  José María Vásquez de Noboa y      (s.a.)
                             López  de Artiga


Ecuador
 
13 May 1830                State of the South of Colombia
22 Sep 1830                State of Ecuador (literally "State of the Equator").
 8 Aug 1835                Republic of Ecuador
 
Chief of State
13 May 1830 - 22 Sep 1830  Juan José Flores                   (b. 1800 - d. 1864)  PC
                             (Head of Administration to 14 Aug 1830)
Presidents
22 Sep 1830 - 10 Sep 1834  Juan José Flores (1st time)        (s.a.)               PC
10 Sep 1834 - 31 Jan 1839  Vicente Rocafuerte y Rodríguez     (b. 1783 - d. 1847)  PL
                             de Bexarano (Supreme Chief of the Department 
                             of the Guayas in rebellion 20 Oct 1833 - 18 Jun 1834;
                             Supreme Chief to 22 Jun 1835, then interim president 
                             to 8 Aug 1835)
13 Jul 1834 - 18 Jan 1835  José Félix Valdivieso y            (b. 1780 - d. 1856)
                             Valdivieso (Supreme Chief, in rebellion)
31 Jan 1839 - 18 Jun 1845  Juan José Flores (2nd time)        (s.a.)               PC
18 Jun 1845 -  8 Dec 1845  José Joaquín Eufrasio de Olmedo    (s.a.)               PL
                             y Mururi (President of the Provisional Government;
                             in rebellion from 6 Mar 1845)
 8 Dec 1845 - 15 Oct 1849  Vicente Ramón Roca Rodríguez       (b. 1792 - d. 1858)  PL
15 Oct 1849 - 10 Jun 1850  Manuel de Ascásubi y Matheu        (b. 1804 - d. 1876)  PL
                             (1st time) (acting)
17 Jun 1850 - 1850         Antonio de Elizalde y La Mar       (b. 1795 - d. 1862)  Mil
                             (Supreme Chief, in rebellion)
10 Jun 1850 - 24 Jul 1851  Diego María de Noboa y Arteta      (b. 1789 - d. 1870)  PC
                             (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 20 Feb 1850] to 8 Dec 1850; 
                             interim 8 Dec 1850 - 26 Feb 1851)
24 Jul 1851 - 16 Oct 1856  José María Mariano Segundo         (b. 1808 - d. 1891)  PL
                             Fernández de Urvina y Sáenz de Viteri
                             (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 13 Jul 1851] 
                             to 17 Jul 1852; interim 17 Jul - 6 Sep 1852)
16 Oct 1856 - 17 Sep 1859  Francisco Robles García            (b. 1811 - d. 1893)  PL
 1 May 1859 -  4 Jun 1859  Provisional Government (in rebellion)
                           - Gabriel Gregorio García Moreno   (b. 1821 - d. 1875)  PC
                               (from 25 May 1859)
                           - Manuel Gómez de la Torre         (b. 1814 - d. 1887)
                               Gangotena (to 25 May 1859)
                           - José María Avilés Pareja         (b. 1816 - d. 1874)
                               (acting) 
                           - Pacífico Chiriboga Borja         (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
 6 May 1859 - 1859         Jerónimo Carrión y Palacio         (b. 1804 - d. 1873)  PC
                             (acting; in rebellion)
17 Sep 1859 - 31 Aug 1865  Gabriel Gregorio García Moreno     (s.a.)               PC
                            (1st time) (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 4 Jun 1859] 
                             to 17 Jan 1861; interim 17 Jan 1861 - 2 Apr 1865)
17 Sep 1859 - 24 Sep 1860  Guillermo Pablo Franco Herrera     (b. 1811 - d. 1886)  Mil
                            (Supreme Chief of Guayas and Azuay, in rebellion)
31 Aug 1865 -  7 Sep 1865  Rafael Carvajal Guzmán (acting)    (b. 1818 - d. 1881)  PC
