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Angola
 
[Portugal]
                to 11 Nov 1975 
 
[Langhans'
                            proposal for Portuguese Angola, 1967]
          1967 (proposed colonial flag) 
 
[Angola flag]
              Adopted 11 Nov 1975
 
Map of Angola
Hear National Anthem
"Angola Avante"
(Forward Angola) 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 11 Nov 1975
Constitution
(5 Feb 2010; in Portuguese)
------------------------------
Interim Constitution
(11 Nov 1975 - 5 Feb 2010)
Capital: Luanda
(1912-1927 Humbo;
1927-1975 Nova Lisboa;
1576-1912 Loanda)
Currency: Kwanza (AOA)
National Holiday: 11 Nov (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 18,565,269 (2013)
GDP: $131.8 billion (2013)
Exports:  $70.84 billion (2013)
Imports: $26.09 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 25.2%, Kimbundu 23.1%,
Bakongo 12.6%,
Lwenea (Luvale) 8.2%, Chokwe 5%, Kwanyam 4.1%, Nyaneka 3.9%, Luchazi 2.3%, Ambo (Ovambo) 2%,
Mbwela 1.7%, Nyemba 1.7%,
European 1%, other 9.2% (2000)
Total Armed Forces: 107,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 7 ships (2010)
Religions: Christian 94.1% (Roman Catholic 62.1%,
Protestant 15%), indigenous beliefs 5%, other 0.9% (2001)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, CEEAC, CCM (signatory), CPLP, CTBT (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Angola Index
Chronology
1482                        Discovered by Portuguese under Diogo Cão.
 1 Feb 1575                 Portuguese colony (Angola donataría).
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640   Angola along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
1589                        Crown colony (Portuguese West Africa). 
26 Aug 1641-21/24 Aug 1648  Dutch occupation of coastal areas forcing
                              the Portuguese into the interior 
                              (Dutch West Africa)(in Luanda [Fort Aardenburgh]
                              26 Aug 1641 - 21/24 Aug 1648; Benguela Sep 1641
                              - 1648; Ensandeira Island 1645/46-1648). 
14 Feb 1885                 Portuguese possession confirmed by the Berlin
                              Conference.
15 Aug 1914                 Portuguese West Africa colony (sometimes 
                              called simply Angola).
11 Jun 1951                 Angola overseas province of Portugal.
 5 Apr 1962                 Angolan Revolutionary Government in Exile
                              (GRAE), from 1972, Supreme Council of the 
                              Liberation of Angola, established in Congo
                              (Kinshasa).
11 Nov 1975                 Independence from Portugal (People's Republic 
                              of Angola).
27 Aug 1992                 Republic of Angola
Traditional
States
Counter Governments
(1975-76,
 1979-2002)
Cabinda
 Map of Angolan
Tribes (1970)
 
 

Secretaries of the Popular Liberation Movement of Angola-Labor Party (MPLA-PT)
(to Dec 1977, Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola)
Dec 1962 - 10 Sep 1979     António Agostinho Neto             (b. 1922 - d. 1979)
                             (in exile to 4 Feb 1975 [in Léopoldville
                             to Nov 1963, then] in Brazzaville])
10 Sep 1979 - 26 Mar 1991  José Eduardo dos Santos            (b. 1942)
                             (acting to 21 Sep 1979)
                           (moves to multi-party rule 31 Mar 1991)


