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Ukraine
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
31 Jan 1667 - 22 Jan 1918
 
[Ukrainian People's Republic
                                    (non-communist) flag 1917-1918
                                    (Ukraine)]
20 Nov 1917 - 29 Apr 1918 Non-Communist Ukraine
 
[Ukrainian
                                    People's Republic 1918-1920 and
                                    Ukrainian State 1918 (non-communist)
                                    flag (Ukraine)]
29 Apr 1918 - 22 Nov 1920 Non-Communist Ukraine
 
[Ukrainian People's Republic
                                    (communist) flag 1917-1919
                                    (Ukraine)]
26 Dec 1917 - 14 Mar 1919 Communist Ukraine
 
[Flag
                                    of Ukrainian SSR 1919-1937
                                    (Ukraine)]
14 Mar 1919 - 30 Jan 1937 Communist Ukraine
 
[Flag of
                                    USSR 1923-1991]
30 Dec 1922 - 25 Dec 1991
 
[Flag of
                                    Ukrainian SSR 1949-1992 (Ukraine)]
24 Aug 1991 - 28 Jan 1992
 
[Ukraine flag]
Adopted 18 Sep 1991
(co-National flag to 28 Jan 1992)
 

Map of Ukraine Hear National Anthem
"Shche ne vmerla Ukrayina"
(Ukraine has not Perished) 
Text of National Anthem
(1917-20 non-communist - none)
Adopted 5 Dec 1991
Constitution
  (28 Jun 1996)
Capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)
(Bila Tserkva [Belaya Tserkov]
15 Nov - 19 Dec 1918)
Currency: Hryvnya (UAH);
1992-96 Karbovanets' (UAK);
1991-92 Russian Ruble (RUR);
1918-19
Hryvnya (UAH)
 1918 & 1919-20 Karbovanets'
National Holiday: 24 Aug  (1991)
Independence Day
Population: 44,573,205 (2013)
GDP: $337.4 billion (2013) Exports: $71.1 billion (2013)
Imports: $87.2 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%,
Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian
 0.3%,
Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 129,925 (2010)
Former Nuclear Power: 5,000 weapons (1991-1996)
Merchant marine: 134 ships (2010)
Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate 50.4%, Ukrainian
 Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 26.1%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic
 8%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 7.2%, Roman Catholic
 2.2%, Protestant 2.2%, Jewish 0.6%, none and other 3.2% (2006)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), AG, ANT (consultative), APM, BSEC, BTWC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN (associate), CFE, CICA (observer), CTBT, CWC, DC, EAPC, EBRD, EITI, ENMOD, ESA (cooperating state), ESCR, Euratom (associate), Eutelsat, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MTCR, NAM (observer), NSG, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, OST, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Ukraine Index
Chronology
               
c.862 - 19 May 1389        Part of the Grand Principality of Rus' (later
                             referred to as Kievan Rus' [Kiyevskaya Rus']
                             by historians), ruled by the Ryurikovich
                             (Rurikid) dynasty. The dynasty follows agnatic
                             seniority, and in 1054, divides into three
                             branches on the basis of descent from three
                             successive ruling Grand Princes - Izyaslav
                             Yaroslavich (I) (1024-1078), Svyatoslav 
                             Yaroslavich (II)(1027-1076), and Vsevolod
                             Yaroslavich (I) (1030-1093).
988                        Grand Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich (I)(b. c.958
                             - d. 1015) converts to (Orthodox) Christianity
1096                       Cuman-Kipchak (Kypchak) attack Kiev.
1097                       Council of Lyubech amends the succession rule
                             and divides Rus' into several regional
                             autonomous principalities that had equal
                             rights to obtain the throne in Kiev.
12 Mar 1169                Kiev sacked by the forces of Andrey Yuryevich
                             (I) Bogolyubskiy of Vladimir-Suzdal'
                             (b. c.1111 - d. 1174). The seat of the Grand
                             Prince is moved to Vladimir (see under Russia)
 8 Sep 1173                Kiev sacked by the forces of Svyatoslav
                             Vsevolodovich (III) of Chernigov.
1201                       Kiev captured by Roman Mstislavich (I) of
                            
Galich-Volynia.
 2 Jan 1203                Kiev captured and sacked by Ryurik Rostislavich
                             (II) and his Cuman-Kipchak (Kypchak) allies.
Dec 1237/Feb 1241          The Mongols subdue most of the regional
                             principalities of Rus'(Kiev itself being
                             sacked and destroyed on 6 Dec 1240).
1299                       Metropolitan Maksim (d. 1305) moves the seat of
                             the Orthodox Metropolitanate of Rus' from Kiev
                             to Vladimir (in modern day Russia).
1340/1362                  Northern Ukraine becomes part of Lithuania
                            (from 1340 Volhynia; Chernigov and Novgorod-
                             Severskiy 1355; Pereyaslavl' and Kiev in 1362)
1471                       Kiev voivodeship created within Lithuania which
                             formally ends Kiev's local autonomy.
 1 Jul 1569                By the Union of Lublin, joining Poland and
                             Lithuania, Ukrainian lands are transferred
                             from Lithuania to Poland.
 2 May 1648                Hetmanate rebellion against Poland begins.
17 Aug 1649                In the Treaty of Zboriv (Zborów) recognized by
                             Poland as an autonomous Hetmanate, later 
                             retrospectively referred to as the "Ukrainian
                             Cossack Republic."
 6 Apr 1654                Hetmanate under Russian sovereignty by the
                             Treaty of Pereyaslav (signed 8/18 Jan 1654).
 6 Sep 1658                Under Polish sovereignty by the Treaty of 
                             Hadiach (Hadyach/Gadyach).
17 Jun 1663                Split in the pro-Russian Left-Bank Hetmanate 
                             (east of the Dnieper River) and the pro-Polish
                             Right-Bank Hetmanate (west of the Dnieper).
 9 Feb 1667                In Treaty of Andrusovo, Hetmanate provisionally 
                             partitioned between Poland and Russia. Russia 
                             obtains Left-Bank Ukraine (including Kiev and 
                             Zaporizhia), Poland retains the Right-Bank 
                             (partition is confirmed by the 'Eternal' Peace
                             of 6 May 1686).
27 Aug 1672 - 22 Sep 1699  Podolia, Bratslav, and part of Kiev provinces
                             occupied by the Ottoman Empire.
 3 Aug 1775                Hetmanate fully incorporated into Russia.
18 Sep 1793/24 Oct 1795    Polish parts of Ukraine are annexed by Russia
                             in the Second and Third Partitions of the 
                             Poland-Lithuania.
20 Nov 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic (non-Communist)
                             proclaimed.
25 Dec 1917 -  1 Mar 1918  Soviet Russian occupation of Kharkov (Kharkiv),
                             and Kiev (Kyyiv) from 9 Feb 1918.
25 Dec 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic (Ukrainian National
                             Republic) established in Kharkov (Kharkiv) as
                             a (Communist) counter-government, subordinate
                             to Russia.
22 Jan 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (non-Communist) 
                             declares independence from Russia.
27 Jan 1918 -  1 Mar 1918  Soviet Russian occupation (the non-Communist
                             government moves to Zhitomir [Zhytomyr]).
 1 Mar 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  German and Austro-Hungarian occupation; Germans
                             in Volyniya (24 Feb), Kiev (1 Mar), Chernigov
                             (12 Mar), Poltava (30 Mar), Kharkov (8 Apr),
                             in Taurida and Crimea (22 Apr); Austrians in
                             Podolia (28 Feb), Kherson and Odessa (13 Mar),
                             Rostov and Ekaterinoslav (4 Apr 1918). Germany
                             occupies the former Kiev Military District
                             (and Crimea), while Austria-Hungary occupies
                             former Odessa Military District (minus Crimea)
19 Mar 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (Communist) declares
                             independence from Russia.
18 Apr 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  Communist authorities dissolved and exiled
                             following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and
                             the fall of Lugansk (Luhans'k).
29 Apr 1918                Ukrainian State (under occupation).
28 Nov 1918                (Communist) Provisional Workers' and Peasants'
                             Government of Ukraine established (at Sudza,
                             Soviet Russia exile).
14 Dec 1918 - 22 Nov 1920  Ukrainian People's Republic (non-communist)
                             (restored).
18 Dec 1918 -  8 Apr 1919  Allied Powers occupation of Odessa.
 5 Jan 1919                Soviet Russian intervention (from 3 Jan 1919
                             in Kharkov [Kharkiv], 12 Jan 1919 Chernigov
                             [Chernihiv], 18 Jan 1919 Poltava and 27 Jan
                             1919 in Ekaterinoslav [Katerynoslav]).
 5 Feb 1919                Soviet Russian forces occupy Kiev.
10 Mar 1919                Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic.
21 Apr 1919                Soviet Russia occupies (Kamenets-Podolskiy)
                             (Kam'yanets'-Podil's'kyy) effectively 
                             terminating the (non-communist) Ukrainian
                             People's Republic.
 2 Sep 1919 - 12 Dec 1919  "White" Russian Volunteer Army under Anton
                             Denikin occupies Kiev and most of Ukraine
                             (in Odessa 18 Aug 1919 - 7 Feb 1920).
12 Dec 1919                Soviet Russia occupies Kharkov (Kharkiv); Kiev
                            (Kyyiv) 16 Dec 1919, Odessa (Odesa) 7 Feb 1920.
 7 May 1920 - 13 Jul 1920  Poland and (non-communist) Ukrainian forces
                             occupy Kiev.
22 Nov 1920                Ukrainian People's Republic, which is
                             intermittently absent from the national
                             territory from 16 Jul 1920, holds its last
                             last session on Ukrainian soil.
30 Dec 1922                Founding component of the Soviet Union.
 5 Dec 1936                Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
17-22 Sep 1939             Western regions occupied and, from 1 Nov 1939,
                             annexed by Soviet Union (part of Ukrainian
                             S.S.R.)(previously part of Poland 1920-1939).
22 Jun 1941                German invasion begins (Rivne occupied on 28 Jun
                             1941, L'viv 30 Jun 1941, Kiev on 19 Sep 1941
                             Kharkiv 24 Oct 1941, Voroshilovgrad [Luhans'k]
                             on 17 Jul 1942).
 5 Jul 1941 - 12 Jul 1941  Ukrainian State declared restored at L'viv,
                             terminated by German occupation forces.
 1 Aug 1941                Eastern Galicia made the district of Galicia
                             in the General Government.
 3 Aug 1941 - 10 Apr 1944  Ukraine between the Dniester and Bug Rivers,
                             including Odessa, occupied but not annexed to
                             Romania (see Transnitria).
 1 Sep 1941 - 25 Feb 1944  German occupied Ukraine organized as the
                             Reichskommissariat Ukraine. Eastern Ukraine
                             and Crimea remain under German military rule.
Jan 1943 - 28 Oct 1944     Soviet re-occupation of Ukraine (Voroshilovgrad
                            [Luhans'k] 14 Feb 1943, Kharkiv liberated 23
                             Aug 1943, Stalino [Donets'k] on 8 Sep 1943,
                             Kiev 6 Nov 1943, Rivne 2 Feb 1944, Kherson 13
                             Mar 1944, Odessa 10 Apr 1944, L'viv 26 Jul
                             1944, and Uzhgorod 28 Oct 1944).
19 Feb 1954                Crimea transferred from Russian S.F.S.R. to
                             Ukrainian S.S.R
26 Apr 1986                Chernobyl' (Chornobyl') nuclear plant disaster.
16 Jul 1990                Declaration of state sovereignty.
24 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (Ukraine)
                             (ratified by referendum on 1 Dec 1991).
26 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of the 
                             Soviet Union).
21 Mar 2014                Russia annexes Crimea (not recognized by Ukraine).
12 May 2014                Donetsk and Lugansk proclaim their independence
                             (not recognized by Ukraine).
Ukraine
(since 1991)
Ukraine Admin.
Divisions
Crimea
Rus'
(c.862-1169)
Hetmanate
(1648-1775)
Kiev governorate
(1796-1914)
Non-Communist
Ukraine

