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Tanzania
 
[German East Africa Company
                                    flag (Deutsch-Ostafrikanische
                                    Gesellschaft) 1885-1891]
17 Feb 1885 - 1 Jan 1891
German East Africa Company
 
[German
                                    Empire 1870-1919 (Germany)]
1 Jan 1891 - 9 Oct 1916
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
9 Oct 1916 - 9 Mar 1923
 
[Colonial Flag of Tanganyika,
                                    1923-1961 (Tanzania)]
9 Mar 1923 - 9 Dec 1961
[Flag
                                    of Tanganyika, 1961-1964
                                    (Tanzania)]
9 Dec 1961 - 30 Jun 1964
[Flag of
                                    Tanzania]
Adopted 30 Jun 1964
Map of Tanzania
Hear National Anthem
"Mungu ibariki Afrika"
(God Bless Africa)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 9 Dec 1961
Constitution
(25 Apr 1977, revised 1995)
-------------------------------
Former Constitutions
(1961-1962; 1962-1964;
interim 1965-1977)
Capital: Dar es Salaam
(Bagamoyo 1885-1891)
Legislative Capital: Dodoma
(from Feb 1996)
Currency: Tanzania Shilling
 (TZS); 1922-1966
East
Africa Schilling (XEAS);
 1920-1922 East Africa Florin
(XEAF); 1916-1920 East Africa
 Rupee (XEAR); 1890-1917
German East Africa Rupie
 (DOAR)
National Holiday: 26 Apr (1964)
Jamhuri ya Muungano
(Union Day)(of Tanganyika

and Zanzibar)
Population: 58,552,845 (2019)
GDP: $162.5 billion (2017)
Exports: $4.97 billion (2017)
Imports: $7.87 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: mainland- native African 95%
(of which Nyamwezi 3.6%, Sukuma 9.5%,
Hehet and Bena 4.5%, Haya 4.2%, Makonde 3.3%,
Gogo 4.4%, Nyakyusa 5.4%, Chagga 3%, Ha 2.9%),
other  (Asian, European, and Arab) 5% (2000)
Zanzibar- Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African 
Total Active Armed Forces: 27,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 337 ships (2019)
Religions: Christian 61.4%, Muslim 35.2%, folk religion
1.8%, other 0.2%, unaffiliated 1.4% (2010)
note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim.
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfCFTA (signatory), AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC (signatory), C, CCM (signatory), CD, CTBT, CWC, EAC, EADB, EITI, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IORA, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Tanzania Index
Chronology

17 Feb 1885                Area acquired by Karl Peters under the 
                             Deutsche Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft (DOAG)
 
                            (German East African Company). 
27 May 1885                German East Africa Protectorate declared.
27 May 1885 -  1 Jul 1890  German protectorate over Witu in Kenya 
                             (contested by the U.K).
28 Apr 1888                Germany obtains a lease of the coastal strip 
                             from the Sultan of Zanzibar.
 1 Jan 1891                German East Africa colony (Deutsch Ostafrika); 
                             end of DOAG rule.
19 May 1916/18 Sep 1916    Belgian conquest of parts of German East Africa;
                             Nyaza (19 May 1916), Ruanda (17 Jun 1916),
                             Urundi (6 Jul 1916), Usui (29 Jul 1916 - Mar 
                             1921), Ujiji and Kigoma (20 Jul 1916 [Ujiji to
                             22 Mar 1921]), and Tabora region (18 Sep 1916 
                             - Feb 1917)(see under Ruanda-Urundi).
 9 Oct 1916                British occupation of German East Africa begins 
                             (on Mafia island from Dec 1914); resisted by 
                             German forces on the move until 14 Nov 1918.
30 May 1919                Treaty with Britain: only Ruanda and Urundi 
                             remain under Belgian administration (effective
                             Mar 1921).
10 Jan 1920                Kionga Triangle, south of the Rovuma River (under 
                             Portuguese occupation since Oct 1916), is ceded 
                             to Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique).
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandate under Britain
                             (Tanganyika).
11 Dec 1946                Tanganyika a United Nations trust territory 
                             under Britain.
 1 May 1961                Self-rule achieved.
 9 Dec 1961                Independence (Tanganyika).
 9 Dec 1962                Republic of Tanganyika
25 Apr 1964                Articles of Union are enacted in Tanganyika and
                             Zanzibar.
26 Apr 1964                United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
11 Dec 1964                United Republic of Tanzania

