World Statesmen.org HOME >



 



 
 

 

Chile
 
[Spanish War
                            Ensign (1785-1931)]
  to 30 Sep 1812, 29 Sep 1814 - 12 Jan 1818
 
[ Flag of
                            Chile, 1812-1814]
           30 Sep 1812 - 11 May 1814 
 
[1817 Flag of Chile]
            25 May 1817 - 18 Oct 1817
 
[Flag of
                            Chile, 1817-1912]
           18 Oct 1817 - 11 Jan 1912
 
[Flag of Chile]
                Adopted 11 Jan 1912
 
Map of Chile Hear National Anthem
"Himno Nacional de Chile"
 (National Anthem of Chile)

Adopted 17 Sep 1847
Former National Anthem
 "Canción Nacional Chilena"
 (National Song of Chile)
(20 Aug 1820-17 Sep 1847)
Constitution
  (11 Mar 1981; in Spanish)
---------------------------------------
Former Constitutions
(1814, 1818, 1833, 1925)
Capital: Santiago de Chile
Legislative Capital: Valparaíso
(from 1987)¹
Currency: Chilean Peso (CLP);
1960-75 Chilean Escudo (CLE);
1851-1960 Chilean Peso/
Condor (CLC)
National Holiday: 18 Sep (1810)
Independence Day
Population: 17,216,945 (2013)
GDP: $335.4 billion (2013)
Exports: $77.9 billion (2013)
Imports: $75.7 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: white and non-indigenous 88.9%, Mapuche 9.1%,
 Aymara 0.7%, other indigenous groups 1% (includes Rap
 Nui, Likan Antai, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Kawesqar, Yagan
or Yamana), unspecified 0.3% (2012)
Total Active Armed Forces: 60,562 (2010)
Merchant marine: 42 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 66.7%, Evangelical or
Protestant 16.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other 3.4%,
none 11.5%, unspecified 1.1% (2012)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), ANT, APEC, APM, BIS, BTWC, CAN (associate), CCM, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, LAIA, LAP, LU, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, PA, PCA, SEGIB, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Chile Index
Chronology

12 Feb 1541                Spanish found Santiago de Nueva Extremadura in
                             Chile (later called Nueva Extremadura,
                             Captaincy-general of Chile, Gobernación de Chile,
                             Reino de Chile, province of Chile).
1541                       Chile subordinated to Peru.
1554                       Reino de Chile created for Felipe II de España.
1565 - 25 Jun 1575         Audiencia of Concepción (province of Chile).
 8 Sep 1609                Audiencia of Santiago (province of Chile).
1778                       Chile autonomous from Peru.  
18 Sep 1810                Municipal Council of Santiago establishes
                             self-government loyal to Fernando VII.
 2 Oct 1814 - 12 Feb 1817  Spanish reconquest.
12 Feb 1818                Independence proclaimed in Santiago de Chile
                             and Talca; dated in Concepción, 1 Jan 1818
                            (State of Chile).
14 Jul 1826                Republic of Chile
25 Apr 1844                Independence recognized by Spain.
 4 Jun 1932 - 13 Sep 1932  Socialist Republic of Chile
20 Oct 1883                Annexes the Bolivian Pacific coast and Antofagasta,
                             and also Tarapaca, Tacna (restored to Peru
                             28 Aug 1929) and Arica from Peru.
 9 Sep 1888                Annexes Easter Island.

 Easter Island
(Isla de Pascua)
Chilean
Antarctica

Juan Fernández
Islands

Chiloé Island
(1817-1826)
Araucanía
(1860-1903)
 
 
 
 
 

Governors
Aug 1540 - Dec 1547        Pedro de Valdivia (1st time)       (b. 1497 - d. 1553)
Dec 1547 - Jul 1549        Francisco de Villagra Velásquez    (b. 1511 - d. 1563) 
                             (1st time)
20 Jul 1549 - 25 Dec 1553  Pedro de Valdivia (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Dec 1553 - Feb 1555        Francisco de Villagra Velásquez    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
                           + Rodrigo de Quiroga López Ulloa   (b. 1512 - d. 1580) 
                             (1st time)(acting)
Dec 1553 - Feb 1555        Francisco de Aguirre de Meneses    (b. 1508 - d. 1581)
                             (in opposition)
Feb 1555 - May 1556        Jerónimo de Alderete               (b. 1516 - d. 1556)
                             (did not take office)
Feb 1555 - Apr 1557        Francisco de Villagra Velásquez    (s.a.) 
                             (3rd time)(acting to May 1556) 
Apr 1557 - Feb 1561        García Hurtado de Mendoza,         (b. 1535 - d. 1609) 
                             marqués de Cañete
Feb 1561 - 22 Jun 1563     Francisco de Villagra Velásquez    (s.a.) 
                             (4th time) 
Jun 1563 - Jun 1565        Pedro de Villagra y Martínez       (b. 1513 - d. 1577)
                             (acting) 
Jun 1565 - Aug 1567        Rodrigo de Quiroga López Ulloa     (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time) 
Aug 1567 - Jan 1575        Melchor Bravo de Saravia y         (b. 1512 - d. 1577)
                             Sotomayor
                            (president of the Real Audiencia to Aug 1568)
Jan 1575 - Feb 1580        Rodrigo de Quiroga López Ulloa     (s.a.) 
                             (3rd time)
Feb 1580 - Jul 1583        Martín Ruiz de Gamboa de Berriz    (b. 1533 - d. 1590)
Sep 1583 - Jul 1592        Alonso de Sotomayor de Valmediano  (b. 1545 - d. 1610)
Jul 1592 - 22 Nov 1598     Martín García Oñez de Loyola       (b. 1549 - d. 1598) 
Dec 1598 - May 1599        Pedro de Viscarra de la Barrera
May 1599 - Jul 1600        Francisco de Quiñónes              (b. 1540 - d. 1606)
30 Jul 1600 - Feb 1601     Alonso García de Ramón (1st time)  (b. c.1552 - d. 1610) 
Feb 1601 - Mar 1605        Alonso de Ribera de Pareja         (b. 1560 - d. 1617)
                             (1st time) (acting) 
Mar 1605 -  5 Aug 1610     Alonso García de Ramón (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 2 Sep 1610 - 15 Jan 1611  Luis Merlo de la Fuente y Ruíz     (b. 1558 - d. 1638)
Jan 1611 - 27 Mar 1612     Juan de la Jaraquemada (acting)    (b. c.1560 - d. 1612)
Mar 1612 -  9 Mar 1617     Alonso de Ribera de Pareja         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
Mar 1617 - Jan 1618        Fernando Talaverano Gallegos       (b. 1563 - d. 1619)
Jan 1618 -  8 Dec 1620     Lope de Ulloa y Lemos              (b. 1572? - d. 1620) 
Dec 1620 - Nov 1621        Cristóbal de la Cerda y Sotomayor  (b. 1585? - d. 1638)
Nov 1621 -  7 Sep 1624     Pedro Osores de Ulloa              (b. 1554 - d. 1624)
Sep 1624 - May 1625        Francisco de Álava y Nureña        (b. c.1567 - d. 16..) 
                             (acting)
May 1625 - Dec 1629        Luís Fernández de Córdoba y Arce   (b. 1589 - d. c.1644)
Dec 1629 - May 1639        Francisco Lasso de la Vega         (b. 1568 - d. 1640)
                             Alvarado
May 1639 - May 1646        Francisco López de Zúñiga,         (b. 1599 - d. 1656)
                             marqués de Baides 
May 1646 - Apr 1649        Martín de Mújica y Buitrón         (d. 1649)
Apr 1649 - May 1650        Alonso Figueroa y Córdoba          (b. 1589? - d. 1652) 
May 1650 - Jan 1655        Francisco Antonio de Acuña         (b. 1597 - d. 1662)
                             Cabrera y Bayona
Feb 1655 - 1656            Francisco de la Fuente Villalobos  (b. 1582 - d. 1659)
19 May 1656 - 27 Feb 1662  Pedro Pórter Cesanete              (b. 1611 - d. 1662)
27 Feb 1662 - 22 May 1662  Diego González Montero Justiniano  (b. 1588 - d. 1671)
                             (1st time)(acting)
May 1662 - Jan 1664        Ángel de Peredo                    (b. 1623 - d. 1677)
Jan 1664 - 25 Dec 1667     Francisco de Meneses Brito         (b. 1615 - d. 1672) 
25 Dec 1667 - Feb 1670     Diego Dávila Coello y Pacheco,     (b. c.1621 - d. c.1680)
                             marqués de Navamorcuende 
14 Feb 1670 - Oct 1670     Diego González Montero Justiniano  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
Oct 1670 - Apr 1682        Juan Henríquez de Villalobos       (b. 1630 - d. 1689)
29 Apr 1682 - Jan 1692     Marcos José de Garro Senei de      (b. 1623 - d. 1702) 
                             Artola
 5 Jan 1692 - Dec 1700     Tomás Marín de Poveda,             (b. 1650 - d. 1703)
                             marqués de Cañada Hermosa
14 Dec 1700 - Jan 1709     Francisco Ibáñez de Segovia y      (b. 1644 - d. 1712)
                             Peralta 
27 Jan 1709 - 23 Dec 1716  Juan Andrés de Ustáriz de          (b. 1656 - d. 1712)
                             Vertizberea
23 Dec 1716 - 16 Dec 1717  José de Santiago Concha y          (b. 1667 - d. 1718)
                             Salvatierra (acting)
17 Dec 1717 - 11 Nov 1733  Gabriel Cano de Aponte             (b. 1665 - d. 1733)
Nov 1733 - May 1734        Francisco de Sánchez de la         (b. 1690 - d. 1738)
                             Barreda y Vera (acting)
May 1734 - 15 Nov 1737     Manuel Silvestre de Salamanca      (d. 1775)
                             y Cano (acting)
15 Nov 1737 -  4 Jun 1745  José Antonio Manso de Velasco      (b. 1688 - d. 1767)
                             y Sánchez de Samaniego,
                             conde de Superunda
 4 Jun 1745 - Mar 1746     Francisco José de Ovando y Solís,  (b. 1693 - d. 1755)
                             marqués de Ovando (acting)
25 Mar 1746 - Dec 1755     Domingo Ortíz de Rosas y García    (b. 1683 - d. 1756)
                             de Viallasuso, (from 22 Jun 1754)  
                             conde de Poblaciones
Dec 1755 -  9 Sep 1761     Manuel d'Amat i de Junyent         (b. 1704 - d. 1782)
                             Planella Aimeric y Santa Pau
 9 Sep 1761 -  3 Oct 1762  Félix Ignacio de Berroeta y Torres (d. 1768)
                             (acting)        
 3 Oct 1762 - 17 Jan 1768  Antonio de Guill y Gonzaga         (b. 1715 - d. 1768)
17 Jan 1768 -  3 Mar 1770  Juan de Balmaceda y Censano        (b. 1702 - d. 1778) 
                             Beltrán (acting)
 3 Mar 1770 -  6 Mar 1772  Francisco Javier de Morales y      (b. 1769 - d. 1774)
                             Castejón de Arroyo (acting)
 6 Mar 1772 - 1778         Augustín de Jáuregui y Aldecoa     (b. 1711 - d. 1784)
Governors and Captains-general

