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Papua New Guinea
 
[Australian
                                    flag]
31 Oct 1945 - 12 Mar 1971
 
[Territory of Papua and New
                                    Guinea Customs Service ensign
                                    1949-1951 (Papua New Guinea)]
1 Jul 1949 - 31 Dec 1951 Customs Service Flag
 
[Territory of Papua and New
                                    Guinea Customs Service ensign
                                    1952-1971 (Papua New Guinea)]
1 Jan 1952 - 12 Mar 1971 Customs Service Flag
[Papua
                                    and New Guinea unofficial flag
                                    1962-1971 (Papua New Guinea)]
Nov 1962 - 12 Mar 1971 Unofficial Local Flag
 
[Papua
                                    and New Guinea proposed flag
                                    1970-1971 (Papua New Guinea)]
17 Nov 1970 - 12 Mar 1971 Proposal
[Papua New
                                    Guinea]
Adopted 12 Mar 1971
Map of Papua New Guinea
Hear National Anthem
"O Arise All You Sons"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 16 Sep 1975
Constitution
(16 Sep 1975)
Capital: Port Moresby
Currency: Kina (PGK);
1906-1975 Australian Dollar
(AUD); 1942-1944 Oceania
Gumpyo Pound (XOGP)
National Holiday: 16 Sep (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 7,027,332 (2018)
GDP: $30.19 billion (2017)
Exports: $8.52 billion (2017)
Imports: $1.87 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: New Guinea Papuan 84%, New Guinea
Melanesian 15%, Negrito, Micronesian,
Polynesian, other 1% (1983) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 3,100 (2010)
Total Police Force: 5,311 (2012)

Merchant marine: 173 ships (2018)
Religions: Protestant 64.3% (Evangelical Lutheran 18.4%,
Seventh Day Adventist 12.9%, Pentecostal 10.4%, United
Church 10.3%, Evangelical Alliance 5.9%, Anglican 3.2%,
Baptist 2.8%, Salvation Army .4%), Roman Catholic 26%, other
 Christian 5.3%, non-Christian 1.4%, unspecified 3.1% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ADB, AIIB (applicant), ANT, AOSIS, APA (observer), APEC, APM, ARF, ASEAN (special observer), BTWC, C, CD, CP, CTBT (signatory), CWC, EITI, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU (suspended), IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, MSG, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, OST, PC, PIF, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Papua New
Guinea Index
Chronology

20 Jun 1545                Spanish sailors sight New Guinea. At the mouth of
                             the Mamberamo river, it is claimed for Spain and

                             named Nueva Guinea by Yñigo Ortiz de Retez aboard
                             the San Juan de Letran.

10 Dec 1660                Dutch East India Company recognizes the (nominal)
                             sovereignty
of the Sultan of Tidore over the
                            
"Papuan islands in general," but with exclusive
                             Dutch trading rights (renewed 1667, 1689). 

24 Aug 1828                Western New Guinea (beginning at the 141st meridian
                             of longitude) claimed as part of Netherlands

                             East Indies (Netherlands New Guinea)
16 Apr 1846                Lieutenant Charles Bampfield Yule (b. 1806 -
                             d. 1878) in HMS Bramble claims southern coast of
                             New Guinea for the U.K. (not effected).
24 Apr 1873                Captain John Moresby (b. 1830 - d. 1922) again
                             annexes Papua for U.K. at Hayter Island (not
                             effected), after naming Port Moresby for Admiral
                             Sir Fairfax Morseby on 20 Feb 1873.
16 Jan 1880 - 13 Feb 1882  Charles Marie Bonaventure du Breil, marquis de Rays

                             (b. 1832 - d. 1893), who in 1877 had declared
                             himself 'King Charles I of New France' (an area
                             he claimed extending from eastern New Guinea to
                             Solomon Islands, unclaimed by European powers),
                             tries to establish a utopian
settlement on New
                             Ireland at Port-Breton
(near modern Kavieng)
                             called LaNouvelle-France, also called la colonie
                             chrétienne et libre
de Port-Breton. It is finally
                            
abandoned by the colonists on 13 Feb 1882.
 
4 Apr 1883                H.M. Chester, acting on orders of the government of
                             Queensland (Australia), takes possession of the
                             southeastern
coast at Port Morseby for the U.K.
 2 Jul 1883                British colonial office disallows the Queensland
                             annexation of 4 Apr 1883.
Sep 1884                   Friedrich Hermann Otto Finsch (b. 1839 - d. 1917),
                             agent of the Hamburger Neuguinea-Konsortiums
                            
(Hamburg New Guinea Consortium), explorers the
                             northeast coast of New Guinea (and in Dec 1884
                             the Bismarck Archipelago).