Captain-governor Donatário

 1 Feb 1575 – Oct 1588     Paulo Dias de Novais               (b. c.1510 - d. 1588)
Governors
Oct 1588 - 1590            Luís Serrão                        (d. 1590)
1590 - Jun 1592            André Ferreira Pereira
Jun 1592 –  8 Dec 1594     Francisco de Almeida
1593 – Aug 1595            Jerônimo de Almeida
Aug 1595 - 1602            João Furtado de Mendonça
1602 - 1603                João Rodrigues Coutinho            (d. 1603)
1603 - 1606                Manuel Cerveira Pereira (1st time) (d. 1626)
1606 - 1607                Paio de Araujo de Azevedo
Sep 1607 - 1611            Manuel Pereira Forjaz              (d. 1611)
1611 - 1615                Bento Banha Cardoso
1615 – 11 Apr 1617         Manuel Cerveira Pereira (2nd time) (s.a.)
11 Apr 1617 – Nov 1617     Antonio Gonçalves Pita 
Nov 1617 - 1621            Luís Mendes de Vasconcelos         (b. c.1542 - d. 1623)
1621 - 1623                João Correia de Sousa              (d. 1626)
1623                       Pedro de Sousa Coelho
1623 - 1624                Simão de Mascarenhas (acting)
1624 -  4 Sep 1630         Fernão de Sousa                    (b. c.1570 - d. 16..)
 4 Sep 1630 - 1635         Manuel Pereira Coutinho
1635 - 18 Oct 1639         Francisco de Vasconcelos da Cunha
18 Oct 1639 - Oct 1645     Pedro César de Meneses             (d. 1674)
                             (from 1641, in opposition to Dutch rule)
Dutch Directors
1641 - 1642                Pieter Moorthamer (Mortamer)
1642 - 1648                Cornelis Hendrikszoon Ouman
Governors
Oct 1645 - May 1646        Francisco de Souto-Maior
                             (in opposition to Dutch rule)
May 1646 - 24 Aug 1648     Triumvirate Junta
                           - Bartolomeu de Vasconcelos da Cunha
                             (chairman of the Junta)
                           - António Teixeira de Mendonça
                           - João Zuzarte de Andrade
24 Aug 1648 - 1651         Salvador Correia de Sá e           (b. 1602 - d. 1688) 
                             Benavides
Oct 1651 - 1653            Rodrigo de Miranda Henriques       (b. 1600 - d. 1653)
1653 - Oct 1654            Bartolomeu de Vasconcelos 
                             da Cunha (acting)
Oct 1654 - 18 Apr 1658     Luís Mendes de Sousa Chichorro     (d. 1658)
18 Apr 1658 - 1661         João Fernandes Vieira              (b. c.1613 - d. 1681)
1661 - 20 Aug 1666         André Vidal de Negreiros           (b. 1606 - d. 1680)
20 Aug 1666 - Feb 1667     Tristão da Cunha
Feb 1667 - 1668            Junta
                           - António de Araujo de Azevedo
                           - Paulo Rebello da Cunha
                           - Roque Vieira de Lima
                           - Paulo Valente
                           - Diogo Vaz Camello 
1668 - 1669                Junta
                           - Thomaz Borges Madureira
                           - Luiz da Silva de Motta
                           - João de Araujo
                           - João Cardozo
                           - Gaspar Zuzarte de Andrade
                           - António Rodrigues de Andrade
1669 - 26 Aug 1669         Junta
                           - João Marques de Almeida
                           - António de Estrada
                           - João de Gouvea
                           - Thomaz Figueira Bultão
                           - Henrique de Mendonça
                           - João Ferreira da Maia
Aug 1669 - 1676            Francisco de Távora conde de Alvor (b. 1646 - d. 1710) 
28 Aug 1676 – 11 Sep 1680  Ayres de Saldanha de Sousa e 
                             Meneses
11 Sep 1680 – 12 Sep 1684  João da Silva de Sousa
12 Sep 1684 –  8 Sep 1688  Luís Lobo da Silva
 8 Sep 1688 –  1 Nov 1691  João de Lencastre                  (b. 1646 - d. 1707)
 1 Nov 1691 –  3 Nov 1694  Gonçalo da Costa de Alcáçova
                             Carneiro de Menezes
 3 Nov 1694 –  9 Nov 1697  Henrique Jacques de Magalhães    
  (b. c.1650 - d. 1700)
 9 Nov 1697 –  5 Sep 1701  Luís César de Meneses              (b. 1653 - d. 1720)
 5 Sep 1701 - Dec 1702     Bernardim de Távora e Sousa Tavares(b. c.1630 - d. 1702) 
Dec 1702 – 20 Nov 1705     Chamber Senate
20 Nov 1705 –  4 Oct 1709  Lourenço de Almada                 (b. c.1650 - d. 1729)
 4 Oct 1709 – 22 Feb 1713  António de Saldanha de Albuquerque (b. c.1670 - d. 17..)
                             Castro e Ribafria
22 Feb 1713 – 15 Jun 1717  João Manuel de Noronha             (b. 1679 - d. 1761)
15 Jun 1717 – 22 Mar 1722  Henrique de Figueiredo e Alarcão   (b. c.1660 - d. 17..)
22 Mar 1722 – 25 Apr 1725  António de Albuquerque Coelho      (b. 1682 - d. 1745) 
25 Apr 1725 –  7 May 1726  José Carvalho da Costa (acting)
 7 May 1726 – Dec 1732     Paulo Caetano de Albuquerque       (d. 1732)
Dec 1732 –  1 Jan 1733     Chamber Senate
 1 Jan 1733 –  1 Apr 1738  Rodrigo César de Menezes           (b. 1673 - d. 1738)
 1 Apr 1738 – 17 Apr 1748  Joaquim Jacques de Magalhães       (d. 1748)
17 Apr 1748 – 12 Jan 1749  Governing Junta 
                           - Frei Manoel de Santa Inês        (b. 1704 - d. 1771)
                           - Victoriano de Faria e Mello
                               Varejão Castello Branco
                           - Fernando José da Cunha Pereira 
12 Jan 1749 – 31 Jul 1753  António de Almeida Soares e        (b. 1699 - d. 1761)
                             Portugal, conde do Lavradio
31 Jul 1753 – 14 Oct 1758  António Álvares da Cunha           (b. 1700 - d. 1791)
14 Oct 1758 –  6 Jun 1764  António de Vasconcelos
 6 Jun 1764 – 21 Nov 1772  Francisco Inocêncio de Sousa       (b. 1726 - d. 1780)
                             Coutinho
21 Nov 1772 –  5 Dec 1779  António de Lencastre               (b. 1721 - d. ....)
 5 Dec 1779 – 19 Dec 1782  José Gonçalo da Câmara Coutinho    (d. 1783)
19 Dec 1782 – Sep 1784     Junta                          
                           - Luiz da Anunciação e Azevedo 
                           - Joaquim Manoel Garcia de Castro  (d. 1783)
                               Barbosa (to ... 1783)
                           - Francisco Xavier de Lobão
                               
