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Angola
 
[Portugal]
to 11 Nov 1975
[Langhans'
                            proposal for Portuguese Angola, 1967]
1967 (proposed colonial flag)
[Angola flag]
Adopted 11 Nov 1975
Map of Angola
Hear National Anthem
"Angola Avante"
(Forward Angola) 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 11 Nov 1975
Constitution
(5 Feb 2010; in Portuguese)
------------------------------
Interim Constitution
(11 Nov 1975 - 5 Feb 2010)
Capital: Luanda
(1912-1927 Humbo;
1927-1975 Nova Lisboa;
1576-1912 São Paulo de Loanda)
Currency: Kwanza (AOA);
Angolan Escudo (AOS) 1911-77
National Holiday: 11 Nov (1975)
Dia da Independência
(Independence Day)
Population: 30,355,880 (2018)
GDP: $193.6 billion (2017)
Exports:  $33.07 billion (2017)
Imports: $19.5 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 25.2%, Kimbundu 23.1%,
Bakongo 12.6%,
Lwenea (Luvale) 8.2%, Chokwe 5%, Kwanyam 4.1%, Nyaneka 3.9%, Luchazi 2.3%, Ambo (Ovambo) 2%,
Mbwela 1.7%, Nyemba 1.7%,
European 1%, other 9.2% (2000)
Total Armed Forces: 107,000 (2018)
Merchant marine: 55 ships (2017)
Religions: Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%,
other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfCFTA, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, CEEAC, CCM (signatory), CPLP, CTBT, CWC, EITI, ESCR, FAO, G-24 (observer), G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OAS (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Angola Index
Chronology
1482                       Discovered by Portuguese under Diogo Cão.
 1 Feb 1575                Portuguese colony (Angola donataría).
Jan 1576                   Luanda founded as São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda
                             by Portuguese explorer Paulo Dias de Novais.
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Angola along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
1589                       Crown colony (Portuguese West Africa [África
                             Ocidental Portuguesa]). 
26 Aug 1641-21/24 Aug 1648 Dutch occupation of coastal areas forcing
                             the Portuguese into the interior (Dutch
                             West Africa)(in Luanda [Fort Aardenburgh]
                             26 Aug 1641 - 21/24 Aug 1648; Benguela Sep 1641
                             - 1648; Ensandeira Island 1645/46-1648). 
1822                       Angola and Benguela, and their dependencies, Cabinda
                             and Molembo (Angola e Benguela, e suas
                             dependências, Cabinda e Molembo).
 7 Dec 1836                Province of Angola (Província de Angola).
29 Apr 1878                Slavery abolished in Angola (by 29 Apr 1858
                             Portuguese royal decree).
14 Feb 1885                Portuguese possession confirmed by the Berlin
                             Conference.
1891 - 1893                State of West Africa (Estado da África Ocidental).
15 Aug 1914                Portuguese West Africa colony (Colonia da África
                             Ocidental Portuguesa).
31 Oct 1914 -  7 Jul 1915  German South West Africa forces under Victor Franke
                             invade Southern Portuguese Angola.
15 Oct 1926                Colony of Angola (Colónia de Angola).
11 Jun 1951                Angola overseas province of Portugal (Província de
                             Angola).
 4 Feb 1961 – 25 Apr 1974  Angolan war of independence.
 5 Apr 1962                Angolan Revolutionary Government in Exile (GRAE)
                             (Govêrno revolucionário de Angola no exílio), from
                             3 Dec 1972, Supreme Council for the Liberation
                             of Angola [Conselho Supremo da Libertação de
                             Angola]) established in Congo (Kinshasa).
  1 Jan 1973                State of Angola (Estado de Angola).
11 Nov 1975                People's Republic of Angola (República Popular de
                             Angola), independence from Portugal.
27 Aug 1992                Republic of Angola (República de Angola).
Traditional
States
Counter Government
(1975-1976,
 1979-2002)
Cabinda
 Map of Angolan
Tribes (1970)
 
 

Chairman of the Central Committee of the People's Liberation Movement of Angola
(from Dec 1977, People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola-
Party of Labor)
Dec 1962 - 10 Sep 1979     António Agostinho Neto             (b. 1922 - d. 1979)
                             (in exile to 4 Feb 1975 [in Léopoldville
                             to Nov 1963, then] in Brazzaville])
President of the Central Committee of the People's Liberation Movement of Angola-Party of Labor
20 Sep 1979 -  8 Sep 2018  José Eduardo dos Santos            (b. 1942 - d. 2022)
                             (acting to 21 Sep 1979)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 26 Mar 1991)


Captain-governor Donatário

 1 Feb 1575 –  9 May 1589  Paulo Dias de Novais               (b. c.1510 - d. 1589)
Captain-major
Dec 1589 - 1591            Luís Serrão                        (d. 1591)
Governors
1591 - 1593                André Ferreira Pereira
24 Jul 1593 – Aug 1594     Jerônimo de Almeida
1594 - 1595                Francisco de Almeida               (b. c.1550 – d. af.1613)
 1 Aug 1595 - 1602         João Furtado de Mendonça
1602 - 1603                João Rodrigues Coutinho            (d. 1603)
1603 - 1606                Manuel Cerveira Pereira (1st time) (d. 1626)
1606 - 1607                Paio de Araujo de Azevedo
Sep 1607 - 12 Apr 1611     Manuel Pereira Forjaz              (d. 1611)
15 Apr 1611 - 1615         Bento Banha Cardozo (captain-major)
1615 – 11 Apr 1617         Manuel Cerveira Pereira (2nd time) (s.a.)
11 Apr 1617 – Nov 1617     Antonio Gonçalves Pita 
Nov 1617 - 1621            Luís Mendes de Vasconcelos         (b. c.1542 - d. 1623)
Sep 1621 - 1623            João Correia de Sousa              (d. 1626)
1623 (5 months)            Pedro de Sousa Coelho (captain-major)
1623 - 13 Oct 1624         Simão de Mascarenhas, bispo do     (b. c.1571 - d. 1624)
                             Congo e Angola
1624 -  4 Sep 1630         Fernão de Sousa                    (b. c.1570 - d. 16..)
 4 Sep 1630 - 1635         Manuel Pereira Coutinho
1635 - 18 Oct 1639         Francisco de Vasconcelos da Cunha  (b. c.1590  d. 16..)
18 Oct 1639 - 1645         Pedro César de Meneses             (d. 1666)
                             (from 24 Aug 1641, at Massangano
                             in opposition to Dutch rule)
Dutch Directors
25 Aug 1641 - 12 Sep 1642  Pieter Moorthamer (Mortamer)
                          
