Note on Terror Groups: There exist
many different definitions of terrorism, but terrorism
most commonly includes these elements: Use of
premeditated, politically motivated violence or the
threat of violence; Targeting noncombatants; Being a
non-state actor; Absence of a state of war
(specifically conventional warfare), thus excluding
war crimes; Taking actions designed to coerce,
frighten, or "send a message" to the public or a
government (thus excluding organized crime performed
for personal gain). The organizations listed on this
page have verifiably used or
attempted to use terrorist tactics, by the above
criteria. Self-identification as a "terrorist" group
is not required. This page does not condone, support
or endorse violence or any of these groups which are
listed below. Groups are listed regardless of
political or religious orientations. This page is
intended purely for study and research purposes.
15 May Organization established from remnants of Wadi
Popular Front for the Liberation of
Bombs the Royal Hotel in
Bombs El Al offices in Rome and Istanbul as well as
embassies in Athens and Vienna.
Responsible for the bombing of Pan Am 830.
23 Feb 1985
Bombs a Marks and Spencer
department store in Paris.
1979 - c.1986
Husayn Muhammed al-Umari "Abu Ibrahim" (b. 1936)
("the Bomb man")
Baghdad, Iraq; Middle East, Europe
Organization (ANO) (Fatah Revolutionary Council,
Arab Revolutionary Brigades,
Black September, and Revolutionary
Organization of Socialist Muslims)
The Abu Nidal Organization (ANO)(incl. Fatah
Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September,
Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims) split
Targets included the United States, the United
Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and various
countries. Carried out terrorist attacks in 20
killing or injuring almost 900 persons.
on Syrian embassies in Islamabad, Pakistan and Rome,
assassination of Shlomo Argov, Israeli ambassador to
the United Kingdom. The attack will trigger the war
in Lebanon against the PLO presence.
of the British High Commissioner in Bombay,
of an Egyptian plane to Malta, where sixty-six people
were killed during a rescue attempt by the Egyptian
attacks on Rome and Vienna airports, killing sixteen
hijacking of Pan-Am flight 73 at Karachi
airport (22 persons killed).
of assassinating PLO deputy chief Abu Iyad and PLO
security chief Abu Hul in Tunis.
leader, Sabri Al-Banna, relocated to Iraq.
Authorities shut down the ANO's operations in Libya
police arrest Halima Nimer (f).
Nidal dies or is assassinated in Baghdad.
1974 - 16 Aug
Sabri al-Banna "Abu Nidal",
(b. 1937 - d. 2002)
"Amin al-Sirr", "Sabri Khalil Abd Al Qadir"
few hundred plus limited overseas support structure.
Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) or simply "Abu Sayyaf" (also
known as Al
Harakat Al Islamiyya), split from the Moro
Front, to promote an independent Islamic state in
Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago of the southern
on the town of Ipil.
kidnap 16 vacationers at Lake Sebu, Mindanao.
Jolo, Philippines a grenade was lobbed into a crowd
gathered to watch firefighters put out a blaze in a
supermarket. 10 people were killed, and at least 74
hostages -including 22 school children and 5 teachers,
priest were seized from two schools in Basilan, after
failed in an attempt to take an army outpost. The
subsequently released 20 hostages in exchange for
bombs went off in public places in the southern
city of General Santos killing 15 people and injuring
hostages were kidnapped from a Sipadan Island,
resort by Abu Sayyaf. The hostages include three
French, two South Africans, two Finns, one Lebanese
Filipino working at the Sipadan Island Resort and
9 Malaysians working on the island were also seized.
group of Jehovah's witness Christian sect who worked
door-to-door salespeople were kidnapped by suspected
rebels on the Philippine island of Jolo. The group of
men and five women were working for a cosmetics
they were abducted in the town of Patikul.
23 Jul 2014
Leader Isnilon Totoni Hapilon swears
allegiance to Abu Bakr
al-Baghdadi, the leader of Islamic State.
1991 - 18 Dec
Janjalani (b. 1959
- d. 1998)
Dec 1998 - 4 Sep
1975 - d. 2006)
2006 - Jun 2007
Radullan Sahiron "Commander Putol" (b.
Jun 2007 -
Yasser Igasan "Abu Ali"
2016 - 16 Oct 2017
(b. 1968 - d. 2017)
"Abu Abdullah al-Filipini"
(emir of all Islamic State forces in the Philippines)
core fighters and more than 2,000 supporters.
Action Directe (AD)
Action (Action Directe) (AD)
founded as anti-NATO, based
attack, AD machine guns the building of the CNPF
Medef) French employers federation.
AD banned by France.
kills Georges Besse, Chairman of Renault car company.
and Red Army Faction (RAF) claim joint responsibility
blast at U.S. air base in Frankfurt, Germany that
by AD and RAF states they will work together to attack
members arrested in Vitry-aux-Loges, France near
organization becomes defunct.
1977 - 21 Feb
Jean-Marc Rouillan (founder)
+ Nathalie Ménigon
+ Joëlle Aubron
(b. 1959 - d. 2006)
+ Régis Schleicher (arrested 1984) (b.
+ Georges Cipriani
West Germany, Belgium
Martyrs' Brigades (Brigades of Shahid Yasser
al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades (Kata'ib
Shuhada' al-'Aqsa) created.
Attack on Beit Yisrael, Jerusalem- 11 killed.
on Southern Tel Aviv central bus station- 22 killed.
decided to ask the leaders of the Al-Aqsa Martyr's
to join the Fatah Council, recognizing it officially
of the organization.
the brother of Ghassan Shakaa, the mayor of Nablus.
Attack on Rehavia, Jerusalem, bus line 19- 11
of Ashdod attack (together with Hamas)- 10 are
in the Gaza Strip, where Palestinian officers are
and PA security headquarters buildings and
by armed gunmen.
that they will sign their attacks in the name
Shahid Yasser Arafat."
Claimed responsibility for a shooting attack at
the Gush Etzion
junction, killing three Israelis and wounding three
Union's Gaza offices were raided by 15 masked
They demanded apologies from Denmark and Norway
Marwan Hasib Ibrahim Barghouti
(imprisoned by Israel 15 Apr 2002)
Strip, West Bank, Israel.
members, unknown amount of external aid.
Alex Boncayao Brigade
Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB) formed in the Philippines,
as the breakaway urban 'hit squad' of the Communist
Philippines New People's Army.
Claims credit for assassination of Police General
Believed to have been involved in the murder of
U.S. Army Colonel
James Rowe (b. 1938 - d. 1989).
announced that it had formed an alliance with the
Army (RPA) as the Revolutionary Proletarian Army –
Alex Boncayao Brigade.
credit for rifle grenade attack against Shell Oil
headquarters in Manila.
6 Dec 2000
Dissolved with peace
agreement with the Philippine government.
(b. 1953 - d. 2001)
1997 - 6 Dec 2000
Cruz "Sergio Romero"
members, unknown amount of external aid.
Ansar Al-Islam ("Supporters of Islam") founded
by the merger
of two radical Kurdish Muslim sects (Jund al-Islam
Movement splinter group).
and kills 42 PUK fighters.
Franso Haririr, Christian Kurdish politician.
assassination of Barham Salih, PUK leader.
a Kurdish restaurant.
9 PUK fighters and destroys Sufi shrines.
U.S. Agency for International Development
Laurence Foley in Amman, Jordan.
PUK, killing 103 fighters and wounding 117.
and Kurdish forces destroy bases and force Ansar
to flee Iraq.
2001 - Sep 2001
Abu Abdullah al-Shafi'i (Warya Holery)
Sep 2001 - 30 Mar 2003
Mullah Fateh Vahid Krekar
(Najmuddin Faraj Ahmad)
(Feb 2003 - 26 Mar 2020 prisoner in Norway,
from 26 Mar 2020 Italian prisoner)
2003 - 3 May 2010
Abu Abdullah al-Shafi'i (Warya
(2nd time)(Iraqi prisoner from 3 May 2010)
2011 - 2014
Abu Hashim al Ibrahim
in northern Iraq pocket around Biyarah and Halabja.
(est. Jan 2003)
Armed Islamic Group
voids the election victory of the Islamic Salvation
Armed Islamic Group (in Arabic
al-Jama'ah al-Islamiyah al-Musallah;
(GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé),
begins attacks to
overthrow the secular Algerian government and replace
it with an
terrorist campaign against foreigners living in
a "Caliphate", or Islamic government for Algeria, with
Gousmi as Commander of the Faithful, Mohammed Said as
Air France flight to Algiers.
27 May 1996
Bodies of seven monks from the
monastery of Tibhirine (L'Abbaye
Notre-Dame de l'Atlas) in
Algeria, belonging to the Roman
Catholic Trappist Order of Cistercians of the Strict
are found. The monks were kidnapped on 26 Mar
1996. GIA claims
suspected in killing of French Archbishop of Oran.
The GSPC splinter faction appears to have eclipsed the
11 Jun 1999
GIA announced a jihad on French territory
in a threatening letter
addressed to the media.
1992 - Sep
Allel Mohamed "Moh
1992 - Nov
Jan 1993 -
Abdelhak Layada "Abu Adlane"
1993/94 - 26 Feb 1994
Mourad Si Ahmed "Djaffar al-Afghani"
1994 - Mar
Abou Khalil Mahfoudh (acting)
Mar 1994 - 26 Aug 1994
26 Aug 1994 - Sep 1994
Sep 1994 - 16 Jul 1996
Djamel Zitouni "Abou Abderrahmane Amine"(b. 1964 - d.
1996 - 8 Feb
Antar Zouabri "Abou
1970 - d. 2002)
2002 - Jul 2004
Rachid Abou Tourab
2004 - Nov 2004
2004 - Dec 2004
probably several hundred to several thousand.
Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) (Orly
Group, 3rd October
Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia
(Hayasdani Azadakrut'ean Hay Kaghtni Panag)(a.k.a.
Group, 3rd October Organization) formed as a
grouped to compel the Turkish Government to
publicly its alleged responsibility for the
of 1.5 million Armenians in 1915, pay reparations, and
territory for an Armenian homeland.
ambassador to Austria Danis Tunaligil is killed.
acknowledged killing -Turkish diplomat, Oktay Cerit,
of Ankara airport 9 killed.
at Orly Airport kills 8.
19 Dec 1991
Last attack targeted the bullet-proof
limousine carrying the
Turkish Ambassador to Budapest, ambassador was
1975 - 28 Apr
(b. 1951 - d. 1988)
(= Harutiun Takoshian)
1988 - 1991
Western Europe, Armenia, United States, Syria, Turkey.
few hundred members and sympathizers.
Army for the
Liberation of Rwanda (ALiR) (Interahamwe, Former
Armed Forces [ex-FAR])
Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (Armée
pour la Libération du
Interahamwe, Former Armed Forces of Rwanda
[ex-FAR]) began actions to topple Rwanda's
government, and to restore Hutu control, and, possibly
complete the genocide begun early in 1994. FAR was
army of the Rwandan Hutu regime that carried out the
of 500,000 or more Tutsis and regime opponents in
Interahamwe was its civilian militia counterpart, both
in forced Congo exile.
ALIR kidnapped and killed 8 foreign tourists in a game
the Congo-Uganda border.
Consolidated forces with a Kinshasa-based Hutu group
to form the
Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR)
Ignace Murwanashyaka (b. 1963 - d. 2019).
Sylvestre Mudacumura (b. 1954 - d. 2019), commander of
by the Congolese army in North Kivu, Congo (DRC).
President of Interahamwe
1994 - 1998
(b. 1960 - d. 2007)
(DRC Congo prisoner from 1996)
Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Oumu Shinrikyō (Aum
Shinrikyo)("Supreme Truth") an apocalyptic
- Adopted 2000
religious cult founded to take over Japan and then the
Received official status of a religion from the
nerve gas attacks on several Tokyo subway trains that
12 persons and injured up to 6,000.
Asahara arrested by Japanese police.
itself Aleph, claims to reject the violent and
apocalyptic teachings of its founder.
Split into Aleph and
Hikari no Wa ("Circle of Light").
Asahara and six followers were executed as a punishment
attacks and other crimes and the remaining six on death
executed on 26 Jul 2018.
1984 - 29 Dec
Shōkō Asahara (= Chizuo Matsumoto) (b. 1955 - d. 2018)
29 Dec 1999 - 2007
Jōyū (de facto)
previously had a presence in Australia, Russia,
Germany, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, the former Yugoslavia, and
membership is estimated at 1,600 (2002 est.)(the
claimed to have 9,000 members in Japan and up to
Babbar Khalsa ("Tigers of the True Faith") a
separatist group formed.
of Air India flight, more than 300 are killed.
Joins in declaration of "Khalistan" independence from
at movie theater in Delhi, 1 person killed 49 injured.
1978 - 8 Aug
Jathedar Sukhdev Singh Babbar (b. 1955 -
1992 - 26 Mar
Paramjit Singh Bheora
(from 2000, in U.K. exile)
Wadhawa Singh Babbar "Chacha" (b. 1954)
(Nucleus or Middle Core Faction)
Japan Revolutionary Communist League, National
Kyōsanshugisha Dōmei, Zenkoku Iinkai)
is a Japanese
far-left revolutionary group,
often referred to as Chūkaku-ha
founded to protest Japan's
imperial system, Western imperialism,
and later events such as the Gulf War and the
Tokyo's Narita Airport. Largest domestic militant
small covert action wing called Kansai Revolutionary
a number of sabotage attacks, including several
to derail trains, as well as the launching of crude
rockets at United States Naval bases.
has not engaged in any terrorist activities
for nearly two decades.