Zanzibar
Tanganyika
Traditional
States
Zanzibar
Traditional
States

Historical maps
of Tanzania
Map of German
East Africa 1912
 
 
 
 

Administrator
27 May 1885 -  8 Feb 1888  Karl Peters                        (b. 1856 - d. 1918)
Reichskommissar (Imperial commissioner)
 8 Feb 1888 - 21 Feb 1891  Hermann von Wissmann               (b. 1853 - d. 1905)
Governors
14 Feb 1891 - 15 Sep 1893  Julius Freiherr von Soden          (b. 1846 - d. 1921)
15 Sep 1893 - 25 Apr 1895  Friedrich Radbod Freiherr von      (b. 1847 - d. 1904)
                             Schele
25 Apr 1895 -  3 Dec 1896  Herrmann von Wissmann              (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1896 - 12 Mar 1901  Eduard Liebert                     (b. 1850 - d. 1934)
                             (from 1 Jan 1900,
Eduard von Liebert)
12 Mar 1901 - 15 Apr 1906  Gustav Adolf Graf von Götzen       (b. 1866 - d. 1910)
15 Apr 1906 - 22 Apr 1912  Georg Albrecht Freiherr von        (b. 1861 - d. 1935)
                             Rechenberg 
22 Apr 1912 - 14 Nov 1918  Albert Heinrich Schnee             (b. 1871 - d. 1949)
                             (from 9 Oct 1916, in opposition to British forces)
British Administrator
 9 Oct 1916 - 22 Jul 1920  Horace Archer Byatt                (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
                             (from 1 Jan 1918, Sir Horace Archer Byatt) 
Governors
22 Jul 1920 -  5 Mar 1925  Sir Horace Archer Byatt            (s.a.)
1924 -  5 Mar 1925         John Scott (acting for Byatt)      (b. 1878 - d. 1946)
 5 Mar 1925 - Jan 1931     Donald Charles Cameron             (b. 1872 - d. 1948)
Jan 1931 - Mar 1931        Sir Douglas James Jardine (acting) (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
11 Mar 1931 - Feb 1934     George Stewart Symes               (b. 1882 - d. 1962)
19 Feb 1934 -  8 Jul 1938  Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael       (b. 1882 - d. 1969)
 8 Jul 1938 - 19 Jun 1941  Sir Mark Aitchinson Young          (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
19 Jun 1941 - 28 Apr 1945  Sir Wilfrid Edward Francis Jackson (b. 1883 - d. 1971)
28 Apr 1945 - 18 Jun 1949  Sir William Denis Battershill      (b. 1896 - d. 1959)
18 Jun 1949 - Jun 1958     Sir Edward Francis Twining         (b. 1899 - d. 1967)
Jun 1958 - 15 Jul 1958     Sir Ernest Rex Edward Surridge     (b. 1899 - d. 1990)
                             (acting)
15 Jul 1958 -  9 Dec 1961  Sir Richard Gordon Turnbull        (b. 1909 - d. 1998)
Queen¹
 9 Dec 1961 -  9 Dec 1962  the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governor-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 9 Dec 1961 -  9 Dec 1962  Sir Richard Gordon Turnbull        (s.a.)
Presidents
 9 Dec 1962 -  5 Nov 1985  Julius Kambarage Nyerere           (b. 1922 - d. 1999)TANU;1977 CCM
 5 Nov 1985 - 23 Nov 1995  Ali Hassan Mwinyi                  (b. 1925)            CCM
23 Nov 1995 - 21 Dec 2005  Benjamin William Mkapa             (b. 1938 - d. 2020)  CCM
21 Dec 2005 -  5 Nov 2015  Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete              (b. 1950)            CCM
 5 Nov 2015 - 17 Mar 2021  John Pombe Joseph Magufuli         (b. 1959 - d. 2021)  CCM
17 Mar 2021 -              Samia Suluhu Hassan (f)            (b. 1960)            CCM