+ Cornelis Nieulant
1642 - 1648                Cornelis Hendrikszoon Ouman
                             (to 1644 and from 1646)
                           + Hendrik Redinkhoven (1643-1646/47)
                           + Adriaen Lens (from 1646/47)
Governors
26
Jul 1645 - May 1646     Francisco de Sotto-Mayor           (d. 1646)
                             (in Massangano, in opposition to Dutch rule)
May 1646 - 12 May 1648     Triumvirate Junta (in opposition to Dutch rule)
                           - Bartolomeu de Vasconcelos da Cunha
                             (chairman of the Junta)
                           - António Teixeira de Mendonça
                           - João Zuzarte de Andrade
                          
(captains-major)
12 May 1648 - 1651         Salvador Correia de Sá e
Benavides (b. 1602 - d. 1688) 
Oct 1651 - 1653            Rodrigo de Miranda Henriques       (b. c.1600 - d. 1653)
1653 - Oct 1655            Bartolomeu de Vasconcelos 
                             da Cunha (captain-major)
Oct 1655 - 18 Apr 1658     Luís Martins de Sousa Chichorro    (d. 1658)
18 Apr 1658 - 1661         João Fernandes Vieira              (b. c.1610 - d. 1681)
10 May 1661 - 20 Aug 1666  André Vidal de Negreiros           (b. 1606 - d. 1680)
20 Aug 1666 - Jan 1667     Tristão da Cunha
30 Jan 1667 -  3 Feb 1667  Francisco Cidralles Sotto-Maior
Feb 1667 - 1668            Senate of City Council of Luanda
                           - António de Araujo de Azevedo
                             (president of the chamber)
 
                          - Paulo Rebello da Cunha
                           - Roque Vieira de Lima
                           - Paulo Valente
                           - Diogo Vaz Camello 
                           (interim)
1668 - 1669                Junta
                           - Thomáz Borges Madureira
                           - Luís da Silva de Motta
                           - João de Araujo
                           - João Cardozo
                           - Gaspar Zuzarte de Andrade
                           - António Rodrigues de Andrade
1669 - 26 Aug 1669         Junta
                           - João Marques de Almeida
                           - António de Estrada
                           - João de Gouvea
                           - Thomáz Figueira Bultão
                           - Henrique de Mendonça
                           - João Ferreira da Maia
26 Aug 1669 - 1676         Francisco de Távora conde de Alvor (b. 1646 - d. 1710) 
28 Aug 1676 – 11 Sep 1680  Ayres de Saldanha de Meneses e
                             Sousa
11 Sep 1680 – 12 Sep 1684  João da Silva de Sousa
12 Sep 1684 –  8 Sep 1688  Luís Lobo da Silva
 8 Sep 1688 –  1 Nov 1691  João de Lencastre                  (b. 1646 - d. 1707)
 1 Nov 1691 –  3 Nov 1694  Gonçalo da Costa de Alcáçova
                             Carneiro de Menezes
 3 Nov 1694 –  9 Nov 1697  Henrique Jacques de Magalhães    
  (b. c.1650 - d. 1700)
 9 Nov 1697 –  5 Dec 1701  Luís César de Meneses              (b. 1653 - d. 1720)
 5 Dec 1701 - Dec 1702     Bernardino de Távora e Sousa       (b. c.1630 - d. 1702)
                             Tavares
Dec 1702 – 20 Nov 1705     Senate of City Council of Luanda
20 Nov 1705 –  4 Oct 1709  Lourenço de Almada                 (b. 1645 - d. 1729)
 4 Oct 1709 – 22 Feb 1713  António de Saldanha de Albuquerque (b. c.1670 - d. c.1723)
                             Castro e Ribafria
22 Feb 1713 – 15 Jun 1717  João Manuel de Noronha             (b. 1679 - d. 1761)
15 Jun 1717 – 22 Mar 1722  Henrique de Figueiredo e Alarcão   (b. 1658 - d. 1723)
22 Mar 1722 – 25 Apr 1725  António de Albuquerque Coelho      (b. 1682 - d. 1725)
                             de Carvalho   
25 Apr 1725 –  7 May 1726  José Carvalho da Costa (acting)
 7 May 1726 – Dec 1732     Paulo Caetano de Albuquerque       (d. 1732)
Dec 1732 –  1 Jan 1733     Senate of City Council of Luanda
 1 Jan 1733 –  1 Apr 1738  Rodrigo César de Menezes           (b. 1673 - d. 1738)
 1 Apr 1738 – 17 Apr 1748  Joaquim Jacques de Magalhães       (d. 1748)
17 Apr 1748 – 12 Jan 1749  Governing Junta 
                           - Frei Manoel de Santa Inês        (b. 1704 - d. 1771)
                           - Victoriano de Faria e Mello
                               Varejão Castello Branco
                           - Fernando José da Cunha Pereira 
12 Jan 1749 – 31 Jul 1753  António de Almeida Soares e        (b. 1699 - d. 1761)
                             Portugal, conde do Lavradio
31 Jul 1753 – 14 Oct 1758  António Álvares da Cunha           (b. 1700 - d. 1791)
14 Oct 1758 –  6 Jun 1764  António de Vasconcelos
 6 Jun 1764 – 21 Nov 1772  Francisco Inocêncio de Sousa       (b. 1726 - d. 1780)
                             Coutinho
21 Nov 1772 –  5 Dec 1779  António de Lencastre               (b. 1721 - d. 1788)
 5 Dec 1779 – 19 Dec 1782  José Gonçalo da Câmara Coutinho    (d. 1782)
19 Dec 1782 – Sep 1784     Triumvirate                         
                           - Luís da Anunciação e Azevedo 
                           - Joaquim Manoel Garcia de Castro  (d. 1783)
                               Barbosa (to 20 May 1783)
                           - Francisco Xavier de Lobão
                               