Irish Republican Army (CIRA) (Continuity Army
Irish Republican Army (CIRA)(a.k.a. Continuity
Council) formed as a radical terrorist splinter group
as the clandestine armed wing of the political
Republican Sinn Fein (RSF). Goal: reunification of
to force British troops from Northern Ireland.
But did not
become actives until Provisioal IRA's ceasefire in
bomb containing up to 1,200lb of home-made explosives
outside Kilyhelvin Hotel, Enniskillen, County
bomb containing 250lb of home-made explosives was
bomb, estimated at between 500 and 1,000lbs, was left
grounds of Carrybridge Hotel, near Lisballaw, County
responsibility for the attempted bombing of
bomb exploded outside an entertainment club, the
on Factory Road in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh.
a large car bomb, estimated at 500lbs, outside the
Ulster Constabulary station in the center of
Moria, County Down.
explosion at a hotel in Irvinestown; there were no
a bomb under Hammersmith Bridge, London.
a bomb at Acton Underground Station, London.
9 Mar 2009
CIRA claimed responsibility
for the fatal shooting of a PSNI
officer in Craigavon, County Armagh, the
first police fatality
in Northern Ireland since 1998.
Chiefs of Staff of the Continuity Irish
1986 - 1 Jan
Dáithí Ó Conaill
(b. 1938 - d. 1991)
Continuity Army Council
Ireland, Irish Republic.
than 50 hard-core activists.
Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP)-Hawatmeh
Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of
(Jabha al-Dimuqratiyya li-Tahrir Filastin) a
organization, founded when it splits from the
PFLP. Opposed the
Israel-PLO peace agreement. Goal is to
national goals through revolution of the
Renamed Democratic Front for the Liberation of
Has made limited moves toward merging with the Popular
the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).
poured gasoline at the entrance to a restaurant in
Sitrah, Bahrain and threw Molotov cocktails inside,
7 Bangladeshi employees and destroying the restaurant.
Marganit Outpost, Gaza Strip 2 Palestinian gunmen
soldiers and wounded seven Friday night as they
stormed a Gaza
Strip outpost in an attack unprecedented in the
intifada. Soldiers at the Marganit outpost shot and
two gunmen. The radical DFLP claimed responsibility
raid, in its first such claim in the intifada.
Nayef Hawatmeh "Abu
Lebanon, Gaza Strip, and West Bank
Islamic Jihad (EIJ) (al-Jihad, Islamic Jihad,
al-Jihad (a.k.a. Egyptian Islamic Jihad,
Jihad Group, Islamic
Jihad) formed to overthrow Egyptian government and
with an Islamic state; attacks U.S. and Israeli
Egypt and abroad.
for assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat.
Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina is bombed
29 killed, 250 injured by Islamic Jihad.
in Egypt murdered author Faraj Fodah.
responsibility for attempted assassination of Egyptian
Interior Minister Hassan al-Alfi.
responsibility for attempted assassination of Egyptian
Prime Minister Atef Sedky.
Responsible for the Egyptian Embassy bombing in
Zawahri formally merged Egyptian Islamic Jihad into
1970's - 18 Feb 2017
1938 - d. 2017)
(jailed 19.. - 14 Mar 2011)
1980 - 15 Apr 1982 Muhammad
1954 - d. 1982)
(jailed 1981 - Mar 2011)
1991 - 1998
(b. 1951 - d. 2022)
- Talaa'al Fateh ("Vanguards of
Conquest") faction -
1991 - 1993
network outside Egypt, in Yemen, Afghanistan,
Sudan, Lebanon, and United Kingdom.
suspected to be several hundred.
Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP) (People's
Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo
Army") founded as the military branch of the Partido
Revolucionario de los Trabajadores ("Workers'
Party") in Argentina.
Kidnapping of Esso executive Víctor Samuelsson and
a ransom of $12 million.
armed forces moved ahead with the Dirty War,
dispensing with the civilian government.
as a military force by Argentine armed forces.
1974 - 19 Jul
1936 - d. 1976)
Gorriarán Merlo (b.
1941 - d. 2006)
fighters, with a 400 person support network,
some 2,500 sympathizers.
Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna
(ETA) (Basque Fatherland and Liberty)
Note: there seems not to be one
leader, but one or even more Executive committee's.
The leaders listed seem to have been those who had
Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)(Euskadi Ta
established an independent homeland based on Marxist
principles in the northern Spanish provinces
Guipuzcoa, Alava, and Navarra and the
departments of Labourd, Basse-Navarra, and
ETA decides to start military struggle.
carries out first planned killing: victim is Meliton
chief of secret police in Basque city of San
Premier Luis Carrero Blanco (likely Franco successor).
divided into: ETA - 5th Assembly or Military ETA
ETA - 6th Assembly or Political-Military ETA (ETA-pm).
23 Feb 1981 - Jan
1982 ETA-pm makes a truce which
lasts until Jan 1982 when they kidnap
the father of singer Julio Iglesias.
members of ETA-pm are arrested.
members of ETA-pm surrender.
is disbanded. What remains of its members joins the
ETA's three top leaders — military leader Francisco
Garmendia "Pakito", political leader José Luis Alvarez
Santacristina "Txelis" and logistical leader José
Erostarbe "Fiti", often referred to collectively as
of ETA or as the Artapalo collective  — were
arrested in the
French Basque town of Bidart.
Sep 1998 - 3 Dec
1999 Observed a cease fire.
group has killed more than 800 persons.
24 Mar 2006 - 30 Dec 2006 ETA declares a
30 Dec 2006
Bomb in parking lot of Barajas
International Airport in
Madrid kills 3.
31 Aug 1959 -
- Julen Kerman Madariaga Agirre
(b. 1932 - d. 2021)
- José Maria Benito del Valle
(b. 1927 - d. 2011)
- ETA-pm -
19.. - 22 Feb
José Astorquiza "Pottoka"
- ETA-m -
Iturbe Abasolo "Txomin" (b. 1943 -
Félix Alberto López de
Lacalle (b. 1960)
Albizu "Antza" (1st time) (b.
1998 - Sep
"Iñaki de Rentería"
Sep 2000 - 22 Feb
2001 Francisco Javier García
Feb 2001 - Oct
Albizu "Antza" (2nd time)
(imprisioned Oct 2004)
Spain and southwestern France
may have hundreds of members, plus supporters.
National Liberation Front (FMLN)
Martí National Liberation Front (Frente Farabundo
para la Liberación Nacional)(FMLN) formed with
Cuban help as an
umbrella group for Communist and leftist insurgent
U.S. crewmen, Lt. Col. David Pickett and Crew Chief
Earnest Dawson were executed after their helicopter
by the FMLN militants in San Miguel Department.
Agreement with El Salvadoran government; FMLN
continues as a
legal political party.
10 Jan 1980 - 31 Dec 1991 Schafik Jorge
(b. 1930 - d. 2006)
Fatah: see Palestine
October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO)
First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO)(Grupo
Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre).
The wing of
the illegal Communist Party of Spain of the Franco
to overthrow of the Spanish government and replace it
Marxist-Leninist regime. GRAPO is vehemently
for the removal of all U.S. military forces from
policeman is killed in reprisal for the arrest in
of several GRAPO leaders.
1975 - ....
but likely fewer than a dozen hard-core
17 (17 Alquat) formed by senior Fatah
officers, shortly after
the PLO's expulsion from Jordan. Originally
intended as a
personal security force for Gasser Aright and
other PLO leaders.
Force 17 eventually became one of the PLO's
elite units and
functioned in various areas of operational activities
the direct guidance of Arafat.
a result of the Israeli attack on its headquarters,
along with the other PLO forces, left Lebanon for
two Israelis in the Marina of Larnaka in Cyprus.
caricaturist Nagy El-Ali assassinated in Kuwait.
Attempted sea born attack in Israeli beaches foiled.
Officially dissolved when Arafat returned to Gaza and
it into al-Amn al-Ri'asah (Presidential
security) unit commanded
by Faisal Abu Sharah.
The remainder of the The Force was merged into the
Guard and the National Security Forces.
1970's - 22 Jan
1979 Ali Hassan
Salameh "Abu Hassan" (b. 1941 - d.
22 Jan 1979 - 1994
Natour "Abu Tayeb"
c.2001 - 2006
Mahmoud Awad Damra "Abu Awad"
(Israeli prisoner 2006-Jan 2012)
West Bank, Gaza Strip, Jordan
at 3,000 members.
Front de Libération
du Québec (FLQ) (Quebec Liberation Front)
Front de Libération du Québec (FLQ)("Liberation
Front of Quebec")
is founded. Their ultimate goal is to establish
independent Quebec nation, free from any ties to
rest of Canada, through violent activities.
James Cross, British commercial envoy in Quebec.
Pierre LaPorte, Labor Minister of Quebec province.
FLQ members who are not arrested break off into
smaller splinter groups, each with varying
Feb 1963 - 19 Jun 1963
(imprisoned) (b. 1930 -
1963 - 1964
Robert Hudon + Jean Gagnon
1965 - 1971
(b. 1939 - d. 2005)
ideology supported by some French speakers.
al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group, IG)
al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group)(IG)
formed with primary goal
is to overthrow the Egyptian government and
replace it with an
Islamic state, but certain group leaders also
may be interested
in attacking U.S. and Israeli interests.
Murders Egypt's speaker of parliament.
Attacks on Egyptian tourist sites begun.
of Farag Foda.
attempted to assassinate Egyptian Information Minister
Safw in Cairo, firing shots at his motorcade. The
slightly injured and his bodyguard was seriously
persons were killed and two were wounded when an
fired on a downtown tourist area in Hurghada. Two
and one German were killed in the attack.
in June 1995 to assassinate Egyptian President
Mubarak in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
bomb detonated outside the local police headquarters
in Rijeka, killing the driver and injuring 29
that the attacks would continue unless authorities
imprisoned Gama'at militant, Tala'at Fuad Kassem, who
arrested in Sep 1995.
bomb attack on Egyptian embassy in Islamabad,
Pakistan; 16 die.
Hotel shooting, Cairo. 18 Greek tourists killed.
on the Cairo National Antiquities Museum.
for attack at Luxor that killed 58 foreign tourists
the "Hatshesut Temple massacre."
al-Islamiyya renounced bloodshed.
5 Aug 2006
leader of al-Qaeda Ayman al-Zawahiri announced a new
alliance with Al Gama'a al-Islamiyya,
in a video released on
the internet. This was disputed by former
1970's - 18 Feb 2017
1938 - d. 2017)
"the Blind Sheikh"
(U.S. prisoner from 24 Jun 1993)
1991 - 2003
2006 - 31 Oct 2008
Mohammad Hasan Khalil al-Hakim (b.
c.1961 - 2008)
"Abu Jihad al-Masri"
network outside Egypt, in Sudan, the United Kingdom,
Afghanistan, Austria, and Yemen.
At its peak, IG probably commanded several thousand
hard-core members and another several thousand
(Islamic Resistance Movement)
Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya
Movement"). Formed as an outgrowth of the Palestinian
of the Muslim Brotherhood. Aimed at establishing an
Palestinian state in place of Israel.
Israel outlaws Hamas and imprisons Sheikh Ahmed
first use of suicide bombing.
suicide bomber blew up a bus in Jerusalem, killing 26
and injuring some 80 others.
authorities closed the group's Political Bureau
in Amman, arrested its leaders, and prohibited the
operating on Jordanian territory.
Palestinian suicide bomber detonated an explosives
belt amid a
crowd of youngsters outside a beach front
Dolphinarium, on a Friday night, killing at least 20
more than 120. The blast occurred shortly after 11:00
on Tel-Aviv's Promenade.
suicide bombing at a pizza restaurant in the center of
killed 15 people -mostly young families and tourists-
more than 90. Six children were among the dead. At
a blast devastated a crowded Sbarro Pizzeria at the
King George and Jaffa streets.
Israelis were killed and around 150 were wounded, when
bomber detonated an explosive device in the dining
room of the
Park Hotel in Netanya.
suicide bomber detonated a powerful bomb in a crowded
hall in Israel, killing at least 16 and wounding more
The attack took place at the "Sheffield Club" pool
hall, on the
third floor of a building in Rishon LeZion, South of
Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up on a bus
schoolchildren and office workers near the busy Patt
in southern Jerusalem, killing 20 people and wounding
least 9 people were killed and seventy wounded in a
at Hebrew University's Mount Scopus campus.
least 10 people were killed, and more than 40 wounded
suicide bombing on a commuter bus in Meron Junction in
Israelis; four IDF soldiers, five Border Policemen and
civilians, members of the emergency response squad of
Arba, were killed and 15 were injured in a Palestinian
ambush in Hebron.
suicide bomber struck a municipal bus in Jerusalem,
least ten people and injuring nearly 50. The bombing
the number 20 Jerusalem bus as it passed through a
residential neighborhood at the height of morning rush
assassinates Sheik Ahmed Yasin in Gaza City, in Gaza
assassinates Rantissi in car explosion.
Palestinian parliamentary elections, Hamas wins 74 of
seats and Fatah 45. Turnout is 78.2%.
29 Mar 2006 - 14 Jun 2017
Ismail Haniyah of Hamas is sworn in as prime minister
the Palestinian government.