Chief minister

 2 Sep 1960 -  1 May 1961  Julius Kambarage Nyerere           (s.a.)               TANU
Prime ministers
 1 May 1961 - 22 Jan 1962  Julius Kambarage Nyerere           (s.a.)               TANU
22 Jan 1962 -  9 Dec 1962  Rashidi Mfaume Kawawa (1st time)   (b. 1926 - d. 2009)  TANU
 9 Dec 1962 - 17 Feb 1972  Post abolished
17 Feb 1972 - 13 Feb 1977  Rashidi Mfaume Kawawa (2nd time)   (s.a.)               TANU
13 Feb 1977 -  7 Nov 1980  Edward Moringe Sokoine (1st time)  (b. 1938 - d. 1984)  CCM
 7 Nov 1980 - 24 Feb 1983  Cleopa David Msuya (1st time)      (b. 1931)            CCM
24 Feb 1983 - 12 Apr 1984  Edward Moringe Sokoine (2nd time)  (s.a.)               CCM
24 Apr 1984 -  5 Nov 1985  Salim Ahmed Salim                  (b. 1942)            CCM
 5 Nov 1985 -  9 Nov 1990  Joseph Sinde Warioba               (b. 1940)            CCM
 9 Nov 1990 -  7 Dec 1994  John Samuel Malecela               (b. 1934)            CCM
 7 Dec 1994 - 28 Nov 1995  Cleopa David Msuya (2nd time)      (s.a.)               CCM
28 Nov 1995 - 30 Dec 2005  Frederick Tluway Sumaye            (b. 1950)            CCM
30 Dec 2005 -  9 Feb 2008  Edward Ngoyai Lowassa              (b. 1953)            CCM
 9 Feb 2008 - 20 Nov 2015  Mizengo Kayanza Peter
Pinda        (b. 1948)            CCM
20 Nov 2015 -             
Majaliwa Kassim Majaliwa           (b. 1960)            CCM

  ¹Full style:
(a) 9 Dec 1961 - 12 Jan 1962: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith
";
(b) 12 Jan 1962 - 9 Dec 1962: "Queen of Tanganyika and of Her other Realms and
Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

Territorial Disputes: Malawu dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake.

Party abbreviations: CCM = Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Party of the Revolution, democratic socialist,
merger of TANU and Afro-Shirazi Party of Zanzibar, 1977 - 1 Jul 1992 only legal party, est.5 Feb 1977);
- Former parties: TANU = Tanganyika African National Union (African socialist and nationalist, Ujamaa [family-hood], 1965-1977 only legal party in Tanganyika, 1954-1977, merged into CCM)



Zanzibar
 
[Flag of
                                  Zanzibar 1861-1963 (Tanzania)]
2 Apr 1861 - 10 Dec 1963
 
[Zanzibar British Resident's Flag
                                  c.1918-1955]
c.1918 - 1955 British Resident's Flag
 
[Zanzibar British Resident's Flag
                                  1955-1963]
1955 - 10 Dec 1963 British Resident's Flag
 
[Zanzibar flag, Dec 1963 - Jan.
                                  1964 (Tanzania)]
10 Dec 1963 - 12 Jan 1964
 
[Zanzibar flag, 12-29 Janary 1964
                                  (Tanzania)]
12 Jan 1964 - 29 Jan 1964
 
[Zanzibar flag, January - June
                                  1964 (Tanzania)]
29 Jan 1964 - 30 Jun 1964
 
[Zanzibar flag from 2005
                                  (Tanzania)]
Adopted 9 Jan 2005

 