Machado Pessanha (from ... 1783)
                           - João Monteiro de Moraes          (d. 1783)
                               (for 51 days)
                           - Pedro Alvares de Andrade da
                               Cunha Azevedo e Vasconcellos
                               (after Moraes)
Sep 1784 - 1790            José de Almeida e Vasconcelos      (b. 1737 - d. 1812)
                             Soveral Carvalho e Albergaria,
                             barão de Mossâmedes
1790 - 1797                Manuel de Almeida e Vasconcelos,   (b. 1784 - d. 1832)
                             visconde da Lapa
1797 - 1802                Miguel António de Melo             (b. 1766 - d. 1836)
1802 - 1806                Fernando António Soares de Noronha (b. 1742 - d. 1814)
1806 – Mar 1807            Governing Junta
                           - Joaquim Maria Mascarenhas Castelo
                               Branco
                           - Duarte Cabreira de Brito e
                               Arvellos
                           - Manoel Pinto Coelho
                           - Eusébio Castela de Lemos  
Mar 1807 –  7 Jul 1810     António de Saldanha da Gama        (b. 1778 - d. 1839)
 7 Jul 1810 –  3 Jul 1816  José de Oliveira Barbosa,
         (b. 1753 - d. 1844) 
                             visconde do Rio Comprido  
 3 Jul 1816 –  7 Sep 1819  Luís da Motta Feo e Torres         (b. 1769 - d. 1823)
 7 Sep 1819 - 1821         Manuel Vieira Tovar de Albuquerque (b. 1776 - d. 1833)
1821 –  6 Feb 1822         Joaquim Inácio de Lima
 6 Feb 1822 –  2 Oct 1823  Bishop João Damasceno da Silva     (b. 1780 - d. 1826)
                             Póvoas (President of the Junta)
 2 Oct 1823 - 1824         Cristóvão Avelino Dias
1824 - 1829                Nicolau de Abreu Castelo-Branco    (b. 1781 - d. 18..)
1829 – 25 Jun 1834         José Maria de Sousa Macedo Almeida (b. 1787 - d. 1872)
                             e Vasconcelos, barão de Santa
                             Comba Dão
25 Jun 1834 – 20 Feb 1836  Leonardo José Vilela               (d. 1842)
                             (President of the Junta)
20 Feb 1836 – 21 Aug 1836  Domingos de Saldanha Oliveira e    (b. 1800 - d. 1836)
                             Daun 
21 Aug 1836 – Aug 1837     Governing Junta
                           - Leonardo José Vilela             (s.a.)
                           - Ant
ónio Carlos Coutinho
                           - Fernando da Fonseca Mesquita
                               e Solla, visconde de Francos   (b. 1795 - d. 1857)  
Governors-general
Aug 1837 – 25 Jan 1839     Manuel Bernardo Vidal
25 Jan 1839 – 23 Nov 1839  António Manuel de Noronha          (b. 1772 - d. 18..)
23 Nov 1839 - 1842         Manuel Eleutério Malheiro (acting)
1842 – 10 Jul 1843         José Xavier Bressane Leite         (b. 1780 - d. 1843)
10 Jul 1843 – 1844         Government Council  
                           - Carlos Augusto Franco
                           - Joaquim Ant
ónio de Carvalho e
                               Menezes
                           - Luiz Gomes Ribeiro 
                           - Ant
ónio de Azevedo Galiano   
1844 - 1845                Lourenço Germack Possolo           (b. 1779 - d. 1848)
1845 - 1848                Pedro Alexandrino da Cunha         (b. 1801 - d. 1850)
Apr 1848 - Aug 1851        Adrião Acácio da Silveira Pinto    (d. 1868)
Aug 1851 - Feb 1853        António Sérgio de Sousa            (b. 1809 - d. 1878)
Feb 1853 - Sep 1853        António Ricardo Graça
Sep 1853 - Mar 1854        Miguel Ximenes Rodrigues Sandoval  (b. 1806 - d. 1884)
                             de Castro e Viegas, visconde de 
                             Pinheiro
Mar 1854 - Oct 1854        Provisional Junta
                           - Joaquim de São Bento Moreira Reis(b. 1812 - d. 1887)
                           - Antonio Faustino dos Santos
                               Crespo
                           - João Jacinto Tavares