 7 Sep 1865 -  6 Nov 1867  Jerónimo Carrión y Palacio         (s.a.)               PC
 6 Nov 1867 - 20 Jan 1868  Pedro José de Arteta y Calisto     (b. 1797 - d. 1873)  PC
                             (acting)
20 Jan 1868 - 19 Jan 1869  José Manuel Francisco Javier       (b. 1815 - d. 1870)  PC
                             Espinosa y Espinosa de los Monteros 
19 Jan 1869 - 16 May 1869  Gabriel Gregorio García Moreno     (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time) (interim)
16 May 1869 - 10 Aug 1869  Manuel de Ascásubi y Matheu        (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time) (acting)
10 Aug 1869 -  6 Aug 1875  Gabriel Gregorio García Moreno     (s.a.)               PC
                             (3rd time)
 6 Aug 1875 -  6 Oct 1875  Francisco Javier León y Chiriboga  (b. 1832 - d. 1880)  PC
                             (acting) 
 6 Oct 1875 -  6 Nov 1875  José Javier Eguiguren Ríofrío      (b. 1816 - d. 1884)  PC
                             (acting) 
 6 Nov 1875 -  9 Dec 1875  Rafael Pólit Cevallos              (b. 1823 - d. 1897)  PC
 9 Dec 1875 - 18 Dec 1876  Antonio María Vicente Narciso      (b. 1827 - d. 1911) Non-party/PL
                             Borrero y Cortázar
19 Dec 1876 -  9 Jul 1883  Mario Ignacio Francisco Tomás      (b. 1828 - d. 1908)  Mil/PC
                             Antonio de Veintemilla y Villacís 
                            (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 8 Sep 1876] to 26 Jan
                             1878; interim to 21 Apr 1878; then again Supreme Chief
                             from 26 Mar 1882)
Feb 1883 - 11 Oct 1883     José Eloy Alfaro Delgado           (b. 1842 - d. 1912)  PL
                             (1st time)
                             (Supreme Chief of Manabí and Esmeraldas, in rebellion)
 9 Jul 1883 - 11 Oct 1883  Provisional Government
                           (in rebellion from 14 Jan 1883)
                           - José María Sarasti y Ladrón      (b. 1837 - d. 1936)  Mil
                               de Guevara     
                           - Pedro Ignacio Lizarzaburu Borja  (b. 1834 - d. 1902)  Mil
                           - Agustín Guerrero Lizarzaburu     (b. 1817 - d. 1902)  Mil
                           - Luis Cordero y Crespo            (b. 1833 - d. 1912)  PL
                              (from 14 Feb 1883)
                           - Pablo Herrera González           (b. 1820 - d. 1896)
                              (to 14 Feb 1883)
                           - Rafael Pérez Pareja              (b. 1836 - d. 1897)
17 Sep 1883 - 11 Oct 1883  Pedro José Carbo y Noboa           (b. 1813 - d. 1895)  PL
                             (Supreme Chief of Guayas, in rebellion)
11 Oct 1883 - 15 Oct 1883  Ramón Antonio Borrero y Cortázar   (b. 1824 - d. 1894)  PC
                             (Vice President of the National Convention)
15 Oct 1883 - 23 Nov 1883  Rafael Pérez Pareja (acting)       (s.a.)               PC
23 Nov 1883 -  1 Jul 1888  José María Plácido de la Trinidad  (b. 1837 - d. 1901)  PP
                             Caamaño y Gómez Cornejo 
                             (interim to 10 Feb 1884)
 1 Jul 1888 - 17 Aug 1888  Pedro José Cevallos y Fernández    (b. 1830 - d. 1892)  PP
                             Salvador
17 Aug 1888 -  1 Jul 1892  Juan Antonio María Flores y Jijón  (b. 1833 - d. 1915)  PP
 1 Jul 1892 - 16 Apr 1895  Luis Cordero y Crespo              (s.a.)               PP
16 Apr 1895 - 23 Aug 1895  Vicente Lucio Salazar y Cabal      (b. 1832 - d. 1896)  PP
                             (acting) 
 5 Jun 1895 - 19 Jun 1895  Ignacio Robles y Santistevan       (b. 1839 - d. 1915)  Mil
