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Algeria
 
[Ottoman flag
                            1783 - 1808, 1826-67]
                    to 5 Jul 1830 
 
[Algiers Deys
                            flag 1671 - 1830]
      1671 - 5 Jul 1830  Flag of the Deys
 
[French Flag]  
               5 Jul 1830 - 3 Jul 1962 
 
[Algerian
                            Provisional government 1958-1962]  
               19 Sep 1958 -  3 Jul 1962
            Prov. Govt of Algeria in Exile flag
 
[Flag of Algeria]  
                 Adopted 3 Jul 1962
 
 

Map of Algeria
Hear National Anthem
"Kassaman" (We Pledge)
Text of National Anthem
 Adopted 3 Jul 1962
Constitution
(22 Nov 1976)
Capital: Algiers
Currency: Algerian Dinar
(DZD)
National Holiday:  1 Nov (1954)
 Anniversary of Revolution
Population: 38,087,812 (2013) 
GDP: $284.7 billion (2013) 
Exports: $68.25 billion (2013)
Imports: $55.02 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Algerian Arab 59.1%, Amazigh (Berber) 23.2%,
Arabized Berber 3%, Bedouin Arab 14.5%,
European less than 0.2% (2000)
note: although almost all Algerians are Berber in origin (not Arab),
 only a minority identify themselves as Berber; these people live
mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers.
Total Active Armed Forces: 147,500 (2010)
Merchant marine: 38 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other
 (includes Christian and Jewish) 1% (2012)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, APM, Arabsat, AU, BIS, BTWC, CTBT, CAEU, CWC, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, GAFTA, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT (signatory), OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), PAM, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Algeria Index
Chronology

944                        Algiers founded.
1235 - 1556                Zayyanid, or Banu Zayan, Berber kingdom with
                             capital at Tlemcen.
1510 - 29 May 1529         Spanish occupation of Peñón de Algiers.
1534 - Oct 1541            Spanish occupation of Peñón de Algiers.
1536                       Province of the Ottoman Empire.

1671                       Rule of semi-autonomous Deys.

1711                       Deys recognized as governors by the Ottomans.

 5 Jul 1830                Algiers taken by France (Oran on 4 Jan 1831; Bone
                             1832; Bougie 1833; Arzew 10 Jul 1833; Mostaganem
                             28 Jul 1833; Tlemecen 8 Jan 1836; Constantine
                             1837; Djidjelli 23 May 1839; Miliana 8 Jun 1840;
                             Zaateha oasis 26 Nov 1849; Laghouat 4 Dec 1852).
22 Nov 1832 - 23 Dec 1847  Emirate of Mascara established in revolt by 
                             Abdelkedir.
22 Jul 1834                French Possessions in the North of Africa.
1839                       French Algerian Possessions
15 Apr 1845                Named Algeria.
 9 Dec 1848                Algiers, Constantine and Oran made départements
                             of France.
26 Aug 1881                Algeria, Oran, and Constantine (and from 7 Aug 
                             1955 Bone) départements each administering 
                             two [laster six] territories in the south.
24 Dec 1902                The six territories were consolidated into one
                             unit, the Territoires du Sud (Southern 
                             Territories); 14 Aug 1905 these are organized
                             into four territories: Aïn Sefra, Ghardaia, 
                             Oasis, and Touggourt. 
22 Jun 1940 -  8 Nov 1942  Administration loyal to Vichy France (from 
                             8 Nov 1942, under Free French).
19 Sep 1958                Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic
                             (established in exile in Tunisia by FLN).
19 Mar 1962                Évian Accords signed by France and FLN.
 3 Jul 1962                Independence from France (Algerian State).
25 Sep 1962                People's Democratic Algerian Republic
French Sahara
(1957-1962)
Bone (Bona)
(1535-1710)
Bougie
(1510-1555)
Oney (Honaine)
(1531-1534)
Oran
(1509-1792)
Peñón de
Algiers

(1510-1529,
 1534-1541)
Constanine
(Qusantina)

(1567-1848)
Kel Ahaggar
(c.1750-1977)
 Tuggurt
(1414-1700)
 

Pashas of Algiers
15.. - 1516                Selim al-Toumi al-Tha'alibi
1516 - 1518                Baba Aruj
1518 - 1520                Khair ad-Din (Barbarossa)          (b. c.1474 - d. 1546)
                             (1st time)
1520 - 1525                Ahmed Belkadi -Kabyle leader
1525 -  4 Jul 1546         Khair ad-Din (Barbarossa)          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Beylerbeys of Algiers

1532 -  4 Jul 1546         Khair ad-Din (Barbarossa)          (s.a.)