Machado Pessanha (from 1783)
                           - João Monteiro de Moraes          (d. 1783)
                               (to 1 May 1783)
                           - Pedro Álvares de Andrade da
                               Cunha Azevedo e Vasconcelos
                               (from 1783)
 7 Sep 1784 -  6 Oct 1790  José de Almeida e Vasconcelos      (b. 1737 - d. 1812)
                             Soveral Carvalho e Albergaria,
                             barão de Moçâmedes 
 6 Oct 1790 -  1 Aug 1797  Manuel de Almeida e Vasconcelos,   (b. 1784 - d. 1832)
                             visconde da Lapa
 1 Aug 1797 - 24 Aug 1802  Miguel António de Melo             (b. 1766 - d. 1836)
24 Aug 1802 -  2 Apr 1806  Fernando António Soares de Noronha (b. 1742 - d. 1814)
 2 Apr 1806 – 29 Mar 1807  Governing Junta
                           - Joaquim Maria Mascarenhas
                               Castello Branco
                           - Duarte Cabreira de Brito e
                               Arvellos
                           - Manuel Pinto Coelho
                           - Eusébio Castella de Lemos  
29 Mar 1807 –  7 Jun 1810  António de Saldanha da Gama        (b. 1778 - d. 1839)
 7 Jun 1810 –  3 Jul 1816  José de Oliveira Barbosa,
         (b. 1753 - d. 1844) 
                             visconde do Rio Comprido  
 3 Jul 1816 –  7 Sep 1819  Luís da Motta Fêo e Torres         (b. 1769 - d. 1823)
 7 Sep 1819 - 22 Jul 1821  Manuel Vieira Tovar de Albuquerque (b. 1776 - d. 1833)
22 Jul 1821 –  6 Feb 1822  Joaquim Inácio de Lima
 6 Feb 1822 – 24 May 1823  João Damasceno da Silva Póvoas,    (b. 1780 - d. 1826)
                             bispo de Angola e Congo
                             (president of the provisional government Junta)
24 May 1823 - Jan 1824     Cristóvão Avelino Dias
Jan 1824 - 1829            Nicolau de Abreu Castelo Branco    (b. 1781 - d. 1838)
1829 – 25 Jun 1834         José Maria de Sousa Macedo Almeida (b. 1787 - d. 1872)
                             e Vasconcelos, barão de Santa
                             Comba Dão
25 Jun 1834 – 20 Feb 1836  Leonardo José Villela              (d. 1842)
                             (president of the Government Junta)
20 Feb 1836 – 21 Aug 1836  Domingos de Saldanha Oliveira e    (b. 1800 - d. 1836)
                             Daun 
21 Aug 1836 – Aug 1837     Governing Junta
                           - Leonardo José Villela            (s.a.)
                           - Ant
ónio Carlos Coutinho
                           - Fernando da Fonseca Mesquita
                               e Solla, visconde de Francos   (b. 1795 - d. 1857)  
Governors-general
Aug 1837 – 25 Jan 1839     Manuel Bernardo Vidal
25 Jan 1839 – 23 Nov 1839  António Manuel de Noronha          (b. 1772 - d. 1860)
23 Nov 1839 - Apr 1842     Manuel Eleutério Malheiro (acting) (b. 1793 - d. 1855)
1842 – 10 Jul 1843         José Xavier Bressane Leite         (b. 1780 - d. 1843)
10 Jul 1843 - 23 Mar 1844  Governing Council 
                           - Carlos Augusto Franco
                           - Joaquim Ant
ónio de Carvalho e
                               Menezes
                           - Luís Gomes Ribeiro 
                           - Ant
ónio de Azevedo Galiano   
23 Mar 1844 -  6 Sep 1845  Lourenço Germack Possolo           (b. 1779 - d. 1848)
 6 Sep 1845 - 17 Aug 1848  Pedro Alexandrino da Cunha         (b. 1801 - d. 1850)
17 Aug 1848 - 26 Aug 1851  Adrião Acácio da Silveira Pinto    (b. 1795 - d. 1868)
26 Aug 1851 - 19 Feb 1853  António Sérgio de Sousa            (b. 1809 - d. 1878)
19 Feb 1853 - 29 Sep 1853  António Ricardo Graça (acting)
29 Sep 1853 - 2. Mar 1854  Miguel Ximenes Rodrigues Sandoval  (b. 1806 - d. 1884)
                             de Castro e Viegas, visconde de 
                             Pinheiro
2. Mar 1854 - 18 Oct 1854  Provisional Government
                           - Joaquim de São Bento Moreira Reis(b. 1812 - d. 1887)
                           - Antonio Faustino dos Santos
                               Crespo
                           - João Jacinto Tavares

18 Oct 1854 -  8 Aug 1860  José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral    (b. 1808 - d. 1873)
                             (1st time)(interim to 17 Jan 1855)
 8 Aug 1860 -  7 Feb 1861  Carlos Augusto Franco
 7 Feb 1861 - 18 Sep 1862  Sebastião Lopes de Calheiros       (b. 1816 - d. 1899)
                             e Meneses
18 Sep 1862 - 30 Sep 1865  José Baptista de Andrade           (b. 1819 - d. 1902)
                             (1st time)
30 Sep 1865 – 12 Mar 1866  Governing Council
                           - Luís José Mendes Affonso
                             (president of Governing Council)
                           - João Jacintho Tavares
                           - Timotheo Pinheiro Falcão
                           - Damião António Pereira Pinto
                           - Francisco Barbosa Rodrigues

12 Mar 1866 -  6 Apr 1869  Francisco Ant
ónio Gonçalves        (b. 1800 - d. 1875)
                             Cardoso
 6 Apr 1869 - 20 Jun 1870  José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
26 Jun 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Joaquim José da Graça              (b. 1825 - d. 1889) 
 4 Sep 1870 - 15 Mar 1873  José Maria da Ponte e Horta        (b. 1824 - d. 1892)
15 Mar 1873 - 22 May 1876  José Baptista de Andrade           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
22 May 1876 -  5 Jun 1876  Governing Council
                           - Thomáz Gomes de Almeida
                           - Luís Carlos Garcia de Miranda
                           - Miguel Gomes de Almeida (1st time)
                           - Ant
ónio do Nascimento Pereira    (b. 1833 - d. 1899)
                              de Sampaio                     
 5 Jun 1876 -  1 Jul 1878  Caetano Alexandre de Almeida       (b. 1824 - d. 1894)
                             e Albuquerque
 1 Jul 1878 -  8 Jul 1880  Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses (b. 1822 - d. 1905)
 8 Jul 1880 -  7 Jun 1882  António Eleutério Dantas           (b. 1835 - d. 1882)
 7 Jun 1882 - 30 Aug 1882  Governing Council
                           - José Sebastião de Almeida Neto
                           - Miguel Gomes de Almeida 
(2nd time)
                              (president of Governing Council)