                             (Superior Civil and Military Chief  
                             of Guayas, in rebellion)
23 Aug 1895 -  1 Sep 1901  José Eloy Alfaro Delgado           (b. 1842 - d. 1912)  PL
                             (1st time)(Supreme Head to 16 Apr 1896; 
                             interim president 16 Apr 1896 - 13 Jan 1897)
 1 Sep 1901 -  1 Sep 1905  Leonidas Plaza y Gutiérrez de      (b. 1865 - d. 1932)  PL
                             Caviedes (1st time)
 1 Sep 1905 - 16 Jan 1906  Lizardo García Sorroza             (b. 1842 - d. 1927)  PL
16 Jan 1906 - 12 Aug 1911  José Eloy Alfaro Delgado           (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time)
                            (Supreme Head to 9 Oct 1906; interim
                             president 9 Oct 1906 - 1 Jan 1907)
12 Aug 1911 -  1 Sep 1911  Carlos Freile Zaldumbide           (b. 1851 - d. 1926)  PL
                             (1st time) (acting) 
 1 Sep 1911 - 21 Dec 1911  Emilio Estrada y Carmona           (b. 1855 - d. 1911)  PL
21 Dec 1911 -  6 Mar 1912  Carlos Freile Zaldumbide           (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time) (acting)
22 Dec 1911 - 22 Jan 1912  Flavio Eloy Alfaro Santana         (b. 1866 - d. 1912)  Mil/PL
                             (Supreme Head, in rebellion)
30 Dec 1911 - 22 Jan 1912  Pedro Jacinto Montero Maridueña    (b. 1862 - d. 1912)  Mil
                             (Supreme Head, in rebellion)
 6 Mar 1912 - 10 Aug 1912  Francisco Higinio Andrade Marín    (b. 1841 - d. 1935)  PL
                             y Rivadeneira (acting)
10 Aug 1912 -  1 Sep 1912  Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno           (b. 1859 - d. 1951)  PL
                             (1st time) (acting) 
 1 Sep 1912 -  1 Sep 1916  Leonidas Plaza y Gutiérrez de      (s.a.)               PL
                             Caviedes (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1916 -  1 Sep 1920  Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno           (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1920 -  1 Sep 1924  José Luis Tamayo Terán             (b. 1858 - d. 1947)  PLR
 1 Sep 1924 -  9 Jul 1925  Gonzalo Segundo Córdova y Rivera   (b. 1863 - d. 1928)  PLR
 9 Jul 1925 - 10 Jul 1925  Luis Telmo Paz y Miño Estrella     (b. 1884 - d. 1962)  Mil
                            (chairman Supreme Military Junta)
10 Jul 1925 - 10 Jan 1926  Provisional Government Junta
                           (chair rotating weekly)
                           - Luis Enrique Napoleón Dillon     (b. 1875 - d. 1929) PL/Non-party
                               Cabezas
                           - Pedro Pablo Garaicoa Cabanilla   (b. 1874 - d. 1936) PL/Non-party
                           - Moisés Oliva Ojeda               (b. 1874 - d. 1926)  Mil
                               (to 14 Jul 1925) 
                           - Francisco Gómez de la Torre      (b. 1885 - d. 1966)  Mil
                               Zaldumbide (to 24 Oct 1925)
                           - José Rafael Bustamante Cevallos  (b. 1881 - d. 1961) PL/Non-party
                               (to 22 Dec 1925)
                           - José Modesto Manuel Larrea Jijón (b. 1890 - d. 1957)  Non-party
                               (from 13 Jul 1925)
                           - Francisco José Boloña Rolando    (b. 1882 - d. 1955)  Non-party
                               (from 13 Jul 1925)
                           - Francisco Arízaga Luque          (b. 1900 - d. 1964) PL/Non-party
                               (from 14 Jul 1925)
