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Australia
 
[Flag of the United Kingdom]
                     26 Jan 1788 - 3 Sep 1901 
 
[Australia Federation flag
                            1901l]
              1 Jan 1901 - 3 Sep 1901 (Semi-official)
 
[Australian
                            flag 1901 - 1903]
                        3 Sep 1901 - 4 Jun 1903 
 
[Australian
                            flag 1903 -1908]
                    4 Jun 1903 - 19 Dec 1908
 
[Australian flag]
                        Adopted 19 Dec 1908
 
[Australian
                            civil ensign, 1908-1954]
            19 Dec 1908 - 14 Apr 1954 Civil Ensign 
 
Map of Australia Hear National Anthem
  "Advance Australia Fair"
Adopted 19 Apr 1984
Former National Anthem
"God Save the Queen"
 (1 Jan 1901-19 Apr 1984)
Constitution
(1 Jan 1901)
Capital: Canberra
(1901-1927 Melbourne)
Currency: Australian Dollar
(AUD); Australian
Pound (AUP) 1909-1966
National Holiday: 26 Jan (1788)
 Australia Day
Population: 22,262,501 (2013)
GDP: $998.3 billion (2013) 
Exports: $251.7 billion (2013)
Imports: $245.8 billion (2013)
Ethnic Groups: white 91.4%, Asian 6.4%, Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander 1.5%, other 0.7% (2001)
Total Active Armed Forces: 82,500 (2010)
U.S. Forces: 313 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 41 ships (2010)
Religions: Protestant 28.8% (of which Anglican 17.1%, Uniting
 Church 5%, Presbyterian and Reformed 2.8%,
Baptist 1.6%,
 
Lutheran 1.2%,
Pentecostal 1.1%),
Roman Catholic 25.3%, Eastern
 Orthodox 2.6%, other Christian 4.5%, Buddhist 2.5%, Muslim 2.2%,
 Hindu 1.3%, Jewish 0.4%, Sikh 0.3%, other 1.1%, unspecified 8.7%,
 none 22.3% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AfDB (applicant), AG, ANT(consultative), ANZUS, APEC, APM, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BTWC, C, CCM, CP, CTBT, CWC, EAS, EBRD, ECSR, ENMOD, FAO, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PA (observer), PC, PCA, PIF, SAARC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO,  ZC
Australia Index
Chronology
 4 Mar 1606                Discovered by Dutch Capt. Willem Janszoon at
                             Cape York; later named New Holland.
 6 May 1770                Charted and claimed for Britain by Capt. James Cook
26 Jan 1788                New South Wales, the first British colony in 
                             Australia, founded (see Australian states).
 1 Jan 1901                British colonies in Australia united as a 
                             dominion (Commonwealth of Australia).
11 Dec 1931                Statute of Westminster (ratified by Australia
                             9 Oct 1942 [retroactive to 3 Sep 1939]) 
                             grants sovereignty to the British dominions.
 3 Mar 1986                Australia Act (1986) ends the last vestigial links
                             with the U.K.
 6 Nov 1999                Referendum on adopting republican form of 
                             government is rejected. 
Australian
States
Ashmore and
Cartier Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Australian
Antarctic
Territory
 

Kings/Queens
 1 Jan 1901 -              the Kings/Queens of the United Kingdom
Governors-general2 (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 1 Jan 1901 -  9 Jan 1903  John Adrian Louis Hope,            (b. 1860 - d. 1908)
                             Earl of Hopetoun
                            (from 27 Oct 1902, Marquess of Linlithgow)
 