 3 Nov 1884                Germany proclaims a protectorate
at Matupi, and at
                             Mioko and Makada on 4 Nov, over northeastern New
                             Guinea at Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen on 12 Nov, and
                             27 Nov at Finschhafen (Kaiser-Wilhelmsland/German
                             New
Guinea). Protectorate of German New Guinea
                             (Schutzgebiet Deutsch-Neu-guinea).

 6 Nov 1884                Britain proclaims protectorate over southeastern 
                             New Guinea (British New Guinea territory).
 5 Nov 1885 - 31 Mar 1899 
Protectorate of German New Guinea administered by
                             the German New Guinea Company
(Deutsche Neu-
                             Guinea
-Kompagnie)(brief imperial rule 1 Nov 1889
                             - 1 Sep 1892), charter is granted by the Kaiser
                             formally on 17 May 1885.

 6 Apr 1886                Partition of New Guinea by U.K. and Germany along
                             the Netherlands 141st meridian confirmed by
                             the Anglo-German Declaration.
 
4 Sep 1888                U.K. formally annexes its protectorate as the
                             Colony of New Guinea.
14 Nov 1899                Germany transfers Choiseul, Santa Isabel, the
                             Shortland and Ontong Java Islands to British
                             Solomon islands, but retains Bougainville 
                             and Buka islands (effective 16 Feb 1900). 
18 Mar 1902                British territory is transferred to Australia.
 1 Sep 1906                British New Guinea passed to Australia as the

                             Territory of Papua (by Papua Act of 16 Nov 1905).
12 Aug 1914                Australian forces raid Rabaul.
12 Sep 1914                Australian occupation of Rabaul (German authorities
                             surrender 17 Sep, effective 21 Sep 1914).
24 Sep 1914                Australian occupation of Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen

                             in Kaiser-Wilhelmsland.
 
5 Jan 1919                Last German troops under Hermann Philipp Detzner
                             (b. 1882 - d. 1970) surrender to Australia. 
10 Jan 1920                Germany formally renounces claims to the islands
                             by the Treaty of Versailles.
17 Dec 1920                German New Guinea becomes a League of Nations 

                             mandate (under Australia).
19 May 1921                Territory of New Guinea erected from the former
                             German New Guinea by Australia.
23 Jan 1942 - 13 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation of New Guinea (and part of

                             Papua to 22 Jan 1943; renamed Niyuginia).
14 Feb 1942 - 23 Jun 1946  North East New Guinea and Papua under Allied
                            
(Australian) military administration.
10 Apr 1942                Australia
begins joint administration of Papua and
                             New Guinea Mandated Territory (Australian New
                             Guinea A
dministrative Unit).

Jun 1943 - Dec 1944        U.S. military occupation of North East New
                             Guinea, with Australian civil administration.
31 Oct 1945                Territory of Papua - New Guinea (de facto
                             administrative unification).
 8 Dec 1946                UN mandate for North East New Guinea (under 

                             Australia).
 1 Jul 1949                Territory of Papua and New Guinea (formal
                             administrative unification).
 1 Jul 1971                Territory of Papua New Guinea 
 
1 Dec 1973                Papua New Guinea becomes self-governing.
 1 Sep 1975 - 16 Oct 1975  Secession of
Bougainville.
16 Mar 1975                Papua Besena under Josephine Abaijah (f)(b. 1942)
                             declares Papua independent, without effect.
16 Sep 1975                Independence (Independent State of Papua New

                             Guinea).
17 May 1990 - 22 Jan 1998  Secession of
Bougainville.

Papua New
Guinea
(since 1945)
Provinces
North Eastern
New Guinea

(1880-1945)
Papua
(1883-1945)
 Bougainville
 
 
 
 
 

North Eastern New Guinea
 
[Colony of
                            Nouvelle France 1880-1882 (Papau New
                            Guinea)]
1880 - 1882 Nouvelle-France
[German New Guinea
                          Company (deutsch neuguinea-kompagnie) 1885 -
                          1899 (Germany)]
Nov 1884 - 31 Mar 1899
German New Guinea Company
[German Empire
                            1870-1919 (Germany)]
3 Nov 1884 - 21 Sep 1914
[Australian flag]
21 Sep 1914 - 30 Oct 1945
[Territory of New
                          Guinea 1921-1942, 1945 (Papua New Guinea)]
9 May 1921 - 30 Oct 1945
(suspended from 14 Feb 1942)