14 Jun 2017
Hamas seizes control of the Gaza Strip after Ismail
dismissed as prime minister of the
1987 - 22 Mar
1936 - d. 2004)
(imprisoned 1989 - Oct 1997)
22 Mar 2004 - 17 Apr 2004 Abdel Aziz
(b. 1947 -
18 Apr 2004
Political leaders of Syrian branch
Mousa Mohammed Abu
1996 - 6 May 2017
6 May 2017
Ismail Abdel Salam Ahmed Haniyeh (b. 1962)
Leader in Gaza Strip
22 Mar 2004 - 17 Apr 2004 Abdel Aziz
Gaza Strip, and West Bank
number of hard-core members; tens of thousands of
supporters and sympathizers.
Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA) founded
as merger of Harkat-ul-Mujahideen
(HuJI) to oppose Indian troops in
U.S. nationals kidnapped in New Delhi in effort to
release of imprisoned HUA leader Maulana Masood Azhar.
Ahar split from the group to form
Oct 1993 - 1997
Mohammad Masood Azhar Alvi
(Indian prisioner Feb 1994 - Dec 1999)
thousand armed supporters
- al-Islami (HUM)
Harakat ul-Mujahidin - al-Islami (HUM)(split
Islamic group formed to unite Indian
Kashmir with Pakistan.
to the kidnapping of five Western tourists in Kashmir
who were later killed in Dec 1995.
fatwa calling for attacks on
U.S. and Western interests.
45% of HUM defects to join Jaish-e-Mohammed
India Airlines Airbus was hijacked en-route from
Nepal to India. After making stops in India, Pakistan
United Arab Emirates, the plane was forced to land at
in Afghanistan. 27 hostages, mostly women and children
released when the plane made a re-fueling stop in the
Arab Emirates. 1 passenger was stabbed to death by the
After 8 days of negotiations, the Indian government
free three Kashmiri militants in exchange for the
release of the
remaining 154 hostages. One of those released was
Azhar, a senior member of the HUM.
1993 - Feb 2000
thousand armed supporters.
of God) (Hizballah, Islamic
Jihad,Revolutionary Justice Organization,
Organization of the Oppressed on Earth,
and Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine)
Hezbollah ("Party of God")(Hizballah,
a.k.a. Islamic Jihad,
Revolutionary Justice Organization, Organization of
Oppressed on Earth, and Islamic Jihad for the
Palestine). Radical Shia organization founded in
Lebanon to increase its political power in Lebanon,
Israel and the Middle East peace negotiations.
around 30 Westerners between 1982 and 1992,
American journalist Terry Anderson, British journalist
McCarthy, the Archbishop of Canterbury's special
Terry Waite and Irish citizen Brian Keenan.
bombing of the American Embassy in Beirut, killed
61 people and left more than 120 wounded.
bombing of the U.S. Marines headquarters in Beirut,
39 and wounded 40 people. On the same day a suicide
the French army barracks in Beirut kills 74 and
wounded about 15.
bombing of replacement U.S. Embassy in East Beirut.
Hijacking of TWA Flight 847 en route from Athens to
secretary-general killed by a
rocket attack launched by an Israel.
embassy in Buenos Aires was car-bombed, 29 killed.
car bomb exploded at the Israeli-Argentine Mutual
(AMIA), killing 100 persons and wounding more than 200
The explosion caused the seven-story building to
Panamanian flight was bombed in the Alas Chiricanas
leaving 21 people dead, including 12 Jews.
bomb exploded outside the Israeli embassy in London.
Lebanese construction workers were killed in the
a roadside bomb. Two others were wounded. The men were
civilians engaged in construction work at an South
(SLA) outpost near Marjayoun. The attack reportedly
shortly after a visit by Israeli Defense Minister
Mordechai to SLA headquarters in nearby
7 Oct 2000
3 Israeli soldiers – Adi Avitan,
Staff Sgt. Benyamin Avraham, and
Staff Sgt. Omar Sawaidwere – were abducted by
patrolling the Israeli side of the
The soldiers were killed either during the
attack or in its
Israelis were killed when two Hezbollah
terrorists opened fire
from ambush on Israeli vehicles traveling between
Kibbutz Metzuba near the northern border with Lebanon.
12 Jul 2006 - 8 Sep 2006 Hezbollah
rockets northern Israel, in response Israel attacks
and invades Lebanon in pursuit of Hezbollah
militants. In the
fighting 1,200 Lebanese and 158 Israelis were
12 Feb 2008
Hezbollah leader Imad Mughnieh
was killed by a car bomb in
7-21 May 2008
Lebanon's 17-month long political crisis
spiraled out of control.
Hezbollah-led opposition fighters
seized control of several West
Beirut neighborhoods from Future Movement
militiamen loyal to
the American-backed government, in street
battles that left 11
dead and 30 wounded before the government backed
Hezbollah was granted veto power in Lebanon's
1982 - 4 Jul 2010
Ayatollah Mohammad Hussein (b. 1935 - d.
1983 - 1984
1984 - 16 Feb
1952 - d. 1992)
16 Feb 1992
Has established cells in Europe, Africa, South
North America, and Asia.
thousand supporters and a few hundred terrorist
(Irgun Zvai Leumi, National Military Organization,
Irgun Zvai Leumi ("National Military
Organization") a militant
Jewish Zionist group that operated in the British
Arab workers in a banana plantation killed.
Arabs killed in several shooting attacks in Jerusalem.
Arabs and 2 British policemen killed by a bomb in
train in Haifa.
Arab policeman was killed in an attack on a bus in
Arabs killed by a bomb in Jaffa.
Arabs killed in several shooting attacks in Tel-Aviv
3 Arabs killed by a bomb detonated in a bus in
Arabs and 5 Jews killed by two simultaneous bombs in
Arab Melon market in Haifa.
Arabs killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Jerusalem.
Arabs killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Haifa.
Arabs killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Jaffa.
Arabs killed in multiple attacks, incl. 24 by bomb in
in Suk Quarter of Haifa and 4 by bomb in Arab
Arabs killed by a mine detonated at the Rex cinema in
the same day, 5 Arabs were shot and killed during a
the village of Biyar 'Adas.
Arabs killed by a bomb at the Jaffa Gate in
Arabs killed in several attacks in Jerusalem.
Arabs killed by explosives mounted on a donkey at
marketplace in Haifa.
Arabs killed in multiple shootings during one hour
Arab killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Haifa, 6
killed in several attacks in Tel-Aviv, and 3 Arabs
British officers killed by a mine in Jerusalem.
declared a truce against the British, and supported
efforts against Nazi forces and their allies in the
enlisting its members in British forces and the Jewish
Oct 1945 - Jul 1946 Irgun
was in an alliance with the Haganah and Lehi called
Jewish Resistance Movement, organized to fight
restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine.
David Hotel bombing against the British government
Palestine. Bomb exploded at the King David Hotel in
which had been the base for the British Secretariat,
command and a branch of the Criminal Investigation
(police). 91 people killed (most of them civilians: 28
41 Arab, 17 Jewish, and 5 others). Around 45 people
Jul 1946 - Jun 1948 Irgun
fought as irregulars against the British mandate and
forces, informally in coordination with Haganah
single operation was a successful assault on Jaffa.
28 May 1948
Merged into Israeli Defense Forces along with Hagana
(b. 1903 - d. 1990)
1947 - 28 May 1948
1913 - d. 1992)
(= Menachem Begin)
Republican Army (IRA) (Provisional Irish
Republican Army [PIRA], the Provos)
Republican Army (IRA)(a.k.a. Provisional Irish
Army [PIRA], the Provos) formed as the clandestine
of Sinn Fein, a legal political movement. Begins
remove British forces from Northern Ireland and unify
suitcase bomb on bus kills 11 ad wounds 14 in
bomb kills one and injures 36 at the armory of the
McWhirter, editor of Guinnes Book of Records, shot
by IRA in London after he establishes a terrorist
IRA kills British Ambassador Richard Skyes in
for the assassination of Louis Mountbatten, Earl
Mountbatten of Burma, the last Viceroy
of British India.
Norman Srange, former Stormont Speaker, and son
killed by IRA in South Armagh.
bomb planted in Grand Hotel, Brighton, where Prime
Margaret Thatcher and cabinet are staying for Tory
kills 5 and injures 32.
bomb in U.K. base at Rheindalen, West Germany injures
mortar attack on British cabinet at 10 Downing Street.
Sep 1994 - Feb
Jul 1997 - 28 Jul 2005
IRA Army Council announced an end to its armed
Chiefs of Staff of the (anti-Treaty) Irish
26 Mar 1922 - 18 Jun 1922
Liam Lynch (1st time)
(b. 1892 - d. 1923)
18 Jun 1922 - 30 Jun 1922 Joe
(b. 1898 - d.
30 Jun 1922 - 10 Apr 1923 Liam Lynch (2nd time)
20 Apr 1923 - 12 Nov 1925 Frank Thomas
(b. 1898 - d. 1983)
12 Nov 1925 - Jul 1926
(b. 1897 - d. 1968)
1926 - Jun
1897 - d. 1978)
(acting to 1927)
Jun 1936 -
(b. 1904 - d. 1988)
(b. 1897 - d. 1980)
(b. 1893 - d. 1968)
1938 - Apr 1939
(b. 1893 - d. 1940)
Apr 1939 - 30 Jun 1941
(b. 1902 - d.
1941 - 27 Nov
Patrick Pearse Kelly ("Paul Kelso")(b. 1916 - d. 1974)
af.Nov 1941 - Feb 1942 Seán
(b. 1900 - d. 1976)
Feb 1942 - 14 Aug 1942 Seán
McCool (Seán MacCumhaill) (d. 1949)
1942 - 12 Oct
(b. 1916 - d. 1970)
(Aodh Mac an tSaoir)
Oct 1942 - 16 Jun 1944
(b. 1918 - d. 1944)
16 Jun 1944 -
(b. 1916 - d. 1989)
1 Mar 1945 -
Nov 1948 - 6 Jul 1957
Anthony "Tony" Magan
(b. 1910 - d. 1981)
Jul 1957 - Sep
Cronin (1st time)
(b. 1922 - d. 2011)
(acting to 11 Nov 1957)
Sep 1958 - 24 Oct 1958 John
(b. 1921 - d. 1988)
24 Oct 1958 - May/Jun 1958 Ruairí Ó Brádaigh (1st
time) (b. 1932 -
(= Peter Roger Casement Brady)
May/Jun 1959 - Jun 1960 Seán
Cronin (2nd time)
Ó Brádaigh (2nd
(b. 1923 - d. 1998)
(Cathal Ó Goillín)
Chiefs of Staff of the Provisional Irish
Dec 1969 - 19 Nov 1972 Seán
Mac Stiofáin "Mac the Knife" (b. 1928 - d. 2001)
(= John Stephenson)
Nov 1972 - Mar
Cahill (Seosamh Ó Cathail) (b. 1920
- d. 2004)
Mar 1973 - Jun
(b. 1919 - d. 1989)
(Séamus Ó Tuama)
Jun 1973 - Jun/Jul 1974 Éamonn
(b. 1939 - d. 1999)
(Éamonn Ó Dochartaigh)
Jun/Jul 1974 - Dec 1977 Seamus
3 Dec 1977 - 18 Feb 1978 Gerry Adams
(Gearóid Mac Ádhaimh) (b. 1948)
1950 - d. 2017)
(Séamus Máirtín Pacelli Mag Aonghusa)
1982 - Sep
Ivor Malachy Bell
Sep 1983 - Oct
(b. 1945 - d. 2019)
(Caoimhín Mac Cionnaith)
Oct 1997 - 1998
(Tomás Mac Murchaidh)
1998 - 2002 (or May 2008) Brian
(b. 1942 - d. 2008)
Chiefs of Staff of the Official Irish Republican
Dec 1969 -
1998 - 20..
(b. 1934 - d. 2018)
Ireland, Irish Republic, Great Britain, Europe.
hundred members, plus several thousand sympathizers.
Islamic Movement of
Adolet ("Justice") Movement created to oppose
the secular regime
of Islom Karimov and to make Uzbekistan an Islamic
Renamed Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.
six bombs in Tashkent, Uzbekistan killing 16.
4 Japanese men hostage until a ransom of several
Pledges allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's Islamic
1992 - 1 Oct 2009
(b. 1967 - d. 2009)
+ Juma Ahmadyonovich Khojayev
(b. 1968/69 - d. 2001)
"Juma Namangani" (to Nov 2001)
Oct 2009 - 29 Apr 2012 Abu Usman Adil
2012 - 2015?
Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan
al-Sunna (Army of the Protectors of the
Jaish Ansar al-Sunnah ("Army of the Protectors
of the Sunnah")
formed with claim to seek to expel U.S.-led occupation
from Iraq and to subsequently establish an Islamic
bomb outside the Turkish embassy in Baghdad which
bomb attack on the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan
in Kirkuk which killed six.
against two vehicles, killing 7 Spanish Intelligence
officers. The militants directly credit the Hamzah
Squadron of the al-Mansurah brigade, and say they
automatic weapons and a video camera from the
of the al-Taqafah police center in Mosul, killing
the Rahimawa police station in Kirkuk, killing 13.
to have killed 8 Intelligence officers from Britain
Canada, though neither country recognizes this claim
Al-Sunna then later showed their office ID badges.
a videotape of the killing of a CIA agent
a videotape of the killing of a second CIA agent
a videotape of the killing of 12 hostages from Nepal
had come to work for contractors in Iraq after the
war; one was
beheaded, the remaining eleven were shot in the back
of the head.
a videotape of the killing of an Iraqi named Barie
Daoud Ibrahim, accused of collaboration with the
a videotape of the killing of an Iraqi named Seif
Kanaan, accused of collaboration with the enemy.
a videotape of the killing of a captured Iraqi
Yassar Musil, accused of collaboration with the enemy.
a videotape of the killing of 11 captured members of
Iraqi National Guard; one was beheaded, the remaining
were shot in the back of the head.
a videotape of the killing of a captured officer of
new Iraqi Army working in tandem with U.S. Army,
Shunun had been captured by the group in Mosul a days
the kidnapping of a Japanese man, Akihiko Saito, who
working for British Security Contractor Hart
to have killed eight U.S. Marines in a shoot-out in
though the U.S. claims the number is only six.