                           - Adelino Antero de Sá (1st time)  (b. 1862 - d. 1887)
                           - Joaquim José Coelho de Carvalho 
30 Aug 1882 - 15 Nov 1885  Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do      (b. 1844 - d. 1923)
                             Amaral
15 Nov 1885 - 27 Jan 1886  Guilherme Gomes Coelho (acting)
10 Jan 1886 - 30 Apr 1886  Governing Council
                           - Ant
ónio Tomás da Silva Leitão e  (b. 1848 - d. 1901)
                               Castro (president of Governing Council)
                           - Adelino Antero de Sá (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           - Onofre de Paiva Andrade  
                           - Guilherme Gomes Coelho                       
30 Apr 1886 - 25 Aug 1892  Guilherme Auguste de Brito Capêlo  (b. 1839 - d. 1926)
                             (1st time)
25 Aug 1892 -  1 Oct 1893  Jaime Lôbo de Brito Godins
                             (1st time)(acting)
 1 Oct 1893 - 21 Nov 1894 
Álvaro Antonio da Costa Ferreira   (b. 1853 - d. 1933)
                             (1st time)
21 Nov 1894 – 15 Apr 1895  Francisco Eugenio Pereira de       (d. 1895)
                             Miranda (acting) 
15 Apr 1895 – 14 Jun 1896  Álvaro Ant
ónio da Costa Ferreira   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)           
17 Jun 1896 - 17 Feb 1897  Guilherme Auguste de Brito Capêlo  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
17 Feb 1897 - 18 Feb 1897  Jaime Lôbo de Brito Godins
                             (2nd time)(acting)
18 Feb 1897 – 13 Apr 1897  Governing Council
                           - Ant
ónio Dias Ferreira
                           - Ant
ónio Maria Vieira Lisboa
                           - José Maria Pinto da Costa
                           - Lourenço Justiniano Padrel       (b. 1846 - d. 1911)
13 Apr 1897 - 23 Oct 1900  António Duarte Ramada Curto        (b. 1848 - d. 1921) 
                             (1st time)
23 Oct 1900 - 26 May 1903  Francisco Xavier Cabral de         (b. 1859 - d. 1908) 
                             Moncada
26 May 1903 - 17 Mar 1904  Eduardo Augusto Ferreira da Costa  (b. 1865 - d. 1907)
                             (1st time)
17 Mar 1904 - 16 Dec 1904  Custódio Miguel de Borja           (b. 1849 - d. 1911)
16 Dec 1904 - 24 Mar 1906  António Duarte Ramada Curto        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
24 Mar 1906 - 30 May 1906  Ernesto Augusto Gomes de Sousa
                             (1st time)(acting)
30 May 1906 -  1 May 1907  Eduardo Augusto Ferreira da Costa  (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
 1 May 1907
-  1 May 1907  Governing Council
                           -
António Barbosa Leão
                           - Francisco A. Almeida
                           - Valeriano José da Silva
 
1 May 1907 – 17 Jun 1907  Ernesto Augusto Gomes de Sousa
                             (2nd time)(acting)      
17 Jun 1907 - 16 Jun 1909  Henrique Mitchell de Paiva         (b. 1861 - d. 1944)
                             Couceiro 
26 Jun 1909 - 25 Aug 1909  Álvaro António da Costa Ferreira   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(acting)
25 Aug 1909 - 16 Dec 1909  Governing Council
                           - João Evangelista de Lima Vidal   (b. 1874 - d. 1958)
                             (president of Governing Council)
                           - Manuel Pereira Pimenta de Sousa
                               e Castro
                           - Francisco Maria Cabral de França      
16 Dec 1909 - 26 Oct 1910  José Augusto Alves Roçadas         (b. 1865 - d. 1926)
26 Oct 1910 - 18 Jan 1911  Caetano Francisco Cláudio Eugénio  (b. 1868 - d. 1953)
                             Gonçalves (acting)
18 Jan 1911 - 26 Feb 1912  Manuel Maria Coelho                (b. 1857 - d. 1943)
26 Feb 1912 -  7 Mar 1912  Manuel Luís Moreira da Fonseca     (b. 1877 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
 7 Mar 1912 - 17 Jun 1912  Ant
ónio Eduardo Romeiras de Macedo (b. 1870 - d. 19..)
17 Jun 1912 -  8 Mar 1915  José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton   (b. 1867 - d. 1955)
                             de Matos (1st time)
14 Mar 1914 -  2 Sep 1914  António Nogueira Mimoso Guerra     (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
                             (acting for Norton de Matos)
 8 Mar 1915 - 20 Mar 1915  Mário Teixeira Malheiros (acting)
20 Mar 1915 - 10 Oct 1915  António Júlio da Costa Pereira de
  (b. 1852 - d. 1917)
                             Eça                            
10 Oct 1915 - 14 Oct 1915  Government Council
                           - Manuel do Sacramento Monteiro    (b. 1861 - d. 1944)
                           - Alberto Barbosa de Queirós
                           - Mário Teixeira Malheiros
14 Oct 1915 -  5 Apr 1916  Fernando Pais Teles de Utra        (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
                             Machado (acting)
 5 Apr 1916 - 19 Oct 1917  Pedro Francisco Massano do Amorim  (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
19 Oct 1917 - 14 Sep 1918  Jaime Alberto de Castro Morais     (b. 1882 - d. 1973)
14 Sep 1918 - 10 May 1919  Filomeno da Câmara Melo Cabral     (b. 1873 - d. 1934)
                             (1st time)
10 May 1919 - 24 Jul 1919  Ant
ónio Nogueira Mimoso Guerra     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
25 Jul 1919 – 29 Apr 1920  Francisco Coelho do Amaral Reis,   (b. 1873 - d. 1938)
                             visconde de Pedralva                    
29 Apr 1920 - 16 Oct 1920  Isidoro Pedro Leger Pereira Leite  (b. 1866 - d. 1944)
                             (acting)
16 Oct 1920 – 18 Mar 1921  José Inácio da Silva (acting)
18 Mar 1921 - 16 Apr 1921  José de Abreu Barbosa Bacelar      (b. 1866 - d. 1946)
                             (acting) 
High commissioners and Governors-general
16 Apr 1921 - 18 Sep 1923  José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton   (s.a.)
                             de Matos (2nd time)
18 Jul 1922 - 18 Oct 1922  Miguel de Almeida Santos
                             (acting for Norton de Matos)
18 Sep 1923 – 15 Aug 1924  Miguel de Almeida Santos (acting)  
14 Aug 1924 -  6 Sep 1924  João Augusto Crispiniano Soares
 6 Sep 1924 - 10 Jun 1925  Antero Tavares de Carvalho (interim)
10 Jun 1925 - 21 Jan 1926  Francisco da Cunha Rêgo Chaves     (b. 1881 - d. 1941)
21 Jan 1926 - 16 Sep 1926  Artur de Sales Henriques (acting)           
16 Sep 1926 -  2 Nov 1928  António Vicente Ferreira           (b. 1874 - d. 1953)
 5 Nov 1928 -  2 Feb 1929  António Damas Móra (acting)        (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
 2 Feb 1929 -  4 Mar 1930  Filomeno da Câmara Melo Cabral     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 4 Mar 1930 – 31 Mar 1930  Genipro da Cunha de Eça Costa
     (b. 1878 - d. 1945)
                             Freitas e Almeida (acting)
31 Mar 1930 –  3 Jul 1930  Bento Esteves Roma                 (b. 1884 - d. 1953)
 3 Jul 1930 -  4 Sep 1931  José Dionísio Carneiro de Sousa    (b. 1871 - d. 1962)
                             e Faro
 5 Sep 1931 – Nov 1934     Eduardo Ferreira Viana             (b. 1884 - d. 1953)
                             (acting to 4 Jan 1932)
Apr 1933 – Nov 1933        Ernesto Gonçalves Amaro            (b. 1881 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Viana)