10 Jan 1926 - 10 Mar 1926  Humberto Albornoz Sánchez          (b. 1894 - d. 1959)  Non-party 
                             (chairman Provisional Government Junta)
10 Mar 1926 -  1 Apr 1926  Julio Enrique Moreno Peñaherrera   (b. 1879 - d. 1952)  Non-party 
                             (chairman Provisional Government Junta)
                             (1st time)
 1 Apr 1926 - 24 Aug 1931  Isidro Ramón Antonio Ayora Cueva   (b. 1879 - d. 1978)  CL
                             (provisional to 10 Oct 1928; then
                             interim 10 Oct 1928 - 17 Apr 1929)
24 Aug 1931 - 15 Oct 1931  Luis Alberto Larrea Alba (acting)  (b. 1895 - d. 1980)  VRSE
15 Oct 1931 - 28 Aug 1932  Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno           (s.a.)               PL
                             (3rd time)(acting) 
28 Aug 1932 -  2 Sep 1932  Carlos Eduardo Freile Larrea       (b. 1876 - d. 1942)  VRSE
                             (acting)
 2 Sep 1932 -  5 Dec 1932  Alberto Guerrero Martínez (acting) (b. 1878 - d. 1941)  PL
 5 Dec 1932 - 20 Oct 1933  Juan de Dios Martínez Mera         (b. 1875 - d. 1955)  UR
21 Oct 1933 -  1 Sep 1934  Abelardo Montalvo Alvear (acting)  (b. 1876 - d. 1950)  PLR
 1 Sep 1934 - 21 Aug 1935  José María Velasco Ibarra          (b. 1893 - d. 1979)  AD
                             (1st time)
21 Aug 1935 - 26 Sep 1935  Antonio Pons Campuzano (acting)    (b. 1897 - d. 1980)  PLR
26 Sep 1935  (hours)       Benigno Andrade Flores                                  Mil
                             (chairman military junta)
26 Sep 1935 - 23 Oct 1937  Federico Páez Chiriboga            (b. 1876 - d. 1974)  Non-party
                             (acting head of state to 10 Aug 1937, then interim president)
23 Oct 1937 - 10 Aug 1938  Gil Alberto Enríquez Gallo         (b. 1893 - d. 1962)  Mil
                             (Supreme Head of State)
10 Aug 1938 -  2 Dec 1938  Manuel María José del Espíritu     (b. 1883 - d. 1975)  PLR
                             Santo Borrero González (interim)
 2 Dec 1938 - 17 Nov 1939  Aurelio Mosquera Narváez           (b. 1883 - d. 1939)  PLR
17 Nov 1939 - 11 Dec 1939  Carlos Alberto Arroyo del Río      (b. 1893 - d. 1969)  PLR
                             (1st time) (acting) 
11 Dec 1939 - 10 Aug 1940  Andrés Fernández de Córdova Nieto  (b. 1892 - d. 1983)  PLR
                             (acting)
10 Aug 1940 -  1 Sep 1940  Julio Enrique Moreno Peñaherrera   (s.a.)               Non-party 
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 1 Sep 1940 - 29 May 1944  Carlos Alberto Arroyo del Río      (s.a.)               PLR
                             (2nd time) 
29 May 1944                Fausto Navarro Allende (acting)                   
29 May 1944 - 31 May 1944  Julio Teodoro Salem Gallegos       (b. 1900 - d. 1968)  AD
                            (rotating chairman of the Political Bureau of Alianza
                             Democrática Ecuatoriana, in charge of the executive power)
31 May 1944 - 24 Aug 1947  José María Velasco Ibarra          (s.a.)               AD
                             (2nd time) 
24 Aug 1947 -  2 Sep 1947  Carlos Elicio Mancheno Cajas       (b. 1902 - d. 1996)  Mil
                             (acting to 24 Aug 1947)
 2 Sep 1947 - 16 Sep 1947  Mariano Suárez Veintimilla         (b. 1897 - d. 1980)  PCE
16 Sep 1947 - 31 Aug 1948  Carlos Julio Arosemena Tola        (b. 1894 - d. 1952)  Non-party
 1 Sep 1948 - 31 Aug 1952  Galo Lincoln Plaza Lasso de la Vega(b. 1906 - d. 1987)  MCDN
 1 Sep 1952 - 31 Aug 1956  José María Velasco Ibarra          (s.a.)               FNV
                             (3rd time) 