10 Dec 2007
Ansar Al-Sunnah reverts Name to Ansar
Al-Islam ("Army of Islam").
Abdullah al-Hassan bin Mahmoud
(Jaishi-i-Muhammed, Army of Mohammed)
Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM)("Army of Mohammed"),
aim to unite all
Kashmir with Pakistan. Most of the JEM's
cadre and material
resources have been drawn from the militant groups Harakat
ul-Jihad al-Islami (HUJI) and the Harakat
23 Jan 2002 - 21 Feb 2002 Holds Daniel Pearl,
Wall Street Journal Asia Bureau Chief, hostage
before executing him.
attack on office of Chief minister in Srinagar.
Bombings in Qamarwari and Srinagar kill 21.
13 Dec 2001
Indian Parliament attack by Lashkar-e-Taiba
against the building housing the Parliament of
India in New
Delhi. The attack led to the death of 5
terrorists, 6 police
and 1 civilian.
Maulana Masood Azhar
(under arrest 1994 - Dec 1999)
hundred armed supporters.
Jamaat ul-Fuqraa' ("Community
of the Impoverished") an organization
of mostly African-American
Muslims based in Pakistan and the
U.S. It operates two front groups: Muslims
of the Americas, and
Quranic Open University.
1980 - 1990
members have been either convicted or suspected in 13
assassinations and 17 fire
bombings across the United States.
Member sets off bomb at Hotel Rajneesh, a hotel in
1980 - 15 May 2021
Syed Mubarak Ali Shah Gillani (b. 1936 - d.
United States, Canada, Caribbean, Pakistan.
Red Army (JRA) (Anti-Imperialist International
Brigade (AIIB), Nippon Sekigun, Nihon
Sekigun, Holy War Brigade, and the Anti-War Democratic
predecessor hijacked a Japan Airlines Boeing 727
people at Tokyo International Airport. Eight Red Army
wielded katanas and carried a bomb during Japan's most
hijacking. The plane was forced to fly to Fukuoka and
Airport in Seoul, where all the passengers were freed.
flew to North Korea, where the Red Army members
plane and the crew members were released.
Red Army (Nihon Sekigun-ha) breaks
away from the Japanese
Communist League-Red Army, founded to overthrow the
government and monarchy and to help foment world
for massacre at Lod Airport Tel Aviv, Israel; 26
Army members led PFLP guerrillas in hijacking a Japan
(JAL) plane over the Netherlands. The passengers and
released in Libya, where hijackers blew up the
incident: Red Army attacked a Shell facility in
and took five hostages; simultaneously, the PFLP
Japanese embassy in Kuwait. The hostages were
exchanged for a
ransom and safe passage to South Yemen in a JAL plane.
seize 11 hostages at French Embassy in The Hague. They
secure the release of Yukata Furuya from French
Red Army took more than 50 hostages at the AIA
several embassies in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The
included the US consul and the Swedish charge
Red Army hijacked Japan Airlines Flight 472 over India
forced it to land in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Japanese
freed six imprisoned members of the group and
allegedly paid a
suspected lone member of the army hijacked Malaysia
Flight 653. The flight was carrying the Cuban
ambassador to Tokyo
Mario Garcia. The Boeing 737 then crashed killing all
after he shot both pilots and himself.
of a USO club in Naples, Italy a suspected JRA
that killed five.
operative Yu Kikumura was arrested with explosives on
Jersey Turnpike, apparently planning an attack to
the bombing in Naples.
Shigenobu established the "People's Revolutionary
Party" for the
purpose of armed revolution in Japan with the
"The 21st Century of Hope" in charge of its
8 Nov 2000
Fusako Shigenobu arrested by Japanese police in
her trial hearing Shigenobu stated that she was
the Japanese Red Army.
Feb 1971 - 16 Apr 2001
(b. 1945 - d. 1972)
(to 30 May 1972)
+ Fusako Shigenobu
(in prison 8 Nov 2000
- 28 Feb 2022)
+ Osamu Maruoka (to Nov
1987) (b. 1951 -
Japan, possibly traveled in Asia or Syrian controlled
About eight hard-core members; undetermined number of
Islamiyah (Jemaah Islamiah, Islamic Group,
al-Jemaah al-Islamiyah ("Islamic Group" or
created to establish and Islamic state
Philippines, and Malaysia.
assassination of Philippine ambassador to Indonesia,
bomb explosion tore through a packed parking deck
the Jakarta Stock Exchange building- killing 15
and injuring 20.
took part in a major coordinated terror strike, the
Eve bombings- 18 are killed.
car bombing of Bali, Indonesia nightclub- killed
mainly Australian tourists.
of two bombs in the main shopping district of
mostly Christian city of Zamboanga, Philippines,
and wounding about 150.
attack on the Marriott Hotel in Jakarta, Indonesia-
embassy bombing in Jakarta, Indonesia- several killed.
Abu Bakar Bashir pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr
of the Islamic State.
(Abubakar Ba'asyir, Abdus Somad)
(Indonesia prisoner 15 Oct 2004 - 14 Jun 2006,
and 13 Dec 2010 - 8 Jan
1969 - Nov
(b. 1937 – d. 1999)
1999 - 11 Aug
(Indonesia prisoner from 11
Sunarto bin Kartodiharjo "Adung"
2005 - Jul
(Indonesia prisoner from
2008 - 1 Jul 2019
Wijayanto "Abang", "Abu Askary"(b. c.1963)
(Indonesia prisoner from
1 Jul 2019)
Kahana LaKneset "Kach" ("Kahane to the
Knesset") founded by
radical Israeli-American Rabbi Meir Kahane. Its
goal was to restore the biblical state of Israel.
Machteret, a terrorist group with links to Kach,
several attacks, including attempts to kill
Prior to the elections to the 12th Knesset, the
Committee disqualified the Kach list.
Kahane assassinated in the U.S.
Kahane Chai ("Kahane Lives") was
founded by Meir Kahane's
son Binyamin Kahane following his father's
They threatened to attack Arabs, Palestinians, and
Claimed responsibility for several shooting attacks on
Palestinians in which four persons were killed and two
Goldstein opened fire on Palestinian worshipers inside
the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron, killing 29.
organizations were declared to be terrorist
and banned by Israel.
Kahane and his wife are murdered in a random
Kach Movement existed. It maintained websites posting
Kahanist political commentary and held meetings
1971 - 5 Nov
Rabbi Meir David HaKohen Kahane
(b. 1932 - d. 1990)
(= Martin David Kahane)
Nov 1990 - 31 Dec 2001 Rabbi
(b. 1966 - d. 2000)
and West Bank settlements like Qiryat Araba.
Membership of the two groups overlap.
Khalistan Liberation Force (KLF) militant Sikh
ambassador to Romania was wounded in a drive-by
assassination attempt in Bucharest by KLF.
1986 - 1986
(b. 1958 - d. 1986)
1986 - 21 May
Shaheed Avtar Singh
1951 - d. 1988)
1988 - 31 Jul
Shaheed Bhai Gurjant Singh Budhsinghwal (b. 1964 - d.
1992 - 25 Feb 1994
Shaheed Kuldip Singh Keepa Shekhupura (b.
1971 - d. 1994)
1992 - 25 Feb
Shaheed Navneet Singh
(b. 1970 - d. 1994)
1994 - 29 Mar
(b. 1959 - d. 2008)
2008 - 17 Apr
Harminder Singh Mintoo
(b. 1967 - d. 2018)
2018 - 27 Jan 2020
(b. 1981 - d. 2020)
Khmer Rouge (The
Party of Democratic Kampuchea)
Party of Democratic Kampuchea "Khmer Rouge" founded,
begins communist insurgency aimed at overthrowing the
13 May 1976 - 7 Jan 1979 In
control of the Cambodian government, conducted a
genocide, killing an estimated 1.7 million.
Rouge government ended by Vietnamese invasion.
a treaty calling for elections and disarmament. But in
1992 the Khmer Rouge resumed fighting and the
they rejected the results of the elections.
Mass defection when around half the remaining soldiers
due to factional fighting.
against Cambodian government ends, remnants
are captured or surrender.
Secretaries-general of the Kampuchean Communist
Feb 1963 - 15 Apr
1998 Pol Pot (Saloth
1925 - d. 1998)
15 Apr 1998 - 6 Mar 1999 Ta Mok
(b. 1926 - d. 2006)
than 500, possibly no more than 100.
Liberation Army (KLA) (Ushtria Clirimtare e
Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës
(UÇK)("Kosovo Liberation Army" [KLA])
a militant Albanian separatist group is formed in
Begins carrying out small arms and sabotage attacks on
13 Democratic League of Kosovo representatives for 48
detonation at Cafe Galarija in Pristina, 7 are
into Kosovo Protection Force.
Feb 1999 - Apr
Apr 1999 - Jun
province of Serbia
hundred to several thousand.
Kurdî) or Turkish-Hezbollah (Türk
Kurdish Islamic (Sunni) extremist
arose in response to Kurdistan Workers
Party (PKK) atrocities
against Muslims in southeastern
Turkey, where Kurdish-Hezbollah
seeks to establish an independent
Nearly 70 bodies of Turkish and Kurdish businessmen
journalists found that Kurdish-Hezbollah had tortured
security forces kill Huseyin Velioglu, the leader of
assassinated the Diyarbakir police chief.
1980's - 17 Jan
2000 Hüseyin Velioğlu
1952 - d. 2000)
Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria.
to 20,000 members.
Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) (Partiya
Karkeren Kurdistan, Kadek, Kongra-Gel)
Former PKK Flag
PKK Current Flag
Workers' Party (Partîya Karkerên Kurdistanê)(PKK)
established to form an independent Kurdish
state in southeastern
Turkey, where the population is predominantly
Kurdish and improve
rights for Kurds in Turkey.
government expelled PKK leader and known elements of
group from its territory.
declares its disarmament, drops use of word
the Kurdish Freedom and Democracy Congress (Kadek),
purportedly renounces terrorism.
1978 - 1999
(Turkish prisoner from 15 Feb 1999)
1999 - 2013
(= Mirad Qarayîlan)
+ Besê Hozat (Hülya Oran)(f)
Europe, Syria, and the Middle East.
to 5,000, with thousands of sympathizers in Turkey and
(Army of the Righteous, Lashkar-e-Toiba)
Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT) ("Army of the
Righteous") formed to unite
Kashmir with Pakistan as the armed wing of the
religious organization, Markaz-ud-Dawa-wal-Irshad
(MDI) — a
Sunni anti-U.S. missionary organization. One of the
largest and best trained groups fighting in Kashmir
India, it is not connected to a political party. The
conducted a number of operations against Indian troops
civilian targets in Kashmir since 1993.
of attacks that kill nearly 100.
heavily armed group of Muslim militants attempted to
Srinagar airport, triggering a fierce gun-battle that
with 10 people dead and 8 wounded.
13 Dec 2001
Indian Parliament attack by
Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed
against the building housing the Parliament of
India in New
Delhi. The attack led to the death of 5
terrorists, 6 police
and 1 civilian.
Islamic militants burst into a mainly Hindu slum
Jammu, Kashmir, India on a Saturday night opening fire
local residents, killing at least 27 people. Nearly 30
militants raided the Hindu Raghunath Temple complex
Indian-controlled Kashmir, killing 11 people before
shot dead by security forces. At least 50 people were
in the attack.
11 Jul 2006
Mumbai train bombings a series of seven
bomb blasts that took place
over a period of 11 minutes on the Suburban
Railway in Mumbai
(Bombay), 209 people lost their lives and over
700 were injured.
26-29 Nov 2008
Mumbai attacks take place.
Eight of the attacks occurred in South
Mumbai: at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the
the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Leopold Cafe,
the Orthodox Jewish-owned Nariman House, the
and a lane behind the Times of India building. There
was also an
explosion at the Mazagaon docks, in Mumbai's
port area, and in a
taxi at Vile Parle. 173 people are killed and at
least 308 are
1990 - ....
Hafiz Muhammad Saeed
(under arrest 21 Dec 2001 - 31 Mar 2002,
9 Aug - 17 Oct 2006, from 17 Jul 2019)
thousand armed supporters.
Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) (Tamil Tigers)
Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)(Tamilila viyutalaip
1976 - 27 Nov 1990
27 Nov 1990 - 19 May 2009
pulikal) established to create an
independent Tamil state.
soldiers killed in LTTE ambush in Jaffna, sparking
riots leading to the deaths of an estimated several
Tamils. Conflict develops in north of island between
on-board an Air Lanka Flight, killing 20.
ambush 3 buses and 2 trucks near Trincomalee, killed
2 Mar 1991
Suicide bomb kills Sri
Lanka Defense Minister Ranjan Wijeratne
and 19 others.
suicide bomber Thenmuli Rajaratnam assassinated
former Indian prime minister Rajiv Gandhi while the
campaigning for a parliamentary candidate in Tamil Nadu,
killing an additional 13 bystanders.
the President of Sri Lanka, Ranasinghe Premadasa
while he was attending the annual May Day rally.
attack by the LTTE on the Colombo Central Bank killed 90
injured a further 1,400 people, damaging other buildings
bomb exploded at the Colombo World Trade Center, killing
13 and injuring hundreds.
likely members of the Black Tiger squad drove an
explosives-laden truck into the Sri Dalada Maligawa (or
of the Tooth"), a major Buddhist shrine, killing 7 and
LTTE bombs exploded aboard a bus in Maradana, killing 32
and injuring 252 passersby.
member of the Black Tiger squad jumped in front of a
carrying Sri Lankan Brigadier Larry Wijeratne and
explosives, killing the general and two guards.
suicide bomber killed Sri Lankan MP Neelan
a Tamil, along with 2 others and 6 bystanders were
female LTTE suicide bomber exploded herself at a rally
Colombo in an apparent assassination attempt on Sri
President Chandrika Kumaratunga, who was
injured in the blast.
10 people were killed and three
LTTE bomber killed 23 and injured 70 at a Buddhist
temple in Batticaloa during celebrations of the Vesak
LTTE suicide bomber killed Sri Lankan Industrial
Development Minister C.V. Goonaratne during a
in Colombo. A further 20 were killed and
bomb killed parliamentary candidate Mohammed Baithullah
and more than twenty others in Muttur. At least 49
injured. Baithullah had previously served as an
officer in the Sri Lankan police.
suicide squad attacked Bandaranaike International
In three waves, a highly trained and heavily armed
penetrated the 800-acre high security complex and
damaged 26 commercial and military aircraft.
with the Sri Lankan government.
Sri Lankan Foreign minister Lakshman
Kadirgamar is shot
by an unidentified sniper in Colombo at his
LTTE denies responsibility.
1 Jan 2008
Assassination of a member of
parliament from the opposition United
National Party (UNP), T. Maheswaran.
8 Jan 2008
Assassination of Sri Lankan
Nation-Building Minister D.M.
6 Apr 2008
Assassination of Sri Lankan
Highway Minister Jeyaraj Fernandopulle.
17 May 2009
unconditional surrender to Sri Lankan government.
18 May 2009
LTTE leader Velupillai
Prabhakaran, his elder son Charles Anthony,
LTTE intelligence chief Pottu Amman and Soosai, the head
LTTE naval wing are killed by the Sri Lankan army.
21 May 2009
President of Sri Lanka announces a formal
end of the war with LTTE.
5 May 1976 - 18 May 2009 Velupillai
(b. 1954 - d. 2009)
Jul? 2009 - 5 Aug 2009 Selvarasa
(Sri Lankan prisoner 5 Aug 2009 - 17 Oct 2012)
Lanka, mainly in Jaffna peninsular.
to 10,000 armed combatants in Sri Lanka, with a core
trained fighters of approximately 3,000 to 6,000.
Resistance Army (LRA)
Possible LRA Flag Variant
United Holy Salvation Army begins warfare against
The insurgency has been mainly contained to the region
as Acholiland, consisting of the districts of Kitgum,
and Pader, though since 2002 violence has overflowed
Renamed Lord's Resistance Army (LRA).
1994 - Dec 2001
Supported by the government of The Sudan.
4 Aug 2006
Cease-fire announced by
26 Aug 2006
Ugandan government and LRA signed
a truce. Under the terms of
the agreement, LRA forces are to leave
Uganda and gather in 2
assembly areas protected by the
government of Sudan;
the Ugandan government agreed not to
attack those areas.
19 Feb 2008
Government and LRA sign interim
Jan 1987 -
500 - 1,000, possibly up to 3,000
Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) formed as a faction of
mainstream loyalist Ulster Volunteer Force
(UVF), to prevent a
political settlement with Irish nationalists
in Northern Ireland
by attacking Roman Catholic politicians,
Protestant politicians who endorse the
Northern Ireland peace
an 18 year-old Catholic school girl because she had
15 May 1998 - 30 Oct 2005 Observed
announced an end to the use of violence.
Jul 1996 - 27 Dec
1997 Billy "King Rat"
1960 - d. 1997)
(imprisoned from Mar 1997)
Dec 1997 - 10 Jun
2002 Mark "Swinger"
1961? - d. 2002)
(British prisoner 1998-Apr 2001 from Dec 2001)
Jun 2002 - 30 Oct 2005
Robin Andrew "Billy" King
Patriotic Front (FPMR)
Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez
("Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic
Front")(FPMR) founded to carry out missions as armed
of Chilean Communist Party.
attacked Pinochet's car in an assassination attempt.
of Pinochet's body guards were killed.
organization splintered into two factions, with
one faction becoming a political party in 1991. The
wing the FPMR/D continues terrorist activities.
of Independent Democrat Union senator Jaime Guzmán.
Bombed two McDonald's restaurants.
successful escape from prison, using a helicopter, for
several of its members.
it was leaving the armed struggle and to become a
legal political organization.
1983 - 30 Oct
Raul Alejandro Pellegrin Friedmann
(b. 1958 - d. 1988)
"Comandante Jose Miguel "
1988 - 2001
Sergio Apablaza Guerra (b. 1950)
(MEK) (National Liberation Army of Iran,
People's Mujahedin of Iran)
- Mujahedin-e Khalq
- National Liberation Army
- NCRI Flag Adopted 1993
Mojahedin-e-Khalq-e Iran (People's
Mojahedin Organization of
Iran)(MEK [PMOI]) formed in opposition to the Shah's
terrorist attacks inside Iran and killed several U.S.
military personnel and civilians working on defense
projects in Tehran.
25 May 1972
the MEK/PMOI, Mohammad Hanifnejad, Saeed
Ali Asghar Badizadegan, along with two
members of the MEK/PMOI
leadership, Mahmoud Askarizadeh and Rasoul
executed by the Shah's regime.
Majid Sharif Vaghefi, a senior member of the MEK/PMOI,
by Maoist PMOI/MEK separatists who
attempted to hijack MEK/PMOI.
28 Jun 1981
Bombs detonated at the headquarters of
the Islamic Republic Party.
About 70 high-ranking officials,
including Chief Justice
Mohammad Beheshti, cabinet
members, and elected members of
parliament, were killed.
National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI)(Shura-ye
moqavemat-e Iran) is
announced in Tehran as a coalition of
democratic Iranian opposition groups dedicated to
the mullahs' Velayat-e Faqih regime and
29 Jul 1981 - 7 Jun 1986
MEK's and NCRI leaders flee Iran to
30 Aug 1981
A bomb detonated killing the
popularly elected President Mohammad
Ali Raja´i and
Premier Mohammad Javad Bahonar. An active member
of the Mujahedin, Massoud Kashmiri, was
identified as the
7 Jun 1986 - 2016
headquarters moved to Iraq.
20 Jun 1987
National Liberation Army of Iran (NLA)
founded in Iraq as the
militant wing of the MEK.
25-29 Jul 1988
National Liberation Army of Iran (NLA) advanced
under heavy Iraqi
air cover, crossing the Iranian border from
Iraq. It seized and
razed to the ground the Iranian town of
Iranian regime began a mass purge of its prisons from
prisoners. In the span of a few months, the regime's
sent more than 30,0000 prisoners.
Conducts attacks on Iranian embassies in 13 different
Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), the Iranian
Resistance's parliament, elects Maryam Rajavi (f) as
future president for the 6 month transitional period
1997 - 12 Sep
MEK and NCRI listed as a foreign terrorist
organizations by the
Asadollah Lajevardi, former director of Evin Prison.
Brigadier General Ali Sayyad Shirazi, the deputy joint
chief of staff of Iran's armed forces.
mortar attack on Iran's Presidential Palace was
carried out by
the Mujahedin-e Khalq (MKO), based in
According to the official IRNA news agency, the
took place at 19:30 on a Saturday evening killed one
a 34 year-old worker in a print shop--and injured
Mohammad Khatami was in his office at the time but was
in the attack.
MEK officially renounces
MEK was a source for claims on Iran's clandestine
After U.S. forces in Iraq bomb
camps in Iraq the PMOI entered into
a ceasefire agreement with the coalition, and National
Army of Iran is disarmed by U.S.
1 Jan 2009
U.S. military transferred control
of Camp Ashraf to the Iraqi
government. On the same day, Prime Minister Nuri
announced that the militant group would not be allowed
its operations from Iraq.
MEK relocated to Albania.
6 Sep 1965 - 25 May 1972
(b. 1939 - d. 1972)
+ Saeid Mohsen
(b. 1939 -
+ Ali Asghar Badizadegan
(b. 1940 - d. 1972)
Chairmen of the National Council of
Resistance of Iran
21 Jul 1981 - 13 Mar 2003? Massoud Rajavi
(b. 1948 - d. 2003) MEK
(disappeared in Iraq 13 Mar
(b. 1933 - d. 2021) Non-party
(co-chairman to 24 Mar 1983)
President-Elect of the
Council of Resistance of Iran
10 Aug 1993
Qajar-Azodanlu Rajavi (f) (b.
(imprisoned in France 18 Jun - 3 Jul 2003)
Iran, France, Albania
thousand fighters based in Iraq with an extensive
overseas support structure. Most of the fighters are
organized in the MEK's National Liberation Army (NLA).
Patriotic Front (FPM)
Frente Patriótico Morazanista ("Morazanist
Patriotic Front") formed
to protest U.S. intervention in Honduras.
Claimed credit for bombing of Peace Corps office.
Bus bombing wounded three servicemen, attacked a U.S.
Bus bombing wounded seven U.S. servicemen.
1980's - ....
probably relatively small.
Liberation Front (MILF)
MNLF" officially declared to be a separate
with the name Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF)(Jabhat
signed an agreement relinquishing its goal of
and accepting Philippine government's offer of
Muslim regions; rejected by MILF.
of six bombings in Manila kills 22, injures 45.
City Airport bombed- 24 killed, 100 injured.
City Airport bombed again- 16 killed, 55 injured.
in Koronadal City, Maguindano- kills 9 injures 43.
government troops in Maguindano- 23 killed.
24 Mar 2014 -
26 Dec 1977 - 13 Jul 2003 Sheikh Salamat
(b. 1942 - d. 2003)
(= Ahod Balawag Ebrahim)
Philippines (Palawan, Basilan, Sulu archipelago),
and Southeast Asia
Liberation Front of Corsica (FLNC)
FLNC -Fronte di Liberazione Naziunale di a
Corsica (Front de
Libération Nationale de la Corse)
founded by merger of
two other Corsican terrorist organizations: Ghjustizia
and the Fronte Paesanu Corsu di Liberazione.
Self-determination for Corsica through independence.
into into the "canal historique" (historic
channel) and the
"canal habituel" (usual channel), followed by a
whole series of
new splits and the creation of a number of other
organizations: Resistenza, Fronte Ribellu, Front
Révolutionnaire Corse, etc. Some of these
groups only existed for
a few years.
FLNC-canal habituel decided to end
in the assassination of prefect Claude Erignac.
FLNC-canal historique merged with some of the
organizations, adopting the name FLNC again.
Army -Colombia (ELN)
Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN)("National
formed as a Marxist insurgent group formed by urban
inspired by Fidel Castro and Che Gueva. Aim replacing
current government with a Marxist regime in Colombia.
a campaign of mass each of which involved at least one
Misael Vacca Ramírez, the Catholic Bishop of Yopal,
(b. 1940 - d. 2019)
1970's - Jun 2021
Nicolás Rodríguez Bautista
"Gabino" (b. 1950)
+ Gregorio Manuel Pérez
1943 - d. 1998)
"el Cura Pérez"
(to 14 Feb 1998)
Eliécer Erlington Chamorro
Acosta (b. 1956)
(in rural and mountainous regions).
3,000 to 6,000 armed combatants.
- c.1969 - 1986
- 1986 - 1999
- Former Flag
- Current Flag
People's Army (NPA)(Bagong Hukbong Bayan)
formed as the
military wing of the Communist Party of the
(Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas),
to overthrow the government
of the Philippines through protracted Maoist
Nov 1986 - Jan
ceasefire with the Philippine government.
Bombs a Pepsi Cola bottling plant
and two Del Monte pineapple
Bombs of the Manila Garden Hotel
(owned by Japan Air Lines),
which injured ten people.
Kills of two security guards in Davao of
a Japanese businessman,
who was an employee of the
Takeda Chemical Corp.
Claims responsibility for the assassination of U.S.
Colonel James "Nick" Rowe (b. 1938 - d. 1989) in
Kills a Philippine-Chinese businessman and the
wounding of his
wife in Manila.
President Fidel Ramos decriminalized membership in the
Philippine Army apprehends Eduardo Quitoriano, who was
liaison officer to the Japanese Red Army.
Attack on a helicopter owned by the Arimco Mining
results in the death of a Canadian geologist
Claims responsibility for the
assassination of Congressman
Punzalan and his cousin of Quezon province.
Claims responsibility for the assassination of
Rodolfo Aguinaldo from Cagayan province.
NPA designated as a foreign terrorist organization by
Attacks the headquarters of Petron Corporation and
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed amnesty
members of the CPP and the NPA and other
communist rebel groups.