Map of Zanzibar
Hear Local Anthem
Adopted 9 Jan 2005
Former Anthem (1911-1964)
"National March for the Sultan
of Zanzibar" (no lyrics)
-------------------------------
Former Anthem (to 1890)
Constitution
Adopted 12 Jan 1985
-------------------
Former Constitutions

(5 Dec 1963-19 Jan 1964;
5 Oct 1979-12 Jan 1985)

Capital: Zanzibar
(Great Zanzibar to c.1653)
Currency: Tanzania Shilling (TZS); 1936-1967 East
Africa Schilling (XEAS);
1800-1936 Zanzibari Rupee
 (ZZR); 1890-1936 Indian Rupee
 (INR)
National Holiday: 12 Jan (1964)
Revolution Day
Population: 1,303,569 (2012)
325,801 (1963)

GDP: $1.8 million (2019)
Exports: $42 million (2020)
£3.18 million (1962)
Imports: $336 million (2020)
£5.28 million (1962)
Ethnic groups: black African, Comorian, Arab (279,935),
Indian (18,334), European (507)
Total Armed Forces: 1,000 (1890),  None (1963)
Police
: 560 (1963)

Merchant marine: 2 ships (1907)
Religions: Muslim 98.9% (mainly Sunni, some Ibadi),
Christian 0.6%, others 0.4% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties 1963 - 27 Apr 1964: AfDB (signatory), C, FAO (associate), GATT (associate), OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNPO (1991-2015), UPU, WHO, WMO
Zanzibar
Index
Chronology

Aug 1505 - 1508            Conquered by Portugal.
1528 - Dec 1698            Under Portuguese suzerainty.
Dec 1698                   Zanzibar (Zanjibar) part of Oman (from 1784, Muscat
                             and Oman)

14 Sep 1806                Al ´Bu Sa`id lineage from Oman begins to rule 
                             Zanzibar.
 4 May 1841 - May 1861     British consuls to Muscat and Oman resident 
                             in Zanzibar.
 2 Nov 1856                Proclamation of independent ruler in Zanzibar
                             (Zanjabar [Swahili: Zanzibar]).
 
2 Apr 1861                Separation of Zanzibar from Oman by U.K. settlement
                             (the Canning Award)(accepted by the ruler of
                             Muscat 15 May 1861 and by the ruler of Zanzibar
                             25 Jun 1861).

 2 Apr 1861                A settlement decided by the Viceroy and Governor-
                             General of India ("the Canning Award") provides
                             for establishing a sovereign state in Zanzibar
                             (accepted by the ruler of Muscat 15 May 1861 and
                             by the ruler of Zanzibar 25 Jun 1861).
17 Feb 1885                German protectorate declared.
 7 Nov 1890                British protectorate proclaimed; accepted by
                             Germany in exchange for Helgoland.
 1 Jul 1895                Coastal domains of Zanzibar become Kenya 
                             Protectorate under U.K. (and are relinquished
                             to Kenya upon its independence 12 Dec 1963).
24 Jun 1963                Self-rule granted.
10 Dec 1963                British protectorate terminated (Sultanate 
                             of Zanzibar).
12 Jan 1964                People's Republic of Zanzibar
25 Apr 1964                Articles of Union are enacted in Tanganyika and
                             Zanzibar.
26 Apr 1964                United with Tanganyika (Revolutionary
                             Government of Zanzibar).

Zanzibar
Traditional
States
Map of  Zanzibar
1841-1885
 
 
 
 
 


Field Marshal of Zanzibar and Pemba
(de facto ruler)
(Leader of the Revolutionary Council
)
12 Jan 1964 - 20 Feb 1964  John Gideon Okello                 (b. 1937 - d. 1971?) Mil