1535 - 1543                Hasan Aga                          (b. c.1487 - d. 1545)
                             (acting for Barbarosa)
1543 - 1544                Beshir Pasha 
                             (acting for Barbarosa)
1544 -  4 Jul 1546         Hasan Pasha (1st time)             (d. 1572)
                             (acting for Barbarosa)
 4 Jul 1546 - Sep 1551     Hasan Pasha (2nd time)             (s.a.)
Sep 1551 - May 1552        Khalifa Saffah (acting)
May 1552 - 1556            Salah Raïs
1556 - Jun 1557            Hasan Corso (acting)               (d. 1557)
Jun 1557                   Mehmed Tekkelerli                  (d. 1557)
Jun 1557 - 1557            Yusuf (acting)
1557                       Yahya (acting)
1557 - 1561                Hasan Pasha (3rd time)             (s.a.)
1561 - Sep 1562            Hasan Khüsro Aga (acting)
Sep 1562 - 1562            Ahmad Pasha Qabia (acting)
1562 - 1567                Hasan Pasha (4th time)             (s.a.)
1567 - Mar 1568            Mehmed Pasha (1st time)(acting)
Mar 1568 - 1577            Ölj Ali Pasha 
                             (el-Euldj 'Ali)
1568 - 1570                Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)
                             (acting for Ölj Ali Pasha)
10 Oct 1571 - 1574         Arab Ahmed                         (d. 1578)
                             (acting for Ölj Ali Pasha)
1574 - May 1577            Qa'id Ramadan 
                             (acting for Ölj Ali Pasha)
Pashas
May 1577 - 1580            Hasan Pasha Veneziano (1st time)   (d. af.1588)
1580 - 1582                Jafer Pasha 
1582                       Qa`id Ramadan 
1582 - 1588                Hasan Pasha Veneziano (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1588 - 1589                Deli Ahmed Pasha
1589 - 1592                Khizr (or Haydar) Pasha            (d. 1605)
                             (1st time) 
1592 - 1594                Shaban Pasha
1594                       Mustafa Pasha (1st time) 
1594 - 1596                Khizr Pasha (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1596 - 1598                Mustafa Pasha (2nd time)
1598 - 1599                Hasan Pasha Bu Risa
1599 - 1603                Süleyman Pasha
1603 - 1605                Khizr Pasha (3rd time)             (s.a.)
1605 - 1607                Köse Mustafa Pasha (1st time)
1607 - 1610                Rizvan Pasha
1610 - 1613                Köse Mustafa Pasha (2nd time)
1613 - 1616                Shaykh Huseyin Pasha (1st time)
1616                       Köse Mustafa Pasha (3rd time)
1616 - Jan 1617            Süleyman Katanya
Jan 1617 - 1619            Shaykh Hüseyin Pasha (2nd time)
1619 - 1621                Sherif Koça (Koja)
1621                       Khizr Pasha (4th time)
1621                       Mustafa Pasha
1622                       Khüsrev Pasha
1622 - 1623                Vacant
1623 - 1626                Murad Pasha
1626 - 1627                Vacant
1627 - 1629                Hüseyin Pasha (1st time)
1629 - 1629/30             Yunus
1629/30 - 1634             Hüseyin Pasha (2nd time)
1634 - 1636                Yusuf Pasha
1636 - 1638                Abu'l-Hasan Ali Pasha
1638 - Aug 1640            Shaykh Hüseyin Pasha
Aug 1640 - 1642            Abu Djamal Youssef Pasha
1642 - 1645                Mehmed Brusali Pasha
1645                       Ali Biçnin (Bijnin) Pasha
1645 - 1647                Mahmud Brusali Pasha
1647 - 1650                Yusef Pasha
1650 - 1653                Mehmed Pasha
1653 - 1655                Ahmed Pasha (1st time)
1655 - 1656                Ibrahim Pasha (1st time)
1656 - 1658                Ahmad Pasha (2nd time)
1658 - 1659                Ibrahim Pasha (2nd time)
1659                       Ismail Pasha
1659 - 1660                Khalil Aga                          (d. 1659)
1660 - 1661                Ramadan Aga                         (d. 1661)
1661 - 1665                Shaban Aga                          (d. 1665)
1665 - 1671                Ali Aga                             (d. 1671)
Deys
1671 - Jan 1682            Muhammad I 
Jan 1682 - 22 Jul 1683     Hassan I Baba                       (d. 1683)
22 Jul 1683 - 1686         Hüseyin I "Mezzo-morte"             (d. 1701/02)
1686 - Dec 1688            Ibrahim I
Dec 1688 - Jul 1695        Shaban 
Jul 1695 - Dec 1698        Ahmed I 
Dec 1698 - 1699            Hassan II Chavush 
1699 - Oct 1705            Mustafa I
Oct 1705 - Apr 1706        Hüseyin II Khoja
Apr 1706 - Mar 1710        Muhammad II Bektash
Mar 1710 - 17 Jun 1710     Ibrahim II
17 Jun 1710 -  4 Apr 1718  Ali II Shavush                     (d. 1718)
 4 Apr 1718 - 18 May 1724  Muhammad III                       (b. 1682 - d. 1724)
18 May 1724 - 1731         Kurd 'Abdi                         (b. c.1665 - d. 1731)
1731 - Nov 1745            Ibrahim III "the Old"
Nov 1745 - Feb 1748        Kücük Ibrahim IV
Feb 1748 - 11 Dec 1754     Muhammad IV "el Retorto"           (b. c.1684 - d. 1754)
11 Dec 1754 - Feb 1766     Ali III                            (d. 1766)
Feb 1766 - 11 Jul 1791     Muhammad V                         (b. 1688? - d. 1791)
11 Jul 1791 - Jun 1798     Hassan III                         (d. 1798)
Jun 1798 -  1 Jul 1805     Mustafa II
 1 Jul 1805 - 15 Nov 1808  Ahmed II
15 Nov 1808 - Feb 1809     Ali IV ar-Rasul
Feb 1809 - Mar 1815        Ali V                              (d. 1815)
Mar 1815 - 11 Apr 1815     Muhammad VI
11 Apr 1815 -  2 May 1817  Omar                               (b. 1771 - d. 1817)
 2 May 1817 -  1 Mar 1818  Ali VI Khoja                       (d. 1818)
 1 Mar 1818 -  5 Jul 1830  Hüseyin III                        (b. 1767 - d. 1848)
Military Commanders
 5 Jul 1830 -  3 Sep 1830  Louis, comte de Chaisne de         (b. 1773 - d. 1846)
                             Bourmont 
 3 Sep 1830 - 21 Mar 1831  Bertrand, comte Clauzel            (b. 1772 - d. 1842)
21 Mar 1831 -  6 Dec 1831  Pierre, baron Berthezène           (b. 1775 - d. 1847)
 6 Dec 1831 - 29 Apr 1833  René Savary, duc de Rovigo         (b. 1774 - d. 1833)
22 Nov 1832 - Dec 1843     Abd-el-Kader -Emir of Mascara      (b. 1808 - d. 1883)
                             (Amir al-Mu´minin [also styled Sultan], 
                             in rebellion [to 23 Dec 1847 in exile in Morocco])
29 Apr 1833 - 27 Jul 1834  Théophile, baron Voirol            (b. 1781 - d. 1853)
Governors-general
27 Jul 1834 -  8 Jul 1835  Jean Baptiste,                     (b. 1765 - d. 1844)
                             comte Drouet d'Erlon 
 8 Jul 1835 - 12 Feb 1837  Bertrand, comte Clauzel            (s.a.)
12 Feb 1837 - 13 Oct 1837  Charles-Marie Denys,               (b. 1793 - d. 1837)
                             comte de Damrémont
11 Nov 1837 - Dec 1840     Sylvain Charles, comte Valée       (b. 1773 - d. 1846)
22 Feb 1841 - 27 Sep 1847  Thomas Robert Bugeaud,             (b. 1784 - d. 1849)
                             marquis de la Piconnerie, 
                             (from 1844) duc d'Isly
 1 Sep 1845 -  6 Jul 1847  Louis Juchault de Lamoricière      (b. 1806 - d. 1865)
                             (acting for Bugeaud) 
 6 Jul 1847 - 27 Sep 1847  Marie-Alphonse Bedeau              (b. 1804 - d. 1863)
                             (acting for Bugeaud)
27 Sep 1847 - 24 Feb 1848  Henri Eugène Philippe Louis        (b. 1822 - d. 1897)
                             d'Orléans, duc d'Aumale 
24 Feb 1848 - 29 Apr 1848  Louis Eugène Cavaignac             (b. 1802 - d. 1857)
29 Apr 1848 -  9 Sep 1848  Nicolas Anne Théodule Changarnier  (b. 1793 - d. 1877)
 9 Sep 1848 - 22 Oct 1850  Viala, baron Charon                (b. 1794 - d. 1880)
22 Oct 1850 - 10 May 1851  Alphonse Henri, comte d'Hautpoul   (b. 1789 - d. 1865)
