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Togo
 
[German
                                    Empire 1870-1919 (Germany)]
  5 Jul 1884 - 27 Aug 1914
 
[Flag of
                                    France]
27 Aug 1914 - 1956 (joint flag to 20 Jul 1922)
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
26 Aug 1914 - 20 Jul 1922 Joint Flag
 
[French Togo flag, 1956-1958]
30 Aug 1956 - 1958
[Togo
                                    flag, 1958-1960]
1958 - 27 Apr 1960
[Togo
                                    flag]
Adopted 27 Apr 1960
 
Map of Togo
Hear National Anthem
"Salut à toi, pays de nos aïeux"
(Hail to thee, land of our
forefathers)
Adopted 1960-1979, Apr 1991
Former National Anthem
(Nov 1979 - Apr 1991)
Constitution
(14 Oct 1992; in French)
Capital: Lomé
(Aného 1886-1897;
Bagida 1884-1886)
Currency: Communauté
Financière Africaine
Franc (XOF)
National Holiday: 27 Apr (1960)
Fête de l'indépendance au Togo
(Independence Day)
Population: 8,608,444 (2019)
760,000 (1937)
GDP: $12.97 billion (2017)
Exports: $1.05 billion (2017)
Imports: $1.99 billion (2017) 
Ethnic groups: Adja-Ewe/Mina 42.4%, Kabye/Tem 25.9%,
 Para-Gourma/Akan 17.1%, Akposso/Akebu 4.1%, Ana-Ife
 3.2%, other Togolese 1.7%, foreigners 5.2%, no response
0.4% (2013/14)
Total Active Armed Forces: 8,550 (2010)
Merchant marine: 405 ships (2019)
Religions: Christian 43.7%, folk 35.6%, Muslim 14%, Hindu 0.1%,
Buddhist 0.1%, other 0.3%, none 6.2% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, ACP, AfCFTA, AfDB, AIIB (applicant), APM, AU, BCEAO, BTWC, C, CCM, CEN-SAD, CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS, EITI, ESCR, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OIF, OPCW, OST, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Togo Index
Chronology

 5 Jul 1884                Togoland a German protectorate (Schutzgebiet Togo)
                             (subordinated to Kamerun to 1891).

12 Aug 1914                British and French occupy Lomé.
26 Aug 1914                British and French occupation of the German 

                             protectorate of Togoland (Anglo-French
                             condominium).
27 Aug 1914                German administration surrenders.
27 Dec 1916                Partitioned into French and British zones
                             (Occupied Territories of Former Togo).
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandates, British and French
                             Togolands (Territory of Togo under the mandate
                             of France).
 1 Jan 1935 - 1937         French Togo administratively combined with Dahomey
                             (see Benin).

16 Jun 1940 - 23 Nov 1942  French Togo administration loyal to Vichy France 
                             (from 23 Nov 1942 [under Darlan to 24 Dec 1942],
                             Free French).
Jul 1942                   Territory of Togo
13 Dec 1946 - 27 Apr 1960  United Nations trust territories - French Togo
                             Associated Territory (and British Togoland to
                            
6 Mar 1957).
30 Aug 1956                Autonomous Republic of Togo (République Autonome du
                            
Togo)
, granted autonomy.
27 Feb 1958                Republic of Togo (République du Togo).
27 Apr 1960                Independence from France.
27 Apr 1960                Togolese Republic
(République Togolaise)(polity
                             style formalized by the 17 Apr 1961 Constitution).

Togo
(since 1960)
Traditional
states
German Togoland
(1884-1914)
British Togoland
(1916-1956)
French Togo
(1914-1960)
Historical Maps
of Togo
 
 
 
 

German Togoland
 
Map of German Togoland
Capital: Lome
(Sebbe [Zébé] 1886-1897;
Bagida 1884-1886)
Population: 1,000,000 (1912)
(400 Europeans)

Kaiserlicher Kommissare für Togo
 5
Jul 1884 - Mar 1885     Julius Freiherr von Soden         (b. 1846 - d. 1921)   
                             (oberkommissar der deutschen Kolonie Togo)
 6 Jul 1884 - 26 Jun 1885  Heinrich Randad                   (b. 1855 - d. 1938) 

                             (provisional consul to 5 Sep 1884 then Kaiserlichen Konsul)
26 Jun 1885 - May 1887     Ernst Falkenthal                  (b. 1858 - d. 1911)
Jul 1887 - 17 Oct 1888     Jesko Albert Eugen von Puttkamer  (b. 1855 - d. 1917)
                             (1st time) (acting)
17 Oct 1888 - 14 Apr 1891  Eugen von Zimmerer                (b. 1843 - d. 1918)
14 Apr 1891 -  4 Jun 1892  Markus Graf von Pfeil und Klein-  (b. 1860 - d. 1920)
                             Ellguth (acting)

