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Turks and Caicos Islands
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
to 1875
[Turks and Caicos flag
                                    1875-1968 (U.K.)]
1875 - 7 Nov 1968
[Turks
                                    and Caicos flag 1968-1999 (U.K.)]
7 Nov 1968 - 25 Jan 1999
[Turks and
                                    Caicos flag (U.K.)]
Adopted 25 Jan 1999

 

Map of Turks and
Caicos Islands
Hear National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen" 
Hear Local Anthem
"This Land of Ours"
Constitution
(15 Oct 2012)
----------------------------------
Former Constitution
(9 Aug 2006; suspended
from 14 Aug 2009)
Capital: Cockburn Town
(on Grand Turk)(named 1840) 
Currency: Turks and Caicos
Crown (TCC) and US Dollar
 (USD); 1900-1969 Jamaica
 Pound (JMP)
National Holiday: 3 Aug (1834)
E
mancipation Day
Population: 55,926 (2019)
GDP: $762.7 million (2015) Exports: $10.5 million (2017)
Imports: $209 million (2017)
Ethnic groups: black 87.6%, white 7.9%, mixed 2.5%,
East Indian 1.3%, other 0.7% (2006)
Total Police Force: 90 (1987)
Defense is the Responsibility of the U.K.
Merchant marine: 4 ships (2019) 
Religions: Protestant 72.8% (Baptist 35.8%, Church of God 11.7%, Anglican 10%, Methodist 9.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%),
Roman Catholic 11.4%, Jehovah's Witness 1.8%,
other 14% (2006)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (associate), Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), UPU, WMO
Turks and
Caicos Islands
Chronology

12 Oct 1492                Possibly sighted by Columbus and claimed for Spain.
1512                       Juan Ponce de León explores Grand Turk (which is
                             later called Del Viejo).
1563                       Capt. John Hawkins (b. 1532 - d. 1595) is the first
                             known English visitor to the Turks and Caicos. 
1662                       Frenchman Bertrand d'Ogeron (b. 1613 - d. 1676), a
                             shareholder in the one of the first French West
                             Indian companies, laid claim to the Lucayan
                             (Bahama) and Caicos Islands "from 20th to 28th
                             degree North latitude" (not effected). 
 1 Nov 1670                Granted by Letters Patent of King Charles II to the
                             Duke of Albemarle and others in the Bahamas.
1673                      
English salt collecting from Bermuda begun on
                             Salt Cay, and
on Grand Turk in 1678. Salt-rakers
                             stayed between Mar and Nov each year.

1706 - 1710                French and the Spanish privateers occupy Grand
                             Turk and expel the salt-rakers.

1710                       British ship Rose under Capt. Lewis Middleton from
                             Bermuda retakes possession of the Islands.
10 May 1753 - Jan 1754   
  French invasion taking Sand Cay, on 14 May 1753
                             Middle Caicos
, and Grand Inagua on 24 Jul 1753
                             under Krusoret le Borgne (Iles Turques et les
                             Caïques)
.
31 May
1764 - 1766         French invasion and eviction of Bermudans to Haiti
                             under Luc Urbain du Bouëxic, comte de Guichen
                             (b. 1712 - d. 1790).
1766                       British sloop Druid retakes possession.
25-29 Sep 1778
             French occupation under the sieur de Courrejeolles.
1781 - 1783                British Loyalists settle on Caicos Islands.
29 Jun 1781                Royal Regulation, 1781 state "All His Majesty's
                             subjects whatever are to have free liberty of
                             making and gathering salt at Turks Islands."
12 Feb 1783 - Sep 1783     French occupation of Grand Turk under sieur de
                             Courrejolles.

 4 Apr 1788                Imperial Act of 1788 confirms Bahamian power of
                             taxation over the
Turks and Caicos salt ponds.
 
2 Dec 1799 - 25 Dec 1848  Both island groups annexed as part of the Bahamas
                             by the Bahamas legislature (as two parishes of
                             Saint Thomas and Saint George).  