Rulers (title Mwyinyi Mkuu)
15.. - 16..                ....
c.1653                     Mwana Mwema (f)
16.. - 16..                Yusuf             
c.1694 - c.1711            Fatima bin Yusuf
(f) (in north)
                           + Bakari bin Yusuf (in south)
c.1711 - c.1728            Hasan I bin Abdullah
17.. - 17..                Sultan bin Hasan
c.1744                     Hassan bin Sultan
                             (or Ahmad bin Sultan)
Omani Governors
1698 - c.1710              ....
c.1710 - 17..              Sa`id 
c.1728                     Sheikh Fashani 
17.. - 1746                ....
1746 - 1765                Abdallah bin Gad (Jaad al Busa`idi)
c.1784                     Khalfan bin Ahmad
1784                       Seif bin Ahmed (in opposition)
1803 - 14 Sep 1806         Yakut bin Amar al-Habshi           (b. 17.. - d. 1819)
Hamis (informally, Sultans)
14 Sep 1806 - 19 Oct 1856  Sayyid Sa`id bin Sultan            (b. 1790 - d. 1856)
19 Oct 1856 -  2 Apr 1861  Sayyid Majid bin Sa`id             (b. 1834 - d. 1870)
Sultans¹
 2 Apr 1861 -  7 Oct 1870  Sayyid Majid bin Sa`id             (s.a.)
 7 Oct 1870 - 26 Mar 1888  Sayyid Barghash bin Sa`id          (b. 1837 - d. 1888)
27 Mar 1888 - 13 Feb 1890  Sayyid Khalifa I bin Sa`id         (b. 1852 - d. 1890)
13 Feb 1890 -  5 Mar 1893  Sayyid `Ali bin Sa`id              (b. 1854 - d. 1893)
                             (from 8 Nov 1890, Sayyid Sir `Ali bin Sa`id)
 5 Mar 1893 - 25 Aug 1896  Sayyid Hamid bin Thuwayni          (b. 1857 - d. 1896)
                             (from 23 Feb 1894, Sayyid Sir Hamid bin Thuwayni)
25 Aug 1896 - 27 Aug 1896  Sayyid Khalid bin Barghash         (b. 1874 - d. 1927)
27 Aug 1896 - 18 Jul 1902  Sayyid Hamud bin Muhammad          (b. 1853 - d. 1902)
                             (from 20 Apr 1898, Sayyid Sir Hamud bin Muhammad)
18 Jul 1902 -  8 Dec 1911  Sayyid `Ali bin Hamud              (b. 1884 - d. 1918)
18 Jun 1902 -  7 Jun 1905  Alexander Stuart Rogers -Regent    (b. 1862 - d. 1930)
 8 Dec 1911 -  9 Oct 1960  Sayyid Khalifa II bin Kharub       (b. 1879 - d. 1960)
                             (from 1 Jan 1914, Sayyid Sir Khalifa bin Kharub)
 9 Oct 1960 -  1 Jul 1963  Sayyid Sir `Abd Allah bin Khalifa  (b. 1910 - d. 1963)
 1 Jul 1963 - 12 Jan 1964  Sayyid Jamshid bin `Abd Allah      (b. 1929)
Presidents

12 Jan 1964 -  7 Apr 1972  Sheikh Abeid Amami Karume          (b. 1905 - d. 1972)  ASP
                             (from 20 Dec 1971, president of the Revolutionary Council)
11 Apr 1972 - 30 Jan 1984  Skeikh Mwinyi Aboud Jumbe          (b. 1920 - d. 2016) ASP;1977 CCM
30 Jan 1984 - 24 Oct 1985  Ali Hassan Mwinyi                  (b. 1925)            CCM
                             (acting to 19 Apr 1984)
24 Oct 1985 - 25 Oct 1990  Idris Abdul Wakil                  (b. 1925 - d. 2000)  CCM
25 Oct 1990 -  8 Nov 2000  Salmin Amour                       (b. 1948)            CCM
 8 Nov 2000 -  3 Nov 2010  Amani Abeid Karume                 (b. 1948)            CCM
 3 Nov 2010 -  2 Nov 2020  Ali Mohamed Shein                  (b. 1948)            CCM
 2 Nov 2020 -              Hussein Ali Mwinyi                 (b. 1966)            CCM