1778 -  6 Jul 1780         Augustín de Jáuregui y Aldecoa     (s.a.)
 6 Jul 1780 - 10 Dec 1780  Tomás Álvarez de Acevedo Ordaz     (b. 1735 - d. 1802) 
                             (1st time) (acting)
10 Dec 1780 - Apr 1787     Ambrosio de Benavides Medina       (b. 1718 - d. 1787) 
                             Liñán y Torres
Apr 1787 - May 1788        Tomás Álvarez de Acevedo Ordaz     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
May 1788 - 16 May 1796     Ambrosio O'Higgins y Ballenary,    (b. 1720 - d. 1801)
                             marqués de Osorno
16 May 1796 - 18 Sep 1796  José de Rezabal y Ugarte (acting)
18 Sep 1796 - 21 Jan 1799  Gabriel de Avilés y del Fierro,    (b. 1735 - d. 1810) 
                             marqués de Avilés
Jan 1799 -  6 Apr 1801     Joaquín del Pino Sánchez de Rosas  (b. 1729 - d. 1804) 
                             Romero y Negrete (acting)
 6 Apr 1801 - 31 Dec 1801  José de Santiago Concha Jiménez    (b. 1760 - d. 1835)
                             Lobatón (acting)
31 Dec 1801 - 30 Jan 1802  Francisco Tadeo Díez de Medina     (b. 1725 - d. 1803) 
                             Vidanges (acting)
30 Jan 1802 - Feb 1808     Luís Antonio Muñoz de Guzmán       (b. 1735 - d. 1808)
Feb 1808 - 22 Apr 1808     Juan Rodríguez Ballesteros         (b. 1743 - d. 1818)
                             (acting)
22 Apr 1808 - 16 Jul 1810  Francisco Antonio García Carrasco  (b. 1742 - d. 1813)
                             Díaz
16 Jul 1810 - 18 Sep 1810  Mateo de Toro Zambrano y Ureta,    (b. 1727 - d. 1811)
                             conde de la Conquista (acting)
18 Sep 1810 -  4 Jul 1811  First Junta
                           - Mateo de Toro y Zambrano y       (s.a.)
                               Ureta, conde de la Conquista 
                               (president of the junta)
                           - José Antonio Martínez de         (b. 1731 - d. 1811)
                               Aldunate y Garcés, obispo de
                               Santiago 
                           - Fernando, marqués de la          (b. 1740 - d. 1818)
                               Plata y Orozco 
                           - Juan Martínez de Rozas Correa    (b. 1759 - d. 1813)
                               (1st time)
                           - Ignácio de la Carrera Cuevas     (b. 1747 - d. 1819)
                               (1st time)
                           - Juan Enrique Rosales Fuentes     (b. 1749 - d. 1825)
                               (1st time) 
                           - Francisco Javier de Reina        (b. 1762 - d. 1815?) 
                               Fernandez
 4 Jul 1811 – 20 Jul 1811  Juan Antonio Ovalle                (b. 1750 - d. 1819)
                             (president of National Congress) 
20 Jul 1811 – 11 Aug 1811  Martin Calvo de Encalada y         (b. 1756 - d. 1828)
                             Recabarren
                             (president of National Congress) 
11 Aug 1811 -  4 Sep 1811  Second Junta (Provisional Executive Authority)
                           - Martín Calvo de Encalada y       (s.a.)
                               Recabarren
(1st time)
                              (president of Junta) 
                           - Juan José Aldunate Larraín       (b. 1782 - d. 1875)
                           - Juan Miguel Benavente Bustamante (b. c.1767 - d. 18..) 
                           - Francisco Javier del Solar Puga  (b. 1771 - d. 1831)
 4 Sep 1811 - 16 Nov 1811  Third Junta (Executive Tribunal)
                           - Juan Martínez de Rozas Correa    (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)(president of Junta) 
                           - Martín Calvo Encalada (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           - Juan Enrique Rosales Fuentes     (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)
                           - Juan Mackenna O'Reilly           (b. 1771 - d. 1819)  
                           - José Gaspar Marín y Esquivel     (b. 1772 - d. 1839)
                              (1st time)
16 Nov 1811 -  2 Dec 1811  Fourth Junta
                           - José Miguel Carrera y Verdugo    (b. 1785 - d. 1821)
                               (1st time)(president of Junta) 
                           - José Gaspar Marín y Esquivel     (s.a.)
                               (2nd time) 
                           - Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme      (b. 1776 - d. 1824)
                               (1st time)
 2 Dec 1811 - 13 Dec 1811  
José Miguel Carrera y Verdugo      (s.a.)
13 Dec 1811 - 13 Apr 1813  Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth
Juntas
                           - José Miguel Carrera y Verdugo    (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)(from 1-13 Apr 1813)
                           - José Nicolas de la Cerda y       (b. 1767 - d. 1847) 
                               Santiago Concha 
                               (from 8 Jan 1812)
                           - Ignácio de la Carrera Cuevas     (s.a.)
                               (from 3-12 Oct 1812)(2nd time)
                           - Manuel Manso de Velasco y Santa  (b. 1755 - d. 18..) 
                               Cruz (10-25 Jan 1812)(1st time)
                           - José Santiago Portales Larraín   (b. 1764 - d. 1835)
                               (from 25 Jan 1812)(1st time)
                           - Pedro José Prado Jaraquemada     (b. 1754 - d. 1827) 
                               (1st time)
13 Apr 1813 –  7 Mar 1814  Ninth Junta
                           - José Miguel Carrera y Verdugo    (s.a.)
                               (3rd time)(to Nov 1813)
                           - José Miguel Infante y Rojas      (b. 1778 - d. 1844)
                              