(1917-1920)
Communist
Ukraine and
Ukrainian S.S.R.
(1917-1991)
Ukraine in Exile
(1920-1992)
Makhnovist Forces
(1919-1921)

Odessa Soviet
(1918-1919)
Soviet Republic
of Donetsk and
Krivoy Rog Basins
(1918)
Central Powers Occupation
(1918)
Reichskommissariat
Ukraine

(1941-1944)
Transnistria
(1941-1944)
Galicia
(1772-1918, 1920)
Western Ukraine
(1918-1919)
Koman'cha
(1918-1919)
Galician Soviet
Republic

(1920)
Lemko-Rusyn
(1918-1920)

Podolia (Podole)
(1672-1699)
Bukovina
(1774-1918,
1941-1944)
Subcarpathia
(Transcarpathia)
(1918-1946)
Hutsul
(1918-1919)
Genoese Caffa
and Gazaria
(1266-1475)
Ukrainian
Republic of

the Far East

(1918-1922)
Donetsk People's
Republic
(2014-)
Lugansk People's
Republic
(2014-)
Orthodox Church
of Ukraine
Ukrainian Greek
Catholic Church
Map of
Administrative
Divisions
Historical Maps
of Ukraine
 
Kievan Rus

c.862                      Grand Principality of Rus' (later referred to as Kievan Rus'
                             [Kiyevskaya Rus'] by historians), ruled by the Ryurikovich
                             (Rurikid) dynasty. The dynasty follows agnatic seniority,
                             and in 1054, divides into three branches on the basis of descent
                             from three successive ruling Grand Princes - Izyaslav
                             Yaroslavich (I) (1024-1078), Svyatoslav Yaroslavich (II)
                            (1027-1076), and Vsevolod Yaroslavich (I) (1030-1093).
                             established first at Novgorod, then from 882 at Kiev.
988                        Grand Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich (I) (b. c.958 - d. 1015)
                             converts to (Orthodox) Christianity.
1096                       Cuman-Kipchak (Kypchak) attack Kiev.
1097                       Council of Lyubech amends the succession rule and divides Kievan
                             Rus' into several regional autonomous principalities that had
                             equal rights to obtain the throne in Kiev.
1157                       Grand Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal' (originally Rostov-Suzdal')
                             within the Grand Principality of Rus', with its capital at
                             Rostov-Suzdal' and later Vladimir.
12 Mar 1169                Kiev sacked by the forces of Andrey Yuryevich (I) "Bogolyubskiy"
                             of Vladimir-Suzdal' (b. c.1111 - d. 1174).  The seat of the
                             Grand Prince is moved to Vladimir-Suzdal' (see under Russia).
 8 Sep 1173                Kiev sacked by the forces of Prince Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich (III)
                             of Chernigov.
1201                       Kiev captured by Roman Mstislavich (I) of Galich-Volynia.
 2 Jan 1203                Kiev captured and sacked by Ryurik Rostislavich (II) and
                             his Cuman-Kipchak (Kypchak) allies.
Dec 1237/Feb 1241          The Mongols subdue most of the regional principalities of Rus'
                             (Kiev itself being sacked and destroyed on 6 Dec 1240).

Princes
of Rus'
(title Knyaz')
c.862 - c.879              Rurik (Riurik)                     (b. 83. - d. 879)
c.879 - 882                Oleg "Veshchiy" ("the Seer")       (b. 85. - d. 912)
Grand Princes of Rus' (title Velikiy knyaz')
882 - 912                  Oleg "Veshchiy"                    (s.a.
)
912 - 945                  Igor Rurikovich I                  (b. c.878 - d. 945)
945 -
Mar 972              Svyatoslav Igorevich I             (b. 942 - d. 972)
945 - 11 Jul 969           Knyaginya Olga (Yelena)(f) -Regent (b. c.920 - d. 969)
969 - 11 Jun 978           Yaropolk
Svyatoslavich I           (b. 955 - d. 978)
11 Jun 978 - 15 Jul 1015   Vladimir Svyatoslavich I           (b. c.960 - d. 1015)
15 Jul 1015 - 1016         Svyatopolk Vladimirovich I         (b. c.979 - d. 1019)
                             "Okayannyy" ("Accursed")
1016 - 1017                Yaroslav
Vladimirovich I "Mudryy"  (b. c.978 - d. 1054)
                             ("Wise")(1st time) 
1017 - 1019                Svyatopolk
Vladimirovich I         (s.a.)
                             "Okayannyy" (2nd time)
1019 - 1024                Yaroslav
Vladimirovich I (2nd time)(s.a.)
1024                       Mstislav Vladimirovich I "Khrabryy"(b. c.983 - d. 1036)
                             (the Brave)(in rebellion)
1024 - 20 Feb 1054         Yaroslav
Vladimirovich I (3rd time)(s.a.)
20 Feb 1054 - 1068         Izyaslav Yaroslavich I (1st time)  (b. 1024 - d. 1078)
14 Sep 1068 - Apr 1069     Vseslav Bryachislavich             (b. c.1029 - d. 1101)
1069 - 1073                Izyaslav Yaroslavich I (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1073 - 27 Dec 1076         Svyatoslav Yaroslavich II          (b. 1027 - d. 1076)
Dec 1076 - 1077            Vsevolod Yaroslavich I (1st time)  (b. 1030 - d. 1093)
1077 -  3 Oct 1078         Izyaslav I (3rd time)              (s.a.)
1078 -  3 Apr 1093         Vsevolod Yaroslavich I (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Apr 1093 - 16 Apr 1113     Svyatopolk Izyaslavich II          (b. 1050 - d. 1113)
 4 May 1113 - 19 May 1125  Vladimir Vsevolodovich II          (b. 1053 - d. 1125)
                            
"Monomakh"
19 May 1125 - 14 Apr 1132  Mstislav
Vladimirovich II "Velikiy"(b. 1076 - d. 1132)
                             (the Great)
14 Apr 1132 - 18 Feb 1139  Yaropolk
Vladimirovich II          (b. 1082 - d. 1139)
18 Feb 1139 -  4 Mar 1139  Vyacheslav Vladimirovich (1st time)(b. c.1083 - d. 1154)
 5 Mar 1139 -  1 Aug 1146  Vsevolod Olgovich II               (b. c.1094 - d. 1146)
 1 Aug 1146 - Aug 1146     Igor Olgovich II                   (d. 1147)
Aug 1146 - Aug 1149        Izyaslav Mstislavich II (1st time) (b. c.1097 - d. 1154)
Aug 1149 - 1150            Yuri (Georgiy) Vladimirovich       (b. 1090 - d. 1157)
                             "Dolgorukiy" (1st time)
1150                       Izyaslav Mstislavich II (2nd time) (s.a.
)
                           - jointly with -
1150                       Vyacheslav
Vladimirovich (2nd time)(s.a.)
1150 - Jun 1151            Yuri (Georgiy) Vladimirovich       (s.a.)
                             "Dolgorukiy" (2nd time)
Jun 1151 - 13 Nov 1154     Izyaslav Mstislavich II (3rd time)
(s.a.)
                           - jointly with -
Apr 1151 - Dec 1154        Vyacheslav
Vladimirovich (3rd time)(s.a.)
Dec 1154 - 1155            Rostislav Mstislavich (1st time)   (b. c.1108 - d. 1167)
1155 - Mar 1155            Izyaslav Davidovich III (1st time) (d. 1161)
Mar 1155 - 15 May 1157    
Yuri (Georgiy) Vladimirovich       (s.a.)

                             "Dolgorukiy" (3rd time)

1157                       Izyaslav Davidovich III (2nd time) (s.a.)
19 May 1157 - Apr 1159     Mstislav Izyaslavich III (1st time)(b. 1125? - d. 1170)
Apr 1159 - 12 Feb 1161     Rostislav Mstislavich (2nd time)   (s.a.)
12 Feb 1161 -  6 Mar 1161  Isyaslav Davidovich III (3rd time) (s.a.)
 6 Mar 1161 - 14 Mar 1167  Rostislav Mstislavich (3rd time)   (s.a.)
1167 - 1169                Mstislav Izyaslavich III (2nd time)(s.a.)

Hetmanate
af.1392                    Southern border areas of the provinces of Kiev and Braclav,
                             conquered by Lithuania organized as a military district called
                             the 'Zaporozhian Sich (Host)' (Zaporoz'ka Sich) comprised of 
                             Cossacks. Since 1550 these Cossacks were led by a (self-elected)
                             Hetman.
 2 May 1648                Rebellion against Poland begun. 
17 Aug 1649                In the Treaty of Zboriv, recognized by Poland as an autonomous 
                             Hetmanate, later known as "Ukrainian Cossack Republic" (covering
                             Kiev, Bratslav [Bracław] and Chernigov [Czernihów] voivodships).
28 Sep 1651                Bratslav and Chernigov restored to Polish administration.
 6 Apr 1654                Under Russian sovereignty by the Treaty of Pereyaslav (signed
                             8/18 Jan 1654).
 6 Sep 1658                Under Polish sovereignty by the Treaty of Hadiach (Hadyach/Gadyach)
17 Jun 1663                Zaporozhian Host is split between the pro-Russian Hetmanate on the
                        Left-Bank (east of the Dnieper River) and the pro-Polish
                        Hetmanate on the Right-Bank (west of the Dnieper River).
31 Jan 1667                In the Treaty of Andrusovo provisionally partitioned between 
                             Poland and Russia. Russia obtained Left-Bank (including Kiev and 
                             Zaporizhia [Zaporizhzhya]), Poland retained Right-Bank
                             (partition confirmed by the Eternal Peace of 6 May 1686).
1669 - 1679                Right-Bank split into rival pro-Ottoman and pro-Polish camps.
1683 - 1685                Right-Bank again divided between pro-Ottoman and pro-Polish camps.
1708 - 1710                Brief attempt to assert separation from Russia supporting Sweden.
1711 - 1734                Zaporozhian Cossacks establish a base near mouth of Dnieper River
                             under the protection of the Khans of Crimea and Ottoman Empire.
Jul 1722 - Sep 1727        Direct Russian administration. 
1734                       Under the Agreement of Lubny, the Zaporozhian Cossacks regain
                             all of their former lands, privileges, laws, and customs in
                             exchange for serving under Russia.
1734 - 1750                Direct Russian administration.
17 Nov 1764                Direct Russian administration, abolition of Hetman title. Creation
                             of the Little Russia governorate (Malorosiys'ka [Malorossiyskaya]
                             guberniya).
 3 Aug 1775                Incorporated into Russia.
1781                       Liquidation of the structure of the Hetmanate - Ukrainian Cossack
                             regiments abolished.
Hetmans
- of the Zaporozhian Host, in Chyhyryn (Chigirin) 1648-1676 (on the Right-Bank) -
30 Jan 1648 -  6 Aug 1657  Bohdan Mykhaylovych
Khmel'nyts'kyy (b. 1595 - d. 1657)
                             (Bogdan Mikhaylovich Khmel'nitskiy)
 
6 Aug 1657 - 21 Oct 1657  Yuriy Bohdanovych Khmel'nyts'kyy   (b. c.1641 - d. 1685)
                             (Yuriy Bogdanovich Khmel'nitskiy)
                             (1st time)

21 Oct 1657 - Nov 1658     Ivan Ostapovych Vyhovs'kyy         (b. c.1608 - d. 1664)
                            
(Ivan Ostapovich Vigovskiy)
Nov 1658 - 11 Sep 1659     Ivan Fedorovych Bezpalyy (acting)  (b. c.1619 - d. 1718)

                            
(Ivan Fyodorovich Bezpaliy [Bezpaloy])
11 Sep 1659 - Oct 1662     Yuriy Bohdanovych Khmel'nyts'kyy   (s.a.)