 9 Jan 1903 - 21 Jan 1904  Hallam Tennyson, Baron Tennyson of (b. 1852 - d. 1928)
                             Aldworth
21 Jan 1904 -  9 Sep 1908  Henry Stafford Northcote,          (b. 1846 - d. 1911)
                             Baron Northcote of Exeter
 9 Sep 1908 - 31 Jul 1911  William Humble Ward,               (b. 1867 - d. 1932)
                             Earl of Dudley 
21 Dec 1909 - 27 Jan 1910  Frederick John Napier Thesinger,   (b. 1868 - d. 1933) 
                             Baron Chelmsford (acting for Ward)
31 Jul 1911 - 18 May 1914  Thomas Denman, Baron Denman        (b. 1874 - d. 1954)
18 May 1914 -  6 Oct 1920  Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson (b. 1860 - d. 1934)
 6 Oct 1920 -  8 Oct 1925  Henry William Forster,             (b. 1866 - d. 1936)
                             Baron Forster of Lepe
 8 Oct 1925 - 22 Jan 1931  John Lawrence Baird,               (b. 1874 - d. 1941)
                             Baron Stonehaven of Ury
22 Jan 1931 - 23 Jan 1936  Sir Isaac Isaacs                   (b. 1855 - d. 1948)
23 Jan 1936 - 30 Jan 1945  Alexander Gore Arkwright Hore-     (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
                             Ruthven, Baron Gowrie
                             (from 8 Jan 1945, Earl Gowrie of Canberra)
30 Jan 1945 - 11 Mar 1947  Prince Henry William Frederick     (b. 1900 - d. 1974)
                             Albert, Earl of Ulster, 
                             Baron Culloden, Duke of Gloucester 
11 Mar 1947 -  8 May 1953  William John McKell                (b. 1891 - d. 1985)
                             (from 9 Nov 1951, Sir William John McKell) 
 8 May 1953 -  2 Feb 1960  Sir William Joseph Slim            (b. 1891 - d. 1970)
 2 Feb 1960 -  3 Feb 1961  William Shepherd Morrison,         (b. 1893 - d. 1961)
                             Viscount Dunrossil of Vallaquie
 4 Feb 1961 -  3 Aug 1961  Sir Reginald Alexander Dallas      (b. 1896 - d. 1966)
                             Brooks (administrator)
 3 Aug 1961 - 22 Sep 1965  William Philip Sidney,             (b. 1909 - d. 1991)
                             Viscount De L'Isle 
22 Sep 1965 - 30 Apr 1969  Richard Gardiner Casey,            (b. 1890 - d. 1976)

                             Baron Casey of Berwick 
30 Apr 1969 - 11 Jul 1974  Sir Paul Meernaa Caedwalla Hasluck (b. 1905 - d. 1993)
11 Jul 1974 -  8 Dec 1977  Sir John Robert Kerr               (b. 1914 - d. 1991)
 8 Dec 1977 - 29 Jul 1982  Sir Zelman Cowen                   (b. 1919 - d. 2011)
29 Jul 1982 - 16 Feb 1989  Sir Ninian Martin Stephen          (b. 1923)
16 Feb 1989 - 16 Feb 1996  William "Bill" George Hayden       (b. 1933)
16 Feb 1996 - 29 Jun 2001  Sir William Deane                  (b. 1931)
21 Apr 1999 -  5 May 1999  Philip Michael Jeffery             (b. 1937)
                             (acting for Deane)
29 Jun 2001 - 29 May 2003  Peter John Hollingworth            (b. 1935)
15 May 2003 - 11 Aug 2003  Sir Guy Stephen Montague Green     (b. 1937)
                             (acting [for Hollingworth to 29 May 2003])
11 Aug 2003 -  5 Sep 2008  Philip Michael Jeffery             (s.a.)
 5 Sep 2008 - 28 Mar 2014  Quentin Alice Louise Bryce (f)     (b. 1942)
                             (from 25 Mar 2014, Dame Quentin Alice Louise Bryce)
28 Mar 2014 -              Sir Peter John Cosgrove            (b. 1947)