10 May 1851 - 11 Dec 1851  Aimable Jean Jacques Pélissier     (b. 1794 - d. 1864)
                             (1st time)
11 Dec 1851 - 31 Aug 1858  Jacques Louis César Alexandre,     (b. 1795 - d. 1871)
                             comte de Randon
Military commanders
31 Aug 1858 - 24 Apr 1859  Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon       (b. 1808 - d. 1893)
24 Apr 1859 - 17 Aug 1859  Philippe Antoine Gues-Viller       (b. 1791 - d. 1865)
17 Aug 1859 - 24 Nov 1860  Edmond Charles de Martimprey       (b. 1808 - d. 1883)
Governors-general
24 Nov 1860 - 22 May 1864  Aimable Jean Jacques Pélissier,    (s.a.)
                             duc de Malakoff (2nd time)
22 May 1864 -  1 Sep 1864  Edmond Charles de Martimprey       (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 1 Sep 1864 - 27 Jul 1870  Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon       (b. 1808 - d. 1893)
27 Jul 1870 - 23 Oct 1870  Louis, baron Durrieu (acting)      (b. 1812 - d. 1877)
23 Oct 1870 - 16 Nov 1870  Jean Louis Marie Walsin-Esterhazy  (b. 1804 - d. 1871)
                             (acting)
Extraordinary Commissioners (also prefects of Oran)
16 Nov 1870 -  8 Feb 1871  Charles du Bouzet                  (b. 1817 - d. 1883)
c.Nov 1870 - Mar 1871      Benoît François Romuald Vuillermoz (b. 1820 - d. 1877) 
                             (Head of the Committee of Defense
                             and
mayor of Algiers; in opposition)
 8 Feb 1871 - 29 Mar 1871  Alexis Lambert                     (b. 1829 - d. 1877) 
Governors-general
29 Mar 1871 - 10 Jun 1873  Louis Henri, comte de Gueydon      (b. 1809 - d. 1886)
10 Jun 1873 - 15 Mar 1879  Antoine Eugène Alfred Chanzy       (b. 1823 - d. 1883)
15 Mar 1879 - 26 Nov 1881  Albert Grévy (acting)              (b. 1834 - d. 1899)
26 Nov 1881 - 18 Apr 1891  Louis Tirman                       (b. 1837 - d. 1899)
18 Apr 1891 -  1 Oct 1897  Jules Cambon                       (b. 1845 - d. 1935)
 1 Oct 1897 - 26 Jul 1898  Louis Lépine                       (b. 1846 - d. 1933)
26 Jul 1898 -  3 Oct 1900  Édouard Laferrières                (b. 1813 - d. 1901)
 3 Oct 1900 - 18 Jun 1901  Charles Célestin Jonnart (1st time)(b. 1857 - d. 1927) 
                             (acting) 
18 Jun 1901 - 11 Apr 1903  Paul Révoil                        (b. 1856 - d. 1914)
11 Apr 1903 -  5 May 1903  Maurice Varnier (acting)           (b. 1851 - d. 1919)
 5 May 1903 - 22 May 1911  Charles Célestin Jonnart (2nd time)(s.a.)
                             (acting) 
22 May 1911 - 29 Jan 1918  Charles Lutaud                     (b. 1855 - d. 1921)
29 Jan 1918 - 29 Aug 1919  Charles Célestin Jonnart (3rd time)(s.a.)
                             (acting) 
29 Aug 1919 - 28 Jul 1921  Jean Baptiste Eugène Abel          (b. 1863 - d. 1921)
28 Jul 1921 - 17 Apr 1925  Théodore Steeg                     (b. 1868 - d. 1950)
17 Apr 1925 - 12 May 1925  Henri Dubief (acting)              (b. 1856 - d. 1934)
12 May 1925 - 20 Nov 1927  Maurice Viollette                  (b. 1870 - d. 1960)
20 Nov 1927 -  3 Oct 1930  Pierre Louis Bordes                (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
 3 Oct 1930 - 21 Sep 1935  Jules Gaston Henri Carde           (b. 1874 - d. 1949)
21 Sep 1935 - 20 Jul 1940  Georges Le Beau                    (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
20 Jul 1940 - 16 Jul 1941  Jean Charles Abrial                (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
16 Jul 1941 - 20 Nov 1941  Maxime Weygand                     (b. 1867 - d. 1965)
20 Nov 1941 - 20 Jan 1943  Yves Charles Chatel                (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
20 Jan 1943 -  3 Jun 1943  Marcel Peyrouton                   (b. 1887 - d. 1983)
 3 Jun 1943 -  8 Sep 1944  Georges Catroux                    (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
 8 Sep 1944 - 11 Feb 1948  Yves Chataigneau                   (b. 1891 - d. 1961)
11 Feb 1948 -  9 Mar 1951  Marcel Edmond Naegelen             (b. 1892 - d. 1978)
12 Apr 1951 - 26 Jan 1955  Roger Léonard                      (b. 1898 - d. 1987)
26 Jan 1955 -  1 Feb 1956  Jacques Émile Soustelle            (b. 1912 - d. 1990)
Resident ministers
 1 Feb 1956 -  9 Feb 1956  Georges Catroux                    (s.a.)
 9 Feb 1956 - 13 May 1958  Robert Lacoste                     (b. 1898 - d. 1989)
13 May 1958 -  1 Jun 1958  André Mutter                       (b. 1901 - d. 1973)
13 May 1958 - 23 May 1958  Jacques Massu                      (b. 1908 - d. 2002)
                            (president of the Committee of Public 
                             Safety, in rebellion)
23 May 1958 -  7 Jun 1958  Jacques Massu                      (s.a.)
                           + Sid Cara                         (b. 1902 - d. 1999)
                           (presidents of the Central Committee 
                            of Public Safety, in rebellion) 
Delegates-general
 7 Jun 1958 - 12 Dec 1958  Raoul Albin Louis Salan            (b. 1899 - d. 1984)
12 Dec 1958 - 23 Nov 1960  Paul Albert Louis Delouvrier       (b. 1914 - d. 1995)
23 Nov 1960 - 19 Mar 1962  Jean Morin                         (b. 1916 - d. 2008)
21 Apr 1961 - 25 Apr 1961  Directorate (in rebellion)
                           - Maurice Challe                   (b. 1905 - d. 1979)
                           - André Zeller                     (b. 1898 - d. 1979)
                           - Edmond Jouhaud                   (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
                           - Raoul-Albin-Louis Salan          (s.a.)
High commissioner
19 Mar 1962 -  3 Jul 1962  Christian Fouchet                  (b. 1911 - d. 1974)
Chairman of the Provisional Executive
 7 Apr 1962 - 25 Sep 1962  Abderrahmane Farès                 (b. 1911 - d. 1991)  FLN
Chairman of the National Constituent Assembly
25 Sep 1962 - 27 Sep 1962  Ferhat Said Ahmed Abbas            (b. 1899 - d. 1985)  FLN
Presidents
27 Sep 1962 - 19 Jun 1965  Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella            (b. 1918 - d. 2012)  FLN
                            (head of state as prime minister to 17 Sep 1963)
19 Jun 1965 - 27 Dec 1978  Houari Boumedienne                 (b. 1932? - d. 1978) Mil;
                            (Mohamed Ben Brahim Boukharouba)                       1976 FLN
                            (C
hairman Revolutionary Council to 12 Dec 1976)
27 Dec 1978 -  9 Feb 1979  Rabah Bitat (interim)              (b. 1925 - d. 2000)  FLN
 9 Feb 1979 - 11 Jan 1992  Chadli Bendjedid                   (b. 1929 - d. 2012)  FLN
11 Jan 1992 - 14 Jan 1992  Abdelmalek Benhabyles              (b. 1921)            FLN
                            (chairman Constitutional Council)
14 Jan 1992 - 31 Jan 1994  High State Committee
                           - Khaled Nezzar                    (b. 1937)            Mil
                           - Ali Haroun                       (b. 1927)            FLN
                           - Tedjini Haddam                   (b. 1921 - d. 2000)  Non-party
                           - Ali Kafi                         (b. 1928 - d. 2013)  FLN
                              (chairman from 2 Jul 1992) 
                           - Mohamed Boudiaf                  (b. 1919 - d. 1992)  PRS
                              (14 Jan - 29 Jun 1992)(chairman)
                           - Redha Malek (from 2 Jul 1992)    (b. 1931)            Non-party
31 Jan 1994 - 27 Apr 1999  Liamine Zéroual                    (b. 1941)            Non-party;
                             (Head of State to 27 Nov 1995)                        1997 RND
27 Apr 1999 -              Abdelaziz Bouteflika               (b. 1937)            Non-party