Chief ministers
1828 - 1832                Nasser bin Hamid bin Sa`id bin
                             Hamad bin Khalaf
al Busa`idi
1832 - 1870                Sulayman bin Hamad al Busa
`idi     (b. c.1785 - d. 1873)  
1870 - 1875                Hamid bin Sulayman al Busa`idi     (b. 1815 - d. 1894)
1875 - 1891                .....
First ministers

Oct 1891 - 11 Oct 1901     Lloyd William Mathews              (b. 1850 - d. 1901)
                             (from 3 Mar 1894, Sir Lloyd William Mathews) 
11 Oct 1901 - Nov 1901     Vacant

Nov 1901 - Oct 1905        Alexander Stuart Rogers            (s.a.)
Oct 1905 - Oct 1908        Arthur Edward Harington Raikes     (b. 1867 - d. 1915)
                             (acting to 1906)

Oct 1908 - 31 Dec 1913     Francis Rickman Barton             (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
 1 Jan 1914 - 23 Feb 1961  the Sultans
Chief ministers
23 Feb 1961 -  5 Jun 1961  Patrick Allan Pearson Robertson    (b. 1913 - d. 2008)  Non-party
                             (acting)

 5 Jun 1961 - 24 Jun 1963  Sheikh Muhammad Shamte Hamadi      (b. 1907 - d.af.1969)ZPPP+ZNP
Prime ministers
24 Jun 1963 - 12 Jan 1964  Sheikh Muhammad Shamte Hamadi      (s.a.)               ZPPP+ZNP
12 Jan 1964 - 27 Apr 1964  Abdullah Kassim Hanga              (b. 1932 - d. 1969)  ASP
27 Apr 1964 - 21 Feb 1983  Post abolished
Chief ministers
21 Feb 1983 -  6 Feb 1984  Ramadhani Haji Faki                (b. 1943)            CCM
 6 Feb 1984 - 22 Jan 1988  Seif Shariff Hamad                 (b. 1943 - d. 2021)  CCM
25 Jan 1988 -  1 Nov 1995  Omar Ali Juma                      (b. 1941 - d. 2001)  CCM
 1 Nov 1995 - 15 Nov 2000  Mohamed Gharib Bilal               (b. 1945)            CCM
15 Nov 2000 -  9 Nov 2010  Shamsi Vuai Nahodha                (b. 1962)            CCM
 9 Nov 2010
               Post abolished

British Consuls
May 1841 -  5 Jul 1857     Atkins Hamerton                    (b. 1804 - d. 1857)
27 Jul 1858 -  5 Sep 1861  Christopher Palmer Rigby           (b. 1820 – d. 1885)

1861 - 1862                Lewis Pelly                        (b. 1825 - d. 1892) 
17 Dec 1862 - 1865         Robert Lambert Playfair            (b. 1828 - d. 1899)
                             (agent to 13 Jul 1863)

Jul 1865 - 15 Jun 1867     George Edwin Seward (acting)       (b. 1826 - d. 1917)
15 Jun 1867 - Oct 1870     Henry Adrian Churchill             (b. 1828 - d. 1886)

Oct 1870 - 18 Jul 1873     John Kirk (acting)                 (b. 1832 - d. 1922)
Consuls-general
18 Jul 1873 - Jul 1886     John Kirk                          (s.a.)
Jul 1886 - 13 Jul 1887     Frederic Holmwood (acting)         (b. 1844? - d. 1896)
13 Jul 1887 - 1888         Claude Maxwell Macdonald           (b. 1852 - d. 1915)

1888 -  5 Mar 1891         Sir Charles Bean Euan-Smith        (b. 1841 - d. 1910)
                             (acting from 7 Nov 1890)
 6 Mar 1891 - 12 Dec 1892  Gerald Herbert Portal              (b. 1858 - d. 1894)
                             (from 6 Aug 1892, Sir Gerald Herbert Portal) 
12 Dec 1892 - Feb 1894     James Rennell Rodd                 (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
May 1894 - Oct 1900        Arthur Henry Hardinge              (b. 1859 - d. 1933)
                             (from 22 Jun 1897, Sir Arthur Henry Hardinge)
Agents and Consuls-general
30 Dec 1900 - 1903         Sir Charles Norton Edgecumbe Eliot (b. 1862 - d. 1931)