28 Nov 1934 - 10 Feb 1935  Júlio Garcês de Lencastre          (b. 1882 - d. 1970)
10 Feb 1935 -  7 Jan 1939  António Lopes Mateus               (b. 1877 - d. 1955)
Aug 1936 – Jan 1937        Vasco Lopes Alves
                             (acting for Matheus)

 
7 Jan 1939 – 30 May 1939  José Diogo Ferreira Martins
                             (acting)
30 May 1939 - 29 Dec 1941  Manuel da Cunha e Costa Marques    (b. 1894 - d. 1957)
                             Mano
 
9 Mar 1941 - 24 Aug 1941  Abel de Abreu Sotto-Mayor          (b. 1882 - d. 1967)
                             (acting for Mano)
29 Dec 1941 -  9 May 1942  Abel de Abreu Sotto-Mayor (acting) (s.a.)
 9 May 1942 - 26 Jun 1943  Álvaro de Freitas Morna            (b. 1885 - d. 1961)
Jun 1943 - Sep 1943        José Ferreira Rodrigues de       
                            
Figueiredo dos Santos (acting)
Sep 1943 - Oct 1943        Manuel Pereira Figueira (acting)
Oct 1943 - Sep 1947        Vasco Lopes Alves                  (b. 1898 - d. 1976)
Sep 1947 - 19 Sep 1947     Fernando Falcão Pacheco Mena       (b. 1897 - d. 19..)
19 Sep 1947 - 15 Aug 1955  José Agapito da Silva Carvalho     (b. 1897 - d. 1957)
 1 Dec 1950 – Mar 1951     José António Fernandes
                             (acting for Carvalho)
Aug 1951 – Sep 1951        José António Fernandes
                             (acting for Carvalho)
15 Aug 1955 – 12 Sep 1955  Manuel da Cruz Alvura (1st time)
                             (acting)  
11 Sep 1955 - 17 Feb 1956  Manuel de Gusmão de Mascarenhas    (b. 1901 - d. 1971)
                             Gaivão
17 Feb 1956 - Aug 1959     Horácio José de Sá Viana Rebelo    (b. 1910 - d. 1995)
Aug 1959 – 16 Feb 1960     Francisco Avelar Maia de Loureiro  (b. 1911 - d. ....)
                             (acting)
16 Feb 1960 - 14 Jun 1961  Álvaro Rodrigues da Silva Tavares  (b. 1915 - d. 2011)
Sep 1960 - Nov 1960        Gustavo Neto de Miranda            (b. 1914 - d. ....)
                             (acting for Tavares)
Jun 1961                   Manuel da Cruz Alvura (2nd time)
                             (acting for Tavares)
14 Jun 1961 – 23 Jun 1961  Carlos Miguel Lopes da Silva       (b. 1907 - d. 1961)
                             Freire (acting)
23 Jun 1961 -  8 Sep 1962  Venâncio Augusto Deslandes         (b. 1909 - d. 1985)
 8 Sep 1962 –  5 Nov 1962  Francisco Holbeche Fino (acting)   (b. 1898 - d. 1979)
 5 Nov 1962 - 27 Oct 1966  Silvino Silvério Marques (1st time)(b. 1918 - d. 2013)
27 Oct 1966 -  1 Nov 1972  Camilo Augusto de Miranda Rebocho  (b. 1920 - d. 1998)
                             Vaz
 