                             (2nd time)
Oct 1662 - 18 Jun 1663     Akym Semenovych Somko (acting)     (b. c.1619 - d. 1663)
                            
(Yakim Semyonovich Somko)
1663 - Jul 1665            Pavlo
Ivanovych Morzhkovs'kyy      (b. c.1620 - d. 1670)
                            
Teterya (Pavel Ivanovich Morzhkovskiy Teterya)
                             [= Paweł Morzkowski]
)
1665 - Oct 1665            Stepan Opara
(Stepan Opara)        (d. 1665)
                            
(prisoner from 18 Aug 1665)
10 Oct 1665 - 19 Sep 1676  Petro Dorofiyovych Doroshenko      (b. 1627 - d. 1689)

                            
(Pyotr Dorofeyevich Doroshenko)
                             (in rebellion from 1669)
1668 - 1676                Petro Sukhoviy (Pyotr
Sukhovey)    (b. c.1645 - d. af.1674)
                             (
pretender)
1669 - 27 Mar 1674         Mykhaylo Stepanovych Khanenko      (b. c.1620 - d. c.1680)

                            
(Mikhaylo Stepanovich Khanenko)
1675 -  9 Jan 1679         Ostap Hohol' (Ostap Gogol')(acting)(d. 1679)

1677 - 1681                Yuriy Bohdanovych Khmel'nyts'kyy   (b. 1641 - d. 1685)
                             (Yuriy Bogdanovich Khmel'nitskiy)
                             (in rebellion, in Nemyrіv [N
emirov])
1681 - 1684                Heorhiy Duka (Georgiy Duka)        (b. 16.. - d. 1685)
                             (= Gheorghe Duca)
                             (also Voivode and Lord of Moldavia)
                             (in rebellion, appointed by Ottomans)
24 Aug 1683 - Jan 1684     Stefan Kunyts'kyy                  (b. c.1640 - d. 1684)
                             (Stefan Kunitskiy)
Jan 1684 - Jan 1689        Andriy
Andriyovych Mohyla          (b. c.1630 - d. 1689)
                             (Andrey
Andreyevich Mogila) 
1689 - 1692                Hryshko Drahynych (Khrumko)
                             (Grigoriy Ivanovich Draginich)
                             (in rebellion, in Nemyriv)

1693 - 1699                Samoylo Ivanovych Samus'           (d. c.1713)
                             (Samiylo Ivanovich Samus')
                             (in rebellion, in Nemyriv)

- of the Zaporozhian Host, in Hadyach [Gadyach] 1660-68, in Baturyn [Baturin]
1668-1708, then Hlukhiv [
Glukhov] 1708-1723 (on the Left-Bank) -
18 Jun 1663 - 17 Jun 1668  Ivan Martynovych Bryukhovets'kyy   (b. 1623 - d. 1668)
                            
(Ivan Martinovich Bryukhovetskiy)
17 Jun 1668 - 27 Jun 1672  Dem'yan Ihnatovych Mnohohrishnyy   (b. 1627 - d. 1698)

                             (Dem'yan Ignatovich Mnogogreshnyy)
                             (acting to Dec 1668)

28 Jun 1672 - 23 Jul 1687  Ivan Samoylovych Samoylovych       (b. c.1630 - d. 1690)
                            
(Ivan Samoylovich Samoylovich)
 4 Aug
1687 -  6 Nov 1708  Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa            (b. 1639 - d. 1709)

                             (
Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa)
 
6 Nov 1708 -  3 Jul 1722  Ivan Illich Skoropads'kyy          (b. 1646 - d. 1722)
                             (Ivan Ilyich Skoropadskiy)
 
5 Apr 1710 - 24 May 1742  Pylyp Stepanovych Orlyk (in exile) (b. 1672 - d. 1742)
                            
(Filipp Stepanovich Orlik)
 4 Jul 1722 - 18 Dec 1724  Pavlo Leontiyovych Polubotok     
  (b. c.1660 - d. 1724)
                            
(Pavel Leontyevich Polubotok)
                             (acting)
President of the Little Russian (Ukrainian) Collegium
31 Jul 1722 - 12 Oct 1727  Stepan Lukych Vel'yaminov          (b. 1660 - d. 1737)
                             (Stepan Lukich Velyaminov)

Hetman

12 Oct 1727 - 28 Jan 1734  Danylo Pavlovych Apostol'          (b. 1654 - d. 1734)
                            
(Daniil Pavlovich Apostol')
President of the (Temporary to Aug 1734) Board of the Hetman's Government
("Little Russian [Ukrainian] Collegium")

28 Jan 1734 - 1736         Knyaz' Aleksey Ivanovich           (b. 1690 - d. 1737) 
                             Shakhovskoy
17 Jun 1736 - Feb 1738     Knyaz' Ivan Fyodorovich            (b. 1689 - d. 1738)
                             Boryatinskiy (Baryatinskiy)
Mar 1738 - May 1738        Ivan Afanasyevich Shipov           (b. 1682 - d. 1749)
                             (1st time)
May 1738 - Mar 1740        Aleksandr Ivanovich Rumyantsov     (b. 1677 - d. 1749) 
                             (Rumyantsev)
Mar 1740 - 17 Sep 1740     Ivan Afanasyevich Shipov           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1740 - 1741                Yakov Vilimovich Keyt              (b. 1696 - d. 1758)
                            
(= James Francis Edward Keith) 
1741 - Dec 1741            Ivan Ivanovich Neplyuyev           (b. 1693 - d. 1773)

Dec 1741 - 1742            Aleksandr Borisovich Buturlin      (b. 1694 - d. 1767)
1742 - 20 May 1745         Ivan Ivanovich Bibikov             (b. 16.. - d. 1745)
20 May 1745 -  5 Jun 1750  Mikhail Ivanovich Leontyev         (b. 1682 - d. 1752)
Hetman
 5 Jun 1750 - 17 Nov 1764  Kyrylo Hryhorovych Rozumovs'kyy    (b. 1728 - d. 1803)
                            
(Graf Kirill Grigoryevich Razumovskiy)
Governor-general and President of Board of the Hetman's Government
(the Little Russian (Ukrainian) Collegium)
30 Jun 1765 - 1782         Graf Pyotr Aleksandrovich          (b. 1725 - d. 1796)
                             Rumyantsev-Zadunayskiy

Kiev Russian Governorate-general
[Russian flag]
30 Nov 1796                Kiev Governorate (within Russia) on the right bank of Dnieper.
 3 Feb 1832                Kiev Governorate and Governorate-general of Podolia and Volhynia.
31 Jan 1865                Governorate-general of Kiev, Podolia and Volhynia.
1915                       Abolished.

Military Governors of Kiev

1780 - 1796                Graf Pyotr Aleksandrovich          (s.a.)
                             Rumyantsev-Zadunayskiy
29 Nov 1796 - 11 Dec 1796  Graf Ivan Petrovich Saltykov       (b. 1730 - d. 1805)
11 Dec 1796 - 23 Mar 1798  Andrey Grigoryevich Rosenberg      (b. 1739 - d. 1813)
24 Mar 1798 - 24 Jun 1798  Ivan Vasilyevich Gudovich          (b. 1741 - d. 1820)
24 Jun 1798 - 1799         Aleksandr Alekseyevich Bekleshov   (b. c.1743 - d. 1808)
1800 - 1803                Andrey Semyonovich Fensh (Fensch)  (b. 1757 - d. 1828)
1803 - 1806                Aleksandr Petrovich Tormasov       (b. 1752 - d. 1819)
10 Oct 1806 - 15 Jul 1809  Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev (b. 1745 - d. 1813)
                             -Kutuzov
1810 - Aug 1818            Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich   (b. 1771 - d. 1825)
Aug 1818 -  9 Feb 1827     Vacant
 
9 Feb 1827 - 1829         Pyotr Fyodorovich Zheltukhin       (b. 1777 - d. 1829)
1829 -  3 Feb 1832         Boris Yakovlevich Knyazhnin        (b. 1777 - d. 1854)
Military Governors of Kiev, Governors-general of Podolia and Volyn
 
3 Feb 1832 - 21 Jun 1835  Vasiliy Vasilyevich Levashov       (b. 1783 - d. 1848)
                            
(from 1 Jun 1833, Graf Vasiliy Vasilyevich Levashov)
21 Jun 1835 - 27 Nov 1837  Graf Aleksandr Dmitriyevich Guryev (b. 1786 - d. 1865)

10 Jan 1838 - 11 Sep 1852  Dmitriy Gavrilovich Bibikov        (b. 1791 - d. 1870)
11 Sep 1852 - 24 Nov 1862  Knyaz' Illarion Illarionovich      (b. 1805 - d. 1862)
                             Vasilchikov
31 Jan 1863 - 31 Jan 1865  Nikolay Nikolayevich Annenkov      (b. 1799 - d. 1865)
Governors-general of Kiev, Podolia, and Volyn
31 Jan 1865 - 28 Jan 1869  Aleksandr Pavlovich Bezak          (b. 1800 - d. 1869)
28 Jan 1869 - 28 Apr 1878  Knyaz' Aleksandr Dondukov-Korsakov (b. 1820 - d. 1893)
28 Apr 1878 - 25 Jan 1881  Mikhail Ivanovich Chertkov         (b. 1829 - d. 1905)
25 Jan 1881 - 27 Jul 1888  Aleksandr Romanovich Drenteln      (b. 1820 - d. 1888)
24 Aug 1889 - 19 Dec 1897  Graf Aleksey Pavlovich Ignatyev    (b. 1842 - d. 1906)
13 Jan 1898 -  6 Jan 1904
  Mikhail Ivanovich Dragomirov       (b. 1830 - d. 1905)
 
6 Jan 1904 -  1 Nov 1905  Nikolay Vasilyevich Kleygels       (b. 1850 - d. 1916)
 
1 Nov 1905 - 31 Dec 1908  Vladimir Aleksandrovich Sukhomlinov(b. 1848 - d. 1926)
31 Dec 1908 - 30 Sep 1914  Fyodor Fyodorovich Trepov          (b. 1854 - d. 1938)

(non-Communist) Ukraine

Note: Names are listed in Ukrainian with Russian in parentheses. Ukrainian and Russian BGN/PCGN romanization system.