(president of Junta 23 Aug 1813 - 11 Jan 1814)
                           - José Nicolas de la Cerda y       (s.a.) 
                               Santiago Concha
                           - Francisco Antonio Pérez Salas    (b. 1764 - d. 1828)
                           
   (to 9 Oct 1813)
                              
(president of Junta 13 Apr 1813 - 23 Aug 1813)
                           - Manuel Manso de Velasco y Santa  (s.a.) 
                               Cruz (2nd time)
                           - José Santiago Portales Larraín   (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)
                           - Pedro José Prado Jaraquemada     (s.a.) 
                               (2nd time)
                           - Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme      (s.a.) 
                               (from 29 Nov 1813)(2nd time)
                          
- Juan Egaña Risco                 (b. 1769 - d. 1836)
                           - Agustín Manuel de Eyzaguirre
    (b. 1786 - d. 1837)
                               Arechavala
                              (president of Junta from 11 Jan 1814)
                           - José Ignácio Cienfuegos Arteaga  (b. 1762 - d. 1847)
Supreme Directors

 7 Mar 1814 – 14 Mar 1814  Antonio José Ramón de Irisarri     (b. 1786 - d. 1868)
                             Alonso
14 Mar 1814 - 23 Jul 1814  Francisco de la Lastra de la Sotta (b. 1777 - d. 1852)
23 Jul 1814 -  2 Oct 1814  Tenth Junta
                           - José Miguel Carrera y Verdugo    (s.a.)
                              (4th time)
                           - Julián de Uribe Rivas            (b. 1780 - d. 1815)
                           - Manuel Muñoz y Urzúa
Governors and Captains-general
(in opposition to 10 Oct 1814 and from 12 Jan 1817)
- in Chillána, then Concepción -
12 Dec 1812 - 21 May 1813  Antonio Pareja                     (b. 1757 - d. 1813)
21 May 1813 -  1 Jan 1814  Juan Francisco Sánchez             (b. 1757 - d. c.1820)
 1 Jan 1814 - 19 Jul 1814  Gabino Gaínza y Fernández de       (b. 1753 - d. 1829)
                             Medrano                    
19 Jul 1814 - 10 Oct 1814  Mariano Osorio                     (b. 1777 - d. 1819)
- in Santiago -
10 Oct 1814 - 26 Dec 1815  Mariano Osorio                     (s.a.)
26 Dec 1815 - 12 Jan 1817  Francisco Casimiro Marcó del Ponte (b. 1777 - d. 1819) 
                             Ángel Díaz y Méndez
- in Tacna -
12 Jan 1817 - 19 May 1819  Francisco Casimiro Marcó del Ponte (s.a.) 
                             Ángel Díaz y Méndez
Supreme Directors
16 Feb 1817 - 29 Jan 1823  Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme        (s.a.)

29 Jan 1823 - 30 Jan 1823  Governing Junta
                           -
Agustín Manuel de Eyzaguirre y   (b. 1768 - d. 1837)
                               Arechavala 
                           - José Miguel Infante y Rojas      (b. 1778 - d. 1844)
                           - Fernando de Errázuriz y Martínez (b. 1777 - d. 1841)
                               de Aldunate
30 Jan 1823 -  4 Apr 1823  Agustín Manuel de Eyzaguirre y     (s.a.)

                             Arechavala 
                             (president of interim governing junta)
 4 Apr 1823 -  9 Jul 1826  Ramón Freire y Serrano             (b. 1787 - d. 1851)  Lib
                             (provisional to 21 Aug 1823)
13 Aug 1823 -  2 Sep 1823  Diego José Benavente y García      (b. 1790 - d. 1867)
                             de Bustamante
                             (president of the Junta of
                             Delegates, acting for Freire) 

12 Nov 1825 –  7 Mar 1826  
José Miguel Infante Rojas          (s.a.)
                             (president of the Directorial
                             Council, acting for Freire)
Presidents
 9 Jul 1826 -  9 Sep 1826  Manuel José Blanco y Calvo         (b. 1790 - d. 1876)  Non-party
                             de Encalada 
 9 Sep 1826 - 25 Jan 1827  Agustín Manuel de Eyzaguirre       (s.a.) 
                             y Arechavala (acting)
25 Jan 1827 -  5 May 1827  Ramón Freire y Serrano (1st time)  (s.a.)               Lib
                             (interim to 13 Feb 1827)
 5 May 1827 - 16 Sep 1829  Francisco Antonio Pinto y Díaz     (b. 1785 - d. 1858)  Lib
                             de la Puente (1st time)(acting)
15 Jul 1827 - 19 Oct 1827  Francisco Ramón de Vicuña Larraín  (b. 1775 - d. 1849)  Lib
                             (acting for incapacitated Pinto)   
16 Sep 1829 - 19 Oct 1829  Francisco Ramón de Vicuña Larraín  (s.a.)               Lib
                             (1st time)(Supreme chief) 
19 Oct 1829 -  2 Nov 1829
 Francisco Antonio Pinto y Díaz     (s.a.)               Lib
                             de la Puente (2nd time)
 2 Nov 1829 - 12 Nov 1829  Francisco Ramón de Vicuña Larraín  (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)(Supreme chief)(in Valparaíso
                             12 Nov - 8 Dec 1829
, continues to 17 Feb
                             1830 gradually losing recognition

 7 Nov 1829 - 16 Dec 1829  Ramón Freire y Serrano (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Lib
                             (President of the Government Junta)
24 Dec 1829 – 17 Feb 1830  Governing Junta of the Province of Santiago
                           - José Tomás de Ovalle Bezanilla   (b. 1788 - d. 1831)  Con
                           - Isidoro de Errázuriz y Martínez  (b. 1782 - d. 1833)
                               de Aldunate
                           - José María Guzmán Ibáñez         (b. 1774 - d. 1860)
                               (from 1 Jan 1830)