Presidents of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic
(in Tunis exile to 3 Jul 1962)
19 Sep 1958 - 27 Aug 1961  Ferhat Said Ahmed Abbas            (s.a.)               FLN 
27 Aug 1961 - 25 Sep 1962  Benyoucef Ben Khedda               (b. 1920 - d. 2003)  FLN 
Prime ministers
27 Sep 1962 - 20 Sep 1963  Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella            (s.a.)               FLN
20 Sep 1962 -  8 Mar 1979  Post abolished
 8 Mar 1979 - 22 Jan 1984  Mohamed Ben Ahmed Abdelghani       (b. 1927 - d. 1996)  FLN 
22 Jan 1984 -  5 Nov 1988  Abdelhamid Brahimi                 (b. 1936)            FLN 
 5 Nov 1988 -  9 Sep 1989  Kasdi Merbah                       (b. 1938 - d. 1993)  FLN 
 9 Sep 1989 -  5 Jun 1991  Mouloud Hamrouche                  (b. 1943)            FLN
 5 Jun 1991 -  8 Jul 1992  Sid Ahmed Ghozali                  (b. 1937)            FLN 
 8 Jul 1992 - 21 Aug 1993  Belaid Abdessalam                  (b. 1928)            FLN 
21 Aug 1993 - 11 Apr 1994  Redha Malek                        (s.a.)               Non-party
11 Apr 1994 - 31 Dec 1995  Mokdad Sifi                        (b. 1940)            Non-party
31 Dec 1995 - 15 Dec 1998  Ahmed Ouyahia (1st time)           (b. 1952)     Non-party;1997 RND
15 Dec 1998 - 23 Dec 1999  Smail Hamdani                      (b. 1930)            Non-party
23 Dec 1999 - 27 Aug 2000  Ahmed Benbitour                    (b. 1946)            Non-party
27 Aug 2000 -  5 May 2003  Ali Benflis                        (b. 1944)            FLN
 5 May 2003 - 24 May 2006  Ahmed Ouyahia (2nd time)           (s.a.)               RND
24 May 2006 - 23 Jun 2008  Abdelaziz Belkhadem                (b. 1945)            FLN 
23 Jun 2008 - 
 3 Sep 2012  Ahmed Ouyahia (3rd time)           (s.a.)               RND
 3 Sep 2012 - 13 Mar 2014  Abdelmalek Sellal (1st time)       (b. 1948
)            Non-party
14 Mar 2014 -
28 Apr 2014  Youcef Yousfi                      (b. 1941)            Non-party
28 Apr 2014 -             
Abdelmalek Sellal (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Non-party