20 Nov 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic.
22 Jan 1918                Independence from Russia declared.
29 Apr 1918                Ukrainian State (under Austro-German occupation).
14 Dec 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (restored).
22 Nov 1920                Government, which is intermittently absent from the national

                             territory from 16 Jul 1920, holds its last last session on
                             Ukrainian soil.
30 Jun
1941 - 12 Jul 1941  Ukrainian State declared restored at L'viv (terminated by
                             German occupation forces).

Chairmen of the Ukrainian Central Rada (Council)
20 Mar 1917 - 27 Mar 1917  Fedir Ivanovych Kryzhanivs'kyy     (b. 1878 - d. 1938)  Non-party
                             (Fyodor Ivanovich Krizhanіvskiy)
                             (acting)
27 Mar 1917 - 29 Apr 1918  Mykhaylo Serhiyovych Hrushevs'kyy  (b. 1866 - d. 1934)  TUP
                             (Mikhaylo Sergeyevich Grushevskіy)
                             (elected 20 Mar 1917, arrived 27 Mar 1917)
Hetman of All Ukraine
29 Apr 1918 - 14 Dec 1918  Pavlo Petrovych Skoropads'kyy      (b. 1873 - d. 1945)  Mil
                             (Pavel Petrovich Skoropadskiy)
Chairmen of the Directory

13 Nov 1918 -  5 Feb 1919  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (b. 1880 - d. 1951)  USDRP
                             (Vladimir Kirillovich Vinnichenko)
                             (in opposition to the Hetman to 14 Dec 1918)
 5 Feb 1919 -  9 May 1919  Directors
                           (meetings chaired in random order)
                           - Symon Vasylyovych Petlyura       (b. 1879 - d. 1926)  USDRP
                             (Simon Vasilyevich Petlyura)
                           - Fedir Petrovych Shvets'          (b. 1882 - d. 1940)  UPSR
                             (Fyodor Petrovich Shvets)
                           - Andriy Havrylovych Makarenko     (b. 1886 - d. 1963)  Non-party
                             (Andrey Gavrilovich Makarenko)
                           - Opanas Mykhaylovych Andriyevs'kyy(b. 1878 - d. 1955)  UPSS
                             (Afanasiy Mikhaylovich Andriyevskiy)
                           - Yevhen Omelyanovych Petrushevych (b. 1863 - d. 1940)  USDP
                             (
Yevgeniy Yemelyanovich Petrushevich)
                             (from 12 Mar 1919; was never chair)
 9 May 1919 - 22 Nov 1920 
Symon Vasylyovych Petlyura         (s.a.)               USRP
                             (in Kam'yanets' [Kamenets])
Chairman of the National Assembly
30 Jun
1941 - 12 Jul 1941  Yaroslav Semenovych Stets'ko       (b. 1912 - d. 1986)  OUNR
                             (Yaroslav Semyonovich Stets'ko)
                             (in dissidence, in L'viv; German
                              prisoner from 9/10 Jul 1941)


Chairman of the General Secretariat

15 Jun 1917 -  9 Jan 1918  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (Vladimir Kirillovich Vinnichenko)
Chairmen of the C
ouncil of Ministers (prime ministers)
 
9 Jan 1918 - 30 Jan 1918  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (s.a.)               USDRP
30 Jan 1918 - 29 Apr 1918  Vsevolod Oleksandrovych Holubovych (b. 1885 - d. 1939)  UPSR
                            
(Vsevolod Aleksandrovich Golubovich)
29 Apr 1918 - 30 Apr 1918  
Mykola Mykolayovych Sakhno-        (b. 1863 - d. 1918)  UPSF
                            
Ustymovych (Nikolay Nikolayevich
                             Sakhno-
Ustimovich
)
30 Apr 1918 -  3 May 1918 
Mykola Prokopovych Vasylenko       (b. 1866 - d. 1935)  KDP
                            
(Nikolay Prokopovich Vasilenko)
                             (acting)
 3 May 1918 - 14 Nov 1918 
Fedir Andriyovych Lyzohub          (b. 1851 - d. 1928)  Okt
                            
(Fyodor Andreyevich Lizogub)
14 Nov 1918 - 14 Dec 1918 
Serhiy Mykolayovych Gerbel'        (b. 1856 - d. 1936)  Non-party
                            
(Sergey Nikolayevich Gerbel')
Chairman of the Council of Commissioners

14 Dec 1918 - 24 Dec 1918  Volodymyr Musiyovych Chekhivs'kyy  (b. 1876 - d. 1937)  USDRP
                            
(Vladimir Moiseyevich Chekhovskiy)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers)
(from 13 Feb 1919, in opposition to Communist rule)
24 Dec 1918 - 13 Feb 1919  Volodymyr Musiyovych Chekhivs'kyy  (s.a.)               USDRP
13 Feb 1919 -  9 Apr 1919  Serhiy Stepanovych Ostapenko       (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  Non-party
                             (Sergey Stepanovich Ostapenko)
 9 Apr 1919 - 29 Aug 1919  Borys Mykolayovych Martos          (b. 1879 - d. 1977)  USDRP
                             (Boris Nikolayevich Martos)
29 Aug 1919 - 28 May 1920  Isaak Prokhorovych Mazepa          (b. 1884 - d. 1952)  USDRP
                             (Isaak Prokhorovich Mazepa)
28 May 1920 - 18 Oct 1920  Vyacheslav Kostyantynovych         (b. 1881 - d. 1942)  UPSF
                             Prokopovych
                            
(Vyacheslav Konstantinovich Prokopovich)
18 Oct 1920 - 14 Nov 1920  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (b. 1879 - d. 1954)  USDRP
                             (Andrey Nikolayevich Lіvitskiy)


Central Powers Occupation

German Military Commanders-in-chief (in Kiev Military District)
(of Heeresgruppe Linsingen to 31 Mar 1918; Heeresgruppe Eichhorn-Kiew 31 Mar - 2 Apr 1918;
Heeresgruppe Eichhorn 3 Apr - 13 Aug 1918, then Heeresgruppe Kiew)
 3 Mar 1918 - 31 Mar 1918  Alexander Adolf August Karl von    (b. 1850 - d. 1935)  Mil

                            
Linsingen
31 Mar 1918 -  8 Aug 1918 
Hermann Gottfried Emil von         (b. 1848 - d. 1918)  Mil
                             Eichhorn 
 
8 Aug 1918 - 21 Jan 1919  Günther Emanuel Graf von Kirchbach (b. 1850 - d. 1925)  Mil
Austro-Hungarian Military Commanders (in Odessa Military District)
13 Mar 1918 - 16 May 1918  Eduard Freiherr von Böhm-Ermolli   (b. 1856 - d. 1941)  Mil

                           
(Oberkommandierender der Ukraine)
16 May 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Alfred Krauss                      (b. 1862 - d. 1938)  Mil

                           
(Kommandant der Ostarmee in der Ukraine)

Ukrainian People's Republic in Exile

[Ukrainian People's Republic
                1918-1920 (non-communist) flag]

Chairmen of the Directory
22 Nov 1920 - 25 May 1926  Symon Vasylyovych Petlyura         (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (Simon Vasilyevich Petlyura)
                             (in Poland to 1923, in 1923-1934
                             Austria, later Hungary and Switzerland;
                             from Oct 1924 in Paris, France exile)
25 May 1926 - 16 Jul 1948  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (Andrey Nikolayevich Lіvitskiy)
                             (in Poland, from 1945 Germany exile)
Presidents

16 Jul 1948 - 17 Jan 1954  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (in Münich, West Germany exile)
17 Jan 1954 - 19 Oct 1965  Stepan Porfyrovych Vytvyts'kyy     (b. 1884 - d. 1965)  UNDP+UNDO
                             (Stepan Porfiryovich Vitvitskiy)
                             (acting to 6 Mar 1954)
                             (in New York exile)
19 Oct 1965 -  8 Dec 1989  Mykola Andriyovych Livyts'kyy      (b. 1907 - d. 1989)  UNDS
                             (Nikolay Andreyevich Lіvitskiy)
                             (acting to 22 Mar 1967)
                             (in Philadelphia exile)
 8 Dec 1989 - 22 Aug 1992  Mykola Vasylyovych Plav'yuk        (b. 1925 - d. 2012)  OUN
                             (Nikolay Vasilyevich Plavyuk)
                             (in Canada exile)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers)
(in Poland exile, then Prague, later Germany, then noted)
14 Nov 1920 - 24 Mar 1921  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (1st time)
24 May 1921 -  5 Aug 1921  Vyacheslav Kostyantynovych         (s.a.)               UPSF
                             Prokopovych (1st time) (acting)
                             (Vyacheslav Konstantinovich Prokopovich)
 5 Aug 1921 - 14 Jan 1922  Pylyp Kalenykovych Pylypchuk       (b. 1869 - d. 1940)  Non-party
                             (Pilip Kalenikovich Pilipchuk)
14 Jan 1922 - 25 May 1926  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (2nd time)
25 May 1926 - Oct 1939     Vyacheslav Kostyantynovych         (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Prokopovych (2nd time) 
Oct 1939 - May 1940        Oleksander Yakovych Shul'hyn       (b. 1889 - d. 1960)  Non-party
                             (Aleksander Yakovlevich Shul'gin)
                             (in Paris exile, German prisoner from ... 1940)
1940 - 1944                Vacant
1944 - 1945                Andriy Ivanovych Yakovliv          (b. 1872 - d. 1955)  Non-party
                             (Andrey Ivanovich Yakovlev)
                             (in Prague exile) (acting)
1945 - 1948                Kost' Kostyantynovych Pan'kivs'kyy (b. 1897 - d. 1973)  UNDS
                             (Konstantin Konstantinovich Pankovskiy)
                             (in [West] Germany exile)
19 Jun 1948 - Jan 1952     Isaak Prokhorovych Mazepa          (s.a.)               USDRP;1950
                             (Isaak Prokhorovich Mazepa)                           USP
                             (in Austria, then West Germany exile)
Jan 1952 -  4 Jun 1953     Stepan Ivanovych Baran             (b. 1879 - d. 1953)  UNDP+UNDO
                             (Stepan Ivanovich Baran) 
                             (in West Germany exile)
1953 - 1954                Stepan Porfyrovych Vytvyts'kyy     (s.a.)               UNDO
                             (in New York exile)
1954                       Spyrydon Mykytovych Dovhal'        (b. 1896 - d. 1975)  USP
                             (Spiridon Nikitovich Dovgal')
                             (in West Germany exile)(1st time)
1954 - 1957                Symon Vasylyovych Sozontiv         (b. 1898 - d. 1980)  Non-party
                             (Simon Vasilyevich Sozontov [Sozontyev])
                             (in Paris exile)
1957 - 1967                Mykola Andriyovych Livyts'kyy      (s.a.)               UNDS
                             (in New York exile)
22 Mar 1967 - 1969         Atanas Ivanovych Figol'            (b. 1908 - d. 1993)  Non-party
                             (Atanas Ivanovich Figol') 
                             (in West Germany exile)
1969 - 1972                Spyrydon Mykytovych Dovhal'        (s.a.)               USP
                             (in Münich, West Germany exile)
                             (2nd time)
1972 - 1974                Vasyl' Lukynovych Fedoronchuk      (b. 1915 - d. 1984?) OUN+UNDO
                             (Vasiliy Lukyanovich Fedoronchuk)
                             (in Rome, Italy exile)
1974 - 1980                Teofil' Leontiy (Teofil Leontiy)                        Non-party
1980 - 1989                Yaroslav-Bohdan Antonovych         (b. 1910 - d. 1995)  Non-party
                             Rudnyts'kyy (Yaroslav-Bogdan
                             Antonovich Rudnitskiy)
                             (in Canada exile)
1989 - 22 Aug 1992         Ivan Matviyovych Samiylenko        (b. 1912 - d. 2006)  UNDS
                             (Ivan Matveyevich Samoylenko)
                             (in New York exile)