NPA rebels disguised as Philippine Drug Enforcement
personnel raided a prison in Lucena, Quezon Province,
freeing rebel prisoners.
NPA conducted attacks against three large-scale mining
in Surigao del Norte (Taganito Mining
Corporation at Taganito
village in Claver town, the 4K
Mining at Cadiano village, also
in Claver, and the Thpal
NPA ambushed a truck in Allacapan, Cagayan killing 7
22 Mar 2014
Arrest of Benito Tiamzon, chairman
of the CPP and its armed wing,
the NPA in the Cebu province.
Rebels ambush an army
President Rodrigo Duterte
declares the NPA, along with the CPP,
as terrorist organizations.
NPA leaders Benito, Wilma Tiamzon reportedly
government forces in Catbalogan City; not
confirmed by military.
29 Mar 1969 - 16 Dec 2022
Jose Maria Canla Sison "Amando Liwanag" (b.
1939 - d. 2022)
(jailed 10 Nov 1977-5 Mar 1986; from 1986 in
+ Bernabe Buscayno "Kumander Dante"
(to 1987) (jailed 26 Aug 1976-5 Mar
(jailed 22 Mar 2014 - 19 Aug 2016)
(Manila, rural Luzon, Visayas, and part of Mindanao)
(2009), in 10 of 81 provinces (formerly 10,000-25,000
operating in 62 of 74 provinces).
The Order (or "The Order of the Silent Brotherhood"),
American neo-Nazi organization. Self-described white
nationalist and revolutionary group, founded to
the United States government which it called "Zionist
Government (ZOG)." The group was partly modeled on,
named for, a fictional group in the neo-Nazi novel "The
Diaries." The Order's goals included
the establishment of an
all white (and non-Jewish) homeland, presumably
extermination of non-white and Jewish people as
in that book. Group founded in Metaline Falls,
by Robert J. Mathews.
down controversial liberal Jewish KOA 850 AM talk
host Alan Berg at his home in Denver, Colorado.
a dozen men to rob a Brinks' truck of $3,800,000.
refused surrender after an intense exchange of
The FBI then fired several M-79 Starburst flares
house, burning it to the ground and killing Mathews.
Sep 1983 - 8 Dec
1984 Robert Jay
1953 – d. 1984)
de l'Armée Secrète (OAS) (Secret Army
Organisation de l'Armée Secrète
(OAS)("Secret Army Organization")
French right-wing terrorist group formed to resist the
of independence to the French colony of Algeria formed
French "stay behinds", former French Army officers,
Legion members from Indochina War, Colons, local Pieds
OAS attempted to assassinate French President Charles
several times. The most prominent attempt was a 1962
Petit-Clamart, a Paris suburb, planned by military
Feraoun (b. 1913 - d. 1962), an Algerian writer born
Tizi Hibel, Kabylie assassinated by the OAS.
100 bombs a day were detonated by the OAS.
of the OAS Louis Salan captured.
agreed to the ceasefire.
responsible for the death of Enrico Mattei, head
of the Italian oil company, Agip and supporter of
Group is effectively eliminated.
Jan 1961 - Apr
1899 - d. 1984)
several thousand members
Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
PIJ Flag Variant
The Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)(Harakat
al-Filastini) originates among militant
Palestinians in the
Gaza Strip. Aims to create an Islamic Palestinian
to destroy Israel through holy war. Also opposes
Arab governments that it believes have been "tainted"
bombing of a restaurant in mall at Old Bus Station
in Tel Aviv killing 9 and 49 are wounded 49 more.
1981 - 26 Oct
Fathi Abd al-Aziz
(b. 1951 - d. 1995)
27 Oct 1995 - 27 Sep 2018 Sheikh Abdullah
Ramadan Shallah (b. 1958 - d.
28 Sep 2018
Gaza Strip, West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon, Iran, and
Liberation Front (PLF)-Abu Abbas Faction
1961 - Dec
Original Palestinian Liberation Front was founded by
but in Dec 1967 it merged with the Heroes of the
and The Youth of Revenge group (the military wing of
Nationalist Movement -ANM) to form the Popular Front
Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).
from the PFLP-GC, goal: creation of a Palestinian
its initial break with the PFLP-GC, split again into
pro-Syrian - Palestinian Liberation Front (Abu Nidal
wing), and pro-Libyan factions in Jan 1984.
continued to carry the original name and each
represent the mother -organization.
Abu Abbas-led faction responsible for attack on the
ship Achille Lauro and the murder of U.S. citizen
Abbas captured by U.S. forces in Iraq. Ghanim
founds new party.
1961 - Dec
1938 - d. 2021)
24 Apr 1977 - Jan 1984 Talat
(b. 1944 - d. 1988)
+ Muhammad Zaidan "Abu Abbas" (b. 1948 - d. 2004)
- pro-Libyan faction in Damascus
(moves to Tripoli)-
Jan 1984 - 2003
‘Abd ul-Fattah Ghanim
- pro-Syrian faction in Beirut
Jan 1984 - 17 Nov 1988
Muqtah "Abu Nidal Ashqar"
- pro-PLO/Iraqi faction in Tunis (from Nov 1985 in
1983 - 25 Apr 2003
Muhammad Zaidan "Abu Abbas" (s.a.)
(to 1985), then Algeria, Lebanon, Libya, Gaza, and
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)(Munazzamat
Adopted 1 Dec 1964
Organization of the Islamic Conference admits
Palestine, represented by the PLO.
Avivim school bus massacre by PLO members, killed nine
children, three adults and crippled 19.
Munich massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympics
carried out by the Black September group, which was
affiliated with the PLO. This group also hijacked a
from Belgium to Tel Aviv.
Members of Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
out the Kiryat Shmona massacre at an apartment building
Israel, killing 18 people, 9 of whom were children.
PLO is granted observer status in the United Nations.
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) admitted
as a member of Arab League.
PLO headquarters in Beirut bombed, 150 are killed.
Israeli Air Force bombed the PLO's Tunis headquarters,
more than 60 people.
Khalil al-Wazir "Abu Jihad", PLO 2nd in command, is
Palestine National Congress meeting in
Algiers declared a Palestinian state on the
West Bank and Gaza Strip (to no effect).
PLO renounces terrorism and accepts Israel's right to
Palestinian Authority created to administer most
of Gaza Strip and parts of West Bank.
Chairmen of the Palestine Liberation
Organization (PLO) Executive Committee
10 Jun 1964 - 24 Dec 1967 Ahmad
(b. 1907 - d. 1980)
24 Dec 1967 - 2 Feb 1969 Yahya Hammuda
(b. 1908 - d. 2006)
2 Feb 1969 - 11 Nov 2004 Yasser Arafat
(b. 1929 - d. 2004)
(in exile in Jordan to Apr 1971; Lebanon 1971 -
Dec 1982; and Tunis Dec 1982 - May 1994)
29 Oct 2004
Ridha Abbas "Abu Mazen" (b. 1935)
(acting [for Arafat] to 11 Nov 2004)
Palestinian National Liberation
Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini
Liberation Movement")("Fatah") founded.
Fatah joins the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
Chairmen of Central Committee
1959 - 11 Nov
Yasser Arafat "Abu
(b. 1929 - d. 2004)
11 Nov 2004
Mahmoud Abbas "Abu
Secretary Generals of the Central Committee
11 Nov 2004 - Aug 2009 Farouk
al-Kaddoumi "Abu al-Lutf" (b. 1931)
Muhammad "Abu Maher" Ghneim
Jibril Mahmoud Muhammad Rajoub
Struggle Front (PPSF)
Palestinian Popular Struggle Organization (PPSO), in
the West Bank.
It had a far-left Baath- influenced
Attacked civilian Israeli passengers at the Athens
Merged with Fatah.
Palestinian Popular Struggle Front (PPSF)(Jabhet
Khalid ‘Abd al-Majid, a Palestinian politician and
leader, heads a breakaway faction of the Palestinian
Struggle Front in Syria.
Secretary-general of Palestinian Popular
Samir Ghawshah (Ghosha)
(b. 1937 - d. 2009)
Secretaries-general of Palestinian Popular
1974 - 3 Aug
Samir Ghawshah (Ghosha)
(b. 1937 - d. 2009)
12 Aug 2009
- al-Majid faction -
Khalid ‘Abd al-Majid
for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)
al-Jabhah al-Sha`biyyah li-Tahrir Filastin
("Popular Front for the
Liberation of Palestine")(PFLP), a Marxist Palestinian
nationalist group, founded in the immediate
aftermath of the Six
PFLP joins the PLO; in 1974 it exits from the
(but not the PLO), rejoining in 1981.
PFLP hijacks an Israeli El Al flight from Rome, lands
PFLP re-designates itself as a Marxist-Leninist
TWA flight from Rome to Athens and Tel Aviv hijacked
to Damascus. 2 Israeli hostages freed 5 Dec 1969 for
Syrians held in Israel.
PFLP seizes three planes en route to New York a Swiss
DC-8 from Zurich, TWA Boeing 707 from Frankfurt, and
a Pan Am 747 from Amsterdam. Swiss air and TWA
flown to Dawson's Field in Jordan, the Pan Am to
then Cairo. On 9 Sep 1970 a BOAC VC10 is hijacked en
Bombay to London and taken to Dawson's Field. The 3
in Jordan are destroyed 12 Sep 1970, and hostages
Lufthansa flight from New Delhi to Athens hijacked and
diverted to Aden. Passengers and crew freed 23 Feb
West Germany pays $5 million ransom.
PFLP and Japanese Red Army hijack a JAL 747 en route
Amsterdam to Tokyo, Plane lands at Dubai then flies
to Benghazi, Libya.
Announces opposition to Declaration of Principles
Israel and PLO and suspended participation in the PLO.
Israel assassinates PFLP leader Abu Ali Mustafa.
Assassinates Israeli Tourism Minister Rehavam Zeevi.
Ahmed Saadat imprisoned by Palestinian Authority in
Israeli seizes Saadat from the Palestinian prison.
11 Dec 1967 - Jul 2000
George Habash "Abu
1926 - d. 2008)
Jul 2000 - 27 Aug 2001
Mustafa Zibri "Abu Ali Mustafa" (b. 1938 - d.
3 Oct 2001
Sa'adat "Abu Ghassan" (b.
(imprisoned from 2002)
Lebanon, Israel, West Bank, and Gaza Strip
for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General
(PFLP-GC)(al-Jabhat al-Shaebiat Litahrir
Filastin - al-Qiadat
aleama) split from PLFP,
opposes PLO, backed by Syria.
Known for cross-border terrorist attacks into Israel
"Night of the Gliders" infiltration into Israel from
using hang gliders attacking Israeli
Defense Forces (IDF).
PFLP-GC helped the Syrian Army to fight the Syrian
rebels in and
around Yarmouk Camp – a
district of Damascus.
Syrian rebels, which included Palestinians, had won
Yarmouk forcing Jibril to
flee into Damascus.
Jihad Ahmed Jibril (b. 1961 - d. 2020), who headed the
military wing, is killed by a car bomb in Beirut,
Oct 1968 - 7 Jul 2021
1938 - d. 2021)
Lebanon, Israel, West Bank, and Gaza Strip, Europe,
and Middle East
for the Liberation of Palestine-Special Command
Popular Front for the Liberation of
(PFLP-SC) split faction from Wadie Haddad's PFLP-SG,
separate Marxist-Leninist group.
a restaurant in Torrejon, Spain frequented by U.S.
to have ceased operations.
Salim Abdul Salem "Abu Muhammad"
Middle East, Europe
for the Liberation of Palestine-Special Operations
(Popular Front for the
Liberation of Palestine - External Operations
(PFLP-EO) or Special Operations (PFLP-SO) or
Special Operations Group (PFLP-SOG)
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - External
(PFLP-EO) or Special Operations (PFLP-SO) or Special
Group (PFLP-SOG) were organizational names used by
radical Wadie Haddad when engaging in international
were regarded as terrorism, and were not sanctioned by
Organized the Entebbe hijacking in collaboration with
West German Red Army Faction; Hadad expelled from PFLP.
1969 - 12 May
Wadie Haddad "Abu
(b. 1927 - d. 1978)
Lebanon, Middle East, Europe
(The Base, Qa‘idat al-Jihad, Islamic Army for
the Liberation of the Holy Places, World
Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews
and Crusaders, Islamic Salvation Foundation, Osama
al-Qaeda established by Osama bin Laden to
create a pan-Islamic
Caliphate throughout the world by working with allied
extremist groups to overthrow regimes it deems
and expelling Westerners and non-Muslims from Muslim
Bombing of the World Trade Center, NYC- 6 killed,
Claims to have shot down U.S. helicopters in Somalia -
14 servicemen killed.
Bin Laden issues a fatwa against the United States.
U.S. military base in Saudi Arabia bombed- 19 killed.
Bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania - at least 220 persons are
5,000 are injured.
Bombing of the USS Cole in
Aden, Yemen- 17 U.S. sailors killed.
Planes are crashed into the Pentagon, Virginia and
Center, NYC. World Trade Center is entirely destroyed-
about 3,000 people die in both attacks and the
Bombing of Djerba, Tunisia synagogue - 19 are killed.
Bombing of Bali, Indonesia nightclubs - 202 killed.