 4 Jun 1892 - 17 Nov 1893  Jesko Albert Eugen von Puttkamer  (s.a.)
                              (2nd time)
Landeshauptleute
17 Nov 1893 - 13 Aug 1895  Jesko Albert Eugen von Puttkamer  (s.a.)
18 Nov 1895 - 18 Apr 1898  August Walter Köhler              (b. 1858 - d. 1902)
Governors
18 Apr 1898 - 20 Jan 1902  August Walter Köhler              (s.a.)
20 Jan 1902 - 27 Jul 1905  Waldemar Horn                     (b. 1864 - d. 1945)
                             (acting to 1 Dec 1902)
27 Jul 1905 -  7 Nov 1910  Johann Nepomuk Felix Julius Graf  (b. 1868 - d. 1914)
                             von Zech auf Neuhofen

 7 Nov 1910 - 19 Jun 1912  Edmund Brückner                   (b. 1871 - d. 1935)
                             (acting to 31 Mar 1911)
22 Jul 1912 - 27 Aug 1914  Adolf Friedrich Albrecht Heinrich,(b. 1873 - d. 1969)
                             Herzog zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin 
                             (on leave from May 1914)
May 1914 - 27 Aug 1914     Hans-Georg Wilhelm von Doering    (b. 1866 - d. 1921)
                             (acting for Herzog zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin)
French Military Administrator

26 Aug 1914 -  4 Sep 1916  Gaston Léopold Joseph Fourn       (b. 1868 - d. 1952)


British Togoland: see under Ghana


Togo

 1 Jan 1935 - 1937         Administratively combined with Dahomey (see Benin).
30 Aug 1956                Autonomous Republic of Togo.
 5 Mar 1958                Republic of Togo
27 Apr 1960                Togolese Republic

Commissioners  (administrators-superior 1 Jan 1935-1937)
 4 Sep 1916 - 27 Apr 1917  Gaston Léopold Joseph Fourn        (b. 1868 - d. 1952)
27 Apr 1917 - 31 Jan 1922  Alfred Louis Woelffel              (b. 1873 - d. 1929)
30 Nov 1920 - 1921         Pierre Benjamin Victor Sasias      (b. 1867 - d. 19..)
                             (1st time)(acting for Woelffel)
26 Jan 1922 - 31 Jan 1922 
Pierre Benjamin Victor Sasias      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting for Woelffel)
31 Jan 1922 - 27 Dec 1931  Paul Auguste François Bonnecarrère (b. 1875 - d. 1966)

                             (acting to 22 Dec 1922)
27 Dec 1931 - 18 Oct 1933  Robert Paul Marie de Guise         (b. 1872 - d. 1940)
18 Oct 1933 -  7 May 1934  Léon Charles Adolphe Pêtre         (b. 1881 - d. 1956)
                             (acting)
 7 May 1934 -  1 Jan 1935  Maurice Léon Bourgine              (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
 1 Jan 1935 - 25 Sep 1936  Léon Geismar                       (b. 1895 - d. 1944) 
25 Sep 1936 -  1 Jan 1941  Michel Lucien Montagné             (b. 1886 - d. 1942)
 1 Jan 1941 - 19 Nov 1941  Léonce Joseph Delpech              (b. 1886 - d. 1954) 
                             (acting to 28 Aug 1941)
19 Nov 1941 - 12 Apr 1942  Jean-François de Saint-Alary       (b. 1888 - d. 1970)
12 Apr 1942 - 31 Aug 1943  Pierre Jean André Saliceti         (b. 1893 - d. 1946)
31 Aug 1943 - 10 Jan 1944  Albert Mercadier (acting)          (b. 1897 - d. 1979)
10 Jan 1944 -  8 Mar 1948  Jean Noutary                       (b. 1896 - d. 1962) 
                             (acting to 4 Nov 1944)
 8 Mar 1948 - 20 Sep 1951  Jean Marie Arsène Cédile           (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
20 Sep 1951 - 25 Apr 1952  Yves Jean Digo                     (b. 1897 - d. 1974)
25 Apr 1952 -  3 Feb 1955  Laurent Elysée Péchoux             (b. 1904 - d. 2000)
 3 Feb 1955 - 21 Sep 1956  Jean Louis Philippe Bérard         (b. 1910 - d. 1999) 
                             (acting to 6 Aug 1955)
High commissioners
21 Sep 1956 - 23 Mar 1957  Jean Louis Philippe Bérard         (s.a.)
23 Mar 1957 - 22 Jun 1957  Joseph Édouard Georges Marie Rigal (b. 1908 - d. 1980)
                             (acting)
23 Jun 1957 - 27 Apr 1960  Georges Léon Spénale               (b. 1913 - d. 1983)
Presidents 
27 Apr 1960 - 13 Jan 1963  Sylvanus Épiphanio Olympio         (b. 1902 - d. 1963)  CUT
                             (Prime minister, Head of State to 25 Apr 1961)
13 Jan 1963 - 15 Jan 1963  Emmanuel Bodjollé                  (b. 1928)            Mil
                             (chairman of Military Insurrection Committee)
15 Jan 1963 - 13 Jan 1967  Nicolas Ador Grunitzky             (b. 1913 - d. 1969)  PTP
                             (president of provisional government to 10 May 1963)
14 Jan 1967 - 14 Apr 1967  Kléber Dadjo                       (b. 1914 - d. 1979)  Mil
                             (chairman of National Reconciliation Committee) 
14 Apr 1967 -  5 Feb 2005  Étienne Gnassingbé Eyadéma         (b. 1937 - d. 2005)Mil;1969 RPT
                             (from 8 May 1974, Gnassingbé Eyadéma)
 6 Feb 2005 - 25 Feb 2005  Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé         (b. 1966)            RPT
                             (1st time)(acting from 21 Feb 2005)
25 Feb 2005 -  4 May 2005  Abass Bonfoh (acting)              (b. 1948 - d. 2021)  RPT 
 4 May 2005 -              Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé         (s.a.)             RPT;2012 UNIR
                             (2nd time)