German Recognized Ukrainian National Committee in Exile

[Ukrainian National Army
                flag 1945 (Ukraine)]

Chairman of the Ukrainian National Committee (and from 28 Mar 1945,
Commander
of the Ukrainian National Army) 
17 Mar 1945 -  8 May 1945  Pavlo Feofanovych Shandruk         (b. 1889 - d. 1979)  Mil
                             (Pavel Feofanovich Shandruk)
                             (in Graz, Austria exile)

Resistance to German and Soviet Occupation 1942 - 1954

Note: Ukrainian resistance groups against German occupation united as the Ukrainian Insurgent Army on 14 Oct 1942, which formed its political body in 1944. Resistance continued against Soviet re-occupation until 1954 when it was finally suppressed by Soviet forces.

[Organization of Ukrainian
                Nationalists (OUNR) and Ukrainian Insurgent Army flag
                1942-1954 (Ukraine)]

Chairmen of the General Secretariat of the Ukrainian Supreme Liberation
Council
and Commanders of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army
14 Oct 1942 - 15 Jul 1944  Dmytro Semenovych Klyachkivs'kyy   (b. 1911 - d. 1945)  OUNR
                             (Dmitriy Semyonovich Klyachkivskiy)
15 Jul 1944 -  5 Mar 1950  Roman Osypovych Shukhevych         (b. 1907 - d. 1950)  OUNR
                             (Roman Osipovich Shukhevich)
1950 - 23 May 1954         Vasyl' Stepanovych Kuk             (b. 1913 - d. 2007)  OUNR
                             (Vasiliy Stepanovich Kuk)

Party abbreviations: KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya/Konstytutsiyno-Demokratychna Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-1920, banned by Bolsheviks from 12 Dec 1917); Okt = Soyuz 17 Oktyabrya/Spilka 17 Zhovtnya (Union of October 17, "Octobrists", conservative, Russian moderate constitutionalist, Nov 1905-1918); OUN = Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, nationalist, right-wing, anti-communist, from 1940 sometimes called OUN-Melnyk, est.3 Feb 1929); OUNR = Organizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv Revolyutsiyna (Revolutionary Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, sometimes called OUN-Bandera, nationalist, Stepan Bandera personalist, anti-communist, right-wing, split from OUN, Feb 1940-1959); TUP = Tovarystvo Ukrayins'kykh Postupovtsiv (Society of Ukrainian Progressives, liberal nationalist, split from Ukrainian Democratic Radical Party, 1908-7 Apr 1917, merged into UPSF); UNDO = Ukrayins'ke Natsional'no-Demokratychne Ob'yednannya (Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance, nationalist, right-wing, 11 Jul 1925-1939, exile re-est.1947); UNDP = Ukrayins'ka Natsional'na Demokratychna Partiya (Ukrainian National Democratic Party, centrist, Galicia regionalist, 26 Dec 1896-28 Mar 1919, renamed Ukrainian People's Labor Party); UNDS = Ukrayins'kyy Natsional'no-Derzhavnyy Soyuz (Ukrainian National State Union, coordination center Ukrainian centrist and right parties, incl USDRP, UPSR, UPSF & USP, Aug 1918-1991); UPSF = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Federalistiv (Ukrainian Party of Socialist Federalists, 7 Apr 1917-1923, renamed 1923-1939 as Ukrainian Radical Democratic Party); USDP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsial-Demokratychna Partiya (Ukrainian Social-Democratic Party, democratic socialist, Galicia regionalist, 17 Sep 1899-Sep 1939, banned by Poland 30 Jun 1924, merged into USP); USP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsialistychna Partiya (Ukrainian Socialist Party, socialist, merger of USDP, USDRP & UPSR members, est.24 Mar 1950); UPSR = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Revolyutsioneriv/Ukrainskaya Partiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Ukrainian Party of Socialist-Revolutionaries, democratic socialist, agrarian socialist, 17 Apr 1917-1918, left wing faction merged into KPU-B, right wing in exile to 1950 then merged into USP); UPSS = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Samostiynykiv (Ukrainian Party of Socialist Independents, socialist, 30 Dec 1917-1922, renamed Ukrainian People's Party); USDRP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsial-Demokratychna Robitnycha Partiya/Ukrainskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' Party, democratic socialist, Jan 1919 split into right and left wing factions, 1920 exiled, Dec 1905-26 Mar 1950, merged into USP); Mil = Military


Makhnovist Forces (Makhnovshchina/Makhnovshchyna)

[South Ukraine Labor
              Federation (Ukrainian Revolutionary Insurgent Army [Black
              Army]) flag 1919-1920 (Ukraine)]

 9 Jun 1919                A brigade led by Nestor Makhno (established 21 Feb 1919 from
                             peasant guerrillas at Gulyaypole [Hulyaypole]) deserts the Red
                             Army and
occupies Yelizavetgrad (Kirovohrad)(until Aug 1919)
                            
between the departure of the Red Army and arrival of Denikin's
                             "White" Armed
Forces of the South Russia.
 1 Sep 1919                Ukrainian Revolutionary Insurgent Army (URIA) organized (from
                             20 Sep 1919 under short-lived alliance with the non-communist
                             Ukrainian
People's Republic). Popularly called "Makhnovshchina"
                             (
Makhnovshchyna) and sometimes referred to as the "Black Army."
Oct 1919                   URIA occupies a large part of southern Ukraine, called the "free
                             rayons", in the rear of Denikin's "White" army (on 5 Oct 1919
                             Aleksandrovsk [Zaporizhzhya], on 14 Oct Mariupol, and 28 Oct
                             Yekaterinoslav [Dnipropetrovs'k]).
 1 Nov 1919                South Ukraine Labor Federation is proclaimed in Aleksandrovsk by
                             the Congress of Peasants, Workers, and Insurgents Deputies as
                             a federation of various level "free soviets" under the protection
                             of Makhno's forces.
Nov 1919                   Most of the "free rayons" are lost to Denikin's "White" army (on 21
                             Oct Mariupol', on 7 Nov Aleksandrovsk, and Yekaterinoslav
                             8 Dec 1919
).
 9 Jan 1920                Aleksandrovsk finally lost (it is briefly re-occupied from late
                             Dec 1919 between the departure of Denikin's army and arrival of
                             the Red Army). From Jan 1920, guerrilla operations against the
                             Red Army continue from a main base near Gulyaypole.
15 Oct 1920                Bolshevik-Makhnovist Treaty of Political and Military Alliance
                             concluded, it is not officially published by the Bolsheviks.
28 Aug 1921                Makhno and the remains of his army leave Ukraine for Romania.

Commander-in-chief of the Ukrainian Revolutionary Insurgent Army (de facto leader)
 1 Sep 1919 – 28 Aug 1921  Nestor Ivanovych Makhno            (b. 1888 – d. 1934)  Mil
                             "Bat'ko Makhno"
                             (Nestor Ivanovich Makhno)

Chairmen of the Revolutionary Military Council
 1 Sep 1919–late Sep 1919  Oleksandr Lashchenko (1st time)    (b. 1890 – d.af.1928)Mil
                           
(Aleksandr Lashchenko)
late Sep 1919–26 Nov 1919  Vsevolod Mykhaylovych Volyn       
(b. 1882 – d. 1945)  KAU
                            (Eykhenbaum)(Vsevolod Mikhaylovich Volin [Eykhenbaum])
26 Nov 1919 – 29 Dec 1919  Oleksandr Lashchenko (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Mil

Party abbreviations: KAU = Konfederatsiya Anarkhistskikh Organizatsiy Ukrainy "Nabat" (Confederation of Ukrainian Anarchist Organizations "Alarm", anarchist, 1918-1920); Mil = Military


Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
 
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian People's Republic (Communist)
                          1917-1918, 1918-1919]
26 Dec 1917 - 18 Apr 1918,
28 Nov 1918 - 14 Mar 1919
[Ukrainian
                          People's Republic (communist) 1917-1918
                          (Possible reconstruction)]
26 Dec 1917 - 18 Apr 1918 (Possible)
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR 1919 - 1937 (Ukraine)]
14 Mar 1919 - 30 Jan 1937
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR Variant 1919-1937]
14 Mar 1919 - 30 Jan 1937 Variant
 
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR 1937-1949 (Ukraine)]
30 Jan 1937 - 21 Nov 1949
 
[Flag of Ukrainian
                          SSR, 1949-1992 (Ukraine)]
21 Nov 1949 - 28 Jan 1992
[National Flag
                          of Ukraine]
18 Sep 1991 - 28 Jan 1992 Co-National Flag
 

Capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)
(Khar'kov [Kharkiv] 1919-34;
Ekaterinoslav
[Dnipropetrovs'k]

10 Mar - 4 Apr 1918;
Poltava 27 Feb-10 Mar 1918;
Kiev 20 Nov 1917 -
27 Feb 1918
)
Hear SSR Anthem
"Gosudarstvennyy Gimn
 Ukrainskoy Sovetskoy
Sotsialisticheskoy
 Respubliki"
("Derzhavnyy
 Himn Ukrayins'koyi
 Radyans'koyi
Sotsialistychnoyi
Respubliky")
(State Anthem of the
 Ukrainian S.S.R.)
(1949 - 5 Dec 1991)
Constitution
(20 Apr 1978 - 8 Jun 1995;
in Ukrainian)
Population: 49,755,000 (1980)

Note: Names are listed in Russian with Ukrainian in parentheses. Ukrainian and Russian BGN/PCGN romanization system.

20 Nov 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic (Ukrainian National Republic)
                             established in Kharkov (
Kharkiv) as a Communist counter-
                             government, subordinate to Soviet Russia.

18 Apr 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  Authorities dissolved and exiled following the Treaty of Brest-
                             Litovsk and the fall of Lugansk (Luhans'k).
28 Nov 1918                 (Communist) Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government of
                             Ukraine established (in Sudza, Russia exile).