18 Feb 1830 - 31 Mar 1830  Francisco Antonio Pascual de la    (b. 1787 - d. 1860)  Con 
                             Ascensión Ruiz de Tagle y Portales 
 1 Apr 1830 - 21 Mar 1831  José Tomás de Ovalle Bezanilla     (s.a.)               Con
                             (acting
 8 Mar 1831 - 18 Sep 1831  Fernando de Errázuriz y Martínez   (s.a.)
                             de Aldunate 
                             (acting for incapacitated Ovalle to 21 Mar 1831,
                             "accidental" to 22 Mar 1831, then acting)

18 Sep 1831 - 18 Sep 1841  José Joaquín Prieto Vial           (b. 1786 - d. 1854)  Con
18 Sep 1841 - 18 Sep 1851  Manuel Bulnes Prieto               (b. 1799 - d. 1866)  Con
18 Sep 1851 - 18 Sep 1861  Manuel Francisco Antonio Julián    (b. 1809 - d. 1880)  Con/PC
                             Montt Torres 
 5 Jan 1859 - 29 Apr 1859  Pedro León Gallo Goyenechea        (b. 1830 - d. 1877)  PR
                             (in rebellion; intendant of Atacama)
18 Sep 1861 - 18 Sep 1871  José Joaquín Pérez Mascayano       (b. 1800 - d. 1889)  PC
18 Sep 1871 - 18 Sep 1876  Federico Marcos del Rosario        (b. 1825 - d. 1877)  PL
                             Errázuriz Zañartu
18 Sep 1876 - 18 Sep 1881  Aníbal Pinto Garmendia             (b. 1825 - d. 1884)  PL
18 Sep 1881 - 18 Sep 1886  Domingo Santa María González       (b. 1825 - d. 1889)  PL
18 Sep 1886 - 29 Aug 1891  José Manuel Emiliano Balmaceda     (b. 1840 - d. 1891)  PLD
                             Fernández 
29 Aug 1891 - 31 Aug 1891  Manuel Jesús Baquedano González    (b. 1826 - d. 1897)  Mil
                            ("accidental" chief of state)

 1 Jan 1891 - 12 Apr 1891  Delegation of the National Congress
                           - Waldo Gómez de Silva Algüe       (b. 1820 - d. 1892)  PN
                           - Ramón Barros Luco                (b. 1835 - d. 1919)  PL
                           (in Iquique; in rebellion)
12 Apr 1891 - 14 Apr 1891  
Government Junta
                           - Jorge Montt Álvarez              (b. 1846 - d. 1922)  Mil
                           - Waldo Gómez de Silva Algüe       (s.a.)               PN
                           - Ramón Barros Luco                (s.a.)               PL
                           (in Iquique; in rebellion)
14 Apr 1891 - 18 Sep 1896  Jorge Montt Álvarez                (s.a.)               Mil
                            (president of junta [in rebellion from to 12 Apr 1891] 
                             to 10 Nov 1891; Chief of the Executive to 26 Dec 1891)
18 Sep 1896 - 12 Jul 1901  Federico Errázuriz Echaurren       (b. 1850 - d. 1901)  PL
12 Jul 1901 - 18 Sep 1901  Aníbal Zañartu Zañartu (acting)    (b. 1847 - d. 1902)  PL
18 Sep 1901 - 18 Sep 1906  Germán Riesco Errázuriz            (b. 1854 - d. 1916)  AL
18 Sep 1906 - 16 Aug 1910  Pedro Elías Pablo Montt Montt      (b. 1848 - d. 1910)  PN
16 Aug 1910 -  6 Sep 1910  Elías Fernández Albano (acting)    (b. 1845 - d. 1910)  PC
 6 Sep 1910 - 23 Dec 1910  Emiliano Figueroa Larraín          (b. 1860 - d. 1931)  PLD
                             (1st time) (acting) 
23 Dec 1910 - 23 Dec 1915  Ramón Barros Luco                  (s.a.)               AL
23 Dec 1915 - 23 Dec 1920  Juan Luis Sanfuentes Andonaegui    (b. 1858 - d. 1930)  PLD
23 Dec 1920 - 12 Sep 1924  Arturo Fortunato Alessandri Palma  (b. 1868 - d. 1950)  PL
                             (1st time)
12 Sep 1924 - 23 Jan 1925  Luis Altamirano Talavera           (b. 1867 - d. 1938)  Mil
                             (junta chairman)
23 Jan 1925 - 27 Jan 1925  Pedro Pablo Dartnell Encina        (b. 1874 - d. 1944)  Mil
                             (junta chairman) 
27 Jan 1925 - 20 Mar 1925  Emilio Bello Codesido              (b. 1868 - d. 1941)  PLD
                             (junta chairman) 
20 Mar 1925 -  1 Oct 1925  Arturo Fortunato Alessandri Palma  (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time)
 1 Oct 1925 - 23 Dec 1925  Luis Barros Borgoño (acting)       (b. 1858 - d. 1943)  PL
23 Dec 1925 - 10 May 1927  Emiliano Figueroa Larraín          (s.a.)               PLD
                             (2nd time)
10 May 1927 - 29 Jul 1931  Carlos Ibáñez del Campo (1st time) (b. 1877 - d. 1960)  Mil
                             (acting to 21 Jul 1927)
26 Jul 1931 – 27 Jul 1931  Pedro Opaso Letelier               (b. 1876 - d. 1957)  PLD
                             (acting for
Ibáñez)
29 Jul 1931 -  4 Jun 1932  Juan Esteban Montero Rodríguez     (b. 1879 - d. 1948)  PR
                             (acting to 4 Dec 1931)
 3 Sep 1931 – 15 Nov 1931  Manuel Trucco Franzani             (b. 1875 - d. 1954)  PR
                             (acting for Montero) 