[Japan]
23 Jan 1942 - Sep 1945
Map of German New Guinea
Capital: Rabaul
(Neupommern [Matupi] 1884-86;
Finschhafen Jun 1886-1891;
Stephansort [Bogadjim]
1891-1 Mar 1892;
Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen [Madang]
1 Mar 1892-31 Mar 1899;
Herbertshöhe [
Kokopo]
1 Apr 1899-Jan 1910;
Simpsonhafen [
Rabaul]
 Jan 1910-6 Aug 1914; Toma
 [provisional] 6 Aug-21 Sep 1914)

Population: 587,600 (1939)
479,615 (772 Germans) (1912)

Governors of Nouvelle-France at Port-Breton
16 Jan 1880 - 20 Feb 1880  Paul Titeu de la Croix, baron
                             de Villeblanche
Feb 1880 - 1880            MacLaughlin (acting)
14 Oct 1880 - Nov 1880    
Jean André le Prévost
Nov 1880 - 1881            Auguste Leroy (acting)             (b. 1830 - d. ....)
Aug 1881 - 1881            Jules Henry (provisional)
1881 - Feb 1882           
Gustave Rabardy (provisional)      (b. c.1832 - d. 1882)
Imperial Commissioner for New Guinea
(Kaiserlicher Kommissar für Neuguinea)
16 Jun 1884 - Jan 1887     Gustav Carl Heinrich Lucas von     (b. 1836 - d. 1911)
                            
Oertzen
Landeshauptleute (of the Deutsche Neuguinea-Kompagnie)
10 Jun 1886 -  1 Mar 1888  Georg Emil Gustav Freiherr von     (b. 1834 - d. 1910)
                             Schleinitz

 1 Mar 1888 - 31 Oct 1889  Reinhold Kraetke                   (b. 1845 - d. 1934)
Reichs Commissioner (Reichskommissar)
21 Aug 1889 - 31 Aug 1892  Fritz Rose (acting to 30 Sep 1890) (b. 1855 - d. 1922)
Landeshauptleute (of the Deutsche Neuguinea-Kompagnie)
 1 Sep 1892 -  3 Mar 1895  Georg Schmiele                     (b. 1855 - d. 1895)
16 Feb 1895 - 17 Aug 1896  Hugo Rüdiger                       (b. 1851 - d. 19..)
                             (acting [for Schmiele to 3 Mar 1895]) 

22 Sep 1896 - 13 Aug 1897  Curt von Hagen                     (b. 1859 - d. 1897)
15 Aug 1897 - 11 Sep 1897  Albert Hahl (acting)               (b. 1868 - d. 1945)
11 Sep 1897 - 31 Mar 1899  Hugo Carl Theodor Skopnik          (b. 1857 - d. 19..)
Governors
 1 Apr 1899 - 10 Jul 1901  Rudolf von Bennigsen               (b. 1860 - d. 1912)
10 Jul 1901 - 13 Apr 1914  Albert Hahl                        (s.a.)
                             (acting to 10 Nov 1902)
22 Jan 1914 - 21 Sep 1914  Johann Karl Emil Eduard Haber      (b. 1866 - d. 1947)
                             (acting [for Hahl to 13 Apr 1914] to 14 Dec 1917)
                             (Australian
29 Oct 1914 - 15 Jan 1915;
                             in exile 15 Jan 1915 - 11 Nov 1918)

Allied Military Administrators and Commanders of the Australian
Naval and Military Expeditionary Force, German New Guinea

12 Sep 1914 -  8 Jan 1915  William Holmes                     (b. 1862 - d. 1917)
 8 Jan 1915 - 21 Oct 1917  Samuel Augustus Pethebridge        (b. 1862 - d. 1918)
                            
(from 1 Jan 1917, Sir Samuel Augustus Pethebridge)
Military Administrators
21 Oct 1917 - 21 Apr 1918  Seaforth Simpson Mackenzie (acting)(b. 1883 - d. 1955)
 
21 Apr 1918 -  1 May 1920  George Jameson Johnston            (b. 1869 - d. 1949)

 1 May 1920 - 21 Mar 1921  Thomas Griffiths (1st time)        (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
Administrators
21 Mar 1921 - 13 Jun 1933  Evan Alexander Wisdom              (b. 1869 - d. 1945)
13 Jun 1933 - 12 Sep 1934  Thomas Griffiths (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.) 
12 Sep 1934 - 31 Dec 1942  Walter Ramsay McNicoll             (b. 1877 - d. 1947)
                            (from 14 Dec 1937, Sir Walter Ramsay McNicoll) 
                            (in Australia from 24 Jan 1942)
24 Jan 1942 - 14 Feb 1942  Kenneth Carlyle McMullen           (b. 1904 - d. ....)
                            (acting for
McNicoll)
Japanese Commanders of Occupied New Guinea and Papua