10 Mar 1919                Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic
30 Sep 1919 - 11 Dec 1919  Polity collapses following the departure of the government.
30 Dec 1922                Founding component of the Soviet Union.

 
5 Dec 1936                Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
25 Jun 1941 -  2 Feb 1944
  Occupied by Germany (
Reichskommissariat Ukraine established
                             on 1 Sep 1941 [see
below]).
 
1 Jan 1990                Ukrainian is made the state language.
16 Jul 1990                Declaration of state sovereignty.
24 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (Ukraine)(confirmed 1 Dec 1991).
 

Secretaries of the Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
12 Jul 1918 -  9 Sep 1918  Georgіy Leonidovich Pyatakov       (b. 1890 - d. 1937) 

                             (Heorhiy Leonidovych P'yatakov)
                             (1st time)

 
9 Sep 1918 - 23 Oct 1918  Serafima
Ilyinichna Gopner (f)     (b. 1880 - d. 1966)
                            
(Serafyma Illivna Hopner)
23 Oct 1918 -  6 Mar 1919  Emmanuil Ionovich Kviring          (b. 1888 - d. 1937)

                             (Emmanuyil Ionovych Kviring)
 6 Mar 1919 - 30 May 1919  Georgіy Leonidovich Pyatakov  
     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
30 May
1919 - 10 Dec 1919  Stanislav Vikentyevich Kosior      (b. 1889 - d. 1939)
                             (Stanislav Vikentiyovych Kosior)
                             (1st time)

10 Dec 1919 - Jan 1920     Vacant?
Jan 1920 - 23 Mar 1920     Rafail Borisovich Farbman (acting) (b. 1893 - d. 1966)
                            
(Rafayil Borysovych Farbman)
23 Mar 1920 - 25 Mar 1920  Nikolay Ilyich Nikolayev           (b. 1895 - d. 1937)

                            
(Beschetvertnoy)
                             (Mykola Illich Nikolayev [
Bezchetvertnyy])
25 Mar 1920 - 23 Nov 1920  S
tanislav Vikentyevich Kosior      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
First Secretary of the Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
23 Nov 1920 - 22 Mar 1921  Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov    (b. 1890 - d. 1986)
                            
(Vyacheslav Mykhaylovych Molotov)
Executive Secretary of the
Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
22 Mar 1921 - 15 Dec 1921  Feliks Yakovlevich Kon             (b. 1864 - d. 1941)
                             (Felyks Yakovlevych Kon)
First Secretaries of the
Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
15 Dec 1921 - 10 Apr 1923  Dmitriy Zakharovich Manuilskiy     (b. 1883 - d. 1959)
                             (Dmytro Zakharovych Manuyil's'kyy)
10 Apr 1923 - 20 Mar 1925  E
mmanuil Ionovich Kviring          (s.a.)
General Secretaries of the
Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
20 Mar 1925 -  7 Apr 1925  Emmanuil Ionovich Kviring          (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1925 - 14 Jul 1928  Lazar' Moiseyevich Kaganovich      (b. 1893 - d. 1991)
                            
(Lazar' Moyseyovych Kahanovych [Kaganovych])
14 Jul 1928 - 23 Jan 1934  S
tanislav Vikentyevich Kosior      (s.a.)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
23 Jan 1934 - 27 Jan 1938  Stanislav Vikentyevich Kosior      (s.a.)
27 Jan 1938 -  3 Mar 1947  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (b. 1894 - d. 1971)
                             (Khrushchyov)(1st time)
                             (
Mykyta Serhiyovych
Khrushchov [Khrushchyov])
                             (acting to 18 Jun 1938)

                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1941-1944)
 3 Mar 1947 - 26 Dec 1947  Lazar' Moiseyevich Kaganovich      (s.a.)
26 Dec 1947 - 28 Dec 1949  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
28 Dec 1949 -  4 Jun 1953  Leonid Georgiyevich Mel'nikov      (b. 1906 - d. 1981)
                            
(Leonid Heorhiyovych Mel'nykov)
 4 Jun 1953 - 26 Dec 1957  Aleksey Illarіonovich Kirichenko   (b. 1908 - d. 1975)

                            
(Oleksiy Ilarionovych Kyrychenko)
26 Dec 1957 -  2 Jul 1963  Nikolay Viktorovich Podgornyy      (b. 1903 - d. 1983)

                            
(Mykola Viktorovych Pidhornyy)
 2 Jul 1963 - 25 May 1972  Pyotr Yefimovich Shelest           (b. 1908 - d. 1996)

                            
(Petro Yukhymovych Shelest)
25 May 1972 - 28 Sep 1989  Vladimir Vasilyevich
Shcherbitskiy (b. 1918 - d. 1990)
                             (Volodymyr Vasylyovych Shcherbyts'kyy)
28 Sep 1989 - 23 Jun 1990  Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko        (b. 1932 - d. 1994)

                             (Volodymyr Antonovych Ivashko
)
23 Jun 1990 - 26 Aug 1991  Stanislav Ivanovich Gurenko        (b. 1936 - d. 2013)
                             (Stanislav Ivanovych Hurenko
)

Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee (in rebellion)
26 Dec 1917 - 30 Dec 1917  Presidium of the Central Executive
                           Committee
(acting)
                           - Vladimir Khristiyanovich Aussem  (b. 1882 - d. 1937?) RSDRP-B
                             (Volodymyr Khrystyyanovych Aussem)
                           -
Issak Leybovich Erlikherman      (b. 1892 - d. 1938)  RSDRP-B
                             (Isaak Leybovych Erlikherman)
                           -
Yevgeniya Bogdanovna Bosh (Bosch)(b. 1879 - d. 1925)  RSDRP-B
                             (Yevheniya Bohdanivna Bosh)(f)
                           - Sergey Sergeyevich Bakinskiy     (b. 1886 - d. 1939)  RSDRP-B
                             (Serhiy Serhiyovych Bakyns'kyy)
                           - Vasiliy Matveyevich Shakhray     (b. 1888 - d. 1919)  R
SDRP-B
                            
(Vasyl' Matviyovych Shakhray)
30 Dec 1917 - 19 Mar 1918 
Yukhym Grigoryevich Medvyedyev     (b. 1886 - d. 1938)  USDRP
                            
(Yukhym Hryhorovych Medvyedyev)
19 Mar 1918 - 25 Mar 1918 
Presidium of the Central Executive
                           Committee (acting)
                           - Vladimir Petrovich Zatonskiy     (b. 1888 - d. 1938)  RKP
                             (Volodymyr Petrovych Zatons'kyy)
                           - Y
an Borisovich Gamarnik          (b. 1894 - d. 1937)  RKP
                             (Yan Borysovych Hamarnyk)
                           - Georgiy Fyodorovich L
apchinskiy  (b. 1887 - d. 1938)  RKP
                             (Heorhiy Fedorovych Lapchyns'kyy)
                           -
Leonid Dmitriyevich Korobchuk    (b. 1898 - d. 19..)  USDRP
                             (Karabchuk)(Leonid Dmytrovych Korobchuk [Karabchuk])
                           - Afanasiy Semyonovich (Severov)   (b. 1884 - d. 1938)  UPSR

                               Odoyevskiy
                            
(Opanas S
emenovych [Sivero] Odoyevs'kyy)
                           -
Pavel Fyodorovich Boychenko                           UPSR
                             (Pavlo Fedorovych Boychenko)
                           - Yevgeniy Petrovich Terletskiy    (b. 1892 - d. 1938)  UPSR

                             (Yevhen Petrovych Terlets'kyy)
                           -
Viktor Grigoryevich Grish                             UPSR
                            
(Viktor Hryhorovych Hrysh)
25 Mar 1918 - 28 Apr 1918  V
ladimir Petrovich Zatonskiy       (s.a.)               RKP 
28 Apr 1918 - Nov 1918    
All-Ukrainian Bureau For Directing the Partisan 
                           Resistance Against the German Occupiers
                           (at Taganrog, Russia exile)
                           - Andrey Sergeyevich Bubnov        (b. 1884 - d. 1938)  RKP/KPU-B
                             (Andriy Serhiyovych Bubnov)
                           -
Nikolay Alekseyevich Skrypnik    (b. 1872 - d. 1933)  RKP;1918
                             (Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk)                        KPU-B
 
                          - V
ladimir Petrovich Zatonskiy     (s.a.)               RKP/KPU-B 
                           -
Georgіy Leonidovich Pyatakov     (s.a.)               RKP/KPU-B
                           -
Yevgeniy Petrovich Terletskiy    (s.a.)               UPSR
                           - Afanasiy Semyonovich Severo-     (s.a.)               UPSR
                               Odoyevskiy
 
                          - Sergey Dmitriyevich Mstislavskiy (b. 1876 - d. 1943)  RKP/KPU-B
                             (S
erhiy Dmytrovych Mstyslavs'kyy) 
                           - Nikolay Yevtikhiyevich           (b. 1897 - d. 1918)  RKP/KPU-B                                Vrublevskiy
                            
(Mykola Yevtykhiyovych Vrublevs'kyy)
                           - S
tanislav Vikentyevich Kosior    (s.a.)               RKP/KPU-B
                          
[list not necessarily complete]
Chairmen of the Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government (in rebellion)
28 Nov 1918 - 16 Jan 1919 
Georgіy Leonidovich Pyatakov       (s.a.)            RKP;1918 KPU-B
                             (Heorhiy Leonidovych
P'yatakov)
                             (in Kursk, Russia exile to ... 1918;
                             in dissidence 16 - 24 Jan 1919)
16 Jan 1919 - 24 Jan 1919 
Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev        (b. 1883 - d. 1921)  KPU-B
                            
"Artem" ("Artyom")
                            
(
Fedir Andriyovych Serhyeyev "Artem")

                            
(acting from 19 Jan 1919)
24 Jan 1919 - 10 Mar 1919
  K
hristiyan Georgiyevich Rakovskiy  (b. 1873 - d. 1941)  KPU-B
                            
(Khrystyyan Heorhiyovych Rakovs'kyy

                              [=
Krăstyo Georgiev Stanchev])

Chairman of the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee
10 Mar 1919 - 25 Jul 1938  Grigoriy Ivanovich Petrovskіy      (b. 1878 - d. 1958)  KPU-B

                             (Hryhoriy Ivanovych Petrovs'kyy)
Chairman of the Supreme Council
25 Jul 1938 - 27 Jul 1938  Mikhail Alekseyevich Burmistenko   (b. 1902 - d. 1941)  KPU-B
                             (Mykhaylo Oleksiyovych Burmystenko)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

27 Jul 1938 - 28 Jul 1939  Leonid Romanovich Korniyets        (b. 1901 - d. 1969)  KPU-B
                             (Korniets)(Leonid Romanovych Korniyets' [Kornyets])
28 Jul 1939 - 15 Jan 1954  Mikhail Sergeyevich Grechukha
     (b. 1902 - d. 1976)  KPU-B;1952
                             (Mykhaylo Serhiyovych Hrechukha)                      KPU
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1941-1944)