Oct 1854 - Aug 1860        José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral    (b. 1808 - d. 1873)
                             (1st time) 
Aug 1860 - Feb 1861        Carlos Augusto Franco
Feb 1861 - Sep 1862        Sebastião Lopes de Calheiros       (b. 1816 - d. 1899)
                             e Meneses
Sep 1862 - Sep 1865        José Baptista de Andrade           (b. 1819 - d. 1902)
                             (1st time)
Sep 1865 – Mar 1866        José Lino de Oliveira
             (b. 1803 - d. 1885)
                             (president of Governing Council)
Mar 1866 - Apr 1869        Francisco Ant
ónio Gonçalves        (b. 1800 - d. 1875)
                             Cardoso
Apr 1869 - Jun 1870        José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Jun 1870 - Sep 1870        Joaquim José da Graça         
Sep 1870 - Mar 1873        José Maria da Ponte e Horta        (b. 1824 - d. 1892)
Mar 1873 - May 1876        José Baptista de Andrade           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
May 1876 - Jun 1876        Government Council
                           - Tomás Gomes de Almeida
                           - Luis Carlos Garcia de Miranda
                           - Miguel Gomes de Almeida (1st time)
                           - Ant
ónio do Nascimento Pereira
                              de Sampaio                     
Jun 1876 - Jul 1878        Caetano Alexandre de Almeida       (b. 1824 - d. 1894)
                             e Albuquerque
Jul 1878 - Jul 1880        Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
Jul 1880 - Jun 1882        António Eleutério Dantas           (d. 1882)
Jun 1882 - Aug 1882        Government Council
                           - José Sebastião de Almeida Neto
                           - Miguel Gomes de Almeida 
(2nd time)
                           - Adelino Antero de Sá (1st time)  (b. 1862 - d. 1887)
                           - Joaquim José Coelho de Carvalho 
Aug 1882 - Jan 1886        Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do      (b. 1844 - d. 1923)
                             Amaral
Jan 1886 - Apr 1886        Government Council
                           - Ant
ónio Tomás da Silva Leitão e  (b. 1848 - d. 1901)
                               Castro
                           - Adelino Antero de Sá (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           - Onofre de Paiva Andrade  
                           - Guilherme Gomes Coelho                       
Apr 1886 - 25 Aug 1892     Guilherme Auguste de Brito Capêlo  (b. 1839 - d. 1926)
                             (1st time)
25 Aug 1892 - Oct 1893     Jaime Lôbo de Brito Godins (acting)
Oct 1893 - Nov 1894        
Álvaro Antonio da Costa Ferreira   (b. 1853 - d. 1933)
                             (1st time)
Nov 1894 – Apr 1895        Francisco Eugenio Pereira de
                             Miranda
Apr 1895 – Jun 1896        Álvaro Ant
ónio da Costa Ferreira   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)           
Jun 1896 - Feb 1897        Guilherme Auguste de Brito Capêlo  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Feb 1897 – Apr 1897        Government Council
                           - Ant
ónio Dias Ferreira
                           - Ant
ónio Maria Vieira Lisboa
                           - José Maria Pinto da Costa
                           - Lourenço Justiniano Padrel       (b. 1846 - d. 1911)
Apr 1897 - Oct 1900        António Duarte Ramada Curto        (b. 1849 - d. 19..) 
                             (1st time)
Oct 1900 - May 1903        Francisco Xavier Cabral de         (b. 1859 - d. 1908) 
                             Moncada
May 1903 - Mar 1904        Eduardo Augusto Ferreira da Costa  (b. 1865 - d. 1907)
                             (1st time)
Mar 1904 - Dec 1904        Custódio Miguel de Borja           (b. 1849 - d. 1911)
Dec 1904 - Mar 1906        António Duarte Ramada Curto        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
Mar 1906 - May 1906        Ernesto Augusto Gomes de Sousa