Territorial Disputes: Algeria and many other states reject Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; the Polisario Front, exiled in Algeria, represents the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the National Liberation Front's (FLN) assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco.

Party abbreviations (religious based parties banned Mar 1997): FLN = Front pour la Libération Nationale/Jabhet Al-Tahrir Al-Watani (Front for National Liberation, Algerian nationalist, socialist, 1962-89 only legal party, est.1954); RND = Rassemblement National Démocratie (National Rally for Democracy, liberal, est.1997); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: PRS = Parti de la Révolution Socialiste (Party of Socialist Revolution, socialist, split from FLN, 1962-89 illegal, 1962-1979)


French Sahara
 
[French Flag]

24 Dec 1902                The six Saharan territories were consolidated into 
                             one unit, the Territoires du Sud (Southern 
                             Territories); on 14 Aug 1905 these are organized
                             into four territories: Aïn Sefra, Ghardaia, 
                             Oasis, and Touggourt. 
10 Jan 1957                Four (Saharan) territories joined in a union called 
                             the Common Organization of Sahara Region 
                             (Orgaisation Commune des Régions Sahariennes)
 7 Aug 1957                The four southern territories are divided into
                             two départements (Saoura [Aïn Sefra] and Oasis [Ghardaia,
                             Oasis and Touggourt]).
19 Mar 1962                France agrees to future Algerian sovereignty over the region.
 5 Jul 1962                Part of independent Algeria.

Ministers for the Sahara (in Paris)
13 Jun 1957 - 14 May 1958  Max Lejeune (1st time)             (b. 1909 - d. 1995)
14 May 1958 -  1 Jun 1958  Édouard Corniglion-Molinier        (b. 1899 - d. 1960)
 3 Jun 1958 -  8 Jan 1959  Max Lejeune (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 5 Feb 1960 - 24 Aug 1961  Robert Lecourt                     (b. 1908 - d. 2004)
24 Aug 1961 - 15 Apr 1962  Louis Jacquinot                    (b. 1898 - d. 1993)



Bone (Bona)

1535 - 1541                Bone occupied by Spain.
1636 - 1641                Bone occupied by Spain.
1641                       Bone a possession of Genoa.
1710                       Annexed by Algiers. 
27 Mar 1832                Conquered by France and incorporated into Algerian named Bône
                             (from 1962, named Annaba).

Governor (Alcaídes)
1535 - 16 Oct 1540         Alvar Gómez de Orozco Said el Zagal (d. 1540)
1540 - 1541                Luis Pérez de Vargas                (b. c.1493 - d. 1550)
1636 - 1641                ....
Genoese Governors
1641 - 1710                ....



Bougie

31 Jan 1510 - 1555         Bougie (Bugia) occupied by Spain.
29 Sep 1833                Conquered by France and incorporated into Algeria
                             (from 1962, named Béjaïa).

Commanders
Jan 1510                   Pedro Navarro, conde de Oliveto     (b. c.1460 - d. 1528)
25 Feb 1510 - 1510         Fadrique de Toledo, duque de Alba   (b. c.1460 - d. 1531)
1510 - 151.                Diego de Vera
                            (captain-general for Tripoli and Bujía)
1510 - Oct 1512            Juan de Bobadilla
                           + Juan de Tejeda
Oct 1512 - 1513            Gonzalo Mariño de Ribera
1513 - 1518                Ramón Carroz Pardo de la Casta
1518 - 1537                Perafán de Ribera
1537 - 1555                Luis de Peralta                     (d. 1555)
1555                       Alonso Carrillo de Peralta          (d. 1556)


Honaine (Oney)

1531 - 1534                Honaine (Oney) harbor near Tlemcen occupied by Spain.

Alcaíde
24 Aug 1531 - 1534         Álvaro de Bazán                     (b. 1526 - d. 1588)
Lieutenant of the Alcaíde
1531 - 1534                Iñigo de Vallejo Pacheco  
                             (acting for Bazán)



Oran
 
[Spanish War
                        Ensign (1785-1931)]
       to 1708; 1732 - 1792 
[Ottoman flag
                        1783 - 1808, 1826-67]
    1708 - 1732; 1792 - 1831

19 May 1509                Oran and Mazalquivir (Mers el-Kebir) Spanish possessions.
21 Jan 1708                Occupied by Algiers, part of the Ottoman Empire.
16 Jul 1732                Spanish rule restored.
27 Fep 1792                Spanish abandon Oran (Mazalquivir abandoned 29 Feb 1792).
 6 Mar 1792                Re-incorporated into the Ottoman Empire.

