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The Sudan
 
[Ottoman
                                    flag]
1820/22 - 1885
[Mahadi's black flag (Mahdiya)
                                    1881-1898 (Sudan)]
1881/85 - 2 Sep 1898 Mahdiya Flag
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
2 Sep 1898 - 1 Jan 1956 Joint Flag (U.K.)
[Governor-General's flag of the
                                    Ango-Egyptian Sudan 1898-1956
                                    (Sudan)]
19 Jan 1899  - 1 Jan 1956
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Governor-general's Flag
[Flag of
                                    Egypt 1881-1923]
19 Jan 1899  - 10 Dec 1923 Joint Flag (Egypt)
  
[Flag
                                    of Egypt 1923-1958]
10 Dec 1923 - 1 Jan 1956 Joint Flag (Egypt)
 
[Interim Flag of The Sudan,
                                    1955]
1955 - 31 Dec 1955  Interim Local Flag
[Flag
                                    of The Sudan, 1956-1970]
1 Jan 1956 - 20 May 1970
[Flag of
                                    The Sudan]
Adopted 20 May 1970
Map of Sudan Hear National Anthem
"Nahnu Djundulla
Djundulwatan"
(We Are the Army of
God and of Our Land) 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1956
Interim Constitution
(6 Jul 2005)
--------------------------------------

Former Constitutions
(1 Jul 1998 - 6 Jul 2005;
10 Oct 1985 - 30 Jun 1989;
12 Apr 1973 - 6 Apr 1985)

Capital: Khartoum
(Khartoum 1821-1885; Mahdiya: Omdurman 1881-1898)
Currency: Sudanese Pound
(SDG) 1957-1992, 2007-;
Sudanese Dinar
(SDD)
1992-9 Jan 2007 
National Holiday: 1 Jan (1956)
Eid al-Istiklaal
(Independence Day)
Population: 45,561,556 (2019)
GDP: $177.4 billion (2017) Exports: $4.1 billion (2017)
Imports: $8.22 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: unspecified Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%),
 Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata

Total Active Armed Forces: 109,300 (2010)
African Union-UN Darfur Force (UNAMID): 19,442 (2013)
Merchant marine: 17 ships (2019)
Religions: Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, ACP, AfCFTA (signatory), AfDB, AFESD, AIIB (nonregional), AL, AMF, APM, Arabsat, AU, BTWC, CAEU, COMESA, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, GAFTA, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OPCW, OPEC (cooperation), PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
The Sudan
Index
Chronology

20 Jul 1820                Egypt under Muhammad Ali begins conquest of The Sudan
                             (Dongala 23 Sep 1820, Shayqiyya 4 Nov 1820, Berber
                             5 Mar 1821,
Khartoum area May 1821, Funj Sultanate
                             of
Sinnar 14 Jun 1821, and Kordofan on 19 Aug
                             1821
; later Kassala in 1840, the Upper White Nile
                             around Fashoda 1855, Suakin and the Red Sea coast
                             1865, Equatoria 26 May 1871, Darfur 25 Oct 1874).

1821/1822                  Annexation by Egypt (nominally under Ottoman
                             suzerainty. This era is called Turkish Sudan
                             or the "Turkiyya" [at-Turkiyyah]).

1821                       Khartoum (Khartum) founded by Ismail Pasha son of
                            
Muhammad Ali.
16 Jan 1858                Slavery abolished by
firman of Khedive of Egypt.
25 Oct 1874                Darfur annexed by Egyptian Sudan.
29 Jun 1881                Mahdiya established (Mahdi's "emergence").