                             (1st time)(acting)
Mar 1906 - May 1907        Eduardo Augusto Ferreira da Costa  (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
May 1907 – Jun 1907        Ernesto Augusto Gomes de Sousa
                             (2nd time)(acting)      
Jun 1907 - Jun 1909        Henrique Mitchell de Paiva         (b. 1861 - d. 1944)
                             Couceiro 
Jun 1909 - Aug 1909        Álvaro António da Costa Ferreira   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(acting)
Aug 1909 - Dec 1909        Government Council  
                           - João Evangelista de Lima Vidal   (b. 1874 - d. 1958)
                           - Manuel Pereira Pimenta de Sousa e
                               Castro
                           - Francisco Maria Cabral de França      
16 Dec 1909 - 26 Oct 1910  José Augusto Alves Roçadas         (b. 1865 - d. 1926)
26 Oct 1910 - 18 Jan 1911  Caetano Francisco Cláudio Eugénio  (b. 1868 - d. 1953)
                             Gonçalves (acting)
18 Jan 1911 - 26 Feb 1912  Manuel Maria Coelho                (b. 1857 - d. 1943)
26 Feb 1912 -  7 Mar 1912  Manuel Moreira da Fonseca (acting)
 7 Mar 1912 - 17 Jun 1912  Ant
ónio Eduardo Romeiras de Macedo  
17 Jun 1912 - Mar 1915     José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton   (b. 1867 - d. 1955)
                             de Matos
Mar 1915                   Mario Teixeira Malheiros (acting)
Mar 1915 - Oct 1915        António Júlio da Costa Pereira de
  (b. 1852 - d. 1917)
                             Eça                            
Oct 1915                   Government Council
                           - Manuel do Sacramento Monteiro 
                           - Alberto Barbosa de Queirós
                           - Mario Teixeira Malheiros
Oct 1915 - Apr 1916        Francisco Pais Teles de Utra
                             Machado (acting)
Apr 1916 - 19 Oct 1917     Pedro Francisco Massano do Amorim  (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
19 Oct 1917 - 14 Sep 1918  Jaime Alberto de Castro Morais     (b. 1882 - d. 1973)
14 Sep 1918 - 10 May 1919  Filomeno da Câmara Melo Cabral     (b. 1873 - d. 1934)
10 May 1919 - Jul 1919     Ant
ónio Nogueira Mimoso Guerra     (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
                             (acting)
Jul 1919 – Apr 1920        Francisco Coelho do Amaral Reis,   (b. 1873 - d. 1938)
                             visconde de Pedralva                    
Apr 1920 - Oct 1920        Isidoro Pedro Leger Pereira Leite  (b. c.1870 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
Oct 1920 – Mar 1921        José Inácio da Silva (acting)
Mar 1921 - Apr 1921        José de Abreu Barbosa Bacelar      (b. 1866 - d. 1946)
                             (acting) 
High commissioners and Governors-general
Apr 1921 - Sep 1923        José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton   (s.a.)
                             de Matos
Sep 1923 – 14 Aug 1924     Miguel de Almeida Santos (acting)  
14 Aug 1924 - 6 Sep 1924   João Augusto Crispiniano Soares
 6 Sep 1924 - Jun 1925     Antero Tavares de Carvalho
Jun 1925 - 21 Jan 1926     Francisco Cunha Rêgo Chaves        (b. 1881 - d. 1941)
Jan 1926 - 16 Sep 1926     Artur de Sales Henriques (acting)           
16 Sep 1926 - Nov 1928     António Vicente Ferreira           (b. 1874 - d. 1953)
Nov 1928 - Feb 1929        António Damas Mora (acting)
Feb 1929 - Mar 1930        Filomeno da Câmara Melo Cabral     (s.a.)
Mar 1930 – 31 Mar 1930     Genipro da Cunha de Eça Costa
     (b. 1878 - d. 1945)
                             Freitas e Almeida (acting)
31 Mar 1930 –  3 Jul 1930  Bento Esteves Roma                 (b. 1884 - d. 1953)
 3 Jul 1930 - 1931         José Dionísio Carneiro de Sousa    (b. 1868 - d. 1962)
                             e Faro
1931 – 1934                Eduardo Ferreira Viana             (b. c.1885 - d. 19..)
Apr 1933 – Nov 1933        Ernesto Gonçalves Amaro            (b. 1881 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Viana)