 1 Sep 1956 - 31 Aug 1960  Camilo Ponce Enríquez              (b. 1912 - d. 1976)  PSC
 1 Sep 1960  (hours)       Francisco Illingworth Icaza        (b. 1905 - d. 1982)  PSC
                             (vice-president, acting)
 1 Sep 1960 -  7 Nov 1961  José María Velasco Ibarra          (s.a.)               FNV
                             (4th time) 
 7 Nov 1961 - 11 Jul 1963  Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy      (b. 1919 - d. 2004)  FNV
 8 Nov 1961  (hours)       Camilo Gallegos Toledo (interim)   (b. 1895 - d. 1986)  Non-party
                             (in dissidence)
11 Jul 1963 - 29 Mar 1966  Ramón Castro Jijón                 (b. 1915 - d. 1984)  Mil
                             (chairman military junta)
29 Mar 1966 - 30 Mar 1966  Telmo Oswaldo Vargas Benalcázar    (b. 1912 - d. ....)  Mil
                             (Chief of Staff of Armed Forces)
30 Mar 1966 - 16 Nov 1966  Clemente Yerovi Indaburu (interim) (b. 1904 - d. 1981)  Non-party
16 Nov 1966 - 31 Aug 1968  Otto Arosemena Gómez (interim)     (b. 1925 - d. 1984)  CID
 1 Sep 1968 - 15 Feb 1972  José María Velasco Ibarra          (s.a.)               FNV
                             (5th time) 
15 Feb 1972 - 11 Jan 1976  Guillermo Antonio Rodríguez Lara   (b. 1924)            Mil
11 Jan 1976 - 10 Aug 1979  Alfredo Ernesto Poveda Burbano     (b. 1926 - d. 1990)  Mil
                             (chairman Supreme Government Council)
10 Aug 1979 - 24 May 1981  Jaime Roldós Aguilera              (b. 1940 - d. 1981)  CFP 
24 May 1981 - 10 Aug 1984  Luis Osvaldo Hurtado Larrea        (b. 1939)            DP-UDC
10 Aug 1984 - 10 Aug 1988  León Esteban Febres-Cordero        (b. 1931 - d. 2008)  PSC
                             Ribadeneyra 
10 Aug 1988 - 10 Aug 1992  Rodrigo Borja Cevallos             (b. 1935)            ID 
10 Aug 1992 - 10 Aug 1996  Sixto Alfonso Durán Ballén         (b. 1921)            PUR
                             Cordovez
10 Aug 1996 -  6 Feb 1997  Abdala Jaime Bucaram Ortiz         (b. 1952)            PRE
 6 Feb 1997 -  9 Feb 1997  Fabián Ernesto Alarcón Rivera      (b. 1947)            FRA
                             (1st time) (interim)
 9 Feb 1997 - 11 Feb 1997  Lupe Rosalía Arteaga Serrano de    (b. 1956)            MIRA
                             Fernández de Córdova (f)(acting) 
11 Feb 1997 - 10 Aug 1998  Fabián Ernesto Alarcón Rivera      (s.a.)               FRA
                             (2nd time) (interim)
10 Aug 1998 - 21 Jan 2000  Jorge Jamil Mahuad Witt            (b. 1949)            DP-UDC
21 Jan 2000                Lucio Edwin Gutiérrez Borbúa       (b. 1957)            Mil
                             (1st time)(in dissidence)
21 Jan 2000 - 22 Jan 2000  Council of State ("Junta of National Salvation")
                           - Carlos Antonio Byron Mendoza
                               Poveda                                              Mil
                           - Carlos Antonio Vargas Guatatuca  (b. 1958)            CONAIE
                           - Carlos Solórzano Constantine     (b. 1939)            Non-party
22 Jan 2000 - 15 Jan 2003  Gustavo José Noboa Bejarano        (b. 1937)            DP-UDC
15 Jan 2003 - 20 Apr 2005  Lucio Edwin Gutiérrez Borbúa       (s.a.)               PSP
                             (2nd time)
20 Apr 2005 - 15 Jan 2007  Luis Alfredo Palacio González      (b. 1939)            Non-party
15 Jan 2007 -              Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado      (b. 1963)            PAIS
15 Jan 2013 - 18 Feb 2013  Lenín Voltaire Moreno Garcés
      (b. 1953)            PAIS
                             (acting for Correa)
 