23 Jan 1942 -  9 Nov 1942  Tomitarō Horii                     (b. 1890 - d. 1942) 
 
9 Nov 1942 - 13 Sep 1945  Hatazō Adachi                      (b. 1890 - d. 1947) 

                            (commander of 18th Army) 
U.S. Military Commanders (of the 6th Army, from Sep 1944 8th Army)
Jun 1943 - Sep 1944        Walter Krueger                     (b. 1881 - d. 1967)
Sep 1944 - Dec 1944        Robert Lawrence Eichelberger       (b. 1886 - d. 1961) 

Heads of the New Guinea Administrative Unit (in Port Moresby)
14 Feb 1942 - 15 Feb 1942  George Wilfred Lambert Townsend    (b. 1896 - d. 1962)
  Mil
15 Feb 1942 - 10 Apr 1942  Kenneth Carlyle McMullen           (s.a.)               Mil


Papua (South Eastern New Guinea)
 
[Portectorate of
                          New Guinea 1884-1888 (Papua New Guinea)]
6 Nov 1884 - 1888
[British New
                          Guinea 1888-1906 (Papua New Guinea)]
1888 - 1 Sep 1906
[Australian flag] 1 Sep 1906 - 30 Oct 1945
[Territory of Papua 1906-1945 (Papua
                              New Guinea)]
1 Sep 1906 - 30 Oct 1945
(suspended from 14 Feb 1942)

[Territory of Papua,
                      semi-official 1908-1942 (Papua New Guinea)] 1908 - 14 Feb 1942 Semi-official


Capital: Port Moresby
Population: 338,600 (1939)

Magistrate for Queensland in New Guinea (Colony of Queensland representative in New Guinea)
 
4 Apr 1883 -  2 Jul 1883  Henry Majoribanks Chester          (b. 1832 - d. 1914)
                            
(police magistrate on Thursday Island)
Special Commissioners for Great Britain in New Guinea
 6 Nov 1884 -  2 Dec 1885  Peter Henry Scratchley             (b. 1835 - d. 1885)
                             (from 6 Jun 1885, Sir Peter Henry Scratchley)
 2 Dec 1885 - 26 Feb 1886  Hugh Hastings Romilly              (b. 1856 - d. 1892)
                            
(deputy commissioner)
27 Feb 1886 -  3 Sep 1888  John Douglas                       (b. 1828 - d. 1904)
Administrator of British New Guinea
 4 Sep 1888 -  5 Jun 1895  William MacGregor                  (b. 1846 - d. 1919)
                             (from 24 May 1889, Sir William MacGregor) 
Lieutenant-Governors of British New Guinea
 
6 Jun 1895 - 10 Sep 1898  Sir William MacGregor              (s.a.)
10 Sep
1898 - 23 Mar 1899  Sir Francis Pratt Winter           (b. 1848 - d. 1919)
                             (deputy administrator to 1 Nov
                             1898, then acting administrator)
23 Mar 1899 -  9 Jun 1903  George Ruthven Le Hunte            (b. 1852 - d. 1925)
 9 Jun 1903 - 16 Jun 1904  Christopher Stansfeld Robinson     (b. 1871 - d. 1904)
                             (acting administrator)
16 Jun 1904 -  1 Sep 1906  Francis Rickman Barton             (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
                             (administrator)

Lieutenant-Governors of Papua
 1 Sep 1906 -  9 Apr 1907  Francis Rickman Barton             (s.a.)
                             (administrator)
 
9 Apr 1907 - 27 Feb 1940  John Hubert Plunkett Murray        (b. 1861 - d. 1940)
                             (from 1 Jan 1925, Sir John Hubert Plunkett Murray) 
                             (acting administrator to 18 Jan 1909)
28 Feb 1940 - 16 Dec 1940  Herbert William Champion (acting)  (b. 1880 - d. 1972)
16 Dec 1940 - 14 Feb 1942  Hubert Leonard Murray              (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
                             (administrator)
Military Administrator
of New Guinea and Papua
(commandant of the 8th Military District)
14 Feb 1942 - 31 Oct 1945  Basil Moorhouse Morris             (b. 1888 - d. 1975)

Head of the Papuan Civil Administrative Unit (PAU)(in Port Moresby)
14 Feb 1942 - 10 Apr 1942  Sydney Elliott-Smith               (b. 1900 - d. 1974)  Mil
Heads of (from 7 Feb 1944, General Officer Commanding) the Australian New Guinea
A
dministrative Unit (ANGAU)(in Port Moresby, from Oct 1945 Lae)
10 Apr 1942 - 12 Aug 1942  Kenneth Carlyle McMullen           (b. 1904 - d. ....)  Mil
12 Aug 1942 - 24 Jun 1946  Basil Moorhouse Morris             (b. 1888 - d. 1975)  Mil