1934 - 1935                Júlio Garcês de Lencastre          (b. 1882 - d. 1970)
1935 - 1939                António Lopes Mateus               (b. 1878 - d. 1955)
Aug 1936 – Jan 1937        Vasco Lopes Alves
                             (acting for Matheus)

1939 – 1940                José Diogo Ferreira Martins (acting)
1940 - 1942                Manuel da Cunha e Costa Marques    (b. 1894 - d. 1957)
                             Mano
1942                       Abel de Abreu Souto-Maior
1942 - 1943                Álvaro de Freitas Morna            (b. 1885 - d. 1961)
1943                       José Ferreira Rodrigues de
                            
Figueiredo dos Santos
1943                       Manuel Pereira Figueira
1943 - 1947                Vasco Lopes Alves                  (b. 1898 - d. 1976)
1947                       Fernando Falcão Pacheco Mena
1947 - 1955                José Agapito da Silva Carvalho     (b. 1897 - d. 1957)
Dec 1950 – Mar 1951        José Antonio Fernandes
                             (acting for Carvalho)
Aug 1951 – Sep 1951        José Antonio Fernandes
                             (acting for Carvalho)
Aug 1955 – Sep 1955        Manuel da Cruz Alvura  
Sep 1955 - Feb 1956        Manuel de Gusmão de Mascarenhas    (b. 1901 - d. 1971)
                             Galvão
Feb 1956 - Aug 1959        Horácio José de Sá Viana Rebelo    (b. 1910 - d. 1995)
Aug 1959 – Feb 1960        Francisco Avelar Maia de Loureiro
                             (acting)
Feb 1960 - 1961            Álvaro Rodrigues da Silva Tavares  (b. 1915)
1961 – 14 Jun 1961         Manuel da Cruz Alvura (acting)
14 Jun 1961 – 23 Jun 1961  Carlos Miguel Lopes da Silva       (b. 1907 - d. 1961)
                             Freire (acting)
23 Jun 1961 -  8 Sep 1962  Venâncio Augusto Deslandes         (b. 1909 - d. 1985)
 8 Sep 1962 –  5 Nov 1962  Francisco M. Holbeche Fino (acting)(b. 1898 - d. 1979)
 5 Nov 1962 - 27 Oct 1966  Silvino Silvério Marques (1st time)(b. 1918 - d. 2013)
27 Oct 1966 - Oct 1972     Camilo Augusto de Miranda Rebocho  (b. 1920 - d. 1998)
                             Vaz
Oct 1972 - 26 Apr 1974     Fernando Augusto Santos Castro     (b. 1922 - d. 1983)
26 Apr 1974 - 15 Jun 1974  Joaquím Franco Pinheiro (acting)
15 Jun 1974 - 24 Jul 1974  Silvino Silvério Marques (2nd time)(s.a.)
24 Jul 1974 - 28 Jan 1975  António Alva Rosa Coutinho         (b. 1926 - d. 2010)
                             (acting to 29 Nov 1974)
28 Jan 1975 -  2 Aug 1975  António Silva Cardoso              (b. 1928)
 2 Aug 1975 - 26 Aug 1975  Ernesto Ferreira de Macedo (acting)
26 Aug 1975 - 10 Nov 1975  Leonel Alexandre Gomes Cardoso     (b. 1919 - d. 1988) 
Presidents 
11 Nov 1975 - 10 Sep 1979  António Agostinho Neto             (s.a.)               MPLA-PT 
10 Sep 1979 -              José Eduardo dos Santos            (s.a.)               MPLA-PT 
                             (acting to 21 Sep 1979)
 

Presidential Council of the Transitional Government
31 Jan 1975 - 15 Jul 1975  Lopo Fortunato Ferreira do         (b. 1942)            MPLA
                             Nascimento 
                            + José de Assunção Alberto Ndele  (b. 1940)            UNITA
                            + Johnny Eduardo Pinnock          (b. 1942 - d. 2000)  FNLA
                           (chairman in rotation)
Prime ministers
11 Nov 1975 -  9 Dec 1978  Lopo Fortunato Ferreira do         (s.a.)               MPLA-PT 
                             Nascimento
19 Jul 1991 -  2 Dec 1992  Fernando José de França Dias       (b. 1934)            MPLA-PT 
                             van Dúnem (1st time)
 2 Dec 1992 -  3 Jun 1996  Marcolino José Carlos Moco         (b. 1953)            MPLA-PT 
 3 Jun 1996 - 29 Jan 1999  Fernando José de França Dias       (s.a.)               MPLA-PT 
                             van Dúnem (2nd time)
 6 Dec 2002 - 30 Sep 2008  Fernando "Nando" da Piedade Dias   (b. 1952)            MPLA-PT
                             dos Santos
30 Sep 2008 -  5 Feb 2010  António Paulo Kassoma
             (b. 1951)            MPLA-PT
 5 Feb 2010 -              Post abolished


Supreme Council for the Liberation of Angola

[Angola - FNLA]

Prime minister
 5 Apr 1962 - 11 Nov 1975  Álvaro Holden Roberto             (b. 1923 - d. 2007)  FNLA
                             (provisional)(in Leopoldville
                             [Kinshasa], Congo exile)

Territorial Dispute: Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Party abbreviations: FNLA = Frente Nacional de Libertação para de Angola (National Front for the Liberation of Angola, northern regionalist, est.1957); MPLA-PT = Movimento Popular da Libertação de Angola -Partido de Trabalho(Popular Liberation Movement of Angola-Labor Party, authoritarian, socialist, renounces marxism 26 Mar 1991, only legal party Nov 1975-1991, est.1956); UNITA = União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, authoritarian/conservative, mainly ethnic Ovimbundu, est.1966)


Counter governments: Democratic People's Republic of Angola
 
[Angola - UNITA;
                Free Algeria de facto flag 1975-2002]
   UNITA flag; Free Algeria de facto flag
    
11 Nov 1975                Democratic People's Republic of Angola (counter-government,
                             at Huambo).
11 Feb 1976                Suppressed by Angolan government.
1979                       Democratic People's Republic of Angola (counter-government,
                             at Cunjamba, and later Jamba).
1992                       Brief end to civil war which it resumes after UNITA disputes
                             national election results.
1994 - Dec 1998            Ceasefire.
 4 Apr 2002                Accord ends civil war.
 