1 Nov 1972 - 26 Apr 1974  Fernando Augusto Santos Castro     (b. 1922 - d. 1983)
26 Apr 1974 - 15 Jun 1974  Joaquím Franco António Pinheiro    (b. 1915 - d. 2001)
                             (acting)
15 Jun 1974 - 24 Jul 1974  Silvino Silvério Marques (2nd time)(s.a.)
24 Jul 1974 - 28 Jan 1975  António Alva Rosa Coutinho         (b. 1926 - d. 2010)
                             (acting to 29 Nov 1974)
28 Jan 1975 -  2 Aug 1975  António Silva Cardoso              (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
 2 Aug 1975 - 26 Aug 1975  Ernesto António Luís Ferreira do   (b. 1920) 
                             Macedo (acting)
26 Aug 1975 - 10 Nov 1975  Leonel Alexandre Gomes Cardoso     (b. 1919 - d. 1988) 
Presidents 
11 Nov 1975 - 10 Sep 1979  António Agostinho Neto             (s.a.)               MPLA-PT 
10 Sep 1979 - 26 Sep 2017  José Eduardo dos Santos            (s.a.)               MPLA-PT 
                             (acting to 21 Sep 1979)
26 Sep 2017 -              João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço     (b. 1954)            MPLA-PT

Presidential Council of the Transitional Government
31 Jan 1975 - 14 Aug 1975  Lopo Fortunato Ferreira do         (b. 1942)            MPLA
                             Nascimento 
                            + José de Assunção Alberto Ndele  (b. 1940 - d. 2000)  UNITA
                            + Johnny Eduardo Pinnock          (b. 1942 - d. 2000)  FNLA
                           (chairmen in rotation)
Prime ministers
11 Nov 1975 -  9 Dec 1978  Lopo Fortunato Ferreira do         (s.a.)               MPLA-PT 
                             Nascimento
 
9 Dec 1978 - 19 Jul 1991  Post abolished
19 Jul 1991 -  2 Dec 1992  Fernando José de França Dias       (b. 1934 - d. 2024)  MPLA-PT 
                             Van-Dúnem (1st time)
 2 Dec 1992 -  8 Jun 1996  Marcolino José Carlos Moco         (b. 1953)            MPLA-PT 
 
8 Jun 1996 - 29 Jan 1999  Fernando José de França Dias       (s.a.)               MPLA-PT 
                             Van-Dúnem (2nd time)
29 Jan 1999 -  6 Dec 2002  Vacant
 6 Dec 2002 - 30 Sep 2008  Fernando "Nando" da Piedade D
ías   (b. 1952)            MPLA-PT
                             dos Santos
30 Sep 2008 -  5 Feb 2010  António Paulo Kassoma
             (b. 1951)            MPLA-PT
 5 Feb 2010 -              Post abolished

Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile 

[Angola - FNLA]

 5 Apr 1962                  Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile (Govêrno
                               Revolucionário de Angola no Exílio)(GRAE) founded.
11 Aug 1963 - 23 Jun 1971    Recognized as the legitimate government of Angola by the
                               Organization of African Unity (OAU).
11 Nov 1975                  Merged into the Democratic and People's Republic of Angola.

Prime minister (and from 13 Dec 1972, Chairman of Supreme Council for Liberation of Angola)
 5 Apr 1962 - 11 Nov 1975  Álvaro Holden Roberto             (b. 1923 - d. 2007)  FNLA
                             (provisional)(in Léopoldville
                             [from 1966, Kinshasa], Congo exile)

Territorial Dispute: Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Party abbreviations: FNLA = Frente Nacional de Libertação para de Angola (National Front for the Liberation of Angola, northern regionalist, est.28 Mar 1962); MPLA-PT = Movimento Popular da Libertação de Angola - Partido de Trabalho (People's Liberation Movement of Angola-Party of Labor, social democratic, formerly Marxist-Leninist Communist Oct 1976-Dec 1990, state party Nov 1975-26 Mar 1991, est.10 Dec 1956); UNITA = União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, authoritarian/conservative, mainly ethnic Ovimbundu, est.13 Mar 1966)


Counter government: Democratic and People's Republic of Angola
   

[Angola - UNITA;
                        Free Algeria de facto flag 1975-2002]
De facto Flag 1979 - 2002

11 Nov 1975                Democratic and People's Republic of Angola (República Democrática
                             e Popular de Angola) declares independence (capitals at Ambriz
                             and Huambo to 1976, Jamba 1976-Oct 1991,
Huambo 1992-9 Nov 1994,
                             Bailundo 1994 - 21 Oct 1999, and Munhango 1999-2002)
under the
                           
  FNLA and UNITA in opposition to the MPLA backed People's Republic
                            
of Angola government.
 8 Feb 1976                Angolan government forces seize Huambo.
11 Feb 1976 - 1979         Suppressed by Angolan government when it overruns FNLA positions

                             in the north and UNITA strongholds in the south.
1979                       Democratic People's Republic of Angola (República Popular
                             Democrática de Angola).
31 May 1991 - 30 Nov 1992  Brief end to civil war, which resumes after disputed
elections.
 6 Mar 1993 -  9 Nov 1994  Huambo re-occupied by UNITA.
20 Nov 1994                Cease-fire agreement signed at Lusaka (not fully implemented).

24 Dec 1999                Angolan government forces seize Jamba.
 4 Apr 2002                Dissolved, cease-fire ends Angolan civil war. UNITA demobilizes
                             forces Aug 2002.

Presidents of the Joint National Council for the Revolution
11 Nov 1975 - 11 Feb 1976  Álvaro Holden Roberto              (b. 1923 - d. 2007)  FNLA

                           + Jonás Malheiro Savimbi           (b. 1934 - d. 2002)  UNITA
11 Feb 1976 - 1979         Suppressed
Presidents of the National Council of the Revolution
1979 - 22 Feb 2002         Jonás Malheiro Savimbi             (s.a.)               UNITA

22 Feb 2002 -  3 Mar 2002  António Sebastião Dembo            (b. 1944 - d. 2002)  UNITA
 3 Mar 2002 -  4 Apr 2002  Paulo Armindo Lukamba "Gato"       (b. 1954)            UNITA
                             (chairman of managerial commission; acting)

Prime ministers
23 Nov 1975 - 11 Feb 1976  José de Assunção Alberto Ndele     (b. 1940 - d. 2000)  UNITA
                           + Johnny Eduardo Pinnock           (b. 1942 - d. 2000)  FNLA

Party abbreviations: FNLA = Frente Nacional para a Libertação de Angola (National Front for the Liberation of Angola, northern regionalist, est.28 Mar 1962); UNITA = União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, authoritarian, conservative, anti-communist, primarily ethnic Ovimbundu, est.13 Mar 1966)