26 Jan 1885                Egyptian Sudan fully occupied by the Mahdiya (fall
                             of
Khartoum).
 2 Sep 1898                Mahdiya extinguished by the U.K.
19 Jan 1899                Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (initially spelled "Soudan")
                             (condominium of Egypt and U.K.).
24 Nov 1924                Egyptian troops and civil servants withdrawn.
 4 Jul 1940 - 17 Jan 1941  Italy occupies Gallabat, Kassala, and Kurmak.
21 Mar 1953                Self-government granted (by 23 Apr 1952 statute).
 9 Jan 1954                Autonomy granted by Egypt-U.K. agreement.
18 Aug 1955 - 27 Mar 1972  First Sudanese Civil War (Anyanya rebellion).
 1 Jan 1956                Republic of The Sudan (Jumhuriyyat al-Sudan),
                             independence.
25 May 1969                Democratic Republic of The Sudan (Jumhuriyyat
                             al-Sudan al-Dimuqratiyya).
 5 Jun 1983 -  9 Jan 2005  Second Sudanese Civil War (Southern rebellion
                             against the Sudanese government).
15 Dec 1985                Republic of The Sudan (Jumhuriyyat al-Sudan).
 9 Jul 2011                Independence of South Sudan.

States
(from 1991)
Provinces
(1821-1889)

 Traditional
Polities

Abyei Area
Darfur Transitional
Authority

(2007-2016)
 Map of Civil War
1983-2005
Historical Maps
of Sudan
 

Egyptian Commanders-in-chief 
20 Jul 1820 -  2 Nov 1822  Prince Ismail Iskander Ali Kamil   (b. 1795 - d. 1822)
                            
Pasha
Nov 1822 - 1825            Muhammad Bey Defterdar             (d. 1833)

Governors
1825 - 22 Apr 1826         'Uthman
Bey al-Sharkas             (d. 1826)
1826 (months)              Mahu Urfali Bey                    (d. 1828)
1826 - 1836                Ali Khurshid Agha                  (b. c.1786 - d. 1845)
                            
(from 1834, Ali Khurshid Pasha)
1836 (months)              .... (acting)
Governors-general
(Hakimdar)
1836 - May 1839            Ali Khurshid Pasha                 (s.a.)

May 1839 - Oct 1844        Ahmed Pasha abu Udan               (d. 1844)
1844 - 1846                Ahmed Pasha al-Manikli             (b. c.1795 - d. 1862)
1846 - 1850                Khalid Khusraw Pasha     
1850 - Jan 1851            'Abd al-Latif Pasha                (b. c.1805 - d. 1883)
Jan 1851 - May 1852        Rüstem Pasha Çerkes                (d. 1852)
May 1852 - 1853            Ismail Haqqi Pasha abu Jabal       (b. 1818 - d. 1882)
1853 - 1854                Selim Saib Pasha al-Jazairli
Jul 1854 - Nov 1854        Ali Pasha Sirri al-Arnaut          (b. 1814 - d. 1866)
1854 - 1856                Ali
Pasha al-Sharkas
1856                       Prince Muhammad Abdul Halim Pasha  (b. 1830 - d. 1894)
Governors
1856 - 1858                Arakil Bey al-Armani               (b. 1826 - d. 1858)
1858 - 1861               
Hasan Salama Bey                   (d. 1861)
Jul 1861 - 1863            Muhammad Rasikh Bey                (b. c.1834 - d. 1883)
Governors-general 
1863 - 1865                Musa Hamdi Pasha                   (b. c.1800 - d. 1865)

1865 - Nov 1865            'Umar Fakhri Bey (acting)          (d. 1866)
Nov 1865 - 1866            Jafar Sadiq Pasha                  (b. 1805 - d. af.1884)
1866 -  5 Feb 1871         Jafar Mazhar Pasha                 (d. 1878)
 5 Feb 1871 - Oct 1872     Ahmed Mumtaz Pasha                 (b. c.1825 - d. 1874)
Oct 1872 - 1873            Edhem Pasha al-Arifi (acting)      (b. c.1816 - d. af.1872)
1873 - 18 May 1877         Ismail Pasha al-Ayyub              (d. 1884)
May 1877 - Dec 1879        Charles George Gordon Pasha        (b. 1833 - d. 1885)
                             (1st time)
Dec 1879 - Feb 1882        Muhammad Rauf Pasha                (b. c.1832 - d. 1888)
Feb 1882 - May 1882        Carl Christian Giegler Pasha       (b. 1844 - d. 1921)
                            