Presidents of the Joint National Council for the Revolution
11 Nov 1975 - 11 Feb 1976  Álvaro Holden Roberto              (b. 1923 - d. 2007)  FNLA
                           + Jonas Malheiro Savimbi           (b. 1934 - d. 2002)  UNITA
Presidents
1979 - 22 Feb 2002         Jonas Malheiro Savimbi             (s.a.)               UNITA
22 Feb 2002 -  3 Mar 2002  António Sebastiao Dembo            (b. 1944 - d. 2002)  UNITA
 3 Mar 2002 -  4 Apr 2002  Paulo Armindo Lukamba Gato (acting)(b. 1954)            UNITA
                            (chairman of the managerial commission)

Prime ministers
23 Nov 1975 - 11 Feb 1976  José de Assunção Alberto Ndele     (b. 1940)            UNITA
                           + Johnny Eduardo Pinnock           (b. 1942 - d. 2000)  FNLA

Party abbreviations: FNLA = Frente Nacional para a Libertação de Angola (National Front for the Liberation of Angola, northern regionalist, est.1957); UNITA = União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, authoritarian, conservative, primarily ethnic Ovimbundu, est.1966)


Cabinda
 

Map of Cabinda
FLEC National Anthem
"Cabinda Pátria Imortal"
(Cabinda Immortal
 Homeland)
Text of  FLEC Anthem
Adopted 1975
Constitution
Capital: Cabinda City
(Tchiowa)
Currency: Kwanza
(AOA) 
FLEC National Holiday
1 Aug (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 536,353 (2012)
81,000 (1971)
GDP: $N/A
(included within Angola figures)
Ethnic groups: Bakongo, Ibinda, Lindji, Oyo,
Kotchi, Yombe, Sundi, Lumbo, Mayombe, others
FLEC Armed Forces: 600,
claims 5,000 (2002) 
Religions: mainly Roman Catholic, Protestant,
traditional beliefs
International Organizations FLEC: UNPO (from 1997)
29 Sep 1883                Cabinda a Portuguese protectorate (Portuguese Congo).
14 Feb 1885                Portuguese possession confirmed by the Berlin Conference.
18 Jul 1885                Portuguese Congo district created (seat: Cabinda).
1887                       Cabinda constituted as a circunscrição administrativa within the
                             Congo district, having a its own special resident.
1919                       Made a separate district of Cabinda.
 4 May 1921                Angola divided into 11 districts (subdivided into circunscriçoês),
                             Cabinda re-incorporated into the Congo district (by carta
                             orgânica da província).
Mar 1922                   District of Zaire created, the Intendancy of Cabinda 
                             becomes part of the Zaire district.
1930                       Intendancy of Zaire and Cabinda.
1932                       With the integration of districts of Zaire and Congo, the
                             Intendancy of Cabinda becomes directly dependent on the 
                             governor-general of Angola.
19 Mar 1933                The new Portuguese fundamental law maintains distinction 
                             between Angola and Cabinda among its overseas provinces.
 1 Jul 1934                Angola divided into 14 districts (by reforma administrativa 
                             ultramarina).
1936                       Angola divied into 5 provinces: Luanda (districts: Luanda, Cuanza
                             Norte, Congo, Zaire and Cabinda), Malanje, Benguela, Bié, Hula.
1946                       District of Cabinda restored.
28 May 1956                Cabinda administratively incorporated into Angola.
May 1963                   Organization of African Unity (OAU) ranks Cabinda as the
                             39th state still to be decolonized (Angola as the 35th). 
10 Jan 1967                FLEC establishes Cabindan government in exile in Congo (Kinshasa).
15 Jan 1975                Portugal meets with Angolan factions (MPLA, FNLA and UNITA) and,
                             under Alvor Agreement, recognizes Cabinda as part of Angola.
 1 Aug 1975                Independence declared by FLEC (Republic of Cabinda)
                             (not recognized by Portugal or other Angolan factions).
11 Nov 1975                Cabinda part of independent Angola.

