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Bhutan
 
[Bhutan, first flag 1949-1956]
                   1949 - 1956
 
 
[Bhutan, second flag
                                    1956-1969]
                  1956 - 1969
 
 
[Bhutan
                                    flag]
                   Adopted 1969
              (confirmed 8 Jun 1972)
 
Map of Bhutan
Hear National Anthem
"Druk tsendhen"
(The Thunder Dragon Kingdom)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1953
Constitution
(18 Jul 2008)
Capital: Thimphu
(Punakha 1949-1964;
Summer capital-
Thimphu  to 1949;
Winter capital -
Punakha to 1949)
Currencies: Ngultrum (BTN);
1928-1974 Bhutan Rupee (BTR);
1907-1974 Indian Rupee (INR)
National Holiday: 17 Dec (1907)
 National Day
Population: 725,296 (2013)
GDP: $5.23 billion (2013)
Exports: $721.8 million (2012)
Imports: $1.28 billion (2012)
Ethnic groups: Bhutia (Ngalops) 50%, Nepalese (Gurung)
(includes Lhotsampas--one of several Nepalese
ethnic groups) 35%,  Sharchops (and indigenous
or migrant tribes) 15% (2005)
Total Active Armed Forces: 5,445 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Lamaistic Buddhist 75.3%, Hindu 22.1%,
other 2.6% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, APM, BIMSTEC, BTWC, CP, CWC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISA (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, KP, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCLOS (signatory),  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Bhutan
Chronology

1189                       Druk Sewa Jangchubling monastery founded.
1626                       Bhutan founded, named 'Brug-yul (vernacular:
                             Druk-yul or 'Land of the Thunder Dragon').
1626 -  8 Jan 1910         Tributary of Tibet (which itself is under
                             suzerainty of China).
11 Nov 1865                Protectorate of British India (spelled Bhootan).
17 Dec 1907                Kingdom of Bhutan
 8 Jan 1910 - 15 Aug 1947  Protectorate of Britain (under British India).
 2 Aug 1935                Government of India Act recognizes Bhutan's
                             autonomy from British India.
15 Aug 1947 - 21 Sep 1971  Protectorate of India (formally from 8 Aug 1949).

 
 
 
 
 
 

Spiritual Rulers and Heads of State (title Zhabs-drung Rin-po-che; vernacular: Shabdrun; Thuktrul; referred to by foreigners as Dharma Raja)
1698 - 1712                Kunga Gyaltshen (substitute)       (b. 1689 - d. 1713)
1712 - 1730                Phyogla Namgyal                    (b. 1708 - d. 1736)
1730 - 1735                Jigme Norbu (substitute)           (b. 1717 - d. 1735)
1730 - 1746                Shakya bsTandzin (in dissidence)
1735 - 1738                Mipham Wangpo (substitute
)         (b. 1709 - d. 1738)
1746 - 1761                Jigme Dragpa I                     (b. 1724 - d. 1761)
1762 - 1788                Choeki Gyaltshen                   (b. 1762 - d. 1788)
1791 - 1830                Jigme Dragpa II                    (b. 1791 - d. 1830)
1831 - 1861                Jigme Norbu                        (b. 1831 - d. 1861)
1862 - 1904                Jigme Chogyal                      (b. 1862 - d. 1904)
1905 - 1931                Jigme Dorji (not enthroned)        (b. 1905 - d. 1931)
                             

Regents (title 'Brug sDe-srid Phyag-mdzod; vernacular: Druk Desi;
referred to by foreigners as Deb Raja)

1695 - 1701                Gedun Chomphel                     (b. 16.. - d. 1701)
1701 - 1704                Ngawang Tshering
1704 - 1707                Umdze Peljor
1707 - 1719                Druk Rabgye                        (d. c.1729)
1719 - 1729                Ngawang Gyamtsho                   (d. 1729)
1729 - 1736                Mipham Wangpo                      (s.a.)
1736 - 1739                Khuwo Peljor
1739 - 1744                Ngawang Gyaltshen
1744 - 1763                Sherab Wangchuk
1763 - 1765                Druk Phuntsho
1765 - 1768                Druk Tendzin I
1768 - 1773                Donam Lhundub                      (d. 1773)
1773 - 1776                Kunga Rinchen
1776 - 1788                Jigme Singye                       (b. 1742 - d. 1789)
1788 - 1792                Druk Tendzin II
1792 - 1799                Tashi Namgyal (1st time)
1799 - 1803                Druk Namgyal
1803 - 1805                Tashi Namgyal (2nd time)
1805 - 1806                Sangye Tendzin
1806 - 1808                Umdze Parpop 
                           - jointly with -
1807 - 1808                Bop Choda
1809 - 1810                Tsulthrim Drayga                   (b. 1790 - d. 1820)
1810 - 1811                Jigme Dragpa II                    (s.a.)
1811 - 1815                Yeshey Gyaltshen                   (b. 1781 - d. 1830)
1815                       Tshaphu Dorji
1815 - 1819                Sonam Drugyal
1819 - 1823                Tendzin Drugdra
1823 - 1831                Choki Gyaltshen (1st time)
1831 - 1832                Dorji Namgyal
1832 - 1835                Adap Thrinley
1835 - 1838                Choki Gyaltshen (2nd time)
1838 - 1847                Dorji Norbu
1847 - 1850                Tashi Dorji
1850                       Wangchuk Gyalpo
1850 - 1852                Jigme Norbu (at Thimphu)
1851 - 1852                Chagpa Sangye (at Punakha)
1852 - 1856                Damcho Lhundrup
1856 - 1861                Kunga Palden (at Punakha)
1856 - 1861                Sherab Tharchin (at Thimphu)
1861 - 1864                Phuntsho Namgyal
1864                       Tshewang Sithub (1st time)
1864                       Tsulthrim Yonten
1864                       Kagyu Wangchuk
1864 - 1866                Tshewang Sithub (2nd time)
1866 - 1870                Tsondru Pekar
1870 - 1873                Jigme Namgyal (1st time)           (b. 1825 - d. 1881)
1873 - 1877                Kitsep Dorji Namgyal (1st time)    (d. 1879)
1877 - 1878                Jigme Namgyal (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1878 - 1879                Kitsep Dorji Namgyal (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Mar 1879 - Jun 1880        Chogyal Zangpo                     (b. 18.. - d. 1880)
1880 - Jul 1881            Jigme Namgyal (3rd time)           (s.a.)
1881 - May 1883            Lam Tshewang                       (b. 1836 - d. 1883)
16 May 1883 - 23 Aug 1885  Gawa Zangpo
1885 - 1901                Sangye Dorji                       (b. 18.. - d. 1901)
1903 - 1905                Choley Yeshe Ngodub                (b. 1851 - d. 1917)
Kings (title Druk Gyalpo, until 1963 also Maharaja)¹
17 Dec 1907 - 21 Aug 1926  Sir Ugyen Wangchuk                 (b. 1861 - d. 1926)
21 Aug 1926 - 30 Mar 1952  Jigme Wangchuk                     (b. 1906 - d. 1952)
                            