(acting)
May 1882 - Mar 1883        'Abd al-Qadir Hilmi
Pasha          (b. 1837 - d. 1908)
Mar 1883 -  5 Nov 1883     'Ala al-Din Siddiq Pasha           (d. 1883)
 5 Nov 1883 - Feb 1884     William Hicks Pasha                (b. 1830 - d. 1884)
Feb 1884 - 18 Feb 1884     Henry Watts Russell de Coëtlogon   (b. 1839 - d. 1908)
                             Pasha (acting)
18 Feb 1884 - 26 Jan 1885  Charles George Gordon Pasha        (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)
Mahdi
29 Jun 1881 - 22 Jun 1885  Muhammad Ahmad bin Abdullah        (b. 1844 - d. 1885)
Khalifa
22 Jun 1885 -  2 Sep 1898  Abdullah (`Abd Allah) bin Muhammad (b. 1846 - d. 1899)
British Military Governor
 2 Sep 1898 - 19 Jan 1899  Horatio Herbert Kitchener,         (b. 1850 - d. 1916)
                             Baron Kitchener 
Governors-general
19 Jan 1899 - 22 Dec 1899  Horatio Herbert Kitchener,         (s.a.)
                             Baron Kitchener 
22 Dec 1899 - 31 Dec 1916  Sir Francis Reginald Wingate       (b. 1861 - d. 1953)
 1 Jan 1917 - 20 Nov 1924  Sir Lee Oliver Fitzmaurice Stack   (b. 1868 - d. 1924)
21 Nov 1924 -  5 Jan 1925  Wasey Sterry (acting)              (b. 1866 - d. 1955)
 5 Jan 1925 -  6 Jul 1926  Sir Geoffrey Francis Archer        (b. 1882 - d. 1964)
31 Oct 1926 - 10 Jan 1934  Sir John Loader Maffey             (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
10 Jan 1934 - 19 Oct 1940  Sir George Stewart Symes           (b. 1882 - d. 1962)
19 Oct 1940 -  8 Apr 1947  Sir Hubert Jervoise Huddleston     (b. 1880 - d. 1950)
 8 Apr 1947 - 29 Mar 1954  Sir Robert George Howe             (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
29 Mar 1954 - 12 Dec 1955  Sir Alexander Knox Helm            (b. 1893 - d. 1964)
12 Dec 1955 -  1 Jan 1956  Muhammad Ahmad Abu Rannat (acting) (b. 1902 - d. 1979)
Heads of State
 1 Jan 1956 - 17 Nov 1958  (First) Sovereignty Council
                           - 'Abd al-Fattah Muhammad 
         (b. 1903 - d. 1985)  Non-party
                               al-Maghribi
                           - Muhammad 'Uthman (Osman)   
     (b. 1896 - d. 1977)  Non-party
                              
al-Dardiri
 
                          -
Ahmad Muhammad Yasin             (b. 1913 - d. 2008)  NUP
                           - Ahmad Muhammad Salih             (b. 1898 - d. 1973)  Non-party
                           - Siricio Iro Wani                 (b. 1919 - d. 1985)  Non-party
President of the Supreme Council for the Armed Forces
17 Nov 1958 - 26 Oct 1964  Ibrahim 'Abbud                     (b. 1900 - d. 1983)  Mil
Heads of State
26 Oct 1964 - 15 Nov 1964  Ibrahim 'Abbud                     (s.a.)               Mil

15 Nov 1964 -  5 Dec 1964  Sirr al-Khatim al-Khalifa          (b. 1919 - d. 2006)  Non-party
                             al-Hasan (acting)
 