 4 Jun 1932 - 16 Jun 1932  Arturo Puga Osó
rio                 (b. 1879 - d. 1970)  PS
                             (chairman of Government Junta of Socialist Republic of Chile)
16 Jun 1932 - 13 Sep 1932  Carlos Gregorio Dávila Espinoza    (b. 1887 - d. 1955)  PS
                             (chairman Junta of the Socialist Republic of Chile to 8 Jul 1932,
                             then Provisional President of the Socialist Republic of Chile)
13 Sep 1932 -  2 Oct 1932  Bartolomé Guillermo Blanche Espejo (b. 1879 - d. 1970)  Mil 
                             (provisional)
 2 Oct 1932 - 24 Dec 1932  Abraham Oyanedel Urrutia (acting)  (b. 1874 - d. 1952)  Non-party
24 Dec 1932 - 24 Dec 1938  Arturo Alessandri Palma (3rd time) (s.a.)               PL
24 Dec 1938 - 25 Nov 1941  Pedro Abelino Aguirre Cerda        (b. 1879 - d. 1941)  PR/FP
25 Nov 1941 -  2 Apr 1942  Jerónimo Méndez Arancibia (acting) (b. 1887 - d. 1959)  PR
 2 Apr 1942 - 27 Jun 1946  Juan Antonio Ríos Morales          (b. 1888 - d. 1946)  PR/FP
17 Jan 1946 - 17 Oct 1946  Alfredo Duhalde Vásquez            (b. 1898 - d. 1985)  FP
                             (acting [for Ríos to 27 Jun 1946])
 3 Aug 1946 - 17 Oct 1946  Vicente Merino Bielich             (b. 1889 - d. 1977)  Mil/FP
                             (acting for Duhalde)
17 Oct 1946 -  3 Nov 1946  Juan Antonio Iribarren Cabezas     (b. 1885 - d. 1977)  PR
                             (acting)
 3 Nov 1946 -  3 Nov 1952  Gabriel González Videla            (b. 1898 - d. 1980)  PR/FP
 3 Nov 1952 -  3 Nov 1958  Carlos Ibáñez del Campo (2nd time) (s.a.)               PAL
 3 Nov 1958 -  3 Nov 1964  Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez         (b. 1896 - d. 1986)  PC/Ind
 3 Nov 1964 -  3 Nov 1970  Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva      (b. 1911 - d. 1982)  PDC
 3 Nov 1970 - 11 Sep 1973  Salvador Allende Gossens           (b. 1908 - d. 1973)  PS-UP
11 Sep 1973 - 27 Jun 1974  Government Junta
                           - Augusto José Ramón Pinochet      (b. 1915 - d. 2006)  Mil
                               Ugarte (chairman)
                           - Santiago José Toribio Merino     (b. 1915 - d. 1996)  Mil
                               Castro
                           - Gustavo Leigh Guzmán             (b. 1920 - d. 1999)  Mil
                           - César Leonidas Mendoza Durán     (b. 1918 - d. 1996)  Mil
27 Jun 1974 - 11 Mar 1990  Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (s.a.)               Mil
                             (Supreme Chief of the Nation to 17 Dec 1974)
11 Mar 1990 - 11 Mar 1994  Patricio Aylwin Azócar             (b. 1918)            PDC
11 Mar 1994 - 11 Mar 2000  Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle            (b. 1942)            PDC
11 Mar 2000 - 11 Mar 2006  Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar      (b. 1938)            PPD
11 Mar 2006 - 11 Mar 2010  Verónica Michelle Bachelet         (b. 1951)            PS
                             Jeria (f) (1st time)
11 Mar 2010 - 11 Mar 2014  Miguel Juan Sebastián Piñera
      (b. 1949)            RN/Ind
                             Echenique
11 Mar 2014 -             
Verónica Michelle Bachelet         (s.a.)               PS
                             Jeria (f) (2nd time)

                  

 ¹The Congress is located in Valparaíso, having been moved from Santiago de Chile during the last years of the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet (s.a.). Although it was moved by an act of 1987, it was not until the first democratic government of Patricio Aylwin in 1990 that i began to function as the seat of the Congress.

Territorial Disputes: Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile has offered instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Bolivian natural gas; Chile rejects Peru's unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern axis favoring Peru; in Oct 2007, Peru took its maritime complaint with Chile to the ICJ; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001, has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur).

Party abbreviations: CPD = Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia (Concert of Parties for Democracy, electoral coalition of PDC, PPD, PS, and PRSD, est.1988); Ind = Independent; PDC = Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile (Christian Democratic Party of Chile, christian democratic, est.1957); PPD = Partido por la Democracia (Party for Democracy, social-liberal, est.1987); PRSD = Partido Radical Social-Demócrata (Social Democratic Radical Party, centrist, est.1994); PS = Partido Socialista de Chile (Socialist Party of Chile, socialist, est.1933); RN = Renovación Nacional (National Renewal, center-right, est.1987); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: AL = Allianza Liberal (Liberal Alliance, 1891-1924); Con = Conservador (Conservative, later PC, 19th cent.); FP = Frente Popular (Popular Front, left-wing coalition of PR, PS, PCC, 1937-1941); PAL = Partido Agrario Laborista (Agrarian Labor Party, Ibañismo, traditionalist, nationalist, 1945-1958); PC = Partido Conservador (Conservative Party, 1851-1949); Lib = Liberal (Liberal, later PL, 19th cent.); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, 1849-1966, 1983-2000); PLD = Partido Liberal Democrático (Liberal Democratic Party, 1893-1933); PN = Partido Nacional (National Party, 1857-1933, 1956-1958); PR = Partido Radical (Radical Party, 1863-1994); UP = Unidad Popular (People's Unity, coalition of PS and Partido Comunista de Chile [Chilean Communist Party] PCC, 1970-1973)


Chiloé

[Spanish War Ensign
                (1785-1931)]

Map of Isla de Chiloé
Capital: San Carlos de Chiloé
(1784-1826); Santiago de Castro
 (1567-1784)

1553                       Chiloé discovered by Captian Francisco de Ulloa.
1567                       Claimed for Spain by Martin Ruiz de Gamboa.
May 1643 - 24 Aug 1643     Dutch occupation (Staten Island).
20 Aug 1767                Isla Grande de Chiloé, a direct dependency of viceroyalty
                             of Peru.
19 May 1784                Made a separate intendancy under Peru.
Dec 1817                   Occupied by remnants of Spanish forces fleeing Chilean mainland.
19 Jan 1826                Spanish royalist forces surrender. Chiloé is annexed to Chile
                             by the Treaty of Tantauco.

Dutch commanders
May 1643 -  7 Aug 1643     Hendrik Brouwer                    (b. 1581 - d. 1643)
Aug 1643 - 24 Aug 1643     Elias Herckmans                    (b. 1596 - d. 1644)
Military governors
1767 - 28 Mar 1768         Manuel Fernández de Castelblanco   (b. 1728 - d. 1791)
                             y Loyola
1768 - 1777                Carlos de Beranguer y Renaud       (b. 1719 - d. 1793)
1777 - 1784                Antonio Martínez de la Espada de   (b. 1721 - d. ....)
                             Ponce y León
Intendants and Military governors
1784 - 1786                Antonio Martínez de la Espada de   (s.a.)
                             Ponce y León
1786 - 1788                Francisco Hurtado del Pino         (b. 1748 - d. ....)
22 Dec 1788 - 1791         Francisco Garos (interim)
1791 - 1797                Pedro de Cañaveral y Ponce de León (b. 1736 - d. 1819)
                             y Messía
1797 - 1800                Antonio Montes de la Puente
1800                       César Balbiani
1800 - c.1812              Antonio Álvarez y Ximénez          (d. c.1812)
18 Jan 1813 - 13 Mar 1813  Antonio Pareja                     (b. 1757 - d. 1813)
1813 - 1819                Ignacio María Justiz y Urrutia     (b. c.1778 - d. 18..)
                             (interim)
1819 - 18 Jan 1826         Antonio de Quintanilla y Santiago  (b. 1787 - d. 1863)



Magallanes y Antártica Chilena
 
[Flag of Chile]
 
 
[Chilean Región XII
                        Magallanes y Antártica Chilena]
 Región XII Magallanes y Antártica Chilena
                Adopted 5 Feb 1997

[Chilean Antarctica
                        Flag]
                Chilean Antarctica Flag
 
 
Map of Tierra del Fuego,
Antartida e Islas
Region Capital: Punta Arenas
Province Capital: Puerto
Williams
Population: 159,468 (2012)
(Antartica Chilena prov. 130)

 6 Nov 1940                Antártica Chilena (Chilean Antarctica), defined as between
                             longitudes 53°W to 90°W, is claimed by Chile.
27 Mar 1942                Comisión Chilena Antártica created to handle all questions
                             relating to Chilena Antártica.
17 Jun 1955                Antártica Chilena under jurisdiction of Magallanes province.
11 Jul 1961                Commune of La Antártica Chilena created within Magallanes
                             department.
10 Oct 1963                Instituto Antártico Chileno created.
13 Jul 1974                Magallanes y Antártica Chilena (Magellan and Chilean Antarctica)
                             in Region XII created (53°W to 90°W is Chilean Antarctic claim).
 4 Nov 1975                Antártica Chilena a separate province.

