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Mozambique Traditional states

States: amaGaza - Karanga - Manyika - Coastal states: Angoshe - Kitangonya - Sankul -

Note
:
This record is in three parts. (A) The last gasps of the Karanga empire (the "Empire of the Monomotapa"), with its spin-off Manyika (which is located in part in present-day Zimbabwe). (B) Coastal states. (C) The "Gaza State," amaGaza.


Karanga

c.1430                     Karanga state founded (later called Mutapa, and by the
                             Portuguese
Monomotapa).
1629 - 1663                Portuguese vassal.
1663 - 1694                Changamire (Rozvi) vassal.
1694 - 1712                Portuguese vassal.
1712 - c.1720              Changamire (Rozvi) vassal.
1759 - 1803                Collapse into civil war, dynasty remnants move to Chidima.
1902                       Remnants of state extinguished by the Portuguese

                             colonial government.

Rulers (title Mambo)
1694 - 1707                Nyamaende Mhande
1707 - 1711                Nyenyedzi Zenda
1711 - 1712                Baroma Mugwagwa
1712 - 1735                Samatambira Nyamhandu I
1735 - 1740                Nyatsusu
1740 - 1759                Dehwe Mapunzagutu                   (d. 1759)
1759 - 1803                collapse into civil war
Rulers (title Mambo a Chidima)
1803 - 1804                Cangara II

1804 - 1806                Mutiwapangome
1806                       Mutiwaora
1806 - 1807                Cipfumba
1807 - 1828?               Nyasoro
1828 - 1830                Cimininyambo (= Kandeya II)
1830 - 1849?               Dzeka
1849 - 1868                Kataruza
1868 - 1870                Kandeya III
1870 - 1887                Dzuda
1887 - 1902                Cioko Dambamupute                   (d. 1917)

 The style of the ruler is Mambo, the usual one in this ethnic group; but he has had from 1420 an epithet, rendered Monomotapa by the Portuguese; there has been controversy concerning the "native" form; it is often read Mwene Mutapa from the Shona name, but the most critical sources give it as Munhu Mutapa.


Manyika

bf.1494                    Manyika (Manica) state established, originally subject to Karanga.
1695                       Conquered by Cangamire; Nguruve lineage replaced by
                             Tembo-shumba lineage.

Rulers (title Mambo)
17.. - Jul 1795            Cikanga ...                        (d. 1795)
Jul 1795 - Mar 1796        Cikanga ... "Inhacompunza"
1796 - 1807                Cikanga Nyarumwe II (1st time)
                             "Inharugue"

1807 - 1813                Cikanga Nyangombe "Inhagope"
1813 - 1818                Cikanga Nyamandoto II "Inhamutota"
1818 - 1822                Cikanga Nyarumwe II (2nd time)
                             "Inharugue"
1822                       Cikanga Juru or Mutasa Juru

1822? - 1845               Mutasa Mutemberwa
1845 - 1865                Mutasa Matidya Dasi
1865 - 1870                Mutasa Mvumbi
1870 - 1902                Mutasa Tendayi Katsatso "Cifambausiku"
1902 - 1911                Mutasa Cakanyuka
1911 - 1943                Mutasa Kadzima
1943 - 1957                Mutasa Cimuriwo
1957 - 1959                Mutasa Mashita Mukukudzi
1959 - 1965                Mutasa Makanda Gomwe
1965 -                     Mutasa Pafiwa



Coastal states

Angoshe

1485                       Angoshe sultanate established.
1910                       State extinguished by Portuguese colonial government.

Sultans
1795 - 1817                `Alawi ibn Muhsini
1817 - 1821                Hasan Camakama
1821 - 18..                `Alawi Mugosirima
18.. - 1849                Ahmadi ibn Sulayman "Bari Bwana Mkuu"
1849 - 1861                Hasani Usufu
1861 - 1877                Musa Muhammad Sahib "Musa Quanto"
1877 - 1884                Sulayman ibn Raja
1884 - 1889                Husayn Ibrahimu
1889 - 1910                Ibrahimu ibn Sulayman


Kitangonya

bf.1750                    Kitangonya sheikhdom established.
af.1906                    State extinguished by Portuguese colonial government.

Sheikhs
bf.1750 - c.1775           ....
c.1775 - 1804              Twakali Hija
1804 - 1817                Janfar Salim
1817 - 1850                Sulayman Bwana Hajj
1850 - 1873                `Ali Amisi Heri
1873 - 1875                `Abd al-Rahman Sa`id `Ali
1875 - 1878                Vacant
1878 - 1884                Ahmadi `Abd Allah
1884 - 1906                Mahmud Bwana Ahmadi
1906 - 19..                Sa`id ibn Amisi


Sankul

1753                       Sankul sheikhdom established.
1910                       State extinguished by Portuguese colonial government.

Sheikhs
1753 - 1797                ....
1797 - 1800                Mukusedi Muhammad Raja
1800 - 1804                Mutirua Muhammad
1804 - 1810                Hasan Raja
1810 - 1822                Molidi `Uthman
1822 - 1832                Mukusedi `Ali Muhammad Raja
1832 - 1841                Burehimu Usufu (regent to 1834)
1842 - 1862                Hasan Musa Mukusedi
1863 - 1874                Camakama Molidi
1875 - 1886                `Abd Allah Usufu ibn Hasan "Umkubu Muntu"
1886 - 1898                Hasan Molidi
1898 - 1910                Suali ibn `Ali Ibrahimu "Marave"



amaGaza

1825                       Sotshangane Nxumalo, grandson of Gaza Nxumalo, establishes
                             a polity and calls it amaGaza.
28 Dec 1895                State extinguished by Portuguese colonial government;
                             rebellion continued to 20 Jul 1897.

Rulers (title Nkosi
1825 - 11 Oct 1858         Manukozi Sotshangane Nxumalo       (b. c.1780 - d. c.1858)
11 Oct 1858 - 18..         Mawewe Nxumalo (1st time)
18.. - 18..                Mzila Nxumalo (1st time)           (d. 1891)
18.. - 1862                Mawewe Nxumalo (2nd time)
1862 - Aug 1884            Mzila Nxumalo (2nd time)           (s.a.)
Aug 1884 - 28 Dec 1895     Mdungazwe Nggunggunyana Nxumalo    (b. c.1850 - d. 1906)
1896 - 20 Jul 1897         Magigane Nxumalo (in rebellion)






Ben Cahoon