Prime ministers
10 Sep 1956 - 16 May 1958  Nicolas Ador Grunitzky             (s.a.)               PTP
16 May 1958 - 25 Apr 1961  Sylvanus Épiphanio Olympio         (s.a.)               CUT
25 Apr 1961 - 27 Aug 1991  Post abolished
27 Aug 1991 - 23 Apr 1994  Joseph Kokou Koffigoh              (b. 1948)            CFN
23 Apr 1994 - 20 Aug 1996  Édouard "Edem" Kodjovi Kodjo       (b. 1938 - d. 2020)  UTD
                             (1st time)
20 Aug 1996 - 21 May 1999  Kwassi Klutse                      (b. 1945)            RPT
21 May 1999 - 31 Aug 2000  Koffi Eugene Adoboli               (b. 1934)            RPT
31 Aug 2000 - 29 Jun 2002  Agbéyomé Messan Kodjo              (b. 1954)            RPT
29 Jun 2002 -  9 Jun 2005  Koffi Sama                         (b. 1944)            RPT
 9 Jun 2005 - 20 Sep 2006  Édouard "Edem" Kodjovi Kodjo       (s.a.)               CPP
                             (2nd time)
20 Sep 2006 -  6 Dec 2007  Yawovi Madji Agboyibo              (b. 1943 - d. 2020)  CAR
 6 Dec 2007 -  8 Sep 2008  Komlan Mally                       (b. 1960)            RPT
 8 Sep 2008 - 23 Jul 2012  Gilbert Fossoun Houngbo            (b. 1961)            Non-party
23 Jul 2012 - 10 Jun 2015  Kwesi Ahoomey-Zunu                 (b. 1958)          CPP;2013 UNIR
10 Jun 2015 -
28 Sep 2020  Komi Sélom Klassou                 (b. 1960)            UNIR
28 Sep 2020 -              Victoire Tomegah Dogbé (f)         (b. 1959)            UNIR

Territorial Disputes: In 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River

Party abbreviations: CAR = Comité d'Action pour la Renouveau (Action Committee for Renewal, est.1991); CFN = Coordination des Forces Nouvelles (Coordination of New Forces, pro-democratic coalition, est.1993); CPP = Convergence Patriotique Panafricaine (Patriotic Pan-African Convergence, center-left, est.1999); UFC = l'Union des Forces de Changement (Union of Forces for Change, democratic, anti-Gnassingbe, est.1992); UNIR = Union pour la République (Union for the Republic, replaced RPT, est.2012); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: CUT = Comité de l'Unité Togolaise (Committee of Togolese Unity, pro-independence, nationalist, 1962-1963 only legal party, 1941-1963, renamed PUT); PTP = Parti Togolais du Progrès (Togolese Progress Party, 1946-1967); RPT = Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais (Rally of the Togolose People, African nationalist, authoritarian, 1969-19 Apr 1991 only legal party, 1969-2012, then UNIR); UTD = Union Togolaise pour la Démocratie (Togolese Union for Democracy, pro-democracy, merged into CPP); PUT = Parti de l'Unité Togolaise (Party of Togolese Unity, former CUT, 1967-1969 only legal party, 1963-1969, renamed RPT)







© Ben Cahoon