Governors of Magallanes province
 4 Apr 1937 - 1937         Santiago Perez Peña
 9 Dec 1937 - Aug 1940
    Alfredo Rodríguez McIver           (b. 1888 - d. 19..)  
 9 Aug 1940 - Mar 1942
     Julio Carvallo Casanova            (b. 1890 - d. 19..)
 4 Apr 1942 - Jun 1943
    Alejandro Lagos Rivera             (b. 1894 - d. 19..)  
 7 Jun 1943 - Dec 1946
    Guillermo Arroyo Acuña
 9 Dec 1945 - 23 Oct 1950  Jorge Ihnen Stuven

1950                       Enrique Calvo
1950 - 1952                Agustín Parada Henríquez
1952 - Oct 1953            Humberto Diaz Vera
29 Oct 1953 – 26 Dec 1953  Manuel Chaparro Ruminot            (b. 1894 - d. 1953)
Dec 1953 - Feb 1955        Manuel Chaparro Bitsch
23 Feb 1955 -  5 Jun 1956  Manuel Rivera Rivera               (b. 1903 - d. ....)
14 Jun 1956 - 31 Oct 1958  Cecil Rasmussen Bishop             (b. 1904 - d. 1972)
1958 – 1962                Jorge Araos Salinas
1962 - 1963                Raul Carmona

1964 - 1970                Mateo Martinic Beros               (b. 1931)
1967                       Tolentino Perez Soto               (b. 1937)
                             (acting for Martinic)
1970 - 1972                Zvonimir Gezan Livacic
1972 - May 1973            Manuel Torres de la Cruz (1st time)                     Mil
May 1973 - Sep 1973        Octavio Castro Sáez                (b. 1919 - d. 1980) 
11 Sep 1973 - 26 Dec 1973  Manuel Torres de la Cruz (2nd time)                     Mil
                             (chairman of provincial government junta)
26 Dec 1973 – Jan 1974     Cesar Raul Manuel Benavides Escobar(b. 1912 - d. 1998)  Mil
Intendants of Region XII
Jan 1974 - 16 Jul 1974     Cesar Raul Manuel Benavides Escobar(s.a.)               Mil
19 Jul 1974 – 28 Nov 1974
  Augusto Lutz Urzu                  (b. 1924 - d. 1974)  Mil
15 Jan 1975 – 11 Feb 1977
  Washington Carrasco Fernandez
14 Dec 1978 – 15 Feb 1979
  Nilo Floody Buxton                 (b. 1921)            Mil 
15 Feb 1979 – 28 Dec 1981
  Sergio Covarrubias Sanhueza        (b. 1923)            Mil 
28 Dec 1981 – 19 Dec 1984
  Juan Guillermo Toro Davila                              Mil 
19 Dec 1984 – 19 Dec 1986
  Luís Danus Covián                                       Mil
19 Dec 1986 –  6 Jul 1987
  Claudio López Silva                                     Mil 
 6 Jul 1987 – 24 Nov 1988  Mario Navarrete Barriga                                 Mil
24 Nov 1988 – 21 Dec 1989
  Patricio Gualda Tiffaine                                Mil
22 Dec 1989 – 24 Jul 1990
  Alejandro Gonzalez Samohod                              Mil 
1990 - 1994                Roque Tomás Scarpa Martinic                             PDC
1994 - 2000                Ricardo Salles González    
2000 - 2002                Nelda Panicucci Bianchi (f)        (b. 1933 - d. 2008)  PS
2002 - Apr 2003            Raul Hein Bozic                                         PS
2004 - 2006                Jaime Mauricio Jelincic Aguilar                         PRSD
2006 -  9 Dec 2008         Eugenia Valentina Mancilla Macias (f)                   PDC
 9 Dec 2008 - 11 Mar 2010  Mario José Maturana Jamán
                              PDC
11 Mar 2010 - 25 Apr 2011  Liliana Kusanovic Marusic (f)                           UDI
25 Apr 2011 -  9 Aug 2012  Arturo Storaker Molina             (b. 1953?)           UDI
 9 Aug 2012 -  2 Sep 2012  Gloria Vilicic Peña (f)(acting)
 2 Sep 2012 - 11 Mar 2014  Mauricio Peña y Lillo              (b. 1958
)            UDI
11 Mar 2014 -
              Jorge Mauricio Flies Añón          (b. 1969?)           PRSD
 

Governors of Antártica Chilena province
1975 - 1994                the Commanders of Beagle de Puerto
                           Williams Naval District

1977 - 1978                Walter Rohers (or Roehrs)
1978 - 1979                Gastón Droguett Valdivia           (b. 1942/43)
bf.1984                    Juan Echeverría Ossa
c.1985                     Marcos Edmundo Groetaers Toso
c.1989                     Christian Alejandro de Bonnafos
                             Gandara
1994 - 2000                Hector Hernán Scarich Gallardo
2000 - 10 Mar 2006         Eduardo Ulises Barros González 
2004                       Juan Yemil Harcha Kusanovic
                             (acting for Barros)
11 Mar 2006 - 21 Jun 2007  Bélgica Arizmendy Carilao (f)
21 Jun 2007 - 16 Mar 2010  Claudio Flores Flores              (b. 1972)
16 Mar 2010 - 11 Mar 2014  Nelson Isaac Cárcamo Barrera       (b. 1951)
11 Mar 2014 -             
Patricio Fernando Oyarzo Gaez

Note: Antarctic claim overlaps Argentine and British claims and is not recognized by U.K., United Nations, U.S., Russia or other countries.

Party abbreviations: PDC = Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile (Christian Democratic Party of Chile, christian democratic, est.1957); PRSD = Partido Radical Social-Demócrata (Social Democratic Radical Party, centrist, est.1994); PS = Partido Socialista de Chile (Socialist Party of Chile, socialist, est.1933); UDI = Unión Demócrata Independiente (Independent Democratic Union, national conservative, est.1983); Mil = Military



Easter Island (Isla de Pascua/Rapa Nui)
 
Rapa Nui Kingdom flag
                        1869-1876
                1869 - 6 Aug 1876
 
[Rapa Nui
                          kingdom flag to 1888]
                1876 - 9 Sep 1888
 
[Flag of Chile]
                 Adopted 9 Sep 1888
 
[Flag of Rapa
                          Nui]
     Unofficial c.1980 - 2007, Adopted 2007
 


Map of Easter Island
Hear National Anthem
"Dulce Patria, recibe los votos"
(Gentle homeland, accept
the vows)
Hear  Local Anthem
"Himno a Motu Matua"
(Himno de Rapa Nui)
Adopted 2007
 Constitution
  (11 Mar 1981; in Spanish)
Capital: Hanga Roa
Currency: Chilean Peso (CLP) 
Local Holiday: 9 Sep (1888)
Annexation Day 
Population: 5,761 (2012) 
GDP: $N/A
(included in Chile figures)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
(included in Chile figures)
Ethnic groups: Rapanui 60%, Chilean 39%,
Amerindian 1% (2002) 
Total Armed Forces: 235 Chilean Marines (2003)
Religions: Catholic 73%, Protestants 25%, local beliefs 2% (1999) 
International Organizations/Treaties:  None