Bombing of British consulate in Istanbul, Turkey - 27
Bombing of Madrid, Spain commuter trains- 191 killed,
Attacks in London, U.K. on commuter trains and buses -
50 die, 700
Bombing of three hotels in Amman, Jordan -56 killed,
Al-Qaeda Organization in the
Islamic Maghreb claimed to have been
responsible for the Algiers bombings. Two bombs
a short time of each other, one at the prime ministers
and the other at a police station. The blasts killed
Al-Qaeda claims responsibility
for the bombing of the Danish
embassy in Pakistan. A car bomb killed six persons and
Osama bin Laden is confirmed dead by the United
been killed in Abbottabad, Pakistan by U.S. Special Forces.
Ayman al-Zawahiri is confirmed dead by the United
been killed in Kabul, Afghanistan by a CIA drone
11 Aug 1988 - 2 May 2011 Osama
(b. 1957 - d. 2011)
16 Jun 2011 - 31 Jul 2022 Ayman
(b. 1951 - d. 2022)
Afghanistan, Pakistan, worldwide cells in several
Several hundred to several thousand members.
People Against Gangsterism and Drugs (PAGAD)
("Muslims Against Global Oppression" [MAGO];
Leader of Qibla
Illegitimate Leaders" [MAIL]) founded as a
radical Islamic group
seeking to establish an Islamic state in South
began as a community anti-crime group fighting drug
Cape Town's Cape Flats section. PAGAD now shares
Western stance as well as some members and
and PAGAD may have masterminded the bombing of the
Town Planet Hollywood restaurant, 1 person
Pieter Theron, who was presiding in a case involving
PAGAD members, was murdered in a drive-by shooting.
Bombing of the Bishop
Lavis offices of the Serious Crimes Unit in
the Western Cape.
Imam Achmad Cassiem
(South African prisioner 1987-1991)
Leader of PAGAD
Abdus Salaam Ebrahim
250 members, PAGAD: at least 50 gunmen
IRA (RIRA, True IRA)
Real IRA (RIRA) (a.k.a. True IRA) formed as the
armed wing of the 32-County Sovereignty Movement, a
"political pressure group" opposed to Sinn Fein's
the Mitchell principles of democracy and nonviolence
additions to the Irish Constitution, which lay claim
Northern Ireland. Aimed at removing British forces
Ireland and unifying Ireland.
Car bomb exploded in center of Portadown, County
Mortar bomb attack on RUC station in Armagh, County
Car bomb exploded in Newtownhamilton, County Armagh.
Mortar bomb attack on RUC station in Newry, County
Incendiary bombs were found in stores in Portadown,
Car bomb exploded in center of Banbridge, County Down.
resulted in 33 civilians being seriously injured.
Car bomb in Omagh, Northern Ireland; kills 29 and
Gunmen ambush and kill 2 British soldiers Cengiz
and Mark Quinsey and injure 2 more and 2 civilians at
Barracks in County Antrim, Northern Ireland.
Feb/Mar 1998 - 2001
(b. 1949 - d. 2021)
(Irish prisoner 2001 - 2016)
Ireland, Irish Republic, Great Britain
than 50 hard-core activists.
Red Army Faction
(RAF) (Rote Armee Faktion, Baader-Meinhof Gang)
Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion)(RAF)
was born out of
extra-parliamentarian protest movement against
It emerged from the "Baader-Meinhof Gang", founded
Baader and Ulrike Meinhof (f). Marxist-Maoist
terrorist activities aimed at paralyzing and
democratic order in West Germany.
public appearance: freeing of A. Baader by force.
Leading members imprisoned.
of West German Embassy in Stockholm. It is
up as police prepare to attack, the RAF members
headquarters in Vienna is seized by Palestinian and
terrorists led by Carlos "the Jackal"
Attorney General Siegfried Buback (b. 1920 - d.
of Hanns-Martin Schleyer (b. 1915 - d. 1977), Pres.
the Fed. Assoc. of German employer union.
13 Oct 1977 - 18 Oct 1977 A Lufthansa plane
'kidnapped' by Palestinians (intended to be used
for exchange with the imprisoned leaders), freed by
special police forces (GSG 9) in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Bank CEO, Alfred Herrhausen, killed by RAF car bomb.
responsibility for murder of Detlev Rohwedder, head
the Treuhandanstalt (agency charged with privatizing
holdings of the former East Germany), in his house
RAF attacked the US Embassy in Bonn, firing assault
announced that it was disbanding.
1968 - 18 Oct
1943 - d. 1977)
+ Ulrike Meinhof
(b. 1943 - d. 1976)
(imprisoned from 1972)
18 Oct 1977 - Apr 1998
Germany, East Germany
level: 122 core members, supported by militants and
250 sympathizers and (logistically) by the GDR
Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse) a Marxist-Leninist
militant group formed out of the student movements to
separate Italy from the Western NATO alliance.
Police Marshal Rosario Berardi (b. 1926 - d. 1978) is
Kidnaps and kills former Prime Minister Aldo Moro (b.
Kidnaps U.S. General James Dozier (b. 1931), who held
with NATO in Italy. He is later freed in a police
Red Brigade splits into two separate organizations:
Combatant Party (Partito Comunista Combattente)(Red
and the Union of Combatant Communists (Unità
Kills Leamon R. Hunt (b. 1927 - d. 1984), U.S. Chief
of the U.N.
Sinai multinational force.
Four imprisoned leaders of the organization, Curcio,
Ianelli and Bertolucci, publish an "open letter" in
reject the armed struggle as pointless: "The
conditions that made this struggle possible no longer
Red Brigades-PCC kills the ex-mayor of Florence Lando
(b. 1933 - d. 1986), and attempted to murder Antonio
Empoli (b. 1942 - d. 1996), adviser to Prime Minister
Craxi, on 21 Feb 1986.
Red Brigades-UCC kills General Licio Giorgieri (b.
1925 - d. 1987)
Red Brigades-PCC kills Senator Roberto Ruffilli (b.
1937 - d. 1988)
an adviser of Italian Prime Minister Ciriaco de Mita,
Red Brigades-PCC murders Massimo D'Antona (b. 1948 -
d. 1999), a
senior adviser to the cabinet of Prime Minister
Red Brigades-PCC assassinates Marco Biagi (b. 1950 -
d. 2002), an
economic adviser to Italian Prime Minister Silvio
Nov 1970 -
+ Margherita Cagol
(b. 1945 - d. 1975)
(to 5 Jun 1975)
thought to have had no more than
Armed Forces of Colombia -People's Army (FARC-EP)
Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia
– Ejército del Pueblo
("Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People's
(FARC-EP) established as the military wing of
Communist Party to replace the current
government with a Marxist
Executed three Indian rights activists in Venezuela.
Colombian military operation in Cauca state kills FARC
Peace treaty signed between the FARC and the Colombian
27 Jun 2017
FARC ceases to be an armed
group, disarming itself and handing
over its weapons to the United
1 Sep 2017
FARC announces its
reformation as a legal political party, the
Common Alternative Revolutionary
Force (Fuerza Alternativa
1964 - 15 Aug
Luis Morantes "Jacobo
1924 - d. 1990)
1990 - 26 Mar 2008
(b. 1928 - d. 2008)
(= Pedro Antonio Marín)
26 Mar 2008 - 4 Nov 2011 Alfonso
Cano (Guillermo León Sáenz)
(b. 1948 - d. 2011)
Nov 2011 - 1 Sep 2017
Timoleón Jiménez "Timochenko"
(= Rodrigo Londoño
8,000 to 18,000 armed combatants
17 November (17 November)
Revolutionary Organization 17 November (Epanastatikí
17 Noémvri) formed as a radical
leftist group, 17 November is
described as anti-Greek establishment, anti-United
anti-Turkey, anti-NATO, and committed to the ouster of
bases, removal of Turkish military
presence from Cyprus, and
severing of Greece's ties to NATO and the
European Union (EU).
Assassinates U.S. embassy employee (CIA's Athens
chief) Richard Welch.
Assassinates U.S. Navy Captain George Tsantes.
Assassinates U.S. defense attache William Nordeen.
U.S. Air Force Sergeant Ronald O. Strong killed by a
Cetin Gorgu, a Turkish press attaché, shot in his car.
Omer Haluk Sipahioglu, a Turkish embassy official shot
Assassinates Anglo-Hellenic shipping tycoon
Claims responsibility for the murder of British
Attaché Stephen Saunders in Athens.
Group leader Alexandros Giotopoulos arrested on island
Dimitris Koufodinas -identified as group's chief of
surrendered to the authorities.
1975 - 17 Jun
prisioner from 17 Jul 2002)
but presumed to be small.
Liberation Party-Front (DHKP-C) (Dev Sol)
Devrimci Halk Kurtuluş Partisi/Cephesi
(Revolutionary Left "Dev
Sol"), formed as a splinter
group of Devrimci Yol (Dev Yol) which
was itself a splinter group
of the Turkish People's Liberation
13 Aug 1991
Murder of Andrew Blake,
head of U.K. Commercial Union in Istanbul.
Launched rockets at U.S. consulate in Istanbul.
within Dev Sol resulted in the emergence of two
factions. Dursun Karatas, group's DHKP-C from
Bedri Yagan, a founding member of Dev Sol, broke
Karatas faction and created a new faction, THKP-C
(not to be
confused with the original THKP-C).
Renamed Revolutionary People's Liberation
(Devrimci Halk Kurtulus Partisi-Cephesi)(DHKP-C).
- from 1993 of DHKP-C
1978 - 11 Apr 2008
(b. 1952 - d. 2008)
several dozen operatives, with a large support
People's Struggle (ELA)
29 Apr 1975
Agónas (ELA)("Revolutionary People's
Struggle") founded as an
extreme leftist group, the ELA is
revolutionary, anti-capitalist, and
Strongly anti-U.S., and seeks the removal of
U.S. military forces from
1975 - 1995
Took responsibility for the installation of 260 bombs
200 were from 1975 to Apr 1990).
Received weapons and other assistance from
terrorist Carlos "the Jackal"
Supreme Court Deputy Prosecutor Anastásios Vernárdos
Announced its disbandment, after a political decision.
1975 - 1995
United Front of Sierra Leone (RUF)
Revolutionary United Front (RUF) began
actions to topple the
government of Sierra Leone and retain control of the
lucrative diamond producing regions of the
Europeans and at least three Sierra Leoneans were
raided a mission near the Guinea border, taking 100
Seven nuns - six Italians and one Brazilian - were
Mar 1995 - Apr 1995 RUF
forces attack the suburbs of the capital, Freetown.
20 Nov 1996
Abidjan Accord between Sierra
Leone government and RUF.
May 1997 - Jun 1997
RUF forces sack the capital, Freetown.
6 Jan 1999 - Jan 1999
RUF forces again sack the capital, Freetown, large
parts of the
city burned and 6,000 were killed and 3,000
as RUF retreated.
7 Jul 1999
Lome Accord Foday Sankoh
offered chairmanship of the Commission
for the Management of Strategic Resources,
Reconstruction, and Development, which was to
have the status
of Vice President, in that he was to be only
17 May 2000
Sankoh arrested after RUF forces
kill protesters near his home.
RUF disarmament and
18 Jan 2002
11-year civil conflict
officially ended when all parties to the
conflict issued a Declaration of the
End of the War. The
government since asserted control over the
whole country, backed
by a large U.N. peacekeeping force. RUF
insurgents, who fought
completed disarmament and
demobilization. An estimated 50,000
people were killed during the war, and
over 500,000 people were
displaced in neighboring countries.
23 Mar 1991 - 20 Aug 2000 Foday Saybana
1937 - d. 2003)
(imprisoned in Nigeria [from 25 Jul 1998 Sierra
2 Mar 1997 - 19 Apr 1999, imprisoned
again from 17 May 2000)
Mar 1997 - Apr 1999 Sam
Bockarie (acting for Sankoh) (b.
1964 - d. 2003)
20 Aug 2000 - 18 Jan 2002 Issa Hassan
Leone, Liberia, Guinea.
Once estimated at several thousand supporters and
the group has dwindled to several
for Preaching and Combat (GSPC)
Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (Groupe
pour la Prédication et le Combat,
also 'Group for Call and
12 Nov 2002
Ambush of a group of
Algerian soldiers. 9 dead, 12 wounded.
tourists are kidnapped. 1 dead, 17 hostages rescued
Algerian troops on 13 May
2003, and 14 released in Aug 2003.
12 Feb 2004
Near Tighremt, Algeria,
Islamic extremists ambushed a police
patrol, killing 7 police
officers and wounding three others.
alignment with al-Qaeda and Taliban leader Mullah
7 Apr 2005
Blida Province, Algeria, armed assailants fired on
vehicles at a fake road
block, killing 13 civilians, wounding
Announces it has
15 Oct 2006
In Sidi Medjahed, Ain
Defla, Algeria, assailants attacked and
killed eight private
24 Jan 2007
"Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb."
1998 - 17 Jan
(b. 19.. - d. 2006)
1998 - af.2001
by 2003 - 20 Jun 2004
(b. 1969 - d. 2004)
2004 - 3 Jun 2020
Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud
1970 - d. 2020)
(= Abdelmalek Droukdel)
Chad, Libya, Mauritania, Mali, Morocco, Niger
Luminoso (Shining Path)
Sendero Luminoso ("Shining Path") founded.
one of the most ruthless terrorist groups in the
Hemisphere — approximately 30,000 persons have died
took up arms in 1980.
and interrogated two Newsweek reporters in Ramal
Aspusana, Peru and then released them after three
American reporter was kidnapped in Huallga, Peru and
over to drug traffickers, presumably in exchange for
His body was later found, together with a note
signed by SL.