 4 Jan 1831                Conquered by France and incorporated into Algeria.

Commanders
23 May 1509 - Aug 1509     Pedro Navarro, conde de Oliveto    (b. c.1460 - d. 1528)
 4 Sep 1509 - Jan 1510     Rui Díaz Álvarez de Rojas
Governors and Captains-general
Jan 1510 - Dec 1512        Diego Fernández de Córdoba y       (b. 1463 - d. 1518)
                             Arellano (1st time)
Jan 1513 - 1517            Martín de Argotte
Sep 1517 - Mar 1522        Diego Fernández de Córdoba y       (s.a.)
                             Arellano, marqués de Comares
                             (2nd time)
Mar 1522 - Sep 1523        Luis Fernández de Córdoba,         (b. c.1482 - d. 1564) 
                             marqués de Comares (1st time)
15 Sep 1523 - 21 May 1525  Luis de Cárdenas
22 May 1525 - Feb 1531     Luis Fernández de Córdoba,         (s.a.) 
                             marqués de Comares (2nd time)
Feb 1531 -  1 Jun 1534     Pedro de Godoy
 4 Jun 1534 -  4 Dec 1545  Martín Alonso Fernández de         (d. 1558) 
                             Córdoba Montemayor y Velasco, 
                             conde de Alcaudete (1st time)
 4 Dec 1545 -  7 Jul 1546  Alonso Fernández de Córdoba        (b. 1512 - d. 1565)
                             y Velasco, conde de Alcaudete
                             (1st time)
 7 Jul 1546 - 26 Aug 1558  Martín Alonso Fernández de         (s.a.) 
                             Córdoba Montemayor y Velasco, 
                             conde de Alcaudete (2nd time)
21 Dec 1558 - 12 Jun 1564  Alonso Fernández de Córdoba        (s.a.)
                             y Velasco, conde de Alcaudete
                             (2nd time)
17 Jul 1564 - Nov 1565     Andrés Ponce de León (interim)
20 Nov 1565 -  9 Jul 1567  Hernán Tello de Guzmán
 9 Jul 1567 -  3 Nov 1571  Pedro Luis Garcerán de Borja,      (b. 1528 - d. 1592) 
                             marqués de Navarrés
 3 Nov 1571 - 12 Mar 1573  Felipe de Borja
13 Mar 1573 -  4 Feb 1574  Diego Fernández de Córdoba, 
                             conde de Comares (1st time)
 5 Feb 1574 -  8 Dec 1575  Luis de Bocanegra
 8 Dec 1575 - 21 Jul 1580  José Martín de Córdoba y Velasco,  (d. 1604) 
                             marqués de Cortes (1st time)
25 Jul 1580 - 23 Apr 1581  Pedro de Padilla (1st time)        (d. 1599)
                             (interim)                
23 Apr 1584 - 25 Aug 1585  José Martín de Córdoba y Velasco,  (s.a.) 
                             marqués de Cortes (2nd time)
25 Aug 1585 - 14 Nov 1589  Pedro de Padilla (2nd time)        (s.a.)
14 Nov 1589 - 17 Aug 1594  Diego Fernández de Córdoba, 
                             conde de Comares (2nd time)
17 Aug 1594 - 20 May 1596  Gabriel Niño de Zúñiga
20 May 1596 -  5 Dec 1604  Francisco Fernández de Córdoba     (b. 1562 - d. 1632)
                             y Velasco, conde de Alcaudete
 6 Dec 1604 -  4 Jul 1607  Juan Ramírez de Guzmán y Toeldo, 
                             conde de Teba y marqués de
                             Ardales
 4 Jul 1607 - 10 Aug 1608  Diego de Toledo y Guzmán
11 Aug 1608 - 25 Oct 1616  Felipe Ramírez de Arellano,        (d. 1620)
                             conde de Aguilar de Inestrillas
25 Oct 1616 -  8 Apr 1622  Jorge de Cárdenas Manrique,        (b. 1584 - d. 1644) 
                             duque de Maqueda y Nájera
                             (1st time)
 9 Apr 1622 -  9 May 1624  Juan Manrique de Cárdenas   
10 May 1624 - 11 Oct 1625  Jorge de Cárdenas Manrique,        (s.a.) 
                             duque de Maqueda y Nájera
                             (2nd time)
11 Oct 1625 -  6 Apr 1628  Antonio Sancho Dávila y Toledo,    (b. 1590 - d. 1666)
                             marqués de Velada y de San Román
 7 Apr 1628 -  6 Feb 1632  Francisco González de Andía y      (b. 1575 - d. 1659) 
                             Irarrazábal y Zárate, visconde 
                             de Santa Clara de Avedillo
 6 Feb 1632 - 16 Jun 1639  Antonio de Zúñiga y de la Cueva,   (d. 1652)
                             marqués de Flores-Dávila 
                             (1st time)
16 Jun 1639 -  2 Dec 1643  Álvaro de Bazán Manrique de Lara   (b. 1571 - d. 1646) 
                             y Benavides, marqués de Santa
                             Cruz de Mudela y de Viso
 2 Dec 1643 - 28 Nov 1647  Rodrigo Pimentel Ponce de León,    (b. c.1597 - d. 16..)
                             marqués de Viana del Bollo
28 Nov 1647 - 31 Jan 1652  Antonio de Zúñiga y de la Cueva,   (s.a.)
                             marqués de Flores-Dávila 
                             (2nd time)
31 Jan 1652 -  4 Oct 1653  Government Junta
 4 Oct 1653 - 30 Jun 1660  Antonio Gómez Dávila Toledo        (b. c.1615 - d. 1689) 
                             y Osorio, marqués de San Román
30 Jun 1660 - 22 May 1666  Gaspar Felipe de Guzmán,      
                             duque de Sanlúcar, marqués de
                             Leganés
22 May 1666 -  4 May 1672  Fernando Joaquín Fajardo de        (b. 1635 - d. 1693)    
                             Requeséns y Zúñiga, marqués
                             de los Vélez
 4 May 1672 - 19 May 1675  Diego de Portugal
19 May 1675 - 11 Jun 1678  Iñigo de Toledo y Osorio
11 Jun 1678 -  9 Mar 1681  Pedro Andrés Ramírez de Guzmán,    (d. 1681) 
                             marqués de Algava y Hardales,
                             conde de Teba y de Buendía
 9 Mar 1681 - 12 Apr 1681  Doña Mariana de Velasco, viuda del
                             marqués de la Algava (f)(acting)
12 Apr 1681 - 18 Sep 1682  Gaspar Portocarrero,               (d. 1693) 
                             conde de la Monclova
18 Sep 1682 -  2 Sep 1683  Pedro Félix José de Silva y        (d. 1697) 
                             Meneses, conde de Cifuentes,
                             marques de Arconchel
 2 Sep 1683 - 18 Mar 1685  Juan de Villalpando, marqués       (b. 1623 - d. 1685) 
                             de Osera y Castañeda
18 Mar 1685 -  2 May 1685  Doña María Leonor de Monroy y
                             Aragón (f)(acting)
 2 May 1685 -  5 Feb 1687  Antonio de Paniagua de Loysa y     (b. c.1640 - d. 1687) 
                             Zúñiga, marqués de Santa Cruz
                             de Paniagua
 6 Feb 1687 -  4 Apr 1687  Doña Beatriz María Antonia de
                             Escobar y Ovando, viuda del 
                             marqués de Santa Cruz (f)(acting)
 4 Apr 1687 -  9 Jul 1687  Frey Diego de Bracamonte
 9 Jul 1687 - 14 Jul 1687  Junta
                           - Miguel de Zufre
                           - Diego Merino
                           - Francisco Ramírez de Arellano
14 Jul 1687 - 19 Sep 1687  Pedro Manuel de Colón de Portugal, (b. 1651 - d. 1710)
                             duque de Veraguas (interim)
19 Sep 1687 - 10 Feb 1691  Félix Nieto da Silva, conde        (b. 1635 - d. 1691)
                             de Guaro
10 Feb 1691 - 27 Jul 1691  Lorenzo de Ripalda (1st time)
                             (interim)
27 Jul 1691 - 22 Jun 1692  Juan Luis de Orliens, conde de     (b. 1638 - d. 1692)
                             Charny
22 Jun 1692 - 24 Sep 1692  Lorenzo de Ripalda (2nd time)
                             (interim)
25 Sep 1692 - 14 Jul 1697  Andrés Cópula, duque de Canzano,   (b. 1638 - d. 1697)
                             marqués de Robledo 
14 Jul 1697 - 31 May 1701  Arias Gonzalo Dávila y Pacheco, 
                             marqués de Casasola
31 May 1701 - 24 Oct 1704  Juan Francisco Manrique de Arana   (b. 1655 - d. 17..) 
                             y de Iraola
24 Oct 1704 -  7 Sep 1707  Frey Carlos Carrafa
 7 Sep 1707 - 21 Jan 1708  Melchor de Avellaneda Sandoval
                             y Rojas, marqués de Valdecañas
1708 - 1732                Shabah Bey -Ottoman [Wali] governor
16 Jul 1732 - 21 Nov 1732  Álvaro de Navia Osorio y Vigil,    (b. 1684 - d. 1732)
                             marqués de Santa Cruz de
                             Marcenado
1732 - 1733                Bartolomé Ladrón de Guevara (interim)
May 1733 - 16 Jul 1733     Antonio Arias del Castillo         (b. 1686 - d. 1740)
                             y Veintimiglia, marqués de
                             Villadarias
1733 - 1738                José Vallejo
1738 - 1742                José Basilio de Aramburu           (b. 1683 - d. 1752)
1742 - 1748                Alejandro de la Mothe              (d. 1748)
Feb 1749 - Feb 1752        Pedro de Algaín, marqués
                             de la Real Corona
Feb 1752 - 25 Mar 1758     Juan Antonio de Escoiquiz,         (d. 1758)
                            