Residents in Cabinda
1885 - 1886                Jaime Pereira de Sampaio Forjaz    (b. 1855 - d. 1921)
                             de Serpa Pimentel 
1890 - 1892                José António de Miranda 
                             (did not take office)
1892 - 1897                João Francisco Nunes
1897                       Luís Gonzaga Ribeiro               (b. 1864 - d. 1927)
1899                       Henrique Quirino da Fonseca        (b. 1868 - d. 1839)
Governors of Congo district
14 Jul 1887 - 1889         José Antonio de Brissac das        (b. 1846 - d. 1902)
                             Neves Ferreira
1889 - 1890                António de Azarado de Vasconcelos 
1890 - 1893                António Sérgio de Sousa 
1893 - 1895                Nuno de Freitas Queriol (1st time) (b. 1855 - d. 1924)
1895 - 1896                Jaime Pereira de Sampaio Forjaz    (s.a.)
                             de Serpa Pimenta
1895 - 1896                Eduardo Augusto Gomes de Sousa 
                             (1st time)
1896 - 1897                Nuno de Freitas Queriol (2nd time) (s.a.)
1897                       Eduardo Augusto Gomes de Sousa 
                             (2nd time)
1897 - 1899                Luís Bernardino Leitão Xavier      (b. 1954 - d. 1914)
1899 - 1900                Henrique Quirino da Fonseca        (s.a.)
1900                       Augusto Pereira do Vale
1900 - 1901                Jaime da Fonseca Monteiro          (b. 1870 - d. 1938)
1901                       Pedro de Azevedo Coutinho
1901                       Raúl Correia Betancourt de Furtado 
1901 - 1902                João dos Santos Pereira Jardim     (b. 1860 - d. 19..)
Governors of Cabinda district
1946 - 1949                Raul de Lima 
1949 - 1956                Ismael Pais
1956                       João Baptista Duarte Pinheira
1956 - 1957                Jaime António Tavares Machado
                             Banazol
1957 - 1958                Norberto Augusto Lopes
1959 - 1961                José Paulo Paixão Barradas
1961 - 1963                Júlio de Araújo Ferreira           (b. 1905 - d 1995)
1964 - 1965                Artur João Cabral Carmona          (b. 1916)
1965 - 1966                Adriano Augusto Pires 
1966 - 1968                João Tiroa 
Feb 1968 - 1970            Américo Agostinho Mendonça Frazão
                             (acting to 12 Jun 1968)
1970 - 1971                Eurico Ferreira Gonçalves          (b. 1916 - d. 2005)
1971 - 1972                João António Pinheiro              (b. 1921 - d. 2009) 
1972 - 1975                Manuel Freire Themudo Barata       (b. 1919 - d. 2003)
Governors of Cabinda province
1975 - 1978                Evaristo Domingos "Kimba"          (b. 1944 - d. 2011)  MPLA-PT
1979 - 1980                Luís Doukui Paulo de Castro        (b. 1940 - d. 2005)  MPLA-PT
1980 - 1982                Manuel Francisco Tuta "Batalha de                       MPLA-PT
                             Angola" 
1982 - 1984                Armando Fandume Ndembo                                  MPLA-PT
1984 - 1989                Jorge Barros Chimpuati (Tchimpuaty)(b. 1943 - d. 2011)  MPLA-PT
1990                       Maria Mambo Café (f)               (b. 1945)            MPLA-PT
1990 - 1995                Augusto da Silva Tomás             (b. 1957)            MPLA-PT
Jan 1995 - Apr 2002        José Amaro Tati                                         MPLA-PT 
Apr 2002 - 2009            José Aníbal Lopes Rocha                                 MPLA-PT
 1 Dec 2009 -              Mawete João Baptista               (b. 1947)            MPLA-PT
 

Cabinda government in exile

[FLEC 1974 flag]
       FLEC flag from 1975

Presidents 
10 Jan 1967 -  1 Aug 1975  Pedro Simba Macosso                (b. 1927)            FLEC
                             (in Tshela, Congo [Kinshasa] exile)
Aug 1975 - Jan 1976        Luis de Gonzaga Ranque Franque     (b. 1925 - d. 2007)  FLEC 
                            (provisional to Aug 1975;
                             from 1976 in Congo [Kinshasa] exile)

Prime minister
Jul 1975 - Jan 1976        Francisco Xavier Lubota            (b. 1942? - d. 2006) FLEC
                            (provisional to 1 Aug 1975;
                             from Nov 1975 in Congo [Kinshasa] exile)

Party abbreviations: FELC = Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda (Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda, Cabinda regionalist, separatist, est.1963], split 1976 into FLEC-N and FLEC-L); FLEC-L = FLEC-Lubota (FLEC faction, Francisco Xavier Lubota personalist, est.1976); FLEC-N = FLEC-N'Zita (FLEC faction, Henrique Tiaho N'Zita personalist, est.1976); MPLA-PT = Movimento Popular da Libertação de Angola -Partido de Trabalho (Popular Liberation Movement of Angola-Labor Party, authoritarian, socialist, renounces marxism 26 Mar 1991, only legal party Nov 1975-1991, est.1956)






© Ben Cahoon