15 Jan 1954 -  7 Apr 1969  Dem'yan Sergeyevich Korotchenko    (b. 1894 - d. 1969)  KPU
                             (Dem'yan Serhiyovych Korotchenko)
 
7 Apr 1969 - 20 Jun 1969 
Stepan Yemelyanovich Stetsenko     (b. 1903 - d. 1989)  KPU
                             (Stepan Omelyanovych Stetsenko)
                             (1st time) (acting)
20 Jun 1969 -  9 Jun 1972  Aleksandr Pavlovich Lyashko        (b. 1915 - d. 2002)  KPU

                            
(Oleksandr Pavlovych Lyashko)
 9 Jun 1972 - 28 Jul 1972  Stepan Yemelyanovich
Stetsenko     (s.a.)               KPU
                             (2nd time) (acting)
28 Jul 1972 - 25 Jun 1976  Ivan Samіylovich Grushetskiy       (b. 1904 - d. 1982)  KPU

                            
(Ivan Samiylovych Grushets'kyy)
25 Jun 1976 - 22 Nov 1984  Aleksey Fedoseyevich Vatchenko     (b. 1914 - d. 1984)  KPU

                            
(Oleksiy Fedosiyovych Vatchenko)
22 Nov 1984 -  4 Jun 1990  Valentina Semyonovna Shevchenko (f)(b. 1935)            KPU

                             (Valentyna Semyenovna Shevchenko)
                             (acting to 27 Mar 1985)

Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet
 4 Jun 1990 - 18 Jul 1990  Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko        (s.a.)               KPU
                             (Volodymyr Antonovych Ivashko)
 
9 Jul 1990 - 23 Jul 1990  Ivan Stepanovich Plyushch          (b. 1941)            KPU
                            
(Ivan Stepanovych Plyushch)
                             (acting [for
Ivashko to 18 Jul 1990])
23 Jul 1990 - 24 Aug 1991  Leonid Makarovich Kravchuk         (b. 1934)            KPU
                             (Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk)

Chairmen of the People's Secretariat (in rebellion)
17 Dec 1917 -  4 Mar 1918 
Yevgeniya Bogdanovna Bosh (Bosch)  (s.a.)               RSDRP-B                               (Yevheniya Bohdanivna Bosh)(f)
                             (acting)
 
4 Mar 1918 - 18 Apr 1918  Nikolay Alekseyevich Skrypnik      (s.a.)               RKP
                            
(Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk)
28 Nov 1918 - 29 Jan 1919  the heads of state (acting)(in rebellion)
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars

29 Jan 1919 - 11 Dec 1919
  Khristiyan Georgiyevich Rakovskiy  (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Khrystyyan Heorhiyovych Rakovs'kyy)
                             (1st time)

Chairman of the All-Ukrainian Military Revolutionary Committee
11 Dec 1919 - 19 Feb 1920  Grigoriy Ivanovich Petrovskiy      (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Hryhoriy Ivanovych Petrovs'kyy
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
19 Feb 1920 - 15 Jul 1923  Khristiyan Georgiyevich Rakovskiy  (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (2nd time)
15 Jul 1923 - 28 Apr 1934  Vlas Yakovich (Yakovlevich) Chubar (b. 1891 - d. 1939)  KPU-B
                            
(Vlas Yakovych [Yakovlevych] Chubar)
28 Apr 1934 - 30 Aug 1937  Panas Petrovich Lyubchenko         (b. 1897 - d. 1937)  KPU-B

                            
(Panas Petrovych Lyubchenko)
30 Aug 1937 - 29 Oct 1937  Mikhaylo Ilyich Bondarenko         (b. 1903 - d. 1938)  KPU-B
                            
(Mykhaylo Illich Bondarenko)
13 Oct 1937 - 21 Feb 1938  Nikolay Makarovich Marchak         (b. 1903 - d. 1938)  KPU-B
                            
(Mykola Makarovych Marchak)
                             (acting [for B
ondarenko to 29 Oct 1937])
21 Feb 1938 - 28 Jul 1939  Dem
'yan Sergeyevich Korotchenko    (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Dem'yan Serhiyovych Korotchenko)
                             (1st time)
28 Jul 1939 -  5 Feb 1944  Leonid Romanovich Korniyets        (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Korniets)(Leonid Romanovych Korniyets' [Kornyets])
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1941-1944)

 5 Feb 1944 - 25 Mar 1946  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Khrushchyov)
                             (Mykyta Serhiyovych Khrushchov [Khrushchyov]
)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

25 Mar 1946 - 26 Dec 1947  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)               KPU-B
26 Dec 1947 - 15 Jan 1954  Dem'yan Sergeyevich Korotchenko    (s.a.)               KPU-B;1952
                             (2nd time)                                            KPU
15 Jan 1954 - 28 Feb 1961  Nikifor Timofeyevich Kal'chenko    (b. 1906 - d. 1989)  KPU
                            
(Nykyfor Tymofiyovych Kal'chenko)
28 Feb 1961 - 28 Jun 1963  Vladimir Vasilyevich Shcherbitskiy
(s.a.)               KPU
                             (Volodymyr Vasylyovych Shcherbyts'kyy)
                             (1st time) 

28 Jun 1963 - 15 Oct 1965  Ivan Pavlovich Kazanets'           (b. 1918 - d. 2013)  KPU
                            
(Ivan Pavlovych Kazanets')
15 Oct 1965 -  9 Jun 1972  Vladimir Vasilyevich Shcherbitskiy
(s.a.)               KPU
                             (2nd time) 
 
9 Jun 1972 - 10 Jul 1990  Aleksandr Pavlovich Lyashko        (s.a.)               KPU
                            
(Oleksandr Pavlovych Lyashko)
10 Jul 1990 - 23 Oct 1990  Vitaliy Andreyevich Masol          (b. 1928 - d. 2018)  KPU

                            
(Vitaliy Andriyovych Masol)
23 Oct 1990 - 18 Apr 1991  Vitol'd Pavlovich Fokin            (b. 1932)            KPU

                             (Vitol'd Pavlovych Fokin [Fokyn])
                             (acting to 14 Nov 1990)

Pro-Soviet Resistance to German Occupation 1941-1944

Chief of Staff of Ukrainian Partisan Units (also in charge of Moldavia)

20 Jun 1942 – 1944         Timofey Amvrosiyevich Strokach     (b. 1903 - d. 1963)  Mil/KPU-B


Party abbreviations:
KPU = Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Ukrainy (Communist Party of Ukraine, communist, former KPU-B, 13 Oct 1952-26 Aug 1991); KPU-B = Komunistychna Partiya (Bil'shovykiv) Ukrayiny/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Ukrainy (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Ukraine, communist, separated 1 Mar 1919 from RKP, 12 Jul 1918-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPU); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks]Marxist-Leninist communist, former RSDRP-B, state party, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)[All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)]); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Bolsheviks], Russian revolutionary socialist, Marxist communist, 1 Mar 1898-8 Mar 1918, renamed RKP); UPSR = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Revolyutsioneriv/Ukrainskaya Partiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Ukrainian Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries, democratic socialist, agrarian socialist, 17 Apr 1917-1918, left wing faction merged into KPU-B, right wing in exile to 1950 then merged into USP); USDRP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsial-Demokratychna Robitnycha Partiya/Ukrainskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' Party, democratic socialist, Jan 1919 split into right and left wing factions, 1920 exiled, Dec 1905-26 Mar 1950, merged into USP)


Odessa Soviet Republic

[Odessa Soviet Republic, 1918
                (Ukraine)]

 5 Jan 1918                (Second) Central Executive Committee of Soldiers', Sailors',
                             Workers' and Peasants' Deputies of the Romanian Front, the
                             Black Sea Fleet and Odessa District
("Rumcherod") organized.
14 Jan 1918 - 26 Jan 1918  "Rumcherod" occupies Bessarabia (see Moldova).
31 Jan 1918                Odessa Soviet Republic proclaimed by "Rumcherod" (claiming parts
                             of the Kherson, Taurida, and Bessarabia guberniya); nominally
                             a part
of Soviet Russia.
13 Mar 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Odessa occupied by Germany and Austria-Hungary.
18 Dec 1918 -  8 Apr 1919  Odessa occupied by the Allied and Associated Powers.
18 Aug 1919 -  7 Feb 1920 
"White" Russian forces occupy Odessa.

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Soldiers', Sailors', Workers' and Peasants' Deputies of the Romanian Front, the Black Sea Fleet and Odessa District ("Rumcherod")
18 Jan 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Vladimir Grigoryevich Yudovskiy     (b. 1880 - d. 1949)  RSDRP-B

                             (Volodymyr Hryhorovych Yudovs'kyy)

Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Council of Workers' Deputies
18 Jan 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Aleksandr Konstantinovich Voronskiy (b. 1884 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B
                             (Oleksandr Kostyantynovych Vorons'kyy)

Allied and Associated Powers Military Commander in Odessa

18 Dec 1918 -  8 Apr 1919  Albert Charles Jules Borius         (b. 1865 - d. 1937)  Mil
                             (France)


Soviet Republic of the Donetsk and Krivoy Rog Basins (Donets' k- Kryvyy Rih)

[Soviet Republic
                          of the Basins of Donetsk & Krivoy Rog
                          (Donets' k- Kryvyy Rih) 1918 (Ukraine)]
12 Feb 1918 - 19 Mar 1918
[Soviet Republic
                          of the Basins of Donetsk & Krivoy Rog
                          (Donets' k- Kryvyy Rih) 1918 (possible
                          reconstruction)(Ukraine)]
Possible Reconstruction
Map of Soviet Republic of the Donetsk and Krivoy
Rog Basins

Capital: Kharkov
(Kharkiv)(12 Feb - 7 Apr
1918); Lugansk (Luhans'k)
 (8 -28 Apr 1918)

12 Feb 1918                Soviet Republic of the Donetsk and Krivoy Rog Basins
                             (Donets'k-Kryvyy Rih) proclaimed in Kharkov, Ekaterinoslav,
                             and parts of Kherson and Taurian provinces.
14 Feb 1918                Government (Regional Council of People's Commissars) formed
.
May 1918                   Abolished by German invasion and occupation.

Chairman of the Regional Council of People's Commissars of
the Donetsk and Krivoy Rog Basins

14 Feb 1918 - May 1918     Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev        (b. 1883 - d. 1921)  RSDRP-B 
                             "Artem" ("Artyom")
                             (Fedir Andriyovych Serhyeyev "Artem")


(post-Soviet) Ukraine

Note: Names are listed in Ukrainian, romanization system BGN/PCGN.

24 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (Ukraine)
                             (ratified by referendum on 1 Dec 1991).
26 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of the
                             Soviet Union)
.