5 Dec 1964 - 10 Jun 1965  (Second) Sovereignty Council
                           - 'Abd al-Halim Muhammad (1st time)(b. 1910 - d. 2009)  Umma
                              (president 1-30 Apr 1965)
                           - al-Tijani al-Mahi                (b. 1911 - d. 1970)
  NUP
                              (president 1-28 Feb 1965)
                           - Mubarak al-Fadil Shaddad         (b. 1915 - d. 198.)  Non-party
                              (president 1-31 Jan 1965 and 1-10 Jun 1965)
                           - Ibrahim Yusuf Sulayman
          (b. 1908 - d. 1982)  PDP
                              (to 31 May 1965; president 6-31 Dec 1964 and 1-31 May 1965)
                           - Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho        (b. 1929 - d. 2010)  SF
                              (1st time)(from 6 Dec 1964; president 1-31 Mar 1965)
10 Jun 1965 -  8 Jul 1965  (Third) Sovereignty Council
                           - Ismail Ahmad al-Azhari           (b. 1900 - d. 1969)  NUP
                             (president from 12 Jun 1965)
                           - Abdullah al-Fadil al-Mahdi       (b. 1892 - d. 1966) 
Umma
                           - Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho        (s.a.)               SF
                              (2nd time)(to 14 Jun 1965)
                           - 'Abd al-Halim Muhammad (2nd time)(s.a.)               Mil
                           - Khidr Hamad                      (b. 1908 - d. 1970)  NUP
                           - Philemon Majok (from
5 Jul 1965) (b. 1905 - d. 1982)  NUP
President of the Supreme Council of State
 8 Jul 1965 - 25 May 1969  Ismail Ahmad al-Azhari             (s.a.)               NUP

Presidents of the Revolutionary Command Council
25 May 1969 - 19 Jul 1971  Jafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry          (b. 1930 - d. 2009)  Mil

                             (1st time)
19 Jul 1971 - 22 Jul 1971  Babikr al-Nur 'Uthman (Osman)      (b. 1935 - d. 1971)  Mil
                             (remained outside country)
19 Jul 1971 - 22 Jul 1971  Hashim al-'Atta                    (b. 1936 - d. 1971)  Mil
                             (
acting for 'Uthman)
22 Jul 1971 - 12 Oct 1971
  Jafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry          (s.a.)               Mil
                            
(2nd time)
President
12 Oct 1971 -  6 Apr 1985  Jafar Muhammad
al-Nimeiry          (s.a.)              Mil;1972 SSU
Commander-in-chief of the People's Armed Forces
 6 Apr 1985 -  9 Apr 1985
  'Abd al-Rahman Suwar al-Dhahab     (b. 1934 - d. 2018)  Mil
President of the Transitional Military Council
 9 Apr 1985 -  6 May 1986  'Abd al-Rahman Suwar al-Dhahab     (s.a.)               Mil

President of the Sovereignty Council
 6 May 1986 - 30 Jun 1989  Ahmad 'Ali al-Mirghani             (b. 1941 - d. 2008)  DUP

President of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation
30 Jun 1989 - 16 Oct 1993  'Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir        (b. 1944)            Mil

President
16 Oct 1993 -
11 Apr 2019  'Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir        (s.a.)              Mil;1996 NCP
Presidents of the Transitional Military Council
11 Apr 2019 -
12 Apr 2019  Ahmad Awad ibn Auf                 (b. 1954)            Mil
12 Apr 2019 - 21 Aug 2019  'Abd al-Fattah 'Abd al-Rahman      (b. 1960)            Mil
                             Burhan