Cabinda

Map of Cabinda
FLEC National Anthem
"Cabinda Pátria Imortal"
(Cabinda Immortal
 Homeland)
Text of  FLEC Anthem
Adopted 1975
Constitution
Capital: Cabinda City
(Tchiowa)
(Maquela do Zambo
1917-1946)
Currency: Kwanza
(AOA)
(FELC - Republic of
 Cabinda Ibinda)
FLEC National Holiday
1 Aug (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 779,383 (2017)
81,000 (1971)
GDP: $N/A
(included within Angola figures)
Ethnic groups: Bakongo, Ibinda, Lindji, Oyo,
Kotchi, Yombe, Sundi, Lumbo, Mayombe, others
FLEC Armed Forces: 600,
claims 5,000 (2002) 
Religions: mainly Roman Catholic, Protestant,
traditional beliefs
International Organizations: None; FLEC: UNPO (1997-2011)
29 Sep 1883                Cabinda a Portuguese protectorate (Portuguese Congo [Congo
                             português
]).

14 Feb 1885                Portuguese possession confirmed by the Berlin Conference.
18 Jul 1885                Portuguese Congo district created (seat: Cabinda).
31 May 1887                Cabinda constituted as a circunscrição administrativa within the
                             Congo district, having a its own special resident.
1919                       Made a separate district of Cabinda (distrito de Cabinda).
 4 May 1921                Angola divided into 11 districts (subdivided into circunscriçoês),
                             Cabinda re-incorporated into the Congo district (by carta
                             orgânica da província).
Mar 1922                   District of Zaire (Distrito do Zaire) created, the Intendancy of
                             Cabinda
becomes part of the Zaire district.
1930                       Intendancy of Zaire and Cabinda (Intendência do Zaire e Cabinda).
1932                       With the integration of districts of Zaire and Congo, the
                             Intendancy of Cabinda becomes directly dependent on the
                             governor-general of Angola.
19 Mar 1933                The new Portuguese fundamental law maintains distinction
                             between Angola and Cabinda among its overseas provinces.
 1 Jul 1934                Angola divided into 14 districts (by reforma administrativa
                             ultramarina)(Distrito de Cabinda).
1936                       Angola divied into 5 provinces: Luanda (districts: Luanda, Cuanza
                             Norte, Congo, Zaire and Cabinda), Malanje, Benguela, Bié, Hula.
1946                       District of Cabinda (distrito de Cabinda) restored.
28 May 1956                Cabinda administratively incorporated into Angola.
10 Jan 1967                FLEC establishes a Cabindan Provisional Revolutionary Government
                            (Governo Provisório Revolucionário Fiote no Exílio) at Tshela
                             in Congo (Kinshasa) exile.
19 Sep 1974                MPLA announced the annexation of the Cabinda region to Angola.
 1 Nov 1974                MPLA occupies Cabinda city.
15 Jan 1975                Portugal meets with Angolan factions (MPLA, FNLA and UNITA) and
                             under Alvor Agreement all recognize Cabinda as part of Angola.
 1 Aug 1975                Independence is declared by FLECLEC-Rouge (Republic of Cabinda
                             [
República de Cabinda/Kilansi kia cabinda]) in exile (not
                             recognized by Portugal or by other Angolan factions).

 
1 Nov 1975                Luis Ranque Franque, and his FLEC faction in Kinshasa, declare the
                             independence of the Cabinda enclave from Angola and Portugal
                             (not effected).      
Nov 1975 - 1991            Cuban soldiers deployed in support of Angola's MPLA government.
11 Nov 1975                Cabinda part of independent Angola (Province of Cabinda [Província
                             de Cabinda]
).
 4 Jan 1976                Angola (MPLA) government forces complete occupation of Cabinda.
 1 May 1977                Cabindan independence again declared by Henriques Tiago Nzita's

                             FLEC faction (with no effect).
16 Oct 1977                "Independent State of Liberated Areas of Cabinda" declared by
                             Luis Franque's FLEC faction (with no effect).
 1 Aug 2006                Angolan government signs Namibe agreement with the Cabinda Forum
                             for Dialogue involving a "special status" for Cabinda, within
                             the limits of Angola's centralized constitution (not recognized
                             by all of FLEC or other factions). 
Residents in Cabinda
1885 - 1886                Jaime Pereira de Sampaio Forjaz    (b. 1855 - d. 1921)
                             de Serpa Pimentel 
1890 - 1892                José António de Miranda 
                             (did not take office)
1892 - 1897                João Francisco Nunes
1897                       Luís Gonzaga Ribeiro               (b. 1864 - d. 1927)
1899                       Henrique Quirino da Fonseca        (b. 1868 - d. 1939)
Governors of Congo district
14 Jul 1887 - 17 Sep 1888  José António de Brissac das        (b. 1846 - d. 1902)
                             Neves Ferreira
17 Sep 1888 - 30 Apr 1889  Francisco Eugenio Pereira da
                             Trindade (1st time)(acting)
30 Apr 1889 - 18 Jan 1890  António d'Azevedo e Vasconcelos 

18 Jan 1890 - 22 Mar 1890  Francisco Eugenio Pereira da
                             Trindade (2nd time)(acting)
22 Mar 1890 - 19 May 1893  António Sérgio de Sousa 

19 May 1893 -  8 Jun 1893  Francisco Carneiro (acting)
 8 Jun 1893 - 20 Mar 1895  Nuno de Freitas Queriol (1st time) (b. 1855 - d. 1924)

20 Mar 1895 -  1 May 1895  Joaquim Alcáçovas de Sousa
                             Chichorro (acting)
 
1 May 1895 - 30 Apr 1896  Jaime Pereira de Sampaio Forjaz    (s.a.)
                             de Serpa Pimenta
 
1 May 1896 - 10 Jun 1896  Ernesto Augusto Gomes de Sousa 
                             (1st time)
10 Jun 1896 - Nov 1896     Nuno de Freitas Queriol (2nd time) (s.a.)
26 Nov 1896 - Mar 1897     Joaquim da Graça Correia Lança
 5 Mar 1897 - 12 Sep 1897  Ernesto Augusto Gomes de Sousa 

                             (2nd time)
12 Sep 1897 -  9 Oct 1897 
Luís Gonzaga Ribeiro (acting)      (s.a.)
 