29 Apr 1804                U.K. confirms that Turks Islands are part of the
                             Bahama Islands.
25 Dec 1848                Separate colony
(Presidency of the Turks and Caicos
                             Islands)
.
 
1 Jan 1874 -  4 Jul 1959  Part of Jamaica (by Order in Council of 4 Aug 1873),
                             as the Dependency of Turks and Caicos Islands.
21 Mar 1917                Canadian prime minister Robert Borden suggests
                             that Canada annex the Turks and Caicos Islands,
                             which is not accepted by the U.K. parliament.
 4 Jul 1959                Separate colony (Turks and Caicos).

 4 Jul 1959 - 31 May 1962  Part of the Federation of the West Indies
                             (see Trinidad and Tobago).
 6 Aug 1962                Crown colony.
15 Mar 1973                Islands' council prepared a petition to the
                             Canadian government seeking a closer form of
                             association and asking U.K. permission to do so.
25 Apr 1973                Bahamas become independent, remaining ties lapse.

30 Aug 1976                Responsible government granted.
1979                       Independence agreed upon in principle for 1982,

                             but a government change causes a policy reversal.
24 Jul 1986 -  3 Mar 1988  Direct rule by U.K.
21 Apr 2004                Canadian province of Nova Scotia's legislature
                             votes unanimously to invite the Turks and Caicos
                             to join the province, if the islands ever become
                             part of Canada.
18 Aug 2009 - 13 Nov 2012  Direct rule by U.K.

 
 
 
 

 
 

Agents

1766 - c.1772/81           Andrew Seymour (or Symmer)
c.1772/81 - 16 Jul 1791    ....
16 Jul 1791 - Jul 1799     Alexander Murray (1st time)        (b. 1764 - d. 1842)
Jul 1799 - 28 Aug 1799     ....
28 Aug 1799 - 31 Dec 1801
  Alexander Murray (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1802 -  1 Jul 1803  ....
 
1 Jul 1803 -  1 Oct 1804  Alexander Murray (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 
1 Oct 1804 - 27 Jan 1849  .... (acting)
                           [John Lorimer (d. 1807), St George Tucker, John Good]
Governors
25 Dec 1848 - 31 Dec 1873  the governors of Jamaica
Presidents of the Council
(president administering the Government)
27 Jan 1849 - 1854         Frederick Henry Alexander Forth    (b. 1808 - d. 1876?)
11 May 1854 - 1862         William Robert Inglis              (b. 1823 - d. 1888)
14 Nov
1862 - Apr 1869     Alexander Wilson Moir              (b. 1825 - d. 1897)
Apr
1869 - 1873            Alexander Augustus Melfort         (b. 1827 - d. 1890)
                             Campbell
1873 - 31 Dec 1873         Daniel Thomas Smith                (b. 1808? - d. 1888?)
Commissioners
 
1 Jan 1874 - 1878         Daniel Thomas Smith                (s.a.)
1878 - 1879                Edward Noel Walker                 (b. 1842 - d. 1908)
 3 Jan 1879 - 1883         Robert Baxter Llewelyn             (b. 1845 - d. 1919)
1883 - 1885                Frederick Shedden Sanguinetti      (b. 1847 - d. 1906)
                             (acting)
24 Oct 1885 - 1888         Henry Moore Jackson                (b. 1849 - d. 1908)
Apr 1888 - Jul 1888        Alexis Wynns Harriott (acting)     (b. 1835 - d. 1916)
Mar 1891 - 1893            Henry Higgins    
Mar 1893 - 1899            Edward John Cameron                (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
                            
(acting to 2 Jan 1894)
1899 - 1901                Geoffrey Peter St. Aubyn (acting)  (b. 1858 - d. 1921)