Territorial Dispute: Organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country

Party abbreviations: CFP = Concentración de Fuerzas Populares (Concentration of Popular Forces, populist, est.1949); CONAIE = Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador (Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador, indigenous rights, est.1986); DC = Demócrata Cristiana (Christian Democratic Party); ID = Izquierda Democrática (Democratic Left, democratic socialist, center-left, est.1977); PAIS = Alianza PAIS - Patria Altiva i Soberana (PAIS [Proud and Sovereign Fatherland] Alliance, democratic socialist, left-wing, est.2006); PCE = Partido Conservador Ecuatoriano (Ecuadorian Conservative Party, est.1855); PLR = Partido Liberal Radical Ecuatoriano (Eduadorian Radical Liberal Party, radical liberal, split from PL, est.1921); PRE = Partido Roldosista Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Roldosist Party, populist, nationalist, est.1982); PSP = Partido Sociedad Patriótica 21 de Enero (Party Patriotic Society 21 January, reformist, nationalist, extreme right, est.2002); PSC = Partido Social Cristiano (Social Christian Party, christian democratic, est.1951); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties: AD = Alianza Democrática Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Democratic Alliance, coalition of PLR, PC, VRSE, Socialis Party, Communist Party, and Ecuadorian Democratic Front,
1944-1947?); CID = Coalición Institucionalista Demócrata (Democratic Institutionalist Coalition, est.1965); CL = Contra-Liberal (Anti-Liberal); DP = Democracia Popular (Popular Democracy, center-left, renamed UDC, 1976-1996); DP-UDC = Democracia Popular-Unión Demócrata Cristiana (Popular Democracy-Christian Democratic Union, center-right, christian-democratic, 1996-2009); FNV = Federación Nacional Velasquista (Velasquista National Federation, velasquismo, Velasco Ibarra personalist, 1952-1978); FRA = Frente Radical Alfarista (Alfarist Radical Front, center liberal, later renamed Union Alfarista, 1972-2006); MCDN = Movimiento Cívico Democrático Nacional (National Democratic Civic Movement); MIRA = Movimiento Independiente para una República Auténtica (Independent Movement for an Authentic Republic, center-left, 1996-1998); PC = Partido Conservador (Conservative Party, catholic conservative, later PCE, est.1855); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, later divided into PLR and liberal moderate parties, 1895-1921); PP = Partido Progresista (Progressive Party, liberal catholic, est.c.1883); PUR = Partido Unión Republicano (Republican Union Party, center-right, Durán Ballén personalist, split from PSC, 1991-1995, merged into PCE); UR = Unión Republicana (Republican Union); VRSE = Vanguardia Revolucionaria del Socialismo Ecuatoriano (Ecuadorian Socialist Revolutionary Vanguard)