mariscal de Campo
 4 May 1758 - 1765         Juan Martín Zermeño

 2 Jun 1765 - 29 Jul 1767  Cristóbal de Córdoba
1767                       Cant Prevost (interim)
 8 Sep 1767 - 17 Sep 1770  Victorio Alcondolo Bolognino       (b. 1740 - d. 1782)
                             Visconti, conde de Bolognino

17 Sep 1770 - 12 May 1774  Eugenio Fernández de Alvarado y    (b. 1715 - d. 1780)  
                             Perales Hurtado y Colomo,
                             marqués de los Tabalosos
12 May 1774 - Nov 1774    
Narciso Vázquez Nicuesa (interim)
17 Sep 1774 -  3 Aug 1776  Pedro Martín Zermeño (interim)
13 Sep 1776 - 28 Feb 1779  Luis Antonio de Carvajal (interim) (d. 1779)
1779                       José Pérez Brito (interim)
18 Jun 1779 - 27 Sep 1784  Pedro Guelfi, mariscal de Campo
28 Sep 1784 -  9 Apr 1788  Luis de las Casas y Aragón
 9 Apr 1788 - 28 Sep 1788  Juan Gil (interim)
28 Sep 1788 - Mar 1789     Dionisio del Duque (interim)
Mar 1789 - 29 May 1790     Manuel Pineda de La Torre y Solís,
                             marqués de Campo Santo
May 1790 -  9 Oct 1790     Basilio Gascón (interim)           (d. 1790)
 9 Oct 1790 - 15 Oct 1790  Joaquín Mayone y Ferrari,          (b. 1738 - d. ....)
                             conde de Cumbre-Hermosa
15 Oct 1790 - 27 Feb 1792  Juan Antonio de Curtén (interim)   (b. 1730 - d. 1796)
Walis (governors)
1792 - 1798/99             Mehmed Bey al-Kabir
1798/99 - 1802             Osman Bey
1802 - 1805                Mustafa Bey al-Manzalah (1st time)
1805? - 1807               Mehmed Bey Makkalas                (d. 1807)
1807                       Mustafa Bey al-Manzalah (2nd time)
1807 - 1812                Mehmed al-Reqid
1812 - 1817                Ali Kora Bargli                    (d. 1817)
1827 - 1831                Hassan Bey


Peñón de Algiers

1510 - 29 May 1529         Spanish occupation of Peñón de Algiers (El Peñón de Argel)
                             island in Algiers harbor.
1534 - Oct 1541            Spanish occupation.

Captains and Alcaide

1510 - 1514                .... [unknown]
16 May 1514 - Mar 1515     Diego Pérez de Vargas
Mar 1515 - Oct 1516?       Mosén Quint
                            (= Nicolao Quint or Nicolau de Quint)
c.1521                     Hernando de Vargas           
15.. - 29 May 1529         Martín de Vargas                   (d. 1529)
29 May 1529 - 1534         Ottoman rule
1534 - Oct 1541            ....              