29 Sep 1901 - 1905         William Douglas Young              (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
Mar 1906 - Jul 1914        Frederick Henry Watkins            (b. 1859 - d. 1928)
Jul 1914 - Dec 1914        Hugh Houston Hutchings (1st time)  (b. 1869 - d. 1937)
                             (acting)
Dec 1914 - 1923            George Whitfield Smith            
(b. 1861 - d. 1934)
25 Jun 1923 - 1932         Harold Ernest Phillips             (b. 1877 - d. 1941)
1932 -  2 Aug 1934         Hugh Houston Hutchings (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                            
(acting)
 
2 Aug 1934 - Jul 1937     Frank Cecil Clarkson               (b. 1882 - d. 19..)
Jul 1937 - 1940            Hugh Charles Norwood Hill          (b. 1890 - d. 1968)
Feb 1940 - Jun 1946        Edwin Porter Arrowsmith            (b. 1909 - d. 1992)
Oct 1946 - Jul 1951        Cyril Eric Wool-Lewis              (b. 1906 - d. 1975)
Jul 1951 - Apr 1952        Thomas William Willis (acting)     (b. 1897 - d. 19..)
Apr 1952 - 1955            Peter Bleackley                    (b. 1915 - d. 2002)

1955 - Aug 1958            Ernest Gordon Lewis                (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
Aug 1958 -  3 Jul 1959     Geoffrey Colin Guy                 (b. 1921 - d. 2006)
Governors
 4 Jul 1959 -  5 Aug 1962  the governors of Jamaica
 
5 Aug 1962 -  5 Nov 1965  Post abolished
 5 Nov 1965 - 25 Apr 1973 
the governors of The Bahamas
Administrators

 
4 Jul 1959 - 15 Jan 1965  Geoffrey Colin Guy                 (s.a.)
15 Jan 1965 -  5 May 1965  Robert Everard Wainwright          (b. 1913 - d. 1990)
                             (1st time)
 
5 May 1965 - May 1967     John Anthony Golding               (b. 1920 - d. 2012)
Jul 1967 - 1971            Robert Everard Wainwright          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Mar 1971 - 25 Apr 1973     Alexander Graham Mitchell          (b. 1923 - d. 2010)
Governors
25 Apr 1973 - May 1975     Alexander Graham Mitchell          (s.a.)
24 May 1975 - Jul 1978     Arthur Christopher Watson          (b. 1927 - d. 2001)
Aug 1978 - Sep 1982        John Clifford Strong               (b. 1922 - d. 2003)
Oct 1982 - Jan 1987        Christopher John Turner            (b. 1933 - d. 2014)
Jan 1987 - Jun 1993        Michael John Bradley               (b. 1933 - d. 2010)
Jun 1993 - Sep 1996        Martin Bourke                      (b. 1947)
Oct 1996 - Jan 2000        John Philip Kelly                  (b. 1941)
27 Jan 2000 - 26 Nov 2002  Mervyn Thomas Jones                (b. 1942)
26 Nov 2002 - 16 Dec 2002  Cynthia Anita Louise Astwood (f)   (b. 1946)
                            
(acting)
16 Dec 2002 - 21 Jun 2005  Jim Poston                         (b. 1945 - d. 2007)
21 Jun 2005 - 11 Jul 2005  Mahala Kathleen Wynns (f)          (b. 1948) 
                             (1st time)(acting)
11 Jul 2005 - 16 Jul 2008  Richard David Tauwhare             (b. 1959)
16 Jul 2008 -  5 Aug 2008  Mahala Kathleen Wynns (f)          (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)(acting)
 5 Aug 2008 - 22 Aug 2011  Gordon Geoffrey Wetherell          (b. 1948)
22 Aug 2011 - 12 Sep 2011  Martin Stanley (acting)            (b. 1948)
12 Sep 2011 - 15 Sep 2013  Damian Roderic "Ric" Todd          (b. 1959)
15 Sep 2013 -  4 Oct 2013  Anya Kashora Williams (f)(1st time)(b. c.1980)
                             (acting)