 
Prime ministers
 1 Jan 1901 - 24 Sep 1903  Edmund Barton                      (b. 1849 - d. 1920)  PP
                             (from Jul 1902, Sir Edmund Barton) 
24 Sep 1903 - 26 Apr 1904  Alfred Deakin (1st time)           (b. 1856 - d. 1919)  PP
26 Apr 1904 - 18 Aug 1904  John Christian Watson              (b. 1867 - d. 1941)  ALP
18 Aug 1904 -  5 Jul 1905  George Houston Reid                (b. 1845 - d. 1918)  FT
 5 Jul 1905 - 13 Nov 1908  Alfred Deakin (2nd time)           (s.a.)               PP
13 Nov 1908 -  2 Jun 1909  Andrew Fisher (1st time)           (b. 1862 - d. 1928)  ALP
 2 Jun 1909 - 29 Apr 1910  Alfred Deakin (3rd time)           (s.a.)               PP
29 Apr 1910 - 24 Apr 1913  Andrew Fisher (2nd time)           (s.a.)               ALP
24 Apr 1913 - 17 Sep 1914  Joseph Cook                        (b. 1860 - d. 1947)  LP
17 Sep 1914 - 27 Oct 1915  Andrew Fisher (3rd time)           (s.a.)               ALP
27 Oct 1915 -  9 Feb 1923  William Morris Hughes              (b. 1864 - d. 1952)  ALP;
                                                       14 Nov 1916 NLP; 17 Feb 1917 NP
 9 Feb 1923 - 22 Oct 1929  Stanley Melbourne Bruce            (b. 1883 - d. 1967)  NP
22 Oct 1929 -  6 Jan 1932  James Henry Scullin                (b. 1867 - d. 1953)  ALP
 6 Jan 1932 -  7 Apr 1939  Joseph Aloysius Lyons              (b. 1879 - d. 1939)  UAP
 7 Apr 1939 - 26 Apr 1939  Sir Earle Page (acting)            (b. 1880 - d. 1961)  ACP
26 Apr 1939 - 29 Aug 1941  Robert Gordon Menzies (1st time)   (b. 1894 - d. 1978)  LP
29 Aug 1941 -  7 Oct 1941  Arthur William Fadden              (b. 1895 - d. 1973)  ACP
 7 Oct 1941 -  6 Jul 1945  John Curtin                        (b. 1885 - d. 1945)  ALP
 6 Jul 1945 - 13 Jul 1945  Francis Michael Forde              (b. 1890 - d. 1983)  ALP
13 Jul 1945 - 19 Dec 1949  Joseph Benedict Chifley            (b. 1885 - d. 1951)  ALP
19 Dec 1949 - 22 Jan 1966  Robert Gordon Menzies (2nd time)   (s.a.)               LP
                             (from 29 Mar 1963, Sir Robert Gordon Menzies)
22 Jan 1966 - 17 Dec 1967  Harold Edward Holt                 (b. 1908 - d. 1967)  LP
18 Dec 1967 - 10 Jan 1968  John McEwen (acting)               (b. 1900 - d. 1980)  ACP
10 Jan 1968 - 10 Mar 1971  John Grey Gorton                   (b. 1911 - d. 2002)  LP
10 Mar 1971 -  5 Dec 1972  William McMahon                    (b. 1908 - d. 1988)  LP
 5 Dec 1972 - 11 Nov 1975  Edward Gough Whitlam               (b. 1916 - d. 2014)  ALP
11 Nov 1975 - 11 Mar 1983  John Malcolm Fraser                (b. 1930)            LP
11 Mar 1983 - 20 Dec 1991  Robert James Lee Hawke             (b. 1929)            ALP
20 Dec 1991 - 11 Mar 1996  Paul John Keating                  (b. 1944)            ALP
11 Mar 1996 -  3 Dec 2007  John Winston Howard                (b. 1939)            LP
 3 Dec 2007 - 24 Jun 2010  Kevin Michael Rudd (1st time)      (b. 1957)            ALP
24 Jun 2010 - 27 Jun 2013  Julia E. Gillard (f)               (b. 1961
)            ALP
27 Jun 2013 - 18 Sep 2013 
Kevin Michael Rudd (2nd time)      (s.a.)               ALP
18 Sep 2013 -              Anthony "Tony" Abbott              (b. 1957)            LP


Aboriginal flag
                            (Australia)  
  12 Sep1971 Aboriginal flag; 
14 Jul 1995 adopted as "a flag of Australia"
[Torres
                            Strait Islander flag, (Australia)]
   29 May 1992 Torres Strait Islander flag;
  14 Jul 1995 adopted as "a flag of Australia"
 
 The style of the ruler was:
(a) 22 Jan 1901 - 4 Nov 1901: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas Queen/King, Defender of the Faith, Empress/Emperor of India";
(b) 4 Nov 1901 - 12 May 1927: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India";
(c) 12 May 1927 - 6 Feb 1952: "By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King/Queen, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India"; the title "Emperor of India" was dropped as of 15 Aug 1947 by retroactive proclamation dated 22 Jun 1948;
(d) 6 Feb 1952 - 29 May 1953: "By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas Queen, Defender of the Faith";
(e) 29 May 1953 - 19 Oct 1973: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom, Australia and Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(f) from 19 Oct 1973: "By the Grace of God, Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth." 