Luminoso terrorists singled out and shot two
tourists aboard a bus traveling in the Apurimac
Peruvian passengers were forced to pay the
but were unharmed.
exploded a car bomb near the US Embassy in Lima.
injuries or damage resulted.
killed the Canadian director of the humanitarian
world mission and seriously injured his Colombian
in a Lima suburb.
Australian Nun and 4 Peruvian government officials
executed after a "people's trial" in a rural
Soviet textile technician was ambushed and killed by
SL members in Lima.
Japanese agronomists were assassinated by 10 SL
a Japanese funded rural research center in Peru.
polish priests were shot and killed by SL members in
rural area. A local mayor was also murdered and an
was held for several hours.
Italian priest was killed in an ambush on his car by
a powerful bomb on Tarata Street in the upscale
of Miraflores in Lima, killing more than 20 people.
Sendero Luminoso terrorists assassinated an Italian
Lay Missionary in Jangas.
guerrillas detonated car bombs at the Japanese and
Embassies in Lima, causing injuries and damaging
60 homes and buildings. At least 12 people were
injured by the
car bomb at the Japanese embassy, all bystanders or
detonated a car bomb in front of the Chilean Embassy
in Lima at the end of a strike called by the SL
The explosion damaged the embassy and nearby houses
but did not
result in any casualties.
discovered the bodies of 2 European tourists in
remote area of Ayacucho. The two had been traveling
in a region contested by Sendero Luminoso
first spraying the building with automatic weapons,
terrorists exploded a van bomb outside the US
Embassy in Lima.
One Embassy guard was injured. The explosion caused
damage to the embassy's facade and perimeter fence.
Spanish embassy and an US-owned hotel, were also
hotel employees and a hotel guest were injured.
suspected SL bomb exploded in front of the Peruvian-
Japanese cultural center in Lima, no casualties.
members of Sendero Luminoso detonated a 50-KG car
in front of the Maria Angola Hotel in a suburb of
killing 3 hotel employees and a passerby. About 30
terrorists detonated a car bomb, injuring at least 4
and destroying a portion of the joint Shell-Mobil
and warehouse in Lima.
Sendero Luminoso (SL) guerrillas kidnapped 30 oil
Junin Department. The workers are employed by a firm
contracted by a French transnational oil company. On
the SL rebels released the oil workers unharmed in
a ransom of food, medicines, clothing and batteries.
car bomb exploded outside the U.S. Embassy in Peru
10 people and injuring more than 30. The blast
occurred at about
10:45 p.m. outside a Banco de Credito bank in an
with shops and restaurants.
9 Jun 2003
Shining Path group attacked a
camp in Ayacucho, and took 68
employees of the Argentinian company Techint
and three police
guards as hostages. Two days later, after a
response, the terrorists abandoned the
22 Dec 2005
Shining Path ambush a police
patrol in Huánuco region, killing 8.
Shining Path ambushed and
killed 13 government soldiers in Ayacucho
1969 - 12 Sep
Rubén Abimael Guzmán
Reinoso (b. 1934 - d.
"Presidente Gonzalo" (secretary-general)
Sep 1992 - 14 Jul
1999 Óscar Ramírez Durand
"Comrade Feliciano" (b. 1953)
14 Jul 1999 - 12 Feb 2012 Florindo
2012 - 11 Aug
Orlando Alejandro Borda Casafranca
Gang (Lehi, Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters
for the Freedom of Israel)
Lohamei Herut Israel ("Lehi")("Fighters for
the Freedom of Israel")
an armed underground faction in pre-state Israel
that that had as
its goal the eviction of the British from Palestine
unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation
of a Jewish
state. Split from Irgun. The smallest by far of any
of the Jewish
armed groups during the mandatory era, it never
attracted more than
a few hundred followers, and was reviled by most of
Lord Moyne, a British government
in Cairo, Egypt.
and Irgun attacked Deir
Yassin ("Deir Yassin massacre"),
approximately 107 and 120 Palestinian Arab civilians
Merged into the Israeli Defense Force along with
Hagana and Irgun.
Assassination of United Nations Mediator, Folke
1920 - 12 Feb
1942 Abraham Stern
(Avraham Shtern) "Yair" (b. 1907 - d. 1942)
(b. 1910 – d. 1996)
- Natan Yellin-Mor
(b. 1913 - d. 1980)
- Yitzhak Shamir
(b. 1915 - d. 2012)
few hundred followers.
Liberation Army founded in California.
murdered Oakland, California Superintendent of
Marcus Foster and badly wounded his deputy Robert
kidnaps 19-year-old publishing heiress Patty Hearst
Berkeley, California apartment.
Angeles Police department surrounds a house of armed
members. After the fire the bodies of Nancy Ling
Angela Atwood ("General Gelina"), Willie Wolfe (who
to be Patricia Hearst's lover and who bore the SLA
Donald DeFreeze ("Cinque"), Patricia Soltysik
"Zoya"), and Camilla Hall ("Gabi") were found.
remaining members of the SLA robbed the Crocker
in Carmichael, California and killed Myrna Opsahl, a
in the process.
Aug 1973 - 17 May 1974
(b. 1943 - d. 1974)
("General Field Marshal Cinque Mtume")
May 1974 -
William Harris "General Teko"
Terra Lliure ("Free Land")
established with goal of creating an
independent Marxist state in the Spanish provinces
Electric Company in Barcelona bombed.
of U.S. consulate in Barcelona.
consulate in Barcelona attacked.
bombing of French tourism office in Barcelona,
8 are injured.
end of terror campaigns.
Group announced its
1970's - 1995
Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)
Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)(Movimiento
Revolucionario Túpac Amaru) established as
to rid Peru of all imperialist elements (primarily
and Japanese influence). Previously conducted
kidnappings, ambushes, and assassinations, but
has fallen drastically.
armed struggle against Peruvian government.
7 radio stations in Lima.
former Defense Minister Manuel E. Lopez Albujar.
17 Dec 1996 - 22 Apr 1997 Occupies the
Japanese ambassadors residence in Lima,
taking guests 72 hostage.
1984 - 22 Apr
1953 - d. 1997)
1984 - Jun
Victor Polay Campos
(imporisioned Feb 1989-Jul 1990, from Jun
Bolivia, throughout Latin America
more than 100.
(Movimiento de Liberación Nacional, National
Tupamaros (MLN)(Movimiento de Liberación
Nacional or "National
Movement") founded to lead a Marxist-Leninist
state in Uruguay.
Raid on a Swiss rifle club.
of home of the Brazilian ambassador.
diplomats are kidnapped in Montevideo: Dan Mitrone
of USAID is killed 10 Aug 1970, Aloysio Gomide of
is released 21 Feb 1971 after his family paid a
Ambassador Geoffrey Jackson is kidnapped. He is
released 9 Sep 1971 after 106 Tupamaros escape from
Artigas Alvarez, chief of Uruguay civil defense
Movement crushed by the military.
members renounce armed struggle and state they are
joining Frente Amplio coalition and Movimiento
26 de Marzo.
1962 - 4 Sep
(b. 1926 - d. 1989)
1972 around 6,000.
Radical Indian Muslim group, goals unknown.
Believed responsible for the Coimbatore
bombings in Southern India.
1992 - ....
Forces of Colombia (AUC-Autodefensas Unidas de
Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)(Autodefensas
Unidas de Colombia) an umbrella organization
consolidate most local and regional paramilitary
each with the mission to protect economic interests
combat insurgents locally.
this date about 17,000 of the AUC's 20,000 fighters
surrendered their weapons since 2003.
Apr 1997 - 16 Apr 2004
Carlos Castaño Gil
1965 - d. 2004)
2004 - 2006?
José Vicente Castaño Gil
20,000 paramilitary fighters, including former
and insurgent personnel.
"The Weathermen" (later, "Weather Underground
U.S. Radical Left organization consisting of
members and leaders of the Students for a Democratic
(SDS) formed. The group referred to itself as a
organization of communist women and men." Their stated
was to carry out a series of militant actions to
revolutionary overthrow of the Government of the
and of capitalism as a whole.
The "Action Faction" of the SDS releases a detailed
their political ideology in the official SDS newspaper
Notes." This essay concluded with the quotation "You
A Weatherman To Know Which Way The Wind Blows" which
to its adherents being called "Weathermen."
SDS National Convention, held in Chicago, Illinois,
organization collapse as a student group and the
seizing control of the SDS National Office.
Bernardine Dohrn, Eleanor Raskin, Dianne Donghi, Peter
David Millstone and Diana Oughton, all representing
Weathermen, travel to Cuba where they meet with
of the North Vietnamese and Cuban governments.
Haymarket Police Statue is bombed in Chicago,
"Days of Rage" riots occur in Chicago in which 287
members from throughout the country were arrested and
amount of property damage was done.
Several Chicago Police cars parked in a Precinct
parking lot at
3600 North Halsted Street, Chicago, are bombed.
The Weathermen hold a "War Council" meeting in Flint,
where they finalize their plans to submerge into an
status from which they plan to commit strategic acts
against the government. Thereafter they are called the
"Weather Underground Organization" (WUO).
WUO closes the SDS National Office in Chicago,
major campus based organization of the 1960's.
Several Police vehicles of the Berkeley, California,
Department are bombed in the police parking lot.
Bomb is detonated at the Golden Gate Park branch of
Francisco Police Department, killing one officer and
a number of other policemen.
A group blows themselves up when their bomb factory
in New York's Greenwich Village accidentally explodes.
members Ted Gold, Diana Oughton (f), and Terry Robbins
this accident. The Bomb was intended to be planted at
Non-commissioned officer's dance at Fort Dix, New
Chicago Police discover WUO bomb factory on Chicago's
National Guard Association building in Washington,
D.C. was bombed
to protest the National Guard killings of four
Kent State in Ohio.
WUO under Bernardine Dohrn's name releases its
a State of War" communiqué.
New York City Police Headquarters is bombed in
response to what
Weatherman call "police repression."
The Presidio Army Base in San Francisco is bombed to
11th anniversary of the Cuban Revolution.
The WUO helps Dr. Timothy Leary, LSD user break out
from the California Men's Colony prison.
Bombing of Marin County Courthouse in retaliation for
of Jonathan Jackson, William Christmas, and James
Queens Courthouse is bombed to express support for the
Harvard Center for International Affairs is bombed to
the war in Vietnam.
U.S. Capitol is bombed to protest the invasion of
FBI agents discover an abandoned WUO bomb factory in
Bombing of the Office of California Prisons allegedly
retaliation for the killing of George Jackson.
New York Department of Corrections in Albany New York
to protest the killing of 29 inmates at Attica State
Bombing of William Bunny's office in the MIT research
Bombing of The Pentagon in retaliation for the new
raid in Hanoi.
Bombing of the 103rd Police Precinct in New York in
killing of 10-year-old black youth Clifford Glover by
WUO member Howard Norton Machtinger is arrested by the
FBI in New
York. Released on bond, Machtinger again submerges
ITT headquarters in New York and Rome, Italy are
response to ITT's alleged role in the Chilean coup
Bombing of the Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare
San Francisco to protest alleged sterilization of poor
Office of the California Attorney General is bombed in
to the killing of 6 members of the Symbionese
Gulf Oil's Pittsburgh headquarters is bombed to
actions in Angola, Vietnam, and elsewhere.
WUO releases its book "Prairie Fire" in which they
the need for a unified Communist Party. They encourage
creation of study groups to discuss their ideology,
to stress the need for violent acts. The book also
responsibility of several actions from previous years.
Prairie Fire Organizing Committee (PFOC) arises from
teachings in the book, organized by many former WUO
Bombing of Anaconda Corporation (part of the
Corporation) in retribution for Anaconda’s alleged
in the Chilean coup the previous year.
Bombing of The State Department in response to
WUO releases its first edition of a new magazine
They bomb a Banco de Ponce (a Puerto Rican bank) in
New York in
solidarity with striking Puerto Rican cement workers.
The PFOC holds its first national convention during
which time they
go through the formality of creating a new
Bombing of the Kennecott Corporation in retribution
alleged involvement in the Chilean coup two years
The group begins dissolving, many members moved on to
armed revolutionary groups and were subsequently
held for long periods. Very few served prison
their time in the Weather Underground.
Widely-known members ("the Weather Bureau")
- Kathy Boudin
(b. 1943 - d. 2022)
- Mark William
- Terry Robbins (to 6 Mar
1970) (b. 1947 - d.
- Ted Gold (to 6 Mar
(b. 1947 - d. 1970)
- Naomi Esther Jaffe
- Cathy Platt Wilkerson
- Susan Ellen Tanenbaum Stern (f)
(b. 1943 - d. 1976)
- Samuel M.
- Joe H. Kelly
- Diana Oughton
(b. 1942 - d. 1970)
- Eleanor Stein Raskin (f)
- John Gregory
(b. 1947 - d. 1997)
- Bernardine Rae Dohrn (f)
- William "Bill"
- Laura Jane Whitehorn (f)
- Matthew Landy
- Linda Sue Evans (f)
about 400 members
National Liberation Army (EZLN)
National Liberation Army (Ejército Zapatista de
go public with the initial goal of overthrowing the
Mexican government. Short armed clashes in Chiapas
end two weeks
after the uprising and there have been no full-scale
1 Jan 1994 - 25 May 2014 Marcos
(= Rafael Sebastián Guillén Vicente)
© Ben Cahoon