Heads of State
21 Aug 2019 -              (Fourth) Sovereignty Council
                           - 'Abd al-Fattah 'Abd al-Rahman    (s.a.)               Mil
                               Burhan
(president)
                           - M
uhammad Hamdan Dagalo "Hemeti"  (b. 1975?)           Mil
                           - Yasser Abdul Rahman Hasan al-Atta                     Mil
                           - Shams al-Din Khabashi            (b. 1961)            Mil
                           - Ibrahim Jabir Karim                                   Mil
                           - Aisha Musa al-Said (f)           (b. c.1940)          Non-party
                               (to 22 May 2021)
                           - Siddiq Tawer Kafi                (b. 1959)            HBS
                           - M
uhammad al-Faki Suleiman        (b. 1979)            UR
                           - Hasan Sheikh Idris                                    Umma
                           - M
uhammad Hasan Osman al-Ta'ishi  (b. 1973)            Non-party
                           - Raja Nicola Issa Abdel-Masih (f) (b. c.1957)          Non-party


Prime ministers

 9
Jan 1954 -  8 Jul 1956  Ismail Ahmad al-Azhari             (s.a.)               NUP
 
8 Jul 1956 - 18 Nov 1958  Abdullah Khalil                    (b. 1892 - d. 1970)  Umma
18 Nov 1958 - 31 Oct 1964  Ibrahim 'Abbud                     (s.a.)               Mil
31 Oct 1964 - 14 Jun 1965  Sirr al-Khatim al-Khalifa al-Hasan (s.a.)               Non-party
14 Jun 1965 -  4 Aug 1966  Muhammad Ahmad Mahgoub (1st time)  (b. 1908 - d. 1976)  Umma
 
4 Aug 1966 - 18 May 1967  Sadiq al-Mahdi (1st time)          (b. 1935 - d. 2020)  Umma
18 May 1967 - 25 May 1969  Muhammad Ahmad Mahgoub (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Umma
25 May 1969 - 27 Oct 1969  Babikr Awadallah                   (b. 1917 - d. 2019)  Non-party
28 Oct 1969 - 11 Aug 1976  Jafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry          (s.a.)              Mil;1972 SSU
                             (1st time)
11 Aug 1976 - 10 Sep 1977  Rashid Bakr                        (b. 1930 - d. 1988)  SSU
10 Sep 1977 -  6 Apr 1985  Jafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry          (s.a.)               SSU
                             (2nd time)
 6 Apr 1985 - 25 Apr 1985  Vacant
25 Apr 1985 -  6 May 1986  al-Jazuli Dafallah al-'Aqab        (b. 1935)            Non-party
 6 May 1986 - 30 Jun 1989  Sadiq al-Mahdi (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Umma
30 Jun 1989 -  2 Mar 2017  Post abolished
 2 Mar 2017 - 10 Sep 2018  Bakri Hasan Saleh                  (b. 1949)            NCP
10 Sep 2018 - 22 Feb 2019  Mutaz Musa Abdullah                (b. 1967)            NCP
24 Feb 2019 - 11 Apr 2019 
Muhammad Tahir Ayla                (b. 1951)            NCP
11 Apr 2019 -
21 Aug 2019  Vacant
21 Aug 2019 -              Abdalla Hamdok                     (b. 1956)            Non-party

Territorial Disputes: The effects of Sudan's ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of early 2019, more than 590,000 Sudanese refugees are being hosted in the Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Sudan; Sudan, in turn, is hosting more than 975,000 refugees and asylum seekers, including more than 845,000 from South Sudan; Sudan accuses South Sudan of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan.

Party abbreviations: DUP = al-Hizb al-Ittihadi al-Dimuqrati (Democratic Unionist Party, secularist, center-right, merger of NUP and PDP, est.Dec 1967); FFC = Forces of Freedom and Change (coalition of civilian and rebel coalitions of Sudanese groups, est.Jan 2019); Umma = Hizb al-Umma ('Community of the Believers' Party, Sudanese nationalist, Islamist centrist, est.Feb 1945); HBS = Hizb al-Ba'ath al-Sudani (Sudanese Ba'ath Party, Baathist, split from Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, est.2002); UR = Unionist Rally; Mil = Military;
- Former parties: NCP = al-Mu'tamar al-Watani (National Congress Party, Arab nationalist, Islamist conservative, state party 1996-2000, 1996-28 Nov 2019); NUP = National Unionist Party (social democratic, federalist, supported unity of the Nile Valley, 1952-Dec 1967, merged into DUP); PDP = People's Democratic Party (split from NUP, Jun 1956-Dec 1967, merged into DUP); SF = Southern Front (Southern Sudan regionalist, 1964-1969); SSU = Al-Ittihad Al-Ishtiraki Al-Sudaniy (Sudanese Socialist Union, Arab nationalist, socialist, 1971-85 state party of Sudan, 1971-1985)