Note: Easter Island had no traditional name in the island language; although this seems natural, given its isolation, it runs counter to the Polynesian practice of transporting island names in their migrations. Authors have tried to claim that Te Pito 'o Te Henua, meaning the Navel of the World in the island language, was the name brought with the founding migration, but this has been successfully disputed. The name Rapanui (Great Rapa, as opposed to Rapaiti, the Rapa in French Polynesia) was attributed in the 19th century and has acquired official status. The island had a highly tabooed paramount chief or king, the 'ariki henua. The office was hereditary in the Miru clan, and it appears that, in a similar fashion to Tahitian custom, the first-born son of the 'ariki henua succeeded to the position at birth because the mana passed to him at that moment, his father remaining in power as his regent until his marriage. In 1862, when the population of the island had already been severely depleted, Peruvian guano collectors raided the island, killed a large part of the population, and kidnapped almost all the rest, including the two 'ariki henua (i.e., the nominal 'ariki henua Maurata and his father and predecessor Kai Mako'i iti). Of the kidnapped population, fewer than 200 survived to be returned. Under these circumstances practically all knowledge of the past was lost or thoroughly garbled. It is therefore impossible to recover precise information. There are about six or seven lists of 'ariki henua that were provided to visitors and researchers, with between 20 and 57 names. Here is a list that is perhaps among the less unreliable ones (however, a recent article has revived interest in the 57-name list because carbon-dating has retrojected the human settlement of the island to no later than the 5th century).

c.400 AD                   Polynesian migrants establish a state on modern day Easter Island
                             (which by the 19th century is referred to as Rapanui).
 5 Apr 1722                Discovered by Dutch Admiral Jacob Roggeveen, named Easter Island.
19 Nov 1770                Annexed for Spain by Felipe González y Haedo and named
                             Isla de San Carlos, not settled.
17 Mar 1774                Visited by British Capt. James Cook, named Easter Island.
 9 Apr 1786                Visited by French Capt. Jean-François de Galaup La Pérouse.
1868 - 1876                French adventurer Dutrou-Bornier seizes control of the island.
 9 Sep 1888                Annexed by Chile (Isla de Pascua).
1896 - 1953                Part of the Department of Valparaiso.
1897 - 1952                Leased to Williamson-Balfour Co. as a sheep farm, Rapanui confined
                             to Hanga Roa.
16 Feb 1935                Rapa Nui National Park created.
1953 - 1965                Administered by the Chilean Navy.
 1 Mar 1966                Department of Isla de Pascua (including Sala y Gomez Island).
25 Jul 1974                Province of Isla de Pascua (including Sala y Gomez Island).
22 Mar 1996                Rapa Nui National Park named a UNESCO World Heritage site.
30 Jul 2007                Special Territory of Isla de Pascua (declared, not effected).

Paramount chiefs (title 'ariki henua)
.... - ....                Hotu Matu'a
.... - ....                Tu'u maheke 'a Hotu Matu'a
.... - ....                Miru 'a Tu'u Maheke
.... - ....                Hata 'a Miru
.... - ....                Miru 'a Hata
.... - ....                Mitiake
.... - ....                Ataranga 'a Miru
.... - ....                Atu'u Raranga
.... - ....                Urakikena
.... - ....                Kahui Tuhunga
.... - ....                Te Tuhunga Nui
.... - ....                Te Tuhunga Marakapau
.... - ....                Ahu Arihao
.... - ....                Nui Te Patu
.... - ....                Hirakau Tehito
.... - ....                Tupu itetoki
.... - ....                Kura Ta Hongo
.... - ....                Hiti Rua Anea
.... - ....                Havi Nikoro
.... - ....                Te Ravarava
.... - ....                Te Raha'i
.... - ....                Korohaura
.... - ....                Te Ririkatea
.... - ....                Kai Mako'i
.... - ....                Te Hetukarakura
.... - ....                Huero
1835 - 1859                Nga'ara                            (d. 1861)
1859 - 1862                Kai Mako'i iti                     (d. 1862)
1862                       Maurata                            (d. 1862)
1863 - 1864                Tepito
1864 - 1866                Gregorio Rokoroko hetau            (b. 18.. - d. 1866)
1866 - 1868                Vacant
1868 - 1869?               Koreto Puakurunga (f)
1869? - 1888?              Carolina (f)                       (b. 1869? - d. 1888?)
1868 -  6 Aug 1876         Jean-Baptiste Onésime Dutrou-      (b. c.1800 - d. 1876)
                             Bornier -Regent
1888? - 18..               Atamu Te Kena Maurata              (d. 1892)
c.1892 - 1899              Siméon Riroroko                    (d. 1899)
1899? - 17 Mar 1946        Eva Ko Uka 'a Hei 'a 'Arero ? (f)  (d. 1946)
Religious Leaders
 3 Jan 1864 - 11 Oct 1864  Eugene Eyraud (1st time)           (d. 1868)
23 Mar 1866 - 19 Aug 1868  Eugene Eyraud (2nd time)           (s.a.)
23 Mar 1866 -  6 Jun 1871  Hippolyte Roussel                  (b. 1824 - d. 1898) 
 6 Nov 1866 -  9 Mar 1871  Gaspar Zumbohm
 6 Nov 1866 -  6 Jun 1871  Théodule Escolan 
Managers/Mayors 
Apr 1864 - Aug 1868        Jean-Baptiste Onésime Dutrou-      (s.a.)
                             Bornier 
Jun 1877 - Nov 1878        Chavez
Nov 1878 - 1883            Tati Salmon (1st time)
1883 - 1884                Tommi Länder
1884 - Dec 1888            Tati Salmon (2nd time)
21 Jul 1888 - Sep 1892     Pedro Pablo Toro Hurtado
Sep 1892 - 1895            Charles Higgins
1895 - 1901                Alberto Sanchez Manterola 
1901 - 1904                Horace Cooper 
1905 - 1914                Henry Percy Edmunds
Governors (subdelegados)
1914 - 1917                Ignacio Vives Solar                (b. 1878 - d. 1930) 
Jun 1917 - 1921            Ezequiel Acuña (1st time)
1921 - c.1922              Luís Zepeda (interim)
1923 - 1925                Ezequiel Acuña (2nd time)
1926 - 1928                Carlos Recabarren Larrahona
                             (1st time)
 