9 Oct 1897 - 10 Nov 1900  Luís Bernardino Leitão Xavier      (b. 1954 - d. 1914)
19 Sep 1900 - 19 Oct 1900  Joaquim Ferreira Moutinho
                             (did not take office)

19 Oct 1900 - 30 Oct 1900  João Maria d'Aguiar
                             (did not take office)
 
1 Nov 1900 - 17 Mar 1901  Augusto Pereira do Valle (interim)
30 Nov 1900                Jaime da Fonseca Monteiro          (b. 1870 - d. 1938)

                             (did not take office)
17 Mar 1901 - 1901         Pedro d'Azevedo Coutinho

12 Sep 1901 - 1901         Raúl Correia de Betancourt Furtado 
                            
(interim)
1901 - 1902                João dos Santos Pereira Jardim     (b. 1860 - d. 19..)
Governors of the District of Cabinda
1946 - 1949                Raúl de Lima 
1949 - 1956                Ismael Pais
1956                       João Baptista Duarte Pinheira
1956 - 1957                Jaime António Tavares Machado
                             Banazol
1957 - 1958                Norberto Augusto Lopes
1959 - 1961                José Paulo Paixão Barradas         (b. 1916)
1961 - 1963                Júlio de Araújo Ferreira           (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
1964 - 1965                Artur João Cabral Carmona          (b. 1916 - d. 1978)
 6 Aug 1965 - 1966         Augusto
Adriano Pires              (b. 192.)
1966 - 1968                João Tiroa 
Feb 1968 - 1970            Américo Agostinho Mendonça Frazão
                             (acting to 12 Jun 1968)
20 Apr 1970 - 1971         Eurico Ferreira Gonçalves          (b. 1916 - d. 2005)
 1 Sep 1971 - 1972         João António Pinheiro              (b. 1921 - d. 2009) 
1972 - 1975                Manuel Freire Themudo Barata       (b. 1919 - d. 2003)
Provincial Commissioners of Cabinda Province
1975 - 1978                Evaristo Domingos "Kimba"          (b. 1944 - d. 2011)  MPLA-PT
1979 - 1980                Luís Doukui Paulo de Castro        (b. 1940 - d. 2005)  MPLA-PT
1980 - 1982                Manuel Francisco Tuta "Batalha de  (b. 1943)            MPLA-PT
                             Angola" 
1982 - 1984                Armando Fandame N'dembo                                 MPLA-PT
1984 - 1989                Jorge Barros Chimpuati (Tchimpuaty)(b. 1943 - d. 2011)  MPLA-PT
1989 - 1990                Maria Mambo Café (f)               (b. 1945 - d. 2013)  MPLA-PT
Jan 1990 - 1991            Augusto da Silva Tomás             (b. 1957)            MPLA-PT
Governors of Cabinda Province

1991 - 1995                Augusto da Silva Tomás             (s.a.)               MPLA-PT
Jan 1995 - Apr 2002        José Amaro Tati                    (b. 1957)            MPLA-PT 
Apr 2002 - 2009            José Aníbal Lopes Rocha            (b. 1948)            MPLA-PT
 1 Dec 2009 - 2012         Mawete João Baptista               (b. 1968)            MPLA-PT
Oct 2012 - 2017            Aldina Matilde Barros da Lomba     (b. 1964)            MPLA-PT
                             Katembo (f)
28 Sep 2017 - 2019         Eugénio César Laborinho            (b. 1955)            MPLA-PT
26 Jul 2019 - 2022         Marcos Alexandre Nhunga            (b. 1960)            MPLA-PT
16 Sep 2022 -              Mara Regina da Silva Baptista      (b. 1980)            MPLA-PT
                             Domingos Quiosa (f)
 

Cabindan Governments in Exile 

[Front for the
                        Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda 1974 flag]
FLEC flag from 1974


Presidents
10 Aug 1974 - Mar 1975     (José) Auguste Tchioufou                                FLEC-Rouge
                             (in Pointe-Noire, Congo [Brazzaville] exile)
Mar 1975 - Aug 1975        Alfred Raoul                       (b. 1938 - d. 1999)  FLEC-Rouge
                             (in Pointe-Noire, Congo [Brazzaville] exile) 
 1 Aug 1975 - Jan 1976     Luís Ranque Franque                (b. 1925 - d. 2007)  FLEC
                             (in Congo [Kinshasa] exile)
Chairman of the
Cabindan Revolutionary Committee
 
1 Nov 1975 - Jan 1976     Henriques Tiago N'Zita             (b. 1927 - d. 2016)  FLEC-FAC
                             (in opposition; in Pointe-Noire, Congo [Brazzaville] exile)

Prime minister of the Provisional Revolutionary Government
10 Jan 1967 - Jul 1975     Pedro Simba Macosso                (b. 1927)            FLEC
                            (in Tshela, Congo [Kinshasa] exile)
Prime minister of the Republic of Cabinda
Jul 1975 - Jan 1976        Francisco Xavier Lubota            (b. 1942? - d. 2006) FLEC
                            (provisional to 1 Aug 1975; in Congo [Kinshasa] exile)

Party abbreviations: FELC = Frente de Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda (Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda, separatist movement for national liberation of Cabinda, split 1976-Sep 2004 into FLEC-FAC, and FLEC-Renovada, est.4 Aug 1963); FLEC-FAC = Frente de Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda-Forças Armadas de Cabinda (Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda-Armed Forces of Cabinda, Henriques Tiago N'Zita personalist, split from FLEC, 1975-Sep 2004, merged into FLEC); FLEC-RougeFront de Libération de l'Enclave du Cabinda-Rouge (Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda-Red, split from FLEC, supported by Société Elf-Erap [a Franco-Congolese oil company] and Congo [Brazzaville], 30 Jun 1974-c.1981); MPLA-PT = Movimento Popular da Libertação de Angola - Partido de Trabalho (People's Liberation Movement of Angola-Party of Labor, social democratic, formerly Marxist-Leninist Communist Oct 1976-Dec 1990, state party Nov 1975-26 Mar 1991, est.10 Dec 1956)






© Ben Cahoon