Abyei Area Administration

Map of Abyei Area Capital: Abyei Town Population: 124,390 (2014)
UNISFA Force: 3,687 (2021)

 4 Jan 2008                South Sudan appoints Edward Lino Wuor to administer the Abyei
                            
district until the formation of the permanent administration.
31 Aug 2008                Abyei Area Administration formed in disputed region between

                             Southern Sudan and government of Sudan.
 9 Jan 2011                Proposed referendum on joining South Sudan, postponed
                             indefinitely.
21 May 2011 - 27 Jun 2011  Occupied by The Sudan.
27-29 Oct 2013             Unilateral referendum held by Ngok Dinka, 99% vote to
                             join South Sudan (not recognized).
Jul 2015                   Renamed Abyei Special Administrative Area.

Chiefs of Administration
 
4 Jan 2008 - 31 Aug 2008  Edward Lino Wuor                   (b. 1946 - d. 2020)  SPLM
31 Aug 2008 - 30 Dec 2009  Arop Mayak
Mony Toc                                     SPLM
30 Dec 2009 - 21 May 2011  Deng Arop Kuol (1st time)                               SPLM
21 May 2011 - 27 Jun 2011  Ahmed Hussein al-Imam                                   NCP
27 Jun 2011 - 21 May 2013  Deng Arop Kuol (2nd time)                               SPLM
May 2013 – May 2015        Kuol Monyluak Dak (acting)                              SPLM
24 May 2015 -  6 Feb 2017  Chol Deng Alak                     (b. 1955)            SPLM
 
6 Feb 2017 - 29 Jun 2020  Kuol Alor Jok                                           SPLM
29 Jun 2020 -              Kuol Deim Kuol                                          SPLM

Commanders of United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)
27 Jul 2011 - 24 Jan 2013  Tadesse Werede Tesfay (Ethiopia)   (b. 1958)
12 Mar 2013 - 19 Jun 2014  Yohannes Gebremeskel Tesfamariam   (b. 1960)
                             (Ethiopia)
21 Nov 2014 - 20 Jan 2016  Birhanu Jula Gelalcha (Ethiopia)   (b. 1965)
20 Jan 2016 - 17 Feb 2017  Hassen Ebrahim Mussa (Ethiopia)    (b. 1966)
17 Feb 2017 - 21 Mar 2017  Zewdu Kiros Gebrekidan (f)(acting)
                             (Ethiopia)
21 Mar 2017 - 23 Apr 2018  Tesfay Gidey Hailemichael          (b. 1965)
                             (Ethiopia)
23 Apr 2018 -
23 Apr 2019  Gebre Adhana Woldezgu (Ethiopia)   (b. 1963)
23 Apr 2019 -  7 Jul 2020  Mehari Zewde Gebremariam (Ethiopia)(b. 1965)
 7 Jul 2020 -              Kefyalew Amde Tessema (Ethiopia)   (b. 1969)

Party abbreviations: NCP = al-Mu'tamar al-Watani (National Congress Party, Arab nationalist, Islamist conservative, state party 1996-2000, est.1996); SPLM = Sudan People's Liberation Movement (pro-southern autonomy, political arm of Sudan Peoples' Liberation Army, est.1983)


Southern Sudan: see South Sudan





© Ben Cahoon