1928                       Carlos Millan Iriarte (acting)
1928 - 1930                Carlos Recabarren Larrahona
                             (2nd time)
1930? - 12 Feb 1931        Alberto Cumplido Ducos  
1931 - Jun 1932            Bagolini
Jun 1932 - Jul 1932        Guillermo Kopaitic -Subgovernor 
Jun 1932 - Jul 1932        Rafael Silva Barboza -Governor
 6 Jul 1932 - 1933         Eduardo Avalos Prado -Subgovernor 
Jul 1932 - c.Oct 1932      Fernando Ugarte Torres
-Governor
1934 - 1935                Hernán Cornejo 
1936                       Manuel A. Olalquiaga
1937                       Hernán Cornejo 
1938 - 1939                Álvaro Tejeda Lawrence
1940                       Victor Contreras Figueroa 
1941 - 1942                Hermann Reid Silva 
1943                       Jorge Señoret Carvallo
1944 - 1945                Ricardo Kompatzki H.
1945 - 1947                Gonzalo Serrano Pellé 
1948 - 1949                Carlos Pascual Altamirano 
1950 - 1951                Lus Aceituna Rojas 
1952                       Mario Luis Orellana Lillo 
1953 - 1954                Carlos Salazar Contreras
1955 - 1956                Arnaldo Curti Silva
1956 - 1957                Raul Valenzuela Pérez
1958 - 1959                Fernando Dorion Nicolet
1960 - 1961                Arnt Arentsen Pettersen (1st time)
1962 - 1963                John Martin Reynolds
1964 - 1965                Jorge Portilla
15 Aug 1966 - 17 Jul 1967  Enrique Rogers Sotomayor                                PDC
17 Jul 1967 -  6 Jun 1968  Alfredo Tuki Pate
 6 Jun 1968 - Jan 1970     Fernando Silva Molina
Jan 1970 - 26 Feb 1971     Hernán Perez de Tudela Jiménez
26 Feb 1971 - 30 Apr 1971  Federico Guillermo Blanco Baeza
30 Apr 1971 - 13 May 1971  Caupolicán Valenzuela Torres
13 May 1971 -  3 Mar 1972  Abel Galleguillos Araya
 3 Mar 1972 - 13 Sep 1973  Moisés Sudy Castro
13 Sep 1973 - 25 Sep 1973  Carlos Bastias Alvarado
25 Sep 1973 -  3 Aug 1974  Omar Fuenzalida Tobar
 3 Aug 1974 - 23 Feb 1975  Giuseppe Arru Dominguez
23 Feb 1975 - 16 Feb 1979  Arnt Arentsen Pettersen (2nd time)
16 Feb 1979 - 27 Jan 1984  Ariel González Cornejo
27 Jan 1984 - 11 Mar 1990  Sergio Alejo Rapu Haoa
11 Mar 1990 -  1 Sep 2000  Jacobo Urbano Hey Paoa
 1 Sep 2000 - 11 Mar 2006  Enrique Pakarati Ika
11 Mar 2006 - 18 Mar 2010  Melania Carolina Hotu Hey (f)                           PDC
18 Mar 2010 -  9 Aug 2010  Pedro Pablo Edmunds Paoa            (b. 1961)           PDC
 9 Aug 2010 -  6 Sep 2010  Jorge Miranda (acting)
 6 Sep 2010 - 11 Mar 2014  Carmen Cardinali Paoa (f)           (b. 1944)           PDC
11 Mar 2014 -
             Marta Raquel Hotus Tuki (f)                             PDC

Party abbreviations: PDC = Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile (Christian Democratic Party of Chile, christian democratic, est.1957); PRSD = Partido Radical Social-Demócrata (Social Democratic Radical Party, centrist, est.1994); PS = Partido Socialista de Chile (Socialist Party of Chile, socialist, est.1933)



Juan Fernández Islands

[Flag of Chile]
 
Map of Juan Fernandez Islands
Capital: San Juan Bautista
Population: 900 (2012)

22 Nov 1574                Discovered and claimed for Spain by Juan Fernández.
Aug 1704 - Feb 1709        Alexander Selkirk marooned on the island; later he is the
                             inspiration for the Daniel Defoe character Robinson Crusoe.
11 May 1750                Spanish settle the islands (Más a Tierra [from 1966, renamed 
                             Robinson Crusoe Island) and Más a Feura [renamed Alexander 
                             Selkirk Island]).
27 Feb 1817                Spanish royalist forces surrender.
Jun 1817 - 1821            Abandoned.
12 Feb 1818                Part of independent Chile (Islas de Juan Fernández); later
                             part of the province of Valparaiso.
1877                       Permanent settlement begins.
16 Feb 1935                Juan Fernández Archipelago National Park.
30 Jul 2007                Special Territory of Juan Fernández Archipelago (declared, not
                             effected).

Chief Islander 
Aug 1704 - Feb 1709        Alexander Selkirk                  (b. 1676 - d. 1721)
Governors
11 May 1750 - 25 May 1751  Juan Navarro Santaella             (b. 1690 - d. 1751)
1751 - 1752                Francisco Gutierrez de Espejo
                             y Morillo

1752 - 1758                Manuel Fernández de Castelblanco   (b. 1728 - d. 1791)
                             y Loyola

1758 - 1764                Antonio Narciso de Santa María     (b. c.1716 - d. 1777)

                             Escobedo y Florent
1764 - 1768                Francisco Rivera y Vera
1768 - 1771                José Gómez de la Torre
1773 - 1780                Pedro Junco
1780 - 1782                Luis Corail
1782 - 1786                Claudio Cáceres
1786 - 1788                Blas Gonzalez 
1788 - 1794                Juan Calvo de la Cantera
1795 - 1799                Fernando Amador de Amaya
1801 - 1804                Francisco de Quezada y Silva
                             Barrionuevo y Quiñones
1804 - 1808                Tomás O'Higgins
1808 - 1809                Enrique Larena(s)
1810 - 1814                Manuel Santa María Baeza           (b. 1754 - d. 1824)
Oct 1814 - Jan 1815        Anselmo Carabantes y Sáenz  
Jan 1815 - Oct 1816        José de Piquero  
Oct 1816 - 27 Feb 1817     Talavera Ángel del Cid
Mar 1817 - Jun 1817        Puga



Araucanía
 
[Kingdom of
                          Araucania]
                  1861 - 5 Jan 1862;
                 Mar 1869 - Jun 1871

1777                       Araucanía (Arauco region south of the Bío-Bío River) is recognized
                             by treaty between Spain and the "natives" to be outside the
                             Spanish Monarchy.
17 Nov 1860                Kingdom of Araucania proclaimed by French adventurer.
20 Dec 1860                Royal style changed to King of Araucania and Patagonia¹.
 5 Jan 1862                King arrested and Araucania subsequently annexed by Chile².
Mar 1869 - Jun 1871        Attempted restoration of the kingdom.
1870                       Araucanía generally considered incorporated into Chile by
                             this date.
 1 Nov 1903                Kingdom effectively ended³

King
17 Nov 1860 - 17 Sep 1878  Orélie-Antoine I                   (b. 1825 - d. 1878) 
                             (Antoine-Orélie de Tounens)
                             (1862-Jun 1871, and from 17 Sep 1878
                             in exile in France)
 5 Jan 1862 - 14 Mar 1868  José Santos Quilapán -Deputy
17 Sep 1878 - 16 Mar 1902  Achille I (in France exile)        (b. 1841 - d. 1902)
21 Mar 1902 -  1 Nov 1903  Antoine II (in France exile)       (b. 1833 - d. 1903)

 ¹The inclusion of Patagonia was purely fictitious, and the claim to what arguably was already Argentinian territory was never pursued; it was supposedly based on theoretical considerations of ethnic affinity and claims of support never documented.

 ²Dates of the official enactments that produced the incorporation of Araucania into the Chilean state are unavailable, but by 1870 the Chilean government would consider this a matter of fact, however legally justified.

 ³On 6 Nov 1903, the Council of Regency met and chose Georges Sénéchal de la Grange to be the new "king," but he declined. From that date on, everything that has been written about the succession is essentially a fabrication by Philippe Paul Alexandre Henri Boiry (b. 1927 - d. 2014), who claimed to be Philippe I. His account runs as follows: the sole heir, and hence successor, of Antoine II was his daughter, Laure Thérèse Cros, veuve Bernard (b. 1856 - d. 1916), who "was" Queen Laure-Thérèse I from 6 Nov 1903 to her death 12 Mar 1916. There is no documentation of her acting as queen. Upon his mother's death, Jacques Alexandre Antoine Bernard (b. 1880 - d. 1952) became King Jacques-Antoine III. On 12 May 1951, Philippe I claimed, Jacques-Antoine III freely ceded the kingship to him, Philippe I, in the same terms as Orllie-Antoine I's nephew had ceded his claim to the future Achille I before his uncle's death. The documentation of this cession is a card that does not name to whom it is addressed.






© Ben Cahoon