 4 Sep 1944 -  9 Dec 1944  Donald Mackinnon Cleland           (b. 1901 - d. 1975)  Mil
                             (acting for Morris)


Papua New Guinea
 

Administrators
31 Oct 1945 - 30 Jun 1952  Jack Keith Murray                  (b. 1889 - d. 1979)
                            
(provisional to 1 Jul 1949)
30 Jun 1952 - Dec 1966     Donald Mackinnon Cleland           (b. 1901 - d. 1975)

                             (from 10 Jun 1961, Sir Donald Mackinnon Cleland) 
 9 Jan 1967 - Jul 1970     David Osborne Hay                  (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
23 Jul 1970 -  1 Dec 1973  Leslie "Les" Wilson Johnson        (b. 1916 - d. 2000)
High Commissioners
 
1 Dec 1973 - 29 Mar 1974  Leslie "Les" Wilson Johnson        (s.a.)
29 Mar 1974 - 16 Sep 1975  Thomas "Tom" Kingston Critchley    (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
Queen¹
16 Sep 1975 -              the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
16 Sep 1975 -  1 Mar 1977  Sir John Douglas Guise             (b. 1914 - d. 1991)
 1 Mar 1977 -  1 Mar 1983  Sir Tore Lokoloko                  (b. 1930 - d. 2013)
 1 Mar 1983 -  1 Mar 1989  Sir Kingsford Dibela               (b. 1932 - d. 2002)
 1 Mar 1989 - 31 Dec 1989  Sir Ignatius Kilage                (b. 1941 - d. 1989)
31 Dec 1989 - 27 Feb 1990  Dennis Charles Young (1st time)    (b. 1938)
                             (acting)
27 Feb 1990 -  4 Oct 1991  Sir Vincent Serei Eri              (b. 1936 - d. 1993)
 4 Oct 1991 - 18 Nov 1991  Dennis Charles Young (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
18 Nov 1991 - 20 Nov 1997  Wiwa Korowi                        (b. 1948)
                             (from 10 Dec 1991, Sir Wiwa Korowi)
20 Nov 1997 - 20 Nov 2003  Silas Atopare                      (b. 1951 - d. 2021)
                             (from 29 Jan 1998, Sir Silas Atopare) 
21 Nov 2003 - 28 May 2004  William "Bill" Jack Skate (acting) (b. 1953 - d. 2006)  PNC
28 May 2004 - 29 Jun 2004  J
effrey Nape (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1964 - d. 2016)  NAP
29 Jun 2004 - 13 Dec 2010  Sir Paulias Nguna Matane           (b. 1931 - d. 2021)
13 Dec 2010 - 20 Dec 2010
  Jeffrey Nape (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)               NAP
20 Dec 2010 - 18 Feb 2017  Michael Ogio                       (b. 1942 - d. 2017)
                             (from 26 Apr 2011, Sir Michael Ogio) 
                             (acting to 25 Feb 2011)
                             (suspended by O'Neil 14-19 Dec 2011)
14 Dec 2011 - 19 Dec 2011  J
effrey Nape (3nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)               NAP
                             (in opposition, appointed by Peter O'Neil)
18 Feb 2017 - 28 Feb 2017  Theodore Zibang Zurenuoc (acting)  (b. 1965)            PNC
28 Feb 2017 -              Robert "Bob" Bofeng Dadae          (b. 1961)
                            
(from 24 Apr 2017, Sir Robert Bofeng Dadae)    