1903                       Vaughan Kestell Kestell-Cornish    (b. 1865 - d. 1955)
                             (acting)
 9 Jul 1903
- 20 Jun 1908  Basil Shillito Cave                (b. 1865 - d. 1931)

1908 - 1909                John Houston Sinclair (1st time)   (b. 1871 - d. 1961)
                             (acting)
 1 Feb 1909 - 13 Feb 1913  Edward Ashley Walrond Clarke       (b. 1860 - d. 1913)

13 Feb 1913 - 16 Apr 1914  John Houston Sinclair (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)

High Commissioners for the Zanzibar Protectorate
16 Apr 1914 - 16 Sep 1925  the governors of Kenya
Residents and Vice Presidents of the Council of Ministers
(subordinated to the governor of East Africa)
16 Apr 1914 - 1922         Francis Barrow Pearce              (b. 1866 - d. 1926)
1922 - Dec 1923            John Houston Sinclair (acting)     (s.a.)
24 Jan 1924 - 17 Dec 1929  Alfred Claud Hollis                (b. 1874 - d. 1961)
                             (from 1 Jan 1927, Sir Alfred Claud Hollis)
Dec 1929 - Mar 1937        Richard Sims Donkin Rankine        (b. 1875 - d. 1961)

                             (from 3 Jun 1932, Sir Richard Sims Donkin Rankine)
Mar 1937 - Oct 1937        Samuel Burnside Boyd McElderry     (b. 1885 - d. 1984)
                             (acting)
Oct 1937 - Oct 1940        John Hathorn Hall                  (b. 1894 - d. 1979)

Oct 1940 - Aug 1941        Eric Aldhelm Torlogh Dutton        (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
                             (1st time)(acting)
Aug 1941 - Oct 1945        Sir Henry Guy Pilling              (b. 1886 - d. 1953)

Oct 1945 - Sep 1946        Eric Aldhelm Torlogh Dutton        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
Sep 1946 - Sep 1951        Sir Vincent Goncalves Glenday      (b. 1891 - d. 1970)

Sep 1951 - Jan 1952        Eric Aldhelm Torlogh Dutton        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(acting)
Jan 1952 -  1 Oct 1954     John Dalzell Rankine               (b. 1907 - d. 1987)

                             (from 1 Jan 1954, Sir John Dalzell Rankine)
 1 Oct 1952 -  2 Nov 1952  Robert Edmund Alford (acting)      (b. 1904 - d. 1979)
 2 Nov 1954 - 1959         Henry Steven Potter                (b. 1904 - d. 1976)

                             (from 31 May 1956, Sir Henry Steven Potter)
Jan 1960 - 10 Dec 1963     Arthur George Rixson Mooring       (b. 1908 - d. 1969)

 ¹Full style of the ruler: Hami, Sayyid, Sultan Zanjabar ("Protector, Sayyid, Sultan of Zanzibar [and its dependencies]"), the style "Sultan" is initially used only in international relations.

Party abbreviations: CCM = Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Party of the Revolution, democratic socialist, merger of TANU and Afro-Shirazi Party of Zanzibar, Feb 1977 - 1 Jul 1992 only legal party, est.5 Feb 1977);
- Former parties: ASP = Afro-Shirazi Party (ethnic African or "Shirazi", marxist communist, African nationalist, 30 Jan 1964-Feb 1977 only legal party in Zanzibar, 1957-1977, merged into CCM); ZNP = Zanzibar Nationalist Party (Zanzibar nationalist, mostly Arab, 1955-1964); ZPPP = Zanzibar and Pemba People's Party (mostly African, nationalist, Pemba regionalist, from 1961 in coalition with ZNP, 1959-1964)







 © Ben Cahoon