Constantine (Qusantina)

[Ottoman flag 1783 - 1808,
                1826-67]
             1525 - 1837

1525                       Part of Ottoman Empire (Qusantina).
1567                       Beylik of Qusantina, subject to Algiers.
1826                       Local Kabyle population declares independence.
13 Oct 1837                Conquered by France.
15 Dec 1837                Last bey is deposed by France.
1848                       Incorporated into Algeria.

Beys
1567 - 1574                Ramdane Tchulak Bey 
1574 - 1588                Djaâfer Bey 
1588 - 1608                Mohammed ben Ferhat Bey
1608 - 1622                Hassan Bey 
1622 - 1647                Mourad Bey 
1647 - 1652                Ferhat Bey 
1652 - 1666                Mohamed ben Ferhat Bey 
1666 - 1673                Redjeb ben Ferhat Bey 
1673 - 1676                Kheïr ed-din Bey 
1676 - 1679                Abdul-Rahman Dali Bey 
1679 - 1687                Omar ben Abd-el Ramdan 
1687 - 1692                Châban Bey 
1692 - 1700                Ali Khodja (Hoça) Bey              (d. 1700) 
1700 - 1702                Ahmed Bey ben Ferhat
1702 - 1707                Brahem Bey
1708                       Ali Bey ben Hamouda
1708 - 1709                Hussein Chaouch 
1709                       Abd-el Rahman Bey ben Ferhat
1710                       Hosseïn Denguezli Bey
1710 - 1713                Ali Bey ben Salah
1713 - 1746                Kelian Hussein Bey Bou Komia
1746 - 1754                Hussein bey Bousnek                (d. 1754)
1753 - 1756                Hosseïn Bey Zereg-Aïnou 
1756 - 1771                Ahmed Bey el-Kolli 
1771 - 1792                Salah Bey ben Mostefa              (b. 1725 - d. 1792)
1792                       Brahem Bey Bou Sebâ 
1792 - 1795                Hussein Bey ben Bousnek            (d. 1795)
Feb 1795 - Jan 1798        Moustapha Bey ben Sliman           (d. 1798)
                             el-Ouznadji
Jan 1798 - 1803            Hadj Mostefa Ingliz Bey 
1803 - 1804                Osman Bey ben Koulougli            (d. 1804)
1804 - 1806                Abdallah Khodja Bey ben Smaïl      (d. 1806) 
1806 - 1807                Hussein Bey ben Salah Bey 
Aug 1807 - 1808            Ali Bey ben Youssef
1808                       Ahmed Bey Rouhou                   (d. 1808)
1808 - 1811                Ahmed Bey Tobbal                   (d. 1811)
1811 - 1814                Mohamed Nàman Bey                  (d. 1814) 
1814 - 1818                Mohamed Chakar Bey                 (d. 1818)
1818 (33 days)             Kara Mostefa Bey                   (d. 1818) 
1818 (1 month)             Ahmed Bey Ben Abdullah el-Memlouk  (d. 1822?)
                             (1st time)
1818                       Brahem Critli Bey                  (d. 1818)
1818 - 1819                M'Hamed Ben Daoud el-Mili Bey 

1819 - Aug 1820            Brahem Khodja el-Gherbi            (d. 1820) 
Oct 1820 - 1822            Ahmed Bey Ben Abdullah el-Memlouk  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1822 - 1824                Ibrahim Bey                        (d. 1832)
1824 - 1826                Mohammed Bey Malamli 
1826 - 15 Dec 1837         Ahmed Bey ben Mohammed Chérif      (b. c.1784 - d. 1850)
                             (in opposition to 10 Sep 1842)



Kel Ahaggar

c.1750                     Kel Ahaggar Tuareg confederation established.
1903                       Under French suzerainty.
1962                       Confederation not recognized by independent Algeria.
1977                       Confederation terminated by Algeria.

Rulers (title Amenokal)
af.1655 - bf.1700          Salah
c.1700 - c.1730            Muhammad al-Khir ag Salah
c.1730 - c.1750            Sidi ag Muhammad al-Khir
c.1750 - 1790              Yunus ag Sidi
1790 - 1830                Ag Mama ag Sidi
1830 - 1877                al-Hajj Ahmad
1877 - 1900                Aytarel ag Muhammad Biskra         (d. 1900)
1900 - 1905                Attici ag Amellal
1905 - 27 Dec 1920         Musa ag Amastan                    (b. 1867 - d. 1920)
1920 - 26 Mar 1941         Akhamuk ag Ihemma                  (b. 1874 - d. 1941)
1941 - 1950                Meslar ag Amayas                   (d. 1950)
1950 - 1975                Bayy ag Akhamuk                    (d. 1975)
1975 - 2005                al-Hajj Musa ag Akhamuk
2006 -                     Edaber Ahmad ag Muhammad



Tuggurt

1414                       Sultanate of Tuggurt founded in southern Algeria.
1854                       Abolished by French colonial authority.

Sultans
.... - ....                `Ali II 
.... - ....                Mabruk (Mubarak) 
.... - ....                `Ali III 
.... - ....                Mustafa 
.... - ....                Sulayman III 
1729                       Ahmad III 
.... - ....                Muhammad I al-`Akhal 
.... - ....                Ahmad IV 
.... - ....                Farhat 
.... - ....                Ibrahim
.... - ....                `Abd al-Qadir I (1st time)
                           + Ahmad V
.... - ....                Khalid
.... - ....                `Abd al-Qadir I (2nd time)
175. - 1759                `Umar I bin Bu-Kumetin
1759 - 1765                Muhammad II
1765 - 1766                `Umar II bin Muhammad 
1766 - 1778                Ahmad VI 
1778 - 1782                `Abd al-Qadir II
1782 - 17..                Farhat II 
1792                       Ibrahim II 
1804                       al-Khazan
1804                       Muhammad III
1822                       `Amar (`Amir) II 
1830                       Ibrahim III 
1831                       `Ali IV bin al-Kabir 
1833                       `Aisha (Aichouch)(f)
1840                       `Abd ar-Rahman 
1852                       `Abd al-Qadir III 
1852 - 1854                 Sulayman IV 


 



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