Chief minister

27 Apr 1972 - 16 Sep 1975  Michael Thomas Somare              (b. 1936 - d. 2021)  PGU 
Prime ministers
16 Sep 1975 - 11 Mar 1980  Michael Thomas Somare (1st time)   (s.a.)               PGU
11 Mar 1980 -  2 Aug 1982  Sir Julius Chan (1st time)         (b. 1939)            PPP 
 2 Aug 1982 - 21 Nov 1985  Michael Thomas Somare (2nd time)   (s.a.)               PGU
21 Nov 1985 -  4 Jul 1988  Paias Wingti (1st time)            (b. 1951)            PDM 
 4 Jul 1988 - 17 Jul 1992  Rabbie Namaliu                     (b. 1947)            PGU
17 Jul 1992 - 30 Aug 1994  Paias Wingti (2nd time)            (s.a.)               PDM 
30 Aug 1994 - 22 Jul 1997  Sir Julius Chan (2nd time)         (s.a.)               PPP
27 Mar 1997 -  2 Jun 1997  John Giheno (acting for Chan)      (b. 1950 - d. 2017)  PPP 
22 Jul 1997 - 14 Jul 1999  William "Bill" Jack Skate          (s.a.)               PNC
14 Jul 1999 -  5 Aug 2002  Sir Mekere Morauta                 (b. 1946 - d. 2020)  PDM 
 5 Aug 2002 -  2 Aug 2011  Sir Michael Thomas Somare          (s.a.)               NAP
                             (3rd time)
13 Dec 2010 - 17 Jan 2011  Sam Abal (1st time)                (b. 1958)            NAP
                             (acting for Somare)
 4 Apr 2011 -  2 Aug 2011  Sam Abal (2nd time)                (s.a.)               NAP
                             (acting for Somare)
 2 Aug 2011 - 30 May 2019  Peter O'Neil                       (b. 1965)            PNC
                             (acting 25-30 May 2012)
14 Dec 2011 -  3 Aug 2012  Sir Michael Thomas Somare          (s.a.)               NAP
                             (4th time)(in opposition)
30 May 2019 -              James Marape                       (b. 1971)            PGU

  ¹Full style from 16 Sep 1975: "Queen of Papua New Guinea and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

Territorial Dispute: Relies on assistance from Australia to keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia, including goods smuggling, illegal narcotics trafficking, and squatters and secessionists.

Party abbreviations: NAP = National Alliance Party (est.1995); PDM = People's Democratic Movement (conservative, split from PGU, est.1985); PNC = People's National Congress Party (est.1972); PGU = Pangu (Papua and Niugini Union) Pati (Papua New Guinea Union Party, centrist, est.1967); PPP = People's Progress Party (Pipels Progres Pati, conservative, est.1970)



Bougainville Island

[Bougainville Island
                        (Papua New Guinea)]
Adopted 1 Sep 1975 and 17 May 1990,
Re-affirmed 15 Jun 2005, 14 Jun 2018

Map of Bougainville
Hear Local Anthem
"My Bougainville"
Adopted 14 Jun 2018
(unofficial from c.2010)
Former Local Anthem
"Bougainville Anthem"
(1975,
1990-1998,

15 Jun 2005-14 Jun 2018)
Region Constitution
(15 Jun 2005)
Capital: Buka (temporary)
(Arawa 1976-1997;
Kieta 1905-1946, 1967-1976;
Sohano 1946-1967)
Currency: Papua New
Guinea
Kina (PGK)
Local Holidays: 1 Sep (1975)
Provincial Day;

17 May (1990)
Remembrance Day

Population: 249,358 (2011)
GDP: $N/A
included in PNG statistics
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
included in PNG statistics
Ethnic groups: Bougainvillean, Melanesian, others
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Religions: Christian 94.03% (of which Roman Catholic
70%, Protestant United Church of Papua New Guinea
 substantial minority), traditional beliefs 3.83%,

Buddhist 0.28% (2000)
International Organizations: None; UNPO (1991-2008)