Galapagos Islands

[Provinical Flag of Galapagos
                (Ecuador)]
               Province Flag Adopted 1961
 
Map of the Galapagos Capital: Puerto Baquerizo
Moreno
(Floreana 1832-51, 1861-85)
Local Anthem
"Himno de Galápagos"
(Hymn of the Galapagos)
Population: 26,640 (2012)

 4 May 1493                By Treaty of Tordesillas the region made a possession of Spain.
10 Mar 1535                Spanish under Tomás de Berlanga, Bishop of Panama discover
                             the islands.
1535 - 1832                No-man's land (terra nullis), frequently visited by pirates
                             whalers and merchant ships and are nicknamed the 
                             Las Islas Encantadas ("Enchanted/Bewitched Islands").
1574                       Named Insulae de los Galopegos ("Islands of the Tortoises")
                             on a map by Flemish cartographer Abraham Ortelius.
1593 - 1710                Islands frequently used as a base by pirates.
1684                       English pirate William Ambrose Cowley names the main islands:
                             Chatham (San Cristóbal), Hood (Española), Charles or 
                             Floreana (Santa Maria), Narborough (Isabela), Jervis
                             (Rábida), Santa Cruz (Indefatigable), South Seymour (Baltra), 
                             and Tower (Genovesa). 
1790                       First scientific expedition under Alessandro Malaspina sent
                             to the islands by King Charles IV of Spain.
1793 - 1870                Islands frequented by whale and seal hunting ships. 
1807 - 1809                Floreana inhabited by castaway Patrick Watkins.
17 Apr 1813 -  3 Oct 1813  U.S. Capt. David Porter of U.S.S. Essex uses the islands
                             as a base to destroy most of local British whaling fleet.
12 Feb 1832                Annexed by Ecuador as a territory and named Archipiélago
                             del Ecuador (Archipelago of Ecuador).
15 Sep 1835 - 20 Oct 1835  Islands visited by Charles Darwin on the H.M.S. Beagle.
16 Feb 1840                Spain formally renounces its claim to the islands.
1869 - 1904                San Cristobál used as a penal colony. 
29 May 1861 - 1865         Galápagos Islands elevated to a province.
15 Aug 1885                Status and name changed to Columbus Archipelago Insular Territory 
                             (Territorio Insular del Archipiélago de Colón),
                             subordinated to Guayas province.
12 Oct 1892                Islands are officially renamed Archipiélago de Colón.
31 Aug 1934                Galápagos Islands declared a national preserve.
 9 Apr 1942 - 15 Jul 1946  U.S. Army Air Force Bases on Baltra and Isabela Islands.
 4 Jul 1959                Most of the Galápagos Islands become a national park
                             (minus previously settled areas).
17 Dec 1957 - 1959         Galápagos Islands a province.
18 Feb 1973                Galápagos territory made a province.
 8 Sep 1978                Declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO.

Military Governors and Territorial Chiefs
12 Feb 1832 - 12 Oct 1832  Ignacio Hernández (acting)
12 Oct 1832 - 1836         José María de Villamil Joly        (b. 1788 - d. 1866)
                             (1st time)
29 Jun 1836 – 26 Jul 1836  José Sanchez Rubio                 (b. 1814 - d. 1889)
                             (acting for Villamil)
26 Jul 1836 – 1836         Nicolás Morla (acting for Villamil)
1836 – 23 Nov 1837         José María de
Villamil Joly        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
23 Nov 1837 – 1838         Nicolás Morla
                           + Pedro Mena
                      (d. 1852)
1838                       Tomás Parra  
1838 - 1839                José (Jaime)
Williams (1st time)
1839                       José María de Villamil Joly        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1839 - 1842 
               José (Jaime) Williams (2nd time)
1842 - 184.                José María de
Villamil Joly        (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
184. - 1852                Pedro Mena (acting)                (s.a.)
 4 Nov 1854 - 18..         José María de
Villamil Joly        (s.a.) 
                             (5th time)
18.. - 1861                ....

1861 - 1884                ....