 4 Oct 2013 -  9 Oct 2013  Huw Owen Shepheard (acting)
 9 Oct 2013 - 10 Oct 2016  Peter Beckingham                   (b. 1949)
10 Oct 2016 - 17 Oct 2016
  Anya Kashora Williams (f)(2nd time)(s.a.)
                             (acting)
17 Oct 2016 - 
7 Jul 2019  John Patrick George Freeman        (b. 1951)
 7 Jul 2019 - 15 Jul 2019  Anya Kashora Williams (f)(3rd time)(s.a.)
                             (acting)

15 Jul 2019 -              Nigel John Dakin                   (b. 1964)


Chief ministers

31 Aug 1976 -  9 May 1980  James Alexander George Smith       (b. 1945 - d. 1980)  PDM
                             McCartney
19 Jun 1980 -  4 Nov 1980  Oswald O'Neil Skippings (1st time) (b. 1953)            PDM
 
4 Nov 1980 - 28 Mar 1985  Norman Benjamin Saunders           (b. 1943)            PNP
28 Mar 1985 - 24 Jul 1986  Nathaniel Joseph Selver Francis    (b. 1912 - d. 2004)  PNP
Jul 1986 - May 1987        Executive Committee (interim)
                           - Ariel Rudolph Misick             (b. 1951)            NDA
                           - Richard Emmanuel Misick                               NDA
                           - Clement Ernest Howell            (b. 1935 - d. 1987)  PDM
                           - Carlos Wilbert Simons            (b. 1954)            NDA
May 1987 - Mar 1988        Executive Committee (interim)
                           - Daniel Manfred Malcolm                                PNP
                           - Tom Lightbourne                                       PNP
                           - Herbie Ingham                                         NDA
 3 Mar 1988 - Apr 1991     Oswald O'Neil Skippings (2nd time) (s.a.)               PDM 
Apr 1991 -  3 Feb 1995     Charles Washington Misick          (b. 1950)            PNP
 3 Feb 1995 - 15 Aug 2003  Derek Hugh Taylor                  (b. 1951)            PDM
15 Aug 2003 -  9 Aug 2006  Michael Eugene Misick              (b. 1966)            PNP
Premiers
 9 Aug 2006 - 23 Mar 2009  Michael Eugene Misick              (s.a.)               PNP
23 Mar 2009 - 14 Aug 2009  Oliver Galmo "Gilley" Wenthpuel    (b. 1966)            PNP
                             Williams
18 Aug 2009 - 13 Nov 2012  Advisory Council (interim)
                           - Joseph P. Connolly                                    Non-party
                             (to 5 Jul 2012)
                           - Edith Cox (f)                                         PNP
                           - Theophilus "Theo" Durham                              Non-party
                           - Carlton Mills                                         PNP
                           - Eugene Otuonye (to 13 Jul 2011)                       Non-party
                           - Doreen Quelch-Missick-Stubbs (f)                      PNP
                           - John T. Smith                                         Non-party
                           - Clayton Thomas                   (b. 1961?)           Non-party
                             (from 11 Aug 2011)
                           (plus ex officio the governor, deputy governor, chief executive,
                            attorney general, and permanent secretary, finance)
13 Nov 2012 - 20 Dec 2016  Rufus Washington Ewing             (b. 1968)            PNP
20 Dec 2016 - 20 Feb 2021  Sharlene Linette Cartwright-       (b. 1971)            PDM
                             Robinson (f)
20 Feb 2021 -              Charles Washington Misick          (s.a.)               PNP


Territorial Disputes: Have received Haitians fleeing economic and civil disorder.

Party abbreviations: PDM = People's Democratic Movement (conservative, christian democratic, center-right, est.Oct 1975); PNP = Progressive National Party (social democratic, christian democratic, center-left, est.1976);
- Former parties: NDA = National Democratic Alliance (split from PNP, c.1986)







© Ben Cahoon