 2 Jul 1768                Sighted by (and subsequently named after) French Commander
                             Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (b. 1729 - d. 1811), on the
                             King's frigate La Boudeuse.
17 May 1885                Areas of the German Neu-Guinea-Kompagnie (0°-8°S & 141°-154°E,
                             minus Papua south of line of 5°S/141°E-6°S/144°E-8°S/147°E),
                             including Bougainville, under German protection (rescinded
                             17 Mar 1899).
28-30 Oct 1886             Solomon Islands north of a line of demarcation included in German
                             New Guinea: Buka, Bougainville (on 30 Oct), Choiseul (on Oct 28),
                             Santa Isabel, Shortland Islands (on 29 Oct) and Ontong Java.
16 Feb 1900                Line of demarcation between German New Guinea and British Solomon
                             Islands changed so that Choiseul, Santa Isabel, the Shortland,
                             and Ontong Java Islands become part of British Solomon Islands.
                             Buka and Bougainville remain part of German New Guinea (by
                             the Treaty of Berlin of 14 Nov 1899).
20 Sep 1905                German administration post established at Kieta on Bougainville.
 9 Dec 1914                Australian forces occupy Bougainville (from 17 Dec 1920, part of
                             Trust Territory of New Guinea, under Australian administration).
30 Mar 1942 -  8 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation (Allied forces land at Torokina on 1 Nov 1943).
Apr 1972                   Commercial production begins at Panguna copper mine.
Dec 1973                   Bougainville Interim District Government.
23 Jul 1974                Provisional provincial system introduced in Papua New Guinea,
                             providing for devolution of administrative powers and functions.
25 Jul 1975                Bougainville Interim Provincial Government established.
28 May 1975                Bougainville renames itself "North Solomons", intending to secede
                             from Papua New Guinea.
 1 Sep 1975                Bougainville secedes from Papua New Guinea as the "Republic of the
                             North Solomons" (not recognized).
16 Oct 1975 - 29 Apr 1976  Bougainville government is suspended by Papua New Guinea.
 9 Aug 1976                Power to make laws and raise taxes granted to Bougainville (by
                             Papua New Guinea/Bougainville agreement of 7 Aug 1976).
11 Aug 1977                Constitution adopted, Bougainville named "North Solomons Province."
13 Oct 1977                Bougainville formally renamed North Solomons, provincial government
                             established.
26 Nov 1988                Unrest erupts, ostensibly, over demands for better compensation in
                             provincial mining business; subsequently escalating into civil
                             war.
Apr 1989                   "Republic of Bougainville" declared, by undated Proclamation,
                             without effect.
 2 Mar 1990                Ceasefire and withdrawal of security forces by 16 Mar 1990 agreed
                             by Papua New Guinea/Bougainville Revolutionary Army Agreement.
17 May 1990                Bougainville again declares independence as "Republic of
                             Bougainville" (by Declaration); Bougainville Interim Government
                             established (not recognized).
Aug 1990 - 10 Apr 1995     Bougainville provincial government suspended by Papua New Guinea.
23 Jan 1991                Peace, Reconciliation and Rehabilitation within 36 months agreed
                             to, by the Honiara Declaration), but is not implemented.
13 Feb 1993                Papua New Guinea occupies Arawa.
10 Apr 1995                Bougainville Transitional Government established by (Papua New
                             Guinea/Bougainville) Charter of Mirigini for a New Bougainville
                             of 25 Nov 1994.
19 Jul 1995                Administration re-organized (by Organic Law on Provincial
                             Governments and Local-level Governments [Amendment No. 1] Law).
20 Jun 1996                Papua New Guinea attempts a military solution by launching an
                             offensive.
10 Oct 1997                Truce agreed upon by the (Papua New Guinea/Bougainville/
                            
Bougainville Revolutionary Army) Burnham Truce.
11 Dec 1997                Unarmed "Neutral Truce Monitoring Group for Bougainville"
                             established to monitor the truce in Bougainville (by New Zealand
                             /Papua New Guinea/Australia/Fiji/Vanuatu Agreement, UNTS v.2039,
                             No. 35263 of 5 Dec 1997).
23 Jan 1998                Truce extended to 30 Apr 1998, "permanent and irrevocable
                             ceasefire" agreed upon; mandate of UN peacekeeping force defined
                             by (Papua New Guinea/Bougainville/Bougainville Revolutionary
                             Army) Lincoln Agreement, effective 30 Apr 1998.
29 Dec 1998                Bougainville Reconciliation Government established (by Bougainville
                             Reconciliation Government Charter), but is not implemented.
30 Dec 1998                Request for UN peacekeeping force renewed by Papua New Guinea. 
 1 Jan 1999                Administration re-organized (by Organic Law on Provincial
                             Governments and Local-level Governments [Amendment No. 7] Law
                             [No. 29 of 1998]).
 1 Jan 1999                Bougainville government suspended by Papua New Guinea.
13 Dec 1999                Bougainville Interim Provincial Government inaugurated.
30 Aug 2001                Civil war terminated; autonomy and referendum to determine future
                             status of Bougainville agreed upon by the Bougainville Peace
                             Agreement.
25 Jun 2002                Autonomy granted to Bougainville (by constitutional amendment
                             No. 23).
17 May 2004                Kingdom of Me´ekamui established with Francis Ona (b. 1953? - d.
                             2005) as king declared by proclamation (not recognized).
15 Jun 2005                Autonomous Region of Bougainville established (by constitution of
                             12 Nov 2004).
23 Nov 2019 -  7 Dec 2019  Referendum on independence takes place according to the
                             Bougainville Peace Agreement (date originally scheduled 15 Jun
                             2019 then
later 17 Oct 2019) with 97.7% supporting independence.