1869 - 23 Jul 1878         José Valdizán                      (d. 1878)
                             (tenant on Floreana) 
1879 - 15 Jan 1904         Manuel Julián Cobos                (b. 1836 - d. 1904)
                             (tenant on San Cristóbal) 
1884 – Sep 1884            Juan B. Treviño 
1884 – 1893                Pedro P. Jaramillo (1st time)
1893 - 189.                Federico Irigoyen
189. - ....                Juan Elias Pareja Larrea           (b. 1850 - d. 1903)
.... - ....                Antonio Gil Sr. 
.... - ....                Marco Aurelio Calderón 
c.1900                     Tácito Nuñez  
1902 – 15 Jan 1904         Leonardo Reyna                     (d. 1904)
15 Jan 1904 - 19 Jan 1904  Elías Puertas (in rebellion)
Feb 1904 - Jul 1904        Juan José F. Pino 
1904 - 1905                ....
1905 - 1906                Domingo E. Ramos    
c.1906 - 1907              Pedro P. Jaramillo (2nd time) 
191. (or 192.)             Enrique Barriga Larrea             (b. 1872 - d. 1942)
19.. - 1921                Antonio Gil Quesada                (d. 1921)
c.1922                     Cesar Aray Santos                  (b. 1874 - d. 1954)            
1921 - 1930                Enrique V. Gil Quesada
                           + Carlos Gil                       (d. 1960's)
c.1925                     Enrique Rivadeneira

1925 - 19..                Victor Manuel Naranjo          
1930 - 19..                Jorge Villavicencio
193.                       Diogenes Fernandez Ampuero         (b. 1888 - d. 1980)
193.                       Samaniego      
19.. - 1933                Luis A. Paredes Salvador
1933 - 1935                Manuel Tomás Aguilera
c.1935 - 1939              Carlos Puente
1939 - 1941                Alejandro M. Alvear
1941 – 1943                Cornelio Izquierdo A.
1943 – 1946?               Nelson Alejandro Chiriboga Donoso  (b. 1911 - d. 1970)
1946                       Jorge Enrique Páez Torres          (b. 1918 - d. 2009)
c.1946                     Enrique Vallejo Carranza (1st time)
c.1948                     Carlos Monteverede Granados        (b. 1919 - d. 2004)       
c.1952/53                  Alsacio Northía Delgado
195.                       Max Arias Hidalgo
Governors
1957 - 1959
               Marco Aurelio Maldonado Miño
15 Mar 1959 - Apr 1960     Bolívar H. Naveda
Military Governors and Territorial Chiefs
Apr 1960 - 20 Sep 1960     Alberto García
20 Sep 1960 - 1960         Segundo Zapata Vargas
1960 - Nov 1961            Enrique Vallejo Carranza (2nd time)
Nov 1961 - Jul 1963        Antonio Ledesma Monroy
Jul 1963 - 1964            Fausto Alvear Vázquez
1966 - 19..                Norberto Paredes
19.. - 1973                ....
Governors

1973 - 1981                ....
c.1975 - c.1979            Napoleón Fernandez Oviedo
1981 - 1983                Freddy Herrera Villacis             (b. 1952)
c.1985                     Walter Freire
1987                      
Galo Salomón Herrera Estrella       (b. 1956)
                             (1st time)

c.1994                     Ramón Apolo Herrera
c.1992                     Iván Naula Torres
1994 - 1995                Pedro Anibal Zapata Rumipamba       (b. 1960)
1999? - 2003               Fabián Parra Criollo
2003 - 2005                Alexandra Cedeño Martinez (f)
 5 May 2005 - Dec 2005     Grace Elizabeth Unda Romero (f)
Dec 2005 - 2007            Edgar Eduardo Sanchez Paredes
18 Jan 2007 - 2007         Galo Salom
ón Herrera Estrella       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 9 Aug 2007 – 18 Sep 2008  Jorge Eliécer Cruz Bedón            (b. 1965)
18 Sep 2008 –              Jorge Alfredo Torres Pallo          (b. 1967)






©  Ben Cahoon