 2full title:
(a) 1 Jan 1901 - 24 Aug 1984: Governor-general and Commander-in-Chief in and over the Commonwealth of Australia;
(f) from 24 Aug 1984: Governor-general of the Commonwealth of Australia.

Territorial Disputes: Australia asserts land and maritime claims to Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory) since 1933, claim not recognized by the United Nations, U.S., Russia, or by most other countries (other than France, New Zealand, Norway and U.K.); in 2007, Australia and Timor-Leste agreed to a 50-year development zone and revenue sharing arrangement and deferred a maritime boundary; Australia's 2004 submission to Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) extends its continental margins over 3.37 million square kilometers, expanding its seabed roughly 30 percent beyond its claimed exclusive economic zone; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing.

Party abbreviations: ALP = Australian Labor Party (social-democratic, est.1901); LP = Liberal Party (center-right, UAP successor, est.1945, as Commonwealth Liberal Party 1909-1916);
- Former Parties: ACP = Australian Country Party (conservative, agrarian, in 1972 renamed National Country Party, 1920-1982, renamed National Party of Australia); FT = Free Trade Party (conservative, pro-free trade, from 1906 renamed Anti-Socialist Party, 1889-1909); NP = Nationalist Party (conservative, nationalist, 1917-1931, replaced by UAP); NLP = National Labor Party (center-left, Billy Hughes personalist, split from ALP, merged into NP, 17 Nov 1916-17 Feb 1917); PP = Protectionist Party (conservative, protectionist, 1889-1909); UAP = United Australia Party (center-right, NP successor, 1931-1945, replaced by LP)



Ashmore and Cartier Islands

[Australian flag]
 
Map of Ashmore
and Cartier Islands
Population: Uninhabited, there
are seasonal caretakers (2013)

1800                       Cartier Island discovered by Capt. Nash, aboard the Cartier
11 Jun 1811                Ashmore Reef discovered by Capt. Samuel Ashmore aboard Hibernia.
1878                       Ashmore Reef claimed by Netherlands East Indies.
1878                       Ashmore Reef annexed by Britain.
17 May 1909                Cartier Island annexed by Britain.
23 Jul 1931                Placed under Australian administration.
15 Dec 1933                Ashmore and Cartier Islands transferred to Australia by Britain
                             (effective 3 May 1934).
29 Jul 1938                Part of the Northern Territory.
 1 Jul 1978                Ashmore and Cartier Islands Territory.
16 Aug 1983                Ashmore Reef Commonwealth Natural Reserve.
21 Jun 2000                Cartier Island Commonwealth Marine Reserve.

Territorial Dispute: As the closest Australian territory to Indonesia, these islands became the target of human traffickers for the landing of illegal immigrants; in 2001, the Australian government removed these islands from the Australian Migration Zone making illegal arrivals ineligible for temporary visas and entry into Australia. Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef.



Coral Sea Islands

[Australian flag]
 
Map of Coral Sea Islands
Population: Uninhabited, staff
of 3-4 at the meteorological
station Willis Island (2012)

30 Sep 1969                Coral Sea Islands Territory established, formerly part of 
                             Queensland (the northwest group includes: Flinders Reefs,
                             Herald Cays, Holmes Reefs, Coringa Islets, Lihou Reef and Cays,
                             Magdelaine Cays, Moore Reefs, Bougainville Reef, Osprey Reef,
                             Marion Reef, the Willis Group, et al.; the southeasterly group
                             includes: Frederick Reefs, Saumarez Reefs, Wreck Reef, Kenn Reef,
                             Swain Reefs, West Island, Bird Islet, and Cato Island);
                             administered from Canberra.
16 Nov 2012                Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve







Ben Cahoon