Japanese Military Commanders (of Japanese 17th Army)
18 May 1942 -  1 Apr 1945  Harukichi Hyakutake                (b. 1888 - d. 1947)  Mil
 1 Apr 1945 -  8 Sep 1945  Masatane Kanda                     (b. 1890 - d. 1983)  Mil 
U.S. Military Commander
(of U.S. XIV Corps)
 1 Nov 1943 - 22 Nov 1944  Oscar Woolverton Griswold          (b. 1886 - d. 1959)  Mil 
Australian Military Commander (of Australian II Corps)
22 Nov 1944 - Sep 1945     Sir Stanley George Savige          (b. 1890 - d. 1954)  Mil
Senior Australian New Guinea Administrative Unit (ANGAU) Officer with II Corps
Sep 1944 - Apr 1945        Kenneth Carlyle McMullen           (b. 1904 - d. ....)  Mil
District Commissioner of Bougainville

Dec 1973 - 25 Jul 1974     Alexis Holyweek Sarei              (b. 1934 - d. 2014)  Non-party
Chairman of the Bougainville Interim Provincial Government

25 Jul 1974 - 16 Oct 1975  Alexis Holyweek Sarei (1st time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
Chairman of the Republican Government of the North Solomons

 1 Sep 1975 - 16 Oct 1975  Alexis Holyweek Sarei              (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (in rebellion)
Provincial Commissioners of the North Solomons

 1 Sep 1975 - 17 Oct 1975  Richard "Ric" Fosser Hearne        (b. 1929 - d. 2003)  Non-party
                             (acting)
17 Oct 1975 - Apr 1976     Benson Gegeyo                      (b. 1937? - d. 2002) Non-party
Chairman of the Bougainville Interim Provincial Government

29 Apr 1976 - Aug 1976     Alexis Holyweek Sarei (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
Premiers

Aug 1976 - May 1980        Alexis Holyweek Sarei (1st time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
May 1980 - May 1984        Leo Joseph Hannett                 (b. 1941)            PDM
May 1984 - May 1987        Alexis Holyweek Sarei (2nd time)   (s.a.)               MAP
                             (from 31 Dec 1986, Sir Alexis Holyweek Sarei)
May 1987 - 29 Aug 1990     Joseph Canisius Kabui              (b. 1954 - d. 2008)  Non-party
                             (acting to Jun 1987)
President of the Bougainville Interim Government
17 May 1990 - 24 Jul 2005  Francis Dominic Ona (in rebellion) (b. 1953? - d. 2005) BRA
                             (from 17 May 2004, King Francis Dominic Dateransy Domanaa)
Administrator

Aug 1990 - 10 Apr 1995     Sam Tulo                           (b. 1946 - d. 2013)  Non-party
Premiers
10 Apr 1995 - 12 Oct 1996  Theodore Miriung                   (b. 1945 - d. 1996)
12 Oct 1996 - 18 Nov 1996  .... (acting)
18 Nov 1996 - 31 Dec 1998  Gerard Sinato                      (b. 19.. - d. 2019)
Administrator
 
1 Jan 1999 - 13 Dec 1999  John Siau                          (b. 1954?)
Governors
13 Dec 1999 - 20 Apr 2005  John Lawrence Momis                (b. 1942)            NAP
20 Apr 2005 - 15 Jun 2005  Gerard Sinato (acting)             (s.a.)
Presidents of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville

15 Jun 2005 -  7 Jun 2008  Joseph Canisius Kabui              (s.a.)               BPC 
 7 Jun 2008 -  6 Jan 2009  John Tabinaman (acting)            (b. 1951? - d. 2021) BPC
 6 Jan 2009 - 15 Jun 2010  James Lenala Tanis                 (b. 1965)            BPC
15 Jun 2010 - 25 Sep 2020  John Lawrence Momis                (s.a.)               NBP  
14? Jun 2019 - Aug 2020    Raymond Masono                     (b. 19.. - d. 2021)
                             (acting for Momis)
25 Sep 2020 -              Ishmael Toroama                    (b. 1968)            BPA

Heads of the United Nations Political Office in Bougainville (UNPOB)
 1 Aug 1998 - 15 Feb 1999  Valeriy D. Marusin (Russia)
Feb 1999 - 31 Dec 2003     Noël Sinclair (Guyana)             (b. 1940 - d. 2017)
Heads of the United Nations Observer Mission in Bougainville (UNOMB)

 1 Jan 2004 - 29 Feb 2004  Noël Sinclair (Guyana)             (s.a.)
 1 Mar 2004 - 30 Jun 2005  Tor Stenbock (Norway)

Party abbreviations: BPA = Bougainville People's Alliance Party (pro-independence, split from BRA, est.2020); BPC = Bougainville People's Congress (est.31 Dec 1998); NAP = National Alliance Party (est.1995); NBP = New Bougainville Party (est.22 Apr 2005); PDM = People's Democratic Movement (conservative, est.1985); URP = United Resource Party (equitable resource development, est.1997); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: MAP = Melanesian Alliance Party (Bougainville regionalist, pro-autonomy, center-left, 1978-1995, merged into NAP); BRA = Bougainville Revolutionary Army (militant, Bougainville separatist, est.1989)







© Ben Cahoon