Chairman of the Supreme Council
24 Aug 1991 -  5 Dec 1991
  Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk         (b. 1934)            Non-party
Presidents

 5 Dec 1991 - 19 Jul 1994  Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk         (s.a.)               Non-party
19 Jul 1994 - 23 Jan 2005  Leonid Danylovych Kuchma           (b. 1938)            Non-party
23 Jan 2005 - 25 Feb 2010  Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko      (b. 1954)            NU
25 Feb 2010 - 22 Feb 2014  Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych       (b. 1950)            Non-party
23 Feb 2014 -  7 Jun 2014  Oleksandr Valentynovych Turchynov  (b. 1964)            VOB;2014 NF
                             (acting)
 7 Jun 2014 - 20 May 2019  Petro Oleksiyovych Poroshenko      (b. 1965)            Non-party
20 May 2019 -              Volodymyr Oleksandrovych Zelens'kyy(b. 1978)            SN

Prime ministers 
18 Apr 1991 -  2 Oct 1992  Vitol'd Pavlovych Fokin            (b. 1932)          KPU;1991 Ind
 2 Oct 1992 - 13 Oct 1992  Valentyn Kostyantynovych Symonenko (b. 1940)            Non-party
                             (acting) 
13 Oct 1992 - 22 Sep 1993  Leonid Danylovych Kuchma           (s.a.)               Non-party
22 Sep 1993 - 16 Jun 1994  Yukhym Leonidovych Zvyahil's'kyy   (b. 1933)            Non-party
                             (acting) 
16 Jun 1994 -  6 Mar 1995  Vitaliy Andriyovych Masol          (b. 1928 - d. 2018)  KPU
 
6 Mar 1995 - 27 May 1996  Yevhen Kyrylovych Marchuk          (b. 1941)            SDP
                             (acting to 8 Jun 1995)
28 May 1996 -  2 Jul 1997  Pavlo Ivanovych Lazarenko          (b. 1953)            Hromada
19 Jun 1997 - 16 Jul 1997  Vasyl' Vasylyovych Durdynets'      (b. 1937)            Non-party
                             (acting [for Lazarenko to 2 Jul 1997])
16 Jul 1997 - 22 Dec 1999  Valeriy Pavlovych Pustovoytenko    (b. 1947)            NDP
22 Dec 1999 - 29 May 2001  Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko      (s.a.)               Non-party
29 May 2001 - 21 Nov 2002  Anatoliy Kyrylovych Kinakh         (b. 1954)            PPP
21 Nov 2002 -  5 Jan 2005  Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych       (s.a.)               PR
                            
(1st time)
 7 Dec 2004 - 28 Dec 2004  M
ykola Yanovych Azarov (1st time)  (b. 1947)            PR
                             (acting for Yanukovych)
 5 Jan 2005 - 24 Jan 2005  Mykola Yanovych Azarov (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PR
                             (acting)      
24 Jan 2005 -  8 Sep 2005  Yuliya Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko (f)(b. 1960)            VOB
                             (1st time) (acting to 4 Feb 2005)
 8 Sep 2005 -  4 Aug 2006  Yuriy Ivanovych Yekhanurov         (b. 1948)            NU
                             (Ekhanurov)(acting to 22 Sep 2005)
 4 Aug 2006 - 18 Dec 2007  Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych       (s.a.)               PR
                            
(2nd time)
18 Dec 2007 - 11 Mar 2010  
Yuliya Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko (f)(s.a.)               VOB
                             (2nd time)
 4 Mar 2010 -  9 Mar 2010  Oleksandr Valentynovych Turchynov  (s.a.)               VOB
                             ([de facto] acting for Tymoshenko)
11 Mar 2010 - 28 Jan 2014  Mykola Yanovych Azarov (3rd time)  (s.a.)               PR
28 Jan 2014 - 27 Feb 2014  Serhiy Gennadiyovych Arbuzov       (b. 1976)            PR
                            
(acting)
27 Feb 2014 - 14 Apr 2016  Arseniy Petrovych Yatsenyuk        (b. 1974)           
NF
24 Jul 2014 -  1 Aug 2014  Volodymyr Borysovych Groysman      (b. 1978)            Non-party
                             (Hroysman)(acting for Yatsenyuk)
14 Apr 2016 -              Volodymyr Borysovych Groysman
     (s.a.)               Non-party


Territorial Disputes:
1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Belarus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete and demarcation began in 2012; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova's difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldova's Transnistria Region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSECE)-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops; the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Ostriv Zmiyinyy/Insula Șerpilor (Snake Island) and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea; Ukraine, U.S. and most other nations do not recognize Russia's 21 Mar 2014 annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol', nor their re-designation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol'.

Party abbreviations: Hromada = Vseukrayins'ke Ob'yednannya "Hromada" (All-Ukrainian Association "Community", social democratic, center-left, est.12 Dec 1993); Ind = Independent; KPU = Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Ukrainy (Communist Party of Ukraine, communist, Eurosceptic, former KPU-B, 13 Oct 1952-26 Aug 1991, re-est.19 Jun 1993); NDP = Narodno-Demokratychna Partiya (People's Democratic Party, centrist, est.24 Feb 1996); NF = Narodnyy Front (People's Front, nationalist, conservative, pro-Europe, est.31 Mar 2014); NRU = Narodnyy Rukh Ukrayiny (People's Movement of Ukraine, "Rukh", center-right, Ukrainian nationalist, est.9 Feb 1990); NU = Narodnyy Soyuz "Nasha Ukraina" (People's Union "Our Ukraine", center-right, liberal conservative, pro-Europe, Viktor Yushchenko personalist, est.5 Mar 2005); PPP = Partiya Promyslovtsiv i Pidpryyemtsiv Ukrayiny (Party of Industrialists & Entrepreneurs of Ukraine, centrist, est.9 Feb 2000); PR = Partiya Regioniv/Partiya Regionov (Party of Regions, regionalist, centrist, pro-Russia, Eurosceptic, 2001-05 pro-Kuchma, 2010-14 pro-Yanukovych, 1997-2001 named Partiya Regionalʹnoho Vidrodzhennya Ukrayiny/Partiya Regional'nogo Vozrozhdeniya Ukrainy [Party Regional Revival of Ukraine], est.3 Mar 2001); SN = Sluha Narodu (Servant of the People, populist, anti-corruption, pro-European, est.2 Dec 2017); VOB = Vseukrayins'ke Ob'yednannya "Bat'kivshchyna" (All-Ukrainian Association "Fatherland", center-right, liberal conservative, populist, pro-Europe, split from Hromada, est.9 Jul 1999)



Reichskommissariat Ukraine

[German (Third) Reich War flag used in
                Reichskommissariat Ukraine 1941-1944]
 
Map of Ukraine
1941-1944
Capital: Rowno
(Rivne)
Currency: 1942-1944 Reichskommissariat
Ukraine Karbowanez
Population: 16,910,008
(1943 est.)
General Districts
(Generalbezirke)

22 Jun 1941                German invasion begins (Kiev on 19 Sep 1941).
 1 Sep 1941                Reichskommissariat Ukraine organized (by decree of 20 Aug 1941)
                             (originally composed of former Kam'yanets'-Podil's'kiy, Rivne,
                             Vinnytsia, Volyn and parts of Ternopil', Brest and Pinsk oblasti)
20 Oct 1941                Former Kiev, Vinnytsya, Zhytomyr and parts of Homel' and Poliss'ye
                             oblasti included.
15 Nov 1941                Former Cherkasy, Dnipropetrovs'k, Kirovohrad and Mykolayiv oblasti
                             included.
 1 Sep 1942                Former Kherson, Poltava and Zaporizhya oblasti included.
21 Jan 1943                Most of the Reichskommissariat (except General Districts of
                             Wolhynien-Podolien and Shitomir) subject to German military
                             administration (see under Soviet Union) by decree.
1943 - 1944                Soviet re-occupation of Ukraine (Dnipropetrovs'k liberated on
                             30 Sep 1943, Kiev on 6 Nov 1943, Rivne 2 Feb 1944, Kherson
                             13 Mar 1944, Proskurov [now Khmel'nyts'kiy] 26 Mar 1944,
                             and Mykolayiv 28 Mar 1944).
25 Feb 1944 -  3 Jul 1944  Inclusion of the reminder of Reichskommissariat Ukraine (Brest,
                             Pinsk) into Generalbezirk Weissruthenien (see Belarus), the
                             Reichskommissariat Ukraine exists in name only to 10 Nov 1944.


German
Commander-in-chief of the Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd)
22 Jun 1941 -  1 Sep 1941  Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (b. 1875 - d. 1953)  Mil
Reichskommissar für die Ukraine
 1 Sep 1941 - 25 Feb 1944  Erich Koch                     (b. 1896 - d. 1986)  NSDAP
                             (remained mainly in Königsberg, Germany)
Sep 1941 – af.Apr 1942     Helmuth von Wedelstädt         (b. 1902 – d. 1988)  NSDAP
                             (acting for absent Koch)
bf.Nov 1942 – 30 Sep 1943  Paul Dargel                    (b. 1903 – d.af.1945)NSDAP

                             (acting for absent Koch)

Party abbreviation: NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, German nationalist, Nazi fascist, xenophobic, 1920-1945)


Transnistria

[Romania]



Map of Transnistria
1941-1944

Capital: Odessa
(Odesa)
Population: 2,326,224
 (1941)

 3 Aug 1941 - 10 Apr 1944  Ukraine between the Dniester and Bug Rivers, including Odessa
                             and the Transnitria region of Moldavian S.S.R., is occupied
                             but not annexed by Romania.
19 Aug 1941 - 10 Apr 1944 
Organized as Transnistria Governorate (Guvernământul
                             Transnistriei
); Odessa occupied on 16 Oct 1941.
10 Apr 1944                Odessa liberated by Soviet forces. 

Romanian Commanders (of the Romanian 4th Army)
 
3 Aug 1941 -  9 Sep 1941  Nicolae Ciupercă                   (b. 1882 - d. 1950)  Mil 
 
9 Sep 1941 - 16 Oct 1941  Iosif Iacobici                     (b. 1884 - d. 1952)  Mil 
Governors of Transnistria
19 Aug 1941 -  1 Feb 1944  Gheorghe Alexianu                  (b. 1897 - d. 1946)  Mil 
 
1 Feb 1944 - 10 Apr 1944  Gheorghe Potopeanu                 (b. 1889 - d. 1966)  Mil



Galicia

[Galicia and
                          Lodomeria c.1773-1849 (Austrian Empire)]
c.1773 - 1849
[Galicia and
                          Lodomeria flag 1849-1890 (Austrian Empire)]
1849 - 1890
[Galicia and
                          Lodomeria flag, 1890-1918 (Austro-Hungarian
                          Empire)]
1890 - 1 Nov 1918

[Galician Socialist Soviet Republic,
                        1920 (possible reconstruction)(Poland)]1 Aug 1920 - 19 Sep 1920 Galician SSR Flag




Map of Galicia in 1914
Capital: Lemberg (L'viv, Lwów)
Population: 8,025,675 (1910)
2,600,000 (1773 est.)

Currency: 1892-1918 Austro-
Hungarian  Kronen (ATK);
1
918-1919 Hryvnya (UAG)
Ethnic groups: Polish 58.55%,
Ruthenian (Ukrainian) 40.2 %,
German 1.13 %, Czech/Slovak
 0.11% (1910)
Religions: Roman Catholic 46.5%,
Greek Catholic 42.1%, Jews 11.1%,
Evangelical Protestant 0.5% (1910)
 5 Aug 1772                Parts of Lesser Poland (Małopolska) and Red Ruthenia (Ruś Czerwona)