(from 3 Jun 1930, Sir Jigme Wangchuk)
30 Mar 1952 - 21 Jul 1972  Jigme Dorji Wangchuk               (b. 1929 - d. 1972)
22 Apr 1972 - 21 Jul 1972  Queen Ashi Kesang Choeden          (b. 1930)
                             Dorji(f) -Regent
21 Jul 1972 - 14 Dec 2006  Jigme Singye Wangchuk              (b. 1955)
14 Dec 2006 -              Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk      (b. 1980)
 

Chief ministers (title Gongzim)
1872 - 1873                Kitsep Dorji Namgyal               (s.a.)
c.1885                     Tamdrin Ngödrup
1886 - 1907
                Ugyen Wangchuk                     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (from 2 Jan 1905, Sir
Ugyen Wangchuk)
1907 - 22 Jun 1916         Ugyen Dorji                       
(b. 1855 - d. 1916)  Non-party
                             (from 11 Dec 1911, Raja Ugyen Dorji)   
1917 - 1952                Raja Sonam Tobgay Dorji            (b. 1896 - d. 1953)  Non-party
1952 - 1958             
  Jigme Palden Dorji                 (b. 1919 - d. 1964)  Non-party
Prime ministers
1958 -  5 Apr 1964         Jigme Palden Dorji                 (s.a.)               Non-party
 5 Apr 1964 - 25 Jul 1964  Vacant
25 Jul 1964 - 27 Nov 1964  Dasho Lhendup Dorji (acting)       (b. 1935 - d. 2007)  Non-party
27 Nov 1964 - 20 Jul 1998  Post abolished
20 Jul 1998 -  9 Jul 1999  Lyonpo Jigmi Thinley (1st time)    (b. 1952)            Non-party
 9 Jul 1999 - 20 Jul 2000  Lyonpo Sangay Ngedup (1st time)    (b. 1953)            Non-party
20 Jul 2000 -  8 Aug 2001  Lyonpo Yeshey Zimba (1st time)     (b. 1952)            Non-party
 8 Aug 2001 - 14 Aug 2002  Lyonpo Khandu Wangchuk (1st time)  (b. 1950)            Non-party
14 Aug 2002 - 30 Aug 2003  Lyonpo Kinzang Dorji (1st time)    (b. 1951)            Non-party
30 Aug 2003 - 18 Aug 2004  Lyonpo Jigmi Thinley (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Non-party
18 Aug 2004 -  5 Sep 2005  Lyonpo Yeshey Zimba (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Non-party
 5 Sep 2005 -  7 Sep 2006  Lyonpo Sangay Ngedup (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Non-party
 7 Sep 2006 - 31 Jul 2007  Lyonpo Khandu Wangchuk (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Non-party
31 Jul 2007 -  9 Apr 2008  Lyonpo Kinzang Dorji (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Non-party
 9 Apr 2008 - 28 Apr 2013  Lyonchen Jigmi Thinley (3rd time)  (s.a.)               DPT
28 Apr 2013 - 27 Jul 2013  Lyonpo Sonam Tobgye                (b. 1949)            Non-party
                             (chief advisor)
27 Jul 2013 -              Lyonchen Tshering Tobgay           (b. 1965)            PDP


British Political Officers
 8 Jan 1910 - 15 Aug 1947  the Political Officers in Sikkim
Indian Political Officers
15 Aug 1947 - 23 Jan 1968  the Political Officers in Sikkim
Indian Special Officer

23 Jan 1968 - 21 Sep 1971  Brajbir Saran Das                  (b. 1925)

 ¹style of the rulers: 'Brug rGyal-po, Mi-rje-mha'-bdag Rin-po-che (vernacular: Druk Gyalpo); was styled Maharaja in communications with British and Indian authorities 1907-1963.

Territorial Disputes: Lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lie in Bhutan's northwest and along the Chumbi salient.

Party abbreviations (political parties banned until 2007): DPT = Druk Phuensum Tshogpa (Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party, conservative, royalist, est.2007); PDPPeople's Democratic Party (mi-ser dmangs-gtsoi tshogs-pa, social-democratic, est